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Reuse And Salvage Guidelines
Measure Procedures and Salvage Procedures for Cylinder Head Assemblies and Related
Components{1100, 1101, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1108, 1109, 1115, 1117, 1121,
1124, 1125}
Media Number -SEBF8162-12

Publication Date -13/06/2007

Date Updated -13/06/2007

i02534712

Measure Procedures and Salvage Procedures for Cylinder
Head Assemblies and Related Components{1100, 1101, 1103,
1104, 1105, 1106, 1108, 1109, 1115, 1117, 1121, 1124, 1125}
SMCS - 1100; 1101; 1103; 1104; 1105; 1106; 1108; 1109; 1115; 1117; 1121; 1124; 1125
Engine:Commercial All
C-10 (S/N: AKB1-UP; MBJ1-UP; 2PN1-UP; 3CS1-UP; 8YS1-UP; BCX1-UP)
C-12 (S/N: CPD1-UP; TME1-UP; BDL1-UP; MBL1-UP; 9SM1-UP; 1YN1-UP; ALS1-UP;
2KS1-UP; 9NS1-UP; BCY1-UP)
C-15 (S/N: EGH1-UP; MBN1-UP; 6NZ1-UP; 9NZ1-UP)
C-16 (S/N: W1A1-UP; 7CZ1-UP)
C-18 (S/N: CJP1-UP; MDP1-UP; MEP1-UP)
C-9 (S/N: CLJ1-UP)
C11 (S/N: KCA1-UP)
C13 (S/N: KCB1-UP; LEE1-UP; JAM1-UP)
C15 (S/N: C5E1-UP; C5L1-UP; MHP1-UP; SDP1-UP; B5R1-UP; BXS1-UP; MXS1-UP;
NXS1-UP)
C18 (S/N: DKE1-UP; EJG1-UP; WJH1-UP)
C7 (S/N: JRA1-UP; JTF1-UP; FML1-UP; KAL1-UP; FMM1-UP; SAP1-UP; C7S1-UP;
WAX1-UP)
C9 (S/N: MTB1-UP; SRB1-UP; 9DG1-UP; CKP1-UP; X3R1-UP; C9S1-UP)
Engine:Truck All
Industrial Engine:with Turbochargers All
C-10 PETROLEUM (S/N: Z2B1-UP)
C-15 IND (S/N: BEM1-UP)
C-16 IND (S/N: BFM1-UP)
C11 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: GLS1-UP)
C13 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: LGK1-UP)
C15 IND (S/N: JRE1-UP)
C15 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: JAS1-UP)
C27 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: TWM1-UP)
C32 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: TLD1-UP)
C9 INDUSTRIAL (S/N: JSC1-UP; MBD1-UP; JLW1-UP)
Machine Engines: All
Marine Engine:with Turbochargers All
C-12 MARINE (S/N: 9HP1-UP)
C12 MARINE (S/N: C1Z1-UP)

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C15 MARINE (S/N: RLA1-UP)
C18 MARINE (S/N: CKH1-UP; C1J1-UP; NAX1-UP; NAY1-UP)
C30 MARINE (S/N: CLX1-UP)
C32 MARINE (S/N: RXB1-UP; RNC1-UP)
C7 MARINE (S/N: C7B1-UP; C7D1-UP; C7X1-UP; C7Z1-UP)
C9 MARINE (S/N: C9B1-UP; CSN1-UP; X9X1-UP; Z9X1-UP)
Pumper:All Utility Mounted
Agricultural Tractor:
MT855 (S/N: A3A1-UP)
MT865 (S/N: GDA1-UP)
MTC845 (S/N: JAC1-UP)
Articulated Truck:
730 (S/N: 5ED1-UP)
Asphalt Paver:
AP-755 (S/N: C7C1-UP)
Generator Set:
C15 GEN SET (S/N: C5H1-UP; X4R1-UP)
C18 GEN SET (S/N: C6C1-UP; G4C1-UP; STD1-UP; STM1-UP; EKW1-UP; STH1-UP)
C18 MARINE GS (S/N: CYN1-UP; MGS1-UP)
C27 GEN SET (S/N: DWB1-UP; STR1-UP)
C32 GEN SET (S/N: SXC1-UP; WDR1-UP)
C9 GEN SET (S/N: C9E1-UP)
C9 MARINE GS (S/N: C9A1-UP; SJB1-UP)
Petroleum Engine:
C-15 PETROLEUM (S/N: Z2C1-UP)
C32 PETROLEUM (S/N: SMP1-UP)
Truck Engines:
C7 TRUCK ENGINE (S/N: NPH1-UP; LBM1-UP)
C7 TRUCK/BUS (S/N: YPG1-UP)
C9 ON-HIGHWAY (S/N: ETK1-UP)
Excavator:
325D (S/N: KHX1-UP)
330D (S/N: THX1-UP)
345C (S/N: MHX1-UP)
365C (S/N: LHX1-UP)
385C (S/N: RHX1-UP)
Track Feller Buncher:
TK752 (S/N: 4ZF1-UP)
Load Haul Dump:
R1700G (S/N: RSX1-UP)
Mobile Hydraulic Power Unit:
330 MHPUC (S/N: SAN1-UP)
Transmission:
TH31-E61 (S/N: SKY1-UP)
Off-Highway Truck/Tractor:
773F (S/N: EHX1-UP)
Quarry Truck:
775F (S/N: LJX1-UP)
Power Module:
C18 POWER MODUL (S/N: X6X1-UP)
C32 POWER MODUL (S/N: MED1-UP)
Track-Type Loader:
973C (S/N: THY1-UP)

Introduction
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This Reuse and Salvage Guideline contains the necessary information in order to allow a dealer to
establish a parts reusability program. Reuse and salvage information enables Caterpillar dealers and
customers to benefit from cost reductions. Every effort has been made in order to provide the most
current information that is known to Caterpillar. Continuing improvement and advancement of
product design might have caused changes to your product which are not included in this publication.
This Reuse and Salvage Guideline must be used with the latest technical information that is available
from Caterpillar.
For additional information about this guideline, consult Repair Process Engineering of the Marketing
& Product Support Division at 1 (309) 675-5434.

Summary
This guideline gives the measurements and salvage specifications for the inspection of a used or
reconditioned cylinder head that can be used again.
If a cylinder head meets the specifications in this guideline and other applicable guidelines the head
assembly can be expected to give normal performance until the next overhaul, that is used in the same
application.
Before reusing a cylinder head, check for leaks, cracks, and flatness. All cylinder head components
must meet the recommended specifications in the guideline before being reused.
This guideline should be used in conjunction with the specific guidelines that are listed in the
Reference section.
When the cylinder head will not be inspected for one hour or less the cylinder head should be coated
with a rust or corrosion inhibitor or coated with clean engine oil.

References
Use the references that are listed below to help complete the rebuild of your cylinder head.
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF2000, "Metal Spray Guide"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF9006, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
on C-Series Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8002, "Valves, Valve Springs, Valve Rotators and
Locks"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8034, "Valve and Valve Spring Specifications"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8061, "Engine Precombustion Chamber and 3400
Series Engine Direct Injection Nozzle Adapters"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8076, "Specifications to Salvage Cylinder Block
Contact Surfaces"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8106, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
3600 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8129, "Procedure to Salvage Cylinder Head

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Assemblies for 3600 and G3600 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8155, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
for 3500 Series Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8162, "Procedure to Measure and Salvage Cylinder
Head Assemblies and Related Components"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8882, "Using Lock-N-Stitch Procedures for Casting
Repair"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8167, "Reconditioning Procedures 3114 and 3116
Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8218, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
3114, 3116, 3126, and C7 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8229, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assembly
3176, 3176B, 3196, C10 and C12 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8262, "Reuse of Cylinder Heads On 3176 Engines
with Injector Tip Damage"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8270, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assembly
3400, 3406E, C15, and C18 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8283, "Reworking Cylinder Head Bolt Holes on 3500
Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8302, "Reuse Specifications for 3600 Combustion
Gaskets"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8373, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assembly
3400 / C16 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8374, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
3200 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8375, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
3300 Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8376, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
1404 and D Model Engines"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8382, "Cylinder Head Rebuild Process "
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8736, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assembly C9
Engine"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8737, "Reuse of Cylinder Heads On C9 Engines with
Injector Tip Damage"
ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8819, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies
3054 and 3056 Engines"

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ReferenceReuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8820, "Reuse of Cylinder Heads on 3054 and 3056
Engines with Injector Tip Damage"

Equipment and Tooling
Table 1
Required Tools
Part Number
-

Part Description
Straight Edge

4C-4804

Penetrant

4C-4805

Developer

4C-4736

Kit

8H-8581

Feeler Gauge

5P-7324

Plug

5P-7333

Tool Group

4C-4086

Repair Kit

1U-5566

Ultraviolet Lamp Gp

222-3071

Grinder Angle

6V-0186

Holder 127 mm (5.0 inch)

6V-0185

Abrasive Disc
127 mm (5.0 inch)
or

5P-9718

Holder
178 mm (7.0 inch)

5P-9709

Abrasive Disc
178 mm (7.0 inch)
Table 2
Valve Guides

6V-2012

Measuring and checking devices (1)
Micrometer Depth Gauge Group
or

5P-3536

Dial Caliper
150 mm (6.0 inch)
Valve Guide Gauge Group

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6V-7058

Plug Gauge

6V-7068

Valve Guide Gauge

(1)

Measuring devices that are required 0 to 25 mm (0 to 1.0 inch) micrometer, 25 to 50 mm (1.0 to 2.0 inch)
micrometer, 50 to 75 mm (2.0 to 3.0 inch) micrometer, 0 to 150 mm (0 to 6.0 inch) dial caliper, 150 mm (6.0 inch)
straight edge and 8H-8581 Feeler Gauge

Table 3
Valves
-

Measuring and checking devices (1)

6V-7926

Indicator Group

5P-6518

Dial Indicator Fixture Gp

1S-0258

Hammer (soft tip)

9U-5383

Vacuum Tester
or

FT-1741

Vacuum Tester

6V-0087

Valve Stem Gauge

6V-2012

Depth Micrometer

6V-7059

Micrometer

6V-2034

Micrometer Adapter

(1)

Measuring devices that are required 0 to 25 mm (0 to 1.0 inch) micrometer, 25 to 50 mm (1.0 to 2.0 inch)
micrometer, 50 to 75 mm (2.0 to 3.0 inch) micrometer, 0 to 150 mm (0 to 6.0 inch) dial caliper, 150 mm (6.0 inch)
straight edge and 8H-8581 Feeler Gauge

Table 4
Valve Springs
-

Measuring and checking devices

7B-0337

Surface Plate

8S-2263

Spring Tester

(1)

General Procedures
Use the following guidelines when you are inspecting and reconditioning a cylinder head.
z

Clean the cylinder head. Remove the gasket material.

z

Measure the cylinder head thickness.

z

Measure the flatness of the combustion area.

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z

Inspect the combustion area for cracks or leaks.

z

Check the combustion area for damage and/or erosion.

z

Inspect the valves, valve seats, valve springs, valve guides, and valve rotators for damage.

z

Recondition the components that are requiring salvage and replace the parts that do not meet
the guidelines.

z

Measure the projection and the recession of the valves.

z

After you have assembled the cylinder head you will need to run a vacuum test of the valves for
the correct sealing.

z

Protect the head against storage or shipping damage.

Nomenclature

Illustration 1

g01270085

Nomenclature for the 3200 Engine
(1) Intake port
(2) Surface of the valve cover gasket
(3) Seat of the valve spring
(4) Post for the valve guide
(5) Face of the exhaust port
(6) Exhaust port

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(7) Valve seat insert
(8) Combustion area
(9) Face of the intake port

Illustration 2
Nomenclature for the 3400 Engine except ( 3406E )

g01270123

(1) Intake port
(2) Surface of the valve cover gasket
(3) Seat of the valve spring
(4) Post for the valve guide
(5) Face of the exhaust port
(6) Exhaust port
(7) Valve seat insert
(8) Combustion area
(9) Face of the intake port
(10) Bridge dowel

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Illustration 3
Nomenclature for the 3500 Engine

g01270133

(11) Intake port (front or right side)
(12) Exhaust port (rear or left side)
(13) Bore of the roller lifter
(14) Bridge dowel
(15) Valve guide
(16) Surface of the valve cover gasket
(17) Combustion area

Reconditioning Suggestions
Use the information that is below for suggestions on common problems that can occur when you are
reconditioning the cylinder head.
z

The information in this Reuse and Salvage Guideline is only for current engines with a high
volume. Information for current engines with low volume can be obtained from Service
Manuals that are issued for each engine model.

z

For minor erosion of 0.28 mm (0.011 inch) that is on the surface of the cylinder head, shave the

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area or resurface the area. In all of the following reconditioning procedures, remove the
minimum material that is necessary to make the repair. Refer to the appropriate Reuse and
Salvage Guideline for minimum height thickness specifications.
z

To find the amount of wear, a comparison can be made between the measurement of a worn
part and the specifications of a new part. A part that is worn may be safe to use if an estimate of
the remainder of service life of the part can be made. If this estimate shows that a short service
life is expected, replace that part.

z

Valve stems with diameters below the minimum or valve guides with diameters above the
maximum can be used if the clearance specification is determined by subtracting the "use again
minimum stem diameter" from the "use again valve guide diameter".

z

Several factors affect the amount of material that can be removed from the surface of a
component. The factors for removing material are the backlash for the gear drive of the cam,
projections of the valves, flatness and surface finish. Measure these areas as well as the
dimension for minimum thickness of the cylinder head whenever you recondition the block and
the mating surface of the head.

Note: Dimensions for the thickness of the head assume that no material has been removed from the
rail of the valve cover and the centerline of the crankshaft has not been raised. You must adjust the
specifications accordingly if machining has already occurred.

Cleaning the Cylinder Head and Removing the Gasket

Personal injury can result from working with cleaning solvent.
Because of the volatile nature of many cleaning solvents, extreme
caution must be exercised when using them. If unsure about a
particular cleaning fluid, refer to the manufacturer's instructions and
directions.
Always wear protective clothing and eye protection when working with
cleaning solvents.
Use one of these methods to clean the cylinder head. Remove all oil, dirt, and carbon from the
cylinder head casting. If the initial cleaning of the engine has been performed, the time for cleaning of
the cylinder head will be reduced considerably.

NOTICE
Shot blasting is not a Caterpillar recommended cleaning procedure.
Shot blasting can cause shot to become lodged in internal passages. If
all of the shot material is not removed after cleaning with this method,
the shot can become dislodged after reconditioning and move into the
lubrication and injection systems. The result can be serious damage to
the engine.

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Dip Tank
Use a hot caustic solution to clean the cylinder head in a dip tank with a platform that oscillates.

Hot Spray Wash Cabinet
Put the cylinder head into position so the exhaust ports and the combustion area are in line with the
high pressure stream from the nozzles. The spray must go directly into the ports and the face of the
cylinder in order to remove all the carbon.

NOTICE
If a caustic cleaning solution is used, brass injector sleeves and seals
can be damaged. If these parts are not going to be replaced in a
cylinder head, a soft cleaning solution should be used. A 5% solution of
Hydrosolv 4106 in water would be a recommended solution. Hydrosolv
4106 is available in a 4 liters (1 gal) container under 4C-8486 Cleaner .

Removing the Gasket

Use caution in order to avoid breathing dust that may be generated
from handling any friction material, regardless of whether or not the
material contains asbestos. If the dust is inhaled, the dust can be
hazardous to you health.
Wear a proper protective breathing device when handling friction
material.
Moisten the gasket material for a cleaner and easier removal. In order to make the removal of gaskets
easier and safer, put the cylinder head into a hot tank or a hot spray wash cabinet. A hot cleaning
solution will make the gasket material soft so that large pieces can be pulled off by hand and the
gasket material is easily removed with a scraper or a grinder. However, if the wet gasket material is
permitted to dry, the gasket material can harden to the part.

Scraping
Use a putty knife in order to scrape off a majority of the gasket. Scraping is preferred over sanding
discs. This preference is due to the amount of airborne contaminants that are created by the discs.
Disks for metal reconditioning that are mounted on an air tool can be used to remove gasket material
that cannot be removed by hand.

Grinding

NOTICE
If the metal reconditioning disc is used to remove gasket material,
caution should be used to not remove any metal. If used too long in a

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small area, the disc may remove so much metal that sealing surfaces
could be affected.

A disk for metal reconditioning that is mounted on an air tool can be used to remove gasket material
that cannot be removed by hand.

Illustration 4
Removing the gasket by grinding

g01276547

When you are using this method, the speed of the disc is very important. The best results will be
obtained if the disc is flat to the surface and using only the weight of the air tool as downward
pressure. Do not use too much downward pressure or operate the disc on the edge, because the pad
may separate from the holder. The speed of the disc should be set between 3500 and 4500 rpm for 5P9709 Abrasive Disc and 10,000 rpm for 6V-0185 Abrasive Disc . If the disk for metal reconditioning
is used in order to remove gasket material, be careful not to remove any metal from the cylinder head.

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Illustration 5
Discs and holder

g01277331

(12) 6V-0186 Holder (127 mm (5.0 inch) )
(13) 5P-9718 Holder (178 mm (7.0 inch))
(14) 6V-0185 Discs (127 mm (5.0 inch))
(15) 5P-9709 Discs (178 mm (7.0 inch))

Protection After Cleaning
If the casting is being stored before making a repair, then the cylinder head must be protected from
corrosion and external damage after cleaning. For additional information, refer to Storage Procedures.

Visual Inspection of Cylinder Head
Cylinder Head Casting
Inspect the cylinder head for visible damage. The following examples of damage were taken from
3200 and 3400 Engines and the examples also apply to all engines.

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Illustration 6
g01277373
The damage to the cylinder head is located at the seal between the valve cover and the head.

USE THE PART AGAIN.
The cylinder head can be used again after the burr has been removed.

Illustration 7
g01277404
Cylinder head is badly damaged in the seat area of the bolt. This area must have a flat surface and complete contact with
a bolt.

USE THE PART AGAIN.
The cylinder head can be used again after damage is repaired.

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Illustration 8

g01277417

Cylinder head is badly damaged in the seat area of the bolt. This area must have a flat surface and
complete contact with a bolt or a mating surface.
USE THE PART AGAIN.
The cylinder head can be used again after damage is repaired.
The part can be used again after the hole has been repaired using Lock-N-Stitch. For complete
information on Lock-N-Stitch, refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8882, "Using Lock-NStitch Procedures for Casting Repair".

Inspecting the Combustion Area for Damage from Erosion
Make a visual inspection of the combustion area to check for damage and erosion. Erosion in these
areas will have a negative effect on engine operation:

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Illustration 9
Inspect the indicated areas for damage and erosion.

g01326391

(16) Fire ring
(17) Seat area
(18) The area between the hole of the injector nozzle and the valve seat. Erosion in other areas should not have an effect
on engine operation.

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Illustration 10
Minor pitting or erosion

g01296874

USE THE PART AGAIN.

Illustration 11
g01296931
Foreign material caused this damage. The valve seats must be replaced.
USE THE PART AGAIN.

Illustration 12

g01296968

Erosion across the fire ring

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USE THE PART AGAIN.
The cylinder head can be used again after the surface has been machined and all erosion is removed. The part must still
be within the reusable specifications.

Illustration 13
Damage across the fire ring

g01296991

USE THIS PART AGAIN.
The cylinder head can be used again after the surface has been machined in order to remove all damage.

Illustration 14

g01297021

Concentrated area of erosion
USE THIS PART AGAIN.

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The cylinder head can be used again if a channel is ground out in order to remove erosion. Refer to Reuse and Salvage
Guideline, SEBF8374, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies 3200 Engines".

Illustration 15
A small amount of erosion

g01297085

USE THIS PART AGAIN.

Illustration 16
Bad erosion around the area of the valve seat.

g01297091

DO NOT USE THE PART AGAIN.

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Illustration 17
Engine failure caused this damage.

g01297298

DO NOT USE THE PART AGAIN.

Erosion
The flow of coolant through the engine is known for causing erosion. This is shown in Illustration 16.
The erosion will not damage the engine if the coolant does not go from the coolant passage to any of
the following:
z

Fire ring in the combustion chamber

z

Oil passages

z

Bolt holes

z

Outside of the engine

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Illustration 18
Erosion that is caused from the flow of coolant

g01297592

(16) Fire ring
(19) Outer surface
(20) Coolant passage
(21) Oil passage
(22) Erosion must not extend beyond this area.
(23) Bolt hole

For traditional head gaskets, if the distance between the erosion and any feature that is specified in
Illustration 18 is less than 4.0 mm (0.16 inch), do not use the cylinder head again. Use the part again
only if the erosion has been removed in order to leave a minimum of 4.0 mm (0.16 inch) sealing area.

Illustration 19

g01388997

Multiple layered steel "MLS" gasket

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The arrows indicate a raised layer of the gasket. Erosion can not come in contact with this area.

Note the sealing area of the "MLS" gasket. The seal is created by the raised area of the gasket. Any
erosion or an uneven surface could create a bad seal.
Illustrations 20 and 21 show the location of O-rings or seals around the holes of the coolant passages.
Erosion will not harm the engine between these areas.
Erosion is not acceptable at the point of contact between the O-ring or seal and the cylinder head. If
any erosion occurs the combustion area must be ground down.

Illustration 20
g01297863
Erosion is acceptable in areas (24) and (25). Erosion is not acceptable in area (26). This photo shows acceptable erosion,
and the head can be used again. USE THIS PART AGAIN.
(24) Coolant passage and the inside diameter of the O-ring
(25) Seal and the outside diameter of the O-ring
(26) Seal and the gasket

Illustration 21

g01297882

Erosion is not acceptable in area (27) .

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USE THIS PART AGAIN..
Only reuse the cylinder head if the erosion has been machined from area (27). That area is at the point of contact between
the O-ring or seal and the cylinder head.

Thread Inspection
Make a visual inspection of all threaded holes for damaged threads and broken bolts or studs.

Illustration 22
Damaged threads

g01298139

USE THIS PART AGAIN.
The part can be used again after the hole has been repaired using Lock-N-Stitch. For complete information on Lock-NStitch, refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8882, "Using Lock-N-Stitch Procedures for Casting Repair".

Inspection Methods
Caterpillar recommends several methods of inspecting cylinder head and related components for
indications of cracks. The following three methods and procedures will be described: liquid
fluorescent, liquid non-fluorescent, and dry magnetic particle.
The inspection by the fluorescent penetrant with the use of a black light is the most preferable
procedure for inspecting components for indications or cracks. The black light with high intensity and
fluorescent chemicals will identify cracks that are not normally found with other methods.

Liquid Fluorescent Inspection

Personal injury can result from improper handling of chemicals.
Make sure you use all the necessary protective equipment required to
do the job.
Make sure that you read and understand all directions and hazards
described on the labels and material safety data sheet of any chemical
that is used.

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Observe all safety precautions recommended by the chemical
manufacturer for handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals.

NOTICE
Use safety glasses in order to reduce fatigue of the eyes and increase
the contrast between the fluorescent area and the background. Safety
glasses will also reduce the chance of having chemicals sprayed into an
eye.

Tooling for this method consists of a 4C-4804 Penetrant and a 4C-4805 Developer . A 1U-5566
Ultraviolet Lamp Gp will also be used.
The head must be clean and dry in order to use this method. Follow the steps below in order to use the
liquid fluorescent inspection to check for cracks.
1. Clean the surface that will be inspected with mineral spirits. Then wipe the surface with clean,
dry paper towels.
2. Spray the cleaner fluid on the cylinder head in order to remove any residual oil or contaminants
from the surface. Wipe the head dry with clean paper towels.
3. Spray the penetrant on the surface under inspection. Allow the penetrant to remain on the
surface for five to thirty minutes. This will allow the penetrant to penetrate the smallest cracks.

Illustration 23
Applying the penetrant on the valves

g01298458

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Illustration 24

g01298464

4. Once the penetrant is allowed to settle into the cracks, the excess penetrant must be removed
from the surface.
Note: Clean the head with moist paper towels in order to remove the penetrant. Washing the
head with water will also remove the penetrant. Take care not to wash the surface excessively.
Dry the surface with paper towels. Use a black light in order to make sure that the chemical has
been removed from the surface.
5. Spray and coat the developer onto the entire dry surface. Use compressed air to reduce drying
time. Once the developer has been applied and the developer has dried, a minimum time for
developing of ten minutes is required. During this time, the developer will draw the penetrant
from the cracks to the surface.
6. Check the surface with a 1U-5566 Ultraviolet Lamp Gp . This will highlight the location of any
cracks or damage.

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Illustration 25
g01298498
Use a black light to check the valves for cracks.

Illustration 26
g01298518
Use a black light to check the inserts of the valve seat.

Liquid Non-Fluorescent Inspection

Personal injury can result from improper handling of chemicals.
Make sure you use all the necessary protective equipment required to

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do the job.
Make sure that you read and understand all directions and hazards
described on the labels and material safety data sheet of any chemical
that is used.
Observe all safety precautions recommended by the chemical
manufacturer for handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals.

NOTICE
Use safety glasses in order to reduce fatigue of the eyes and increase
the contrast between the fluorescent area and the background. Safety
glasses will also reduce the chance of having chemicals sprayed into an
eye.

Tooling for this method consists of a 4C-4804 Penetrant and a 4C-4805 Developer .
Note: This method will not always find cracks of 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) or less.
The head must be clean and dry in order to use this method. Follow steps below in order to use the
liquid non-fluorescent inspection method in order to check for cracks.
1. Clean the surface that will be inspected with mineral spirits. Then wipe the surface with clean,
dry paper towels.
2. Spray the cleaner on the cylinder head in order to remove any residual oil for checking. Spray
the cleaner on the cylinder head in order to remove any contamination for checking.
3. Spray the penetrant on the surface in order to be inspected. Allow the penetrant to remain on
the surface for five to thirty minutes. This will allow the penetrant to enter the smallest cracks.

Illustration 27
Dye will penetrate into cracks.

g01298740

4. Once the penetrant is allowed to settle into the cracks, the excess penetrant must be removed

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from the surface.
5. Wipe the penetrant from the surface by using a clean paper towel.
6. Spray a light coat of the developer on the surface in order to be inspected. A crack will appear
as a colored line in the developer.

Illustration 28
g01298757
Cracks begin at the precombustion chamber or the hole of the direct injection adapter. The length of the crack on the
combustion area must not be more than 6.35 mm (0.250 inch). The crack must not be more than three threads deep. Use
the method of dye penetrant to find the depth of the cracks.

USE THIS PART AGAIN.
The following illustrations show examples of cracks that would constitute replacing the cylinder head.

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Illustration 29
Crack in the nozzle hole (3200 Engine)

g01298781

DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.

Illustration 30
g01299782
The crack goes into the valve seat. If the crack does not go into the counterbore of the area of the valve seat, the head can
be salvaged. Refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8374, "Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies 3200
Engines".
DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.

Illustration 31
g01298740
Cracks between the valve seats (3200 and 3400 Engines)
DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.

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Illustration 32
g01299804
Cracks between the precombustion chamber or the hole for the direct injection adapter and valve seats (3400 Engine) .
DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.

Illustration 33
g01299842
Cracks between the hole of the core plug and the bore of the valve guide on the top deck (3400 Engine)
DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.

Method for Dry Magnetic Particle

Personal injury can result from improper handling of chemicals.

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Make sure you use all the necessary protective equipment required to
do the job.
Make sure that you read and understand all directions and hazards
described on the labels and material safety data sheet of any chemical
that is used.
Observe all safety precautions recommended by the chemical
manufacturer for handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals.

NOTICE
Use safety glasses in order to reduce the risk of having chemicals
sprayed into an eye.

Use the 263-7184 Crack Detection Kit in order to perform the dry magnetic particle inspection for
cracks.
The head must be clean and dry in order to use this method. Follow the steps below in order to use the
method for dry magnetic particle in order to check for cracks.
1. Clean the surface that will be inspected with mineral spirits. Then wipe the surface with clean,
dry paper towels.
2. Spray the fluid for cleaning and the fluid for removal on the cylinder head in order to remove
any residual oil for checking. The fluids can also be used to remove contamination.

Illustration 34
g01299867
An electromagnet in the shape of a yoke that is checking for cracks

3. Place the magnetic yoke on the surface at a right angle (90°) to the area in order to be checked.

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4. Magnetic powder should be applied to the surface when the yoke is energized.

Illustration 35

g01300124

5. Inspect the area for cracks. If there is a crack between the arms of the yoke, the magnetic
powder will go into the crack. The crack will then appear as a line of magnetic particles.

Lock-N-Stitch Full Torque Threaded Inserts

Illustration 36

g01042620

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If a bolt hole contains cracked threads or stripped threads, Lock-N-Stitch Full Torque Threaded
Inserts should be used. The cracks must be no deeper than 6.4 mm (0.25 inch) down the counterbore
of the bolt hole. The cracks cannot run into the cylinders. The cracks must only run into water jackets.
The number of cracks per hole does not matter. Mark all bad holes with a paint pen.
The procedure utilizes Lock-N-Stitch products that were introduced in Reuse and Salvage Guideline,
SEBF8882, "Using Lock-N-Stitch Procedures for Casting Repair". Full Torque Thread Insert Kits are
used to repair the cracked bolt holes and stripped bolt holes. The threaded inserts and the parts that
accompany the threaded inserts are included in FFB5SP010K Full Torque Thread Insert Kit from
LOCK-N-STITCH. These parts can be ordered through LOCK-N-STITCH. This kit is not stocked by
Caterpillar. Refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF8882, "Using Lock-N-Stitch Procedures for
Casting Repair" for other LOCK-N-STITCH parts that are stocked by Caterpillar.
Installing a Threaded Insert can be done in a short amount of time. Installing a Threaded Insert will
increase the strength of the threads.
For more information or questions concerning LOCK-N-STITCH, contact LOCK-N-STITCH. For a
complete catalog of products, contact LOCK-N-STITCH. See www.locknstitch.com for more repair
procedures, training, and catalogs.
LOCK-N-STITCH Inc.
1015 S. Soderquist Rd.
Turlock, CA 95380
www.locknstitch.com
(209) 632-2345(800) 736-8261

Measurement Procedures

Illustration 37
g01300178
Measurement location for the thickness of typical heads
(2) Valve cover gasket
(8) Combustion area
(27) Thickness of the head

Cylinder Head Thickness

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Before the cylinder head can be reused, the cylinder head thickness must be measured.
The cylinder head can be machined in order to remove any damage. At the time of this publication,
some cylinder heads must remain within factory specifications. Refer to the appropriate Reuse and
Salvage Guideline of specifications for the minimum thickness of the cylinder head. The cylinder
head must be within the minimum thickness specifications in order to comply with the regulations on
emissions. If the thickness of the head is beyond the minimum thickness, the head can be
reconditioned by utilizing thermal spray.
Note: An alternative solution will be provided in the future for the engines that must remain within
factory specifications.
Measure the thickness of the cylinder head. Refer to the appropriate Reuse and Salvage Guideline for
specifications. For C-Series engines, refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF9006,
"Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies on C-Series Engines".
If the head surface requires reconditioning, the surface must be built up utilizing metal spray so the
cylinder head thickness will be maintained at the original specifications. Refer to Thermal Spray
Guide, SERF8473, "Caterpillar Arc Spray Guide CD", and Thermal Spray Guide, SERF8704,
"Caterpillar Flame Spray Guide CD".

Flatness of the Surface
Maintain the original specifications for all cylinder head assemblies during reconditioning. Refer to
the appropriate Reuse and Salvage Guideline of Specifications for the recommended flatness.
Table 5
Tooling
8H-8581
-

Feeler Gauge
600 mm (24.0 inch) straight edge
150 mm (6.0 inch) straight edge

Illustration 38
g01300274
Measurement of total surface for flatness (3200 Engine)

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Illustration 39
g01300282
Measurement of total surface for flatness (3400 Engine)

Illustration 40
g01300310
Measurement of a small area for flatness (3200 Engine)

Flatness of the cylinder head can be measured by using a straight edge and a feeler gauge. This is
shown in the Illustrations 38, 39, and 40. A 600 mm (24.0 inch) straight edge for measuring the total
flatness of surface is required. A 150 mm (6.0 inch) straight edge should be used for measuring a
small area.

Sleeves for the Injectors of Cylinder Heads
A stainless steel sleeve is used between each unit injector and the cylinder head casting. The injector
sleeve is used to seat the injector. The injector sleeve is also used to seal the injector into the casting.
The injector sleeves are reusable unless the sleeves become damaged.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for your machine in order to find the tooling that is used to
remove a unit injector sleeve. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly for your machine for
disassembly and assembly information.
Inspect the inside surface of the sleeves for cracks, pitting, erosion, and other visual damage. Sleeves
should be replaced during the general overhaul of the cylinder head with high hours.

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NOTICE
When reaming the injector seat area, be very careful not to damage the
surface. Do not drop the reamer onto the seat, or apply too much
downward pressure with the tool because it may create radial lines on
the sealing surface of the sleeve. Radial lines will cause poor sealing
between the sleeve cone and the injector tip, which may result in fuel
leakage into the cylinder, or combustion pressure leakage into the fuel.

Check the area at the bottom of the valve seat for normal wear. If the valve seat appears worn or
distorted slightly, the sleeve must be replaced. Check the guide for disassembly and assembly for the
procedures and the lists for tooling.

Valve Guides
Table 6
Tooling
6V-2012

Micrometer Depth Gauge Group

8H-8581

Feeler Gauge

5P-3536

Valve Guide Gauge Group

6V-7068

Valve Guide Gauge

This section shows the tools for inspecting valve guides in Caterpillar engines. Valve guides must be
measured for installed height from the top deck and the inside bore diameter. Refer to the appropriate
Reuse and Salvage Guideline of Specifications for specifications of valve guides. Refer to the
appropriate Disassembly and Assembly Manual for removal and installation instructions for the valve
guides.
Note: Do not reuse any valve guide with obvious damage. Do not use a valve guide if the wear
exceeds the permitted allowance according to available specifications. Loose valve guides or
damaged valve guides must be removed and new valve guides must be installed. Correct any
condition that could have caused the original damage or wear. The valve guide will not require any
machining after installation.

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Illustration 41
5P-3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group

g01300432

Illustration 42
Typical plug gauge

g01300451

The specifications of installed height for valve guides in all current Caterpillar cylinder heads can be
measured with a 6V-2012 Micrometer Depth Gauge Group . The 150 mm (6.0 inch) dial caliper, and
the 8H-8581 Feeler Gauge are also needed.
The inside diameter of the valve guide can be measured with tools such as a 5P-3536 Valve Guide
Gauge Group , 6V-7058 Plug Gauge , and 6V-7068 Valve Guide Gauge . There are different tools for
the different sizes of valve guides.
Refer to the Special Instruction, GMG02562, "Using the 5P-3536 Dial Bore Gauge Group to Check
Valve Guides" for complete instructions on the use of the 5P-3536 Dial Bore Gauge Group .

Measurements

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Illustration 43
Measure the diameter of the bore.

g01300601

Illustration 44
g01300692
The end of the plug gauge must not go into the bore of the valve guide more than 19.0 mm (0.75 inch).

Measure both ends of each valve guide. The measurement should be taken 19.0 mm (0.75 inch) from
each end of the bore. If the valve guide is counterbored, measurements must be taken in this area. If
plug gauges are used, the end of the gauge should not extend into the valve guide more than 19.0 mm
(0.75 inch). If the measurement of the valve guide exceeds the dimension, then the valve guide is
worn beyond the allowable dimension for reusability.
Note: Do not force the plug gauge or turn the plug gauge into the guide of the bore. This will
damage the gauge.

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Valves and Valve Seats
Note: Refer to ""Reconditioning for C15, C16, C18, C27, and C32 Engines ONLY" " section of this
guideline for C15, C16, C18, C27, and C32 Engines.
This section contains specifications of reusability for valves and valve seats which are used in
Caterpillar engines. This section also includes a list of the tools needed in order to measure the valve
dimensions. Valves must be measured for stem diameter, thickness of the lip on the valve head, and
the diameter of the valve guide bore.
Note: Contact between the face of the valve and the seat of the valve is expected in the area at the
outer edge of the valve seat. The minimum thickness of the lip must be maintained.
If the thickness of the head is machined beyond factory specifications, the valve seats must also be
machined. Machine the surface of the insert so the same amount of material is removed from the head
and the insert in order to maintain the proper projection of the valve. After the head has been
machined, the sealing angle must be within like-new specifications.

Illustration 45
g01378077
Machining the valve seat to like-new specifications after machining the head

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Illustration 46
Examples of reusable tip wear.

g01300802

(9, 10, and 11) Reusable valve stems after regrinding
(12) The valve stems are reusable with optional polishing. The tip of the valve stem can be polished with a 6V-2033
Finishing Brush . This polishing is only needed for cosmetic purposes.

Never use any kind of hammer to push the valve seat into the head. Installation of the valve seat insert
requires a careful technique. The valve seat inserts are installed in a counterbore in the cylinder head
under a press fit. Care must be taken with valve seat inserts. The inserts must be properly seated in the
counterbore. The insert must be in full contact with the bottom of the counterbore. The inserts are
usually chilled on dry ice before installation. Frost may build up on the bottom of the insert. This may
not allow the insert to seat properly. Installation frequently involves hammering of the insert, which
does not allow the valve seat insert to seat properly. The best results have been obtained by installing
the valve seat insert at room temperature with steady hydraulic pressure.
The initial firing of the engine will seat an improperly seated precision insert. The only impact from
an improperly placed precision insert is a reduction in lash for the valve.
An insert that is machined after installation that does not seat properly will cause problems. The insert
will be machined when the insert is not fully seated. When the valve seat insert seats properly, there
will be an improper seating face. Elevated wear rates will occur and the valve may fail.

Reconditioning Tips
Determining the projection of the valve and the recession of the valve through a measurement is no
guarantee that the valves and valve seats have been correctly reconditioned. The following criteria
will help to further determine the reusability of both valves and valve seats.
1. The wide valve seats do not cause problems with valves. The outer diameter of the finished seat
insert can be larger than the diameter of the valve head. This should not cause any problems.
2. While the width of the seat will vary with the engine model, the width of the finished insert
must be at least 1.0 mm (0.04 inch) for good valve life. There is no need for an upper limit on
the width of the seat.
3. Grind the finished surface of the valve seat after the valve seat inserts have been installed into
the head. Grinding the seat insert correctly is essential to valve life. This process is not
necessary on recent 3500 Heads with premachined inserts.
4. Contacting the valve seat insert to the sealing face of the valve head at the middle of the sealing
face of the valve was an acceptable practice for rebuilding cylinder heads. With the introduction
of the 3500 Engine, the traditional sealing area moved closer to the edge of the valve head.
Premachined seat inserts and precision valve guides moved the sealing area to 0.51 to 1.02
(0.020 to 0.040) from the outer dimension of the valve head. Do not grind the sealing faces of
the inserts if new premachined valve seat inserts are installed during the rebuild of a head. The
components do not need to be machined after installation due to the precise manufacturing
process.
5. If the seat face cannot be ground without grinding into the head, replace the insert. Do not grind
the head under any circumstance.
6. Never use a valve with less than the specified minimum thickness of lip.

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7. Heads that have been resurfaced may require the bores of the inserts to be machined to a deeper
dimension. This will ensure the correct location of the insert in relation to the head.
8. Valve seat inserts should not extend above the surface of the head. Recessing the inserts 0.25
mm (0.010 inch) below the surface is a good habit.
9. Lapping valves and lapping seat inserts is not recommended or necessary if the correct angles
of the valve seat are maintained during the process of resurfacing the valves and valve seats.

Required Tools
The valve stem diameter for all current valves can be measured by using the 6V-0087 Valve Stem
Gauge or a 0 to 25 mm (0 to 1.0 inch) micrometer.
The diameter of the valve head for all current valves can be measured by using a 0 to 25 mm (0 to 1.0
inch) micrometer, 25 to 50 mm (1.0 to 2.0 inch) micrometer, or a 50 to 75 mm (2.0 to 3.0 inch)
micrometer. The diameter of the valve head can also be measured by using a 0 to 150 mm (0 to 6.0
inch) dial caliper.
The valve lip thickness for all current valves can be measured by using a 6V-7059 Multiple Anvil
Micrometer plus a 6V-2034 Adapter , a 5P-6518 Dial Indicator Fixture Gp , or a 0 to 150 mm (0 to
6.0 inch) dial caliper.

Illustration 47
g01302418
6V-7059 Multiple Anvil Micrometer with the 6V-2034 Adapter

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Illustration 48
5P-6518 Dial Indicator Fixture Gp

g01302423

Measurements

Illustration 49
Always measure wear on valve stems.

g01302640

Use either a 6V-0087 Valve Stem Gauge or a micrometer to measure the diameter of the valve stem.
Measure the top and bottom areas that move in the valve guide. Refer to the appropriate Reuse and
Salvage Guideline of Specifications of valves.

Illustration 50

g01302680

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Use a 6V-0087 Valve Stem Gauge to check the diameter of the valve stem. The gauge will not slide easily over the stem.

USE THE PART AGAIN.

Illustration 51
The micrometer slides over the stem.

g01302696

DO NOT USE THIS PART AGAIN.
The minimum specifications for stem diameter can be found in the appropriate Reuse and Salvage
Guideline of Specifications. The specifications for minimum allowable stem diameter are given in the
appropriate Reuse and Salvage Guideline of Specifications.
If a micrometer is used to check the diameter of the valve stem, adjust the micrometer to the reusable
diameter. The valve may not be reused if the micrometer slides over the valve stem at any point.
Make sure that the micrometer is set and locked at the minimum diameter.
Note: Some valve stems have a taper. The measurements at the top and the bottom are different.

Reconditioning for C15, C16, C18, C27, and C32 Engines
ONLY
For specifications of C-Series engines, refer to Reuse and Salvage Guideline, SEBF9006,
"Specifications for Cylinder Head Assemblies on C-Series Engines".
After machining the head, the exhaust valve seats must be machined in place in order to achieve the
proper projection of the valve. Use a standard replacement valve seat only if the bore for the exhaust
valve is undamaged. If the bore for the exhaust valve is damaged, the bore must be rebored and an
oversized valve seat must be used.

NOTICE
Some valve seats cannot be machined. Specialized manufacturing
processes were used on these parts. Machining these parts will
significantly decrease the life of the engine.

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Some inlet seats can not be machined under any circumstance. Caterpillar uses specialized
manufacturing techniques on inlet valve seats of some engine models. Refer to Reuse and Salvage
Guideline, SEBF9006, "Reconditioning for C15, C16, C18, C27, and C32 Engines ONLY" in order to
determine if your valve seats can be machined. If the thickness of the head has been machined beyond
factory specifications, do not machine these inlet seats. These inlet seats must be replaced with seats
that can be machined.

Illustration 52
g01377282
Finding the pin location by using a probe

In order to keep the valve guide and the valve seat concentric, use a dial indicator and a tapered pilot
pin to find the center line of the valve guide.
Oversized seats are available if the head has been damaged. If an oversized insert has already been
installed, second oversized inserts are available for certain models. If an oversized seat will be used,
use either a probe or a dial indicator in order to keep the valve guide and the valve seat concentric.
1. If an oversize valve seat will be used, locate the center of the valve guide with a gauge pin.
2. Find the center of the tapered pilot pin as close as possible to the valve guide.
3. Use a dial indicator in order to find the center of the tapered pilot pin.
4. Machine the bore for the valve seat in the location that is concentric with the valve guide.
The tapered pins are supplied with the grinder for the valve seat. If the tapered pilot pins need to be
purchased, contact the supplier for your valve seat grinder. Woodward Equipment is a supplier for the
tapered pilot pins.
Woodward Equipment
15790 SE Piazza Ave, Suite 104
Clackamas, OR 97015
Toll Free: 1-800-433-1870, or 503-657-6680

Valve Recession and Projection
After the cylinder head has been reconditioned, the projection of the valve must be measured. The
projection of the valve is measured from the combustion area of the cylinder head to the valve head

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when the valve is closed.

Illustration 53
Valve Recession

g01302724

Illustration 54
Projection of the valve

g01302734

Tools

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Illustration 55
6V-7926 Indicator Group

g01302810

(1) 8S-3158 Indicator
(2) 3P-1565 Collet Clamp
(3) 5P-4156 Indicator Base

The valve recession can be measured by using any of the following tools.
1. 6V-7926 Indicator Group
a. 8S-3158 Gauge
b. 3P-1565 Collet Clamp
c. 5P-4165 Base
2. 6V-2012 Micrometer Depth Gauge Group
3. 8H-8581 Feeler Gauge and a 150 mm (6.0 inch) straight edge

Measurement Procedure
Take these measurements after the valves are installed in the head.
1. Before starting this procedure, set the gauge to zero.
a. Place the indicator on a flat surface.
b. Move the dial face, and align the hand of the gauge to the zero mark.
c. Tighten the lock on the dial face.
2. Take the measurements and record the measurements on all valves.
a. For a recessed valve, set the gauge on surface of the head and over the center of the
valve. Record the measurement.
b. For a projected valve, set the gauge on top of the valve. The tip of the indicator should be
on the surface of the head. Record the measurement.
3. If the measurements do not meet the required specifications, refer to the section ""Correcting
the Excessive Projection of Valves" ".
The excessive projection of valves can cause the head of the valve to contact the piston during normal
engine operation.

Correcting the Excessive Projection of the Valves
There are two ways to correct a valve that exceeds the maximum dimension of projection.

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1. Material can be ground from the sealing angle of the seat insert and the valve face.
2. The seat insert can be recessed farther into the counterbore.
Note: For example, if 0.25 mm (.010 inch) has been removed from the bottom of the head, the
counterbore can be recessed 0.25 mm (.010 inch).
Note: If a valve exceeds the maximum recessed dimension, the valve position is too deep. To correct
this condition, either a new valve must be installed. Replacing the valve seat may also be necessary.

Valve Springs
This section contains procedures for checking the reusability of valve springs. Refer to Reuse And
Salvage Guidelines, SEBF8034, "Valve and Valve Spring Specifications".

Required Tools
All current valve springs can be measured by using the 8S-2263 Valve Spring Tester to test for
reusability of load and rebound. A 7B-0337 Surface Plate and a 150 mm (6.0 inch) square will be
used to measure the straightness of the spring. To measure the diameter and free length of a spring,
use either a 25 to 50 mm (1.0 to 2.0 inch) micrometer or a 0 to 150 mm (0 to 6.0 inch) dial caliper.

Illustration 56
g01303268
Use a square or a straight edge to check each valve spring for distortion. A feeler gauge must also be used.

Test Procedure

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Illustration 57
g01303341
Using the 8S-2263 Spring Tester to test springs

1. Make an adjustment to the stop at the top of the valve spring tester so the spring can be
compressed only to the length at the valve open position.
2. Compress the spring until the spring is at the assembled length. Make a record of the force
needed in order to hold the spring at this length.
3. Continue to put the spring under compression until the spring is at length at the valve open
position. Make a record of the force needed in order to hold the spring at this length.
4. Make a comparison of the test results to the specifications in the appropriate guideline.

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Illustration 58
Spring with a polished end that is acceptable

g01303321

Valve Rotators
During the process of reconditioning the cylinder head, the valve rotators must be checked for
reusability. All valve rotators must be inspected, cleaned, and tested for correct operation.

Illustration 59
Valve Rotator

g01303370

Cleaning Rotators
The rotator assembly must rotate the valve during engine operation. The clearances inside rotators
have very close tolerances. Foreign material causes damage to the rotator by wearing the parts
quickly. Use a good, clean solvent to clean the rotators. Use a filter to remove debris and keep the
solvent clean.

Inspecting Rotators
The inner part of the rotator must rotate smoothly. Some new rotators can be so tight that the inner
part will not rotate smoothly. Inspect all used rotators for signs of deep grooves and notches on the
outer surfaces and in the area of the tapered valve lock seat.

Testing the Operation of the Rotator

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Illustration 60
g01303416
Mark the rotator at locations (X) and (Z) in order to check for movement.

After assembling the valves, the valve springs, rotocoils, and the valve locks into the head, place a
chalk mark in line with each other at locations (Y) and (Z). This provides a starting point for reference
in order to check for rotation.
Tap the valve straight down six to eight times with a 1S-0258 Plastic Hammer . The rotator should
move the valve if the rotator is working correctly.
Note: This procedure could damage valve seats because of the shock load of the seating. It is better to
run the engine at idle in order to check for rotation.

Vacuum Test for Valves
Testing the valves by vacuum in a cylinder head is used to identify a poor seal between the valve and
the valve seat. This procedure should be performed after a cylinder head has been reconditioned. The
cylinder head must be completely assembled before the vacuum test.
Note: The procedure for the vacuum test should only be used to identify leakage between the valve
and the valve seat. This test procedure should only be used if the leakage is extremely out of the
acceptable specification.
An unavoidable minor amount of leakage between the valve and the valve seat is permissible. It is
impractical to use the vacuum test to identify minor leaks between the valve and the valve seat. The
following specifications and equipment can be used to identify the gross leaker. Any combination of
valve and valve seat that does not maintain 40 cm hg (16.0 inch Mercury) or more is considered to be
a gross leaker.

Equipment and Tooling

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Illustration 61
9U-5383 Vacuum Tester

g01303479

The 9U-5383 Vacuum Tester consists of a hand-held vacuum pump and connecting parts. Most
Caterpillar engines will work with the set of eight adapters that can be fabricated from the drawing of
the fabricated tool FT-1741 Vacuum Tester . For a complete list of all parts and fabricated
dimensions, request a drawing of the FT-1741 Vacuum Tester .
Dealers in NACD, LACD, EAME, and APD can order fabricated tool drawings from the following
address:
Dealer Service Tools
501 SW Jefferson Ave.
Peoria, IL 61630-2125
USA: 1-800-542-8665Illinois: 1-800-541-8665Canada: 1-800-523-8665World: 1-309-675-6277Fax:
1-309-675-9773
Be sure to include your dealer code and your address so that your request will receive immediate
attention.

Test Procedure
The 9U-5383 Vacuum Tester is suitable for use when a vacuum test of 45 cm Hg (18.0 inch Mercury)
or less is required. For complete information on the vacuum tester, refer to Special Instruction,
SEHS9498, "Using the 9U-5383 Vacuum Tester".
The gauge has detected a leak if a drop in vacuum occurs. An adjustment screw is provided on the top
of the tool in order to vary the sensitivity of the gauge. To check valve seats for leaks, the adjustment
screw must be set for maximum sensitivity. When a constant vacuum of 45 cm Hg (18.0 inch
Mercury) is applied for 15 seconds, the vacuum should not drop below 40 cm Hg (16.0 inch
Mercury). A gauge reading of less than 40 cm Hg (16.0 inch Mercury) can have enough magnitude in
order to adversely affect valve life.
1. Plug in the inlet for the vacuum, and pull out the trigger for the air supply.
2. Back out the adjustment screw until maximum vacuum is attained. The maximum reading
should be less than 38 cm Hg (15.0 inch Mercury).
3. Turn the adjustment screw inward until a drop in vacuum of 2.5 cm Hg (1 inch Mercury)
occurs. The minimum adjusted set point is now 35 cm Hg (14 inch Mercury).

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4. Tighten the nylon jam nut in order to prevent any air leaks from giving a false leakage reading.
5. After adjusting the screw for sensitivity has been adjusted, attach the correct adapter to the
vacuum tester.
6. Place the adapter over the valve in order to be tested.
7. Hold the trigger for the air supply in the open position for a minimum of 15 seconds.
Note: Make sure that the adapter is in full contact with the combustion area of the cylinder
head.
8. The seal between the valve and the valve seat is not acceptable if the gauge indicates a reading
less than the "Test Specification" in "Chart B". Use the Maximum Gun Capability to determine
which Test Specification should apply.
9. Apply slight pressure with a press on the top of the valve stem and test again.
10. If the gauge still indicates a low reading, the valve must be removed and the sealing surfaces
must be inspected. Grinding or lapping the valve seat or the valve face again might also be
necessary.
Table 7
Chart B
Specifications for Testing by Vacuum (1)
Maximum Capability of the Gun

Adjusted
Set Point

Test
Specification

53 (21.0)

51 (20)

44 (17.5)

52 (20.5)

49 (19.5)

43 (17.0)

51 (20.0)

48 (19.0)

43 (17.0)

49 (19.5)

47 (18.5)

42 (16.5)

48 (19.0)

46 (18.0)

41 (16.0)

47 (18.5)

44 (17.5)

39 (15.5)

46 (18.0)

43 (17.0)

38 (15.0)

44 (17.5)

42 (16.5)

38 (15.0)

43 (17.0)

42 (16.5)

36 (14.0)

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(1)

42 (16.5)

39 (15.5)

34 (13.5)

41 (16.0)

38 (15.0)

34 (13.5)

39 (15.5)

37 (14.5)

33 (13.0)

38 (15.0)

36 (14.0)

32 (12.5)

All of the dimensions are in cm (inch) of Mercury.

Probable Causes of Leaks
1. Incorrect finish of valve face or contact area of the valve seat
2. The valve seat is improperly installed or the valve seat is not seated in the head (Incorrect Total
Indicator Readout) .
3. Damaged valve face
4. Debris between valve face and valve seat
5. Damaged contact area of the valve seat
6. Bent valve
7. Cracked valve face or valve seat

Backlash of the Drive Gear for the Cam
The backlash which occurs on the drive gear for the cam in engines with overhead cams limits the
amount of material that can be removed from the joint faces of the cylinder head and cylinder block.
A minimum of 0.038 mm (0.0015 inch) relative movement for backlash must be available after
reconditioning. The backlash is accounted for in the specifications in this Guideline.
Three or four locations on the gear need to be checked for backlash of the drive gear of the cam.
Small differences in the gear teeth and the gear runout make these different checks necessary. To
check the backlash, hold one of the gears steady and use a dial indicator to measure the relative
movement of one gear to the other gear. Positioning the dial indicator correctly is important in order
to get an accurate reading.

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Illustration 62
g01306281
The correct position of the dial indicator for measuring the backlash of the drive gear of the cam drive. Keep the tip of
the dial indicator at 90 degrees to the centerline of the teeth (as close as possible) .

Metal Spray of Gasket Contact Surfaces
The process of metal spraying can be used in order to restore the contact surfaces to the original
dimensions. An acceptable process in metal spraying is the Metco 6P II Thermospray system. Refer to
Thermal Spray Guide, SERF8473, "Caterpillar Arc Spray Guide CD", and Thermal Spray Guide,
SERF8704, "Caterpillar Flame Spray Guide CD" for guidelines of metal spray in order to salvage
cylinder head castings. For additional information about this guideline, consult Repair Process
Engineering of the Marketing & Product Support Division at 1 (309) 675-5434.

Storage Procedures
A majority of the damage to a rebuilt cylinder head will occur in the immediate hours after the
rebuild. Proper protection of the cylinder head and components from corrosion is very important.
Corrosion will start in as little as one hour after the cylinder head and components have been cleaned.
When the cylinder head and components will not be inspected for one hour or less the cylinder head
and components should be coated with a rust or corrosion inhibitor or coated with clean engine oil.
The cylinder head and components should be individually wrapped in order to prevent contamination,
and the cylinder head and components should be stored in a protected area in order to avoid damage.
See Illustration 63.
When the cylinder head and components will not be inspected in two days or more the cylinder head
and components should be coated with a rust or corrosion inhibitor or coated with clean engine oil
and the cylinder head and components should be individually wrapped. The wrapped cylinder head
and components should be placed in a container which is clean and structurally solid. The container
should be covered or wrapped in plastic in order to prevent damage and contamination to the cylinder

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head and components. See Illustration 64.
See Table 8 for recommended rust inhibitors.

Illustration 63
g01272481
Example of protection for a component that is stored for a shorter term

Illustration 64
g01272483
Example of protection for a component that is stored for a longer term

Table 8
Recommendations for Storage
Part Number

Quantity

Description

Storage Protection
Hard film

222-3121

1U-8809

355 mL (12 oz)
Aerosol

Rust Preventive

Up to one year storage
Outside conditions for
storage

3.79 L (1 US gal)

One year storage
Caterpillar 450 Rust Preventive

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Oil
1U-6523

208 L (55 US gal)

1U-8801

3.79 L (1 US gal)

Covered conditions for
storage
Film of wax

Caterpillar 4A Rust Preventive
Oil
1U-6526

208 L (55 US gal)

Copyright 1993 - 2008 Caterpillar Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Private Network For SIS Licensees.

Up to one year storage
Outside conditions for
storage

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