HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.

0

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BIGDECIMAL UNIT CONVERTER
V 3.0

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Table of Contents
Acceleration .......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
1.

Centimeters/Second Squared ................................................................................................................................... 23

2.

Feet/Second Squared................................................................................................................................................ 23

3.

Gravity....................................................................................................................................................................... 23

4.

Inches/Second Squared ............................................................................................................................................ 23

5.

Kilometers/Hour Second........................................................................................................................................... 23

6.

Kilometers/Second Squared ..................................................................................................................................... 23

7.

Knots (UK)/Second .................................................................................................................................................... 23

8.

Knots (US)/Second .................................................................................................................................................... 23

9.

Meters/Second Squared ........................................................................................................................................... 23

10.

Miles/Hour Minute ............................................................................................................................................... 23

11.

Miles/Hour Second ............................................................................................................................................... 24

12.

Miles/Second Squared .......................................................................................................................................... 24

13.

Millimeters/Second Squared ................................................................................................................................ 24

Angle ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
1.

Arc Minutes............................................................................................................................................................... 25

2.

Arc Seconds ............................................................................................................................................................... 25

3.

Binary Degrees .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.

Binary Radians .......................................................................................................................................................... 25

5.

Centiturns ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.

Degrees ..................................................................................................................................................................... 25

7.

Gradians .................................................................................................................................................................... 25

8.

Microdegrees ............................................................................................................................................................ 26

9.

Microradians ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

10.

Millidegrees .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

11.

Milliradians ........................................................................................................................................................... 26

12.

Milliturns ............................................................................................................................................................... 26

13.

Minutes ................................................................................................................................................................. 26

14.

Nanodegrees ......................................................................................................................................................... 26

15.

Nanoradians .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

16.

Octants .................................................................................................................................................................. 26

17.

Points .................................................................................................................................................................... 27

18.

Quadrants ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

19.

Radians .................................................................................................................................................................. 27

20.

Seconds ................................................................................................................................................................. 27
1

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

21.

Sextants................................................................................................................................................................. 27

22.

Signs ...................................................................................................................................................................... 27

23.

Turns ..................................................................................................................................................................... 27

Angular Velocity .................................................................................................................................................................... 28
1.

Degrees/Day ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

2.

Degrees/Hour ........................................................................................................................................................... 28

3.

Degrees/Minute ........................................................................................................................................................ 28

4.

Degrees/Second ........................................................................................................................................................ 28

5.

Gradians/Day ............................................................................................................................................................ 28

6.

Gradians/Hour .......................................................................................................................................................... 28

7.

Gradians/Minute....................................................................................................................................................... 28

8.

Gradians/Second....................................................................................................................................................... 28

9.

Octants/Day .............................................................................................................................................................. 29

10.

Octants/Hour ........................................................................................................................................................ 29

11.

Octants/Minute .................................................................................................................................................... 29

12.

Octants/Second .................................................................................................................................................... 29

13.

Points/Day............................................................................................................................................................. 29

14.

Points/Hour........................................................................................................................................................... 29

15.

Points/Minute ....................................................................................................................................................... 29

16.

Points/Second ....................................................................................................................................................... 30

17.

Quadrants/Day...................................................................................................................................................... 30

18.

Quadrants/Hour.................................................................................................................................................... 30

19.

Quadrants/Minute ................................................................................................................................................ 30

20.

Quadrants/Second ................................................................................................................................................ 30

21.

Radians/Day .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

22.

Radians/Hour ........................................................................................................................................................ 30

23.

Radians/Minute .................................................................................................................................................... 30

24.

Radians/Second .................................................................................................................................................... 31

25.

Sextants/Day ......................................................................................................................................................... 31

26.

Sextants/Hour ....................................................................................................................................................... 31

27.

Sextants/Minute ................................................................................................................................................... 31

28.

Sextants/Second ................................................................................................................................................... 31

29.

Signs/Day .............................................................................................................................................................. 31

30.

Signs/Hour ............................................................................................................................................................ 31

31.

Signs/Minute......................................................................................................................................................... 31

32.

Signs/Second ......................................................................................................................................................... 32
2

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

33.

Turns/Day.............................................................................................................................................................. 32

34.

Turns/Hour............................................................................................................................................................ 32

35.

Turns/Minute ........................................................................................................................................................ 32

36.

Turns/Second ........................................................................................................................................................ 32

Area ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
1.

Acres ......................................................................................................................................................................... 33

2.

Ares ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33

3.

Cents ......................................................................................................................................................................... 33

4.

Dunams ..................................................................................................................................................................... 33

5.

Hectares .................................................................................................................................................................... 33

6.

Sections ..................................................................................................................................................................... 33

7.

Square Centimeters .................................................................................................................................................. 33

8.

Square Feet ............................................................................................................................................................... 33

9.

Square Inches ............................................................................................................................................................ 33

10.

Square Kilometers................................................................................................................................................. 33

11.

Square Meters ...................................................................................................................................................... 34

12.

Square Micrometers ............................................................................................................................................. 34

13.

Square Microns ..................................................................................................................................................... 34

14.

Square Miles ......................................................................................................................................................... 34

15.

Square Millimeters................................................................................................................................................ 34

16.

Square Nanometers .............................................................................................................................................. 34

17.

Square Yards ......................................................................................................................................................... 34

Capacitance........................................................................................................................................................................... 35
1.

Abfarads .................................................................................................................................................................... 35

2.

EMUs Of Capacitance................................................................................................................................................ 35

3.

ESUs Of Capacitance ................................................................................................................................................. 35

4.

Farads........................................................................................................................................................................ 35

5.

Jars ............................................................................................................................................................................ 35

6.

Microfarads ............................................................................................................................................................... 35

7.

Picofarads ................................................................................................................................................................. 35

8.

Statfarads .................................................................................................................................................................. 35

Charge ................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
1.

Abcoulombs .............................................................................................................................................................. 36

2.

Amperes Hour ........................................................................................................................................................... 36

3.

Amperes Minute ....................................................................................................................................................... 36

4.

Amperes Second ....................................................................................................................................................... 36
3

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

5.

Coulombs .................................................................................................................................................................. 36

6.

Faradays .................................................................................................................................................................... 36

7.

Franklins .................................................................................................................................................................... 36

8.

Statcoulombs ............................................................................................................................................................ 36

Conductance ......................................................................................................................................................................... 37
1.

Abmhos ..................................................................................................................................................................... 37

2.

Gemmhos .................................................................................................................................................................. 37

3.

Kilosiemenses ........................................................................................................................................................... 37

4.

Megasiemenses ........................................................................................................................................................ 37

5.

Mhos ......................................................................................................................................................................... 37

6.

Micromhos ................................................................................................................................................................ 37

7.

Microsiemenses ........................................................................................................................................................ 37

8.

Millimhos .................................................................................................................................................................. 37

9.

Millisiemenses .......................................................................................................................................................... 38

10.

Siemenses ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

11.

Statmhos ............................................................................................................................................................... 38

Current .................................................................................................................................................................................. 39
1.

Abamperes ................................................................................................................................................................ 39

2.

Amperes .................................................................................................................................................................... 39

3.

EMUs Of Current ....................................................................................................................................................... 39

4.

ESUs Of Current ........................................................................................................................................................ 39

5.

Gilbert ....................................................................................................................................................................... 39

6.

Microamperes ........................................................................................................................................................... 39

7.

Milliamperes ............................................................................................................................................................. 39

8.

Statamperes .............................................................................................................................................................. 40

Data Storage ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41
1.

Bits ............................................................................................................................................................................ 41

2.

Blocks ........................................................................................................................................................................ 41

3.

Bytes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41

4.

CDs (74 min) .............................................................................................................................................................. 41

5.

CDs (80 min) .............................................................................................................................................................. 41

6.

Double Words ........................................................................................................................................................... 41

7.

DVDs (1 Layer 1 Side) ................................................................................................................................................ 41

8.

DVDs (1 Layer 2 Sides) .............................................................................................................................................. 42

9.

DVDs (2 Layers 1 Side) .............................................................................................................................................. 42

10.

DVDs (2 Layers 2 Sides) ......................................................................................................................................... 42
4

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

11.

Exabits ................................................................................................................................................................... 42

12.

Exabytes ................................................................................................................................................................ 42

13.

Exabytes (10^18 bytes) ......................................................................................................................................... 42

14.

Floppy Disks (3.5 DD) ............................................................................................................................................ 42

15.

Floppy Disks (3.5 ED)............................................................................................................................................. 42

16.

Floppy Disks (3.5 HD) ............................................................................................................................................ 43

17.

Floppy Disks (5.25 DD) .......................................................................................................................................... 43

18.

Floppy Disks (5.25 HD) .......................................................................................................................................... 43

19.

Gigabits ................................................................................................................................................................. 43

20.

Gigabytes .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

21.

Gigabytes (10^9 bytes) ......................................................................................................................................... 43

22.

Jazes 1 GB.............................................................................................................................................................. 43

23.

Jazes 2 GB.............................................................................................................................................................. 43

24.

Kilobits .................................................................................................................................................................. 43

25.

Kilobytes................................................................................................................................................................ 44

26.

Kilobytes (10^3 bytes) .......................................................................................................................................... 44

27.

Megabits ............................................................................................................................................................... 44

28.

Megabytes ............................................................................................................................................................ 44

29.

Megabytes (10^6 bytes) ....................................................................................................................................... 44

30.

Nibbles .................................................................................................................................................................. 44

31.

Petabits ................................................................................................................................................................. 44

32.

Petabytes .............................................................................................................................................................. 45

33.

Petabytes (10^15 bytes) ....................................................................................................................................... 45

34.

Quadruple Words ................................................................................................................................................. 45

35.

Terabits ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

36.

Terabytes .............................................................................................................................................................. 45

37.

Terabytes (10^12 bytes) ....................................................................................................................................... 45

38.

Words.................................................................................................................................................................... 45

39.

Zips 100 ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

40.

Zips 250 ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

Density .................................................................................................................................................................................. 47
1.

API Gravity (Fresh Water 10) .................................................................................................................................... 47

2.

Grains/Cubic Foot ..................................................................................................................................................... 47

3.

Grains/Cubic Inch ...................................................................................................................................................... 47

4.

Grains/Gallon (UK) .................................................................................................................................................... 47

5.

Grains/Gallon (US) .................................................................................................................................................... 47
5

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

6.

Grams/Cubic Centimeter .......................................................................................................................................... 47

7.

Grams/Cubic Millimeter ........................................................................................................................................... 48

8.

Grams/Liter ............................................................................................................................................................... 48

9.

Kilograms/Cubic Meter ............................................................................................................................................. 48

10.

Kilograms/Liter...................................................................................................................................................... 48

11.

Milligrams/Cubic Centimeter................................................................................................................................ 48

12.

Milligrams/Cubic Millimeter ................................................................................................................................. 48

13.

Milligrams/Liter .................................................................................................................................................... 48

14.

Ounces/Cubic Foot................................................................................................................................................ 48

15.

Ounces/Cubic Inch ................................................................................................................................................ 48

16.

Ounces/Gallon (UK) .............................................................................................................................................. 48

17.

Ounces/Gallon (US)............................................................................................................................................... 48

18.

Parts/Million (ppm)............................................................................................................................................... 48

19.

Pounds/Cubic Foot................................................................................................................................................ 48

20.

Pounds/Cubic Inch ................................................................................................................................................ 48

21.

Pounds/Gallon (UK) .............................................................................................................................................. 48

22.

Pounds/Gallon (US)............................................................................................................................................... 49

23.

Pounds/Square Inch/Foot ..................................................................................................................................... 49

24.

PSI/Foot ................................................................................................................................................................ 49

25.

Slugs/Cubic Foot ................................................................................................................................................... 49

26.

Slugs/Cubic Inch .................................................................................................................................................... 49

27.

Slugs/Gallon (UK) .................................................................................................................................................. 49

28.

Slugs/Gallon (US) .................................................................................................................................................. 49

29.

Specific Gravity (Fresh Water 1) ........................................................................................................................... 49

Digital Image ......................................................................................................................................................................... 50
1.

Dots/Inch .................................................................................................................................................................. 50

2.

Dots/Meter ............................................................................................................................................................... 50

3.

Dots/Millimeter ........................................................................................................................................................ 50

4.

Pixels/Inch ................................................................................................................................................................. 50

Distance (or Length).............................................................................................................................................................. 51
1.

Angstroms (Å) ........................................................................................................................................................... 51

2.

Astronomical Units (ua) ............................................................................................................................................ 51

3.

Attometers (am) ....................................................................................................................................................... 51

4.

Bohr Radius ............................................................................................................................................................... 51

5.

Centimeters .............................................................................................................................................................. 51

6.

Cubits (Greek) ........................................................................................................................................................... 51
6

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

7.

Cubits (UK) ................................................................................................................................................................ 51

8.

Earth's Distance from Sun......................................................................................................................................... 51

9.

Earth's Equatorial Radius .......................................................................................................................................... 52

10.

Earth's Polar Radius .............................................................................................................................................. 52

11.

Electron Radius ..................................................................................................................................................... 52

12.

Feet ....................................................................................................................................................................... 52

13.

Femtometers (fm) ................................................................................................................................................. 52

14.

Fingers ................................................................................................................................................................... 52

15.

Hands .................................................................................................................................................................... 52

16.

Inches .................................................................................................................................................................... 52

17.

Kilometers ............................................................................................................................................................. 52

18.

Kiloparsecs (kpc) ................................................................................................................................................... 52

19.

Lightyears (ly) ........................................................................................................................................................ 52

20.

Links ...................................................................................................................................................................... 53

21.

Links (US)............................................................................................................................................................... 53

22.

Long Reeds ............................................................................................................................................................ 53

23.

Megaparsecs (mpc) ............................................................................................................................................... 53

24.

Meters................................................................................................................................................................... 53

25.

Micrometers ......................................................................................................................................................... 53

26.

Microns ................................................................................................................................................................. 53

27.

Miles...................................................................................................................................................................... 53

28.

Millimeters ............................................................................................................................................................ 53

29.

Mils........................................................................................................................................................................ 53

30.

Nails ...................................................................................................................................................................... 53

31.

Nanometers .......................................................................................................................................................... 54

32.

Nautical Miles (International) ............................................................................................................................... 54

33.

Nautical Miles (UK) ............................................................................................................................................... 54

34.

Parsecs (pc) ........................................................................................................................................................... 54

35.

Picometers (pm).................................................................................................................................................... 54

36.

Points .................................................................................................................................................................... 54

37.

Reeds..................................................................................................................................................................... 54

38.

Spans ..................................................................................................................................................................... 54

39.

Sun's Radius .......................................................................................................................................................... 54

40.

Twips ..................................................................................................................................................................... 54

41.

Yards ..................................................................................................................................................................... 54

Electric Field .......................................................................................................................................................................... 55
7

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

1.

Abvolts/Centimeter .................................................................................................................................................. 55

2.

Kilovolts/Centimeter ................................................................................................................................................. 55

3.

Microvolts/Meter ..................................................................................................................................................... 55

4.

Millivolts/Meter ........................................................................................................................................................ 55

5.

Statvolts/Centimeter ................................................................................................................................................ 55

6.

Statvolts/Inch ............................................................................................................................................................ 55

7.

Volts/Centimeter ...................................................................................................................................................... 55

8.

Volts/Inch .................................................................................................................................................................. 55

9.

Volts/Meter .............................................................................................................................................................. 55

Electric Potential ................................................................................................................................................................... 56
1.

Abvolts ...................................................................................................................................................................... 56

2.

EMU Of Electric Potential ......................................................................................................................................... 56

3.

ESU Of Electric Potential ........................................................................................................................................... 56

4.

Kilovolts..................................................................................................................................................................... 56

5.

Microvolts ................................................................................................................................................................. 56

6.

Millivolts.................................................................................................................................................................... 56

7.

Statvolts .................................................................................................................................................................... 56

8.

Volts .......................................................................................................................................................................... 57

9.

Watt/Ampere ............................................................................................................................................................ 57

Energy ................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
1.

BTU (IT) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 58

2.

BTU (Mean) ............................................................................................................................................................... 58

3.

BTU (ThermoChemical) ............................................................................................................................................. 58

4.

Calories (IT) ............................................................................................................................................................... 58

5.

Calories (Mean) ......................................................................................................................................................... 58

6.

Calories (ThermoChemical)....................................................................................................................................... 59

7.

Electron Volts ............................................................................................................................................................ 59

8.

Ergs............................................................................................................................................................................ 59

9.

Foot Pounds .............................................................................................................................................................. 59

10.

Gigaelectron Volts................................................................................................................................................. 59

11.

Gigajoules ............................................................................................................................................................. 59

12.

Horsepower Hours ................................................................................................................................................ 59

13.

Horsepower Minutes ............................................................................................................................................ 59

14.

Horsepower Seconds ............................................................................................................................................ 59

15.

Joules .................................................................................................................................................................... 59

16.

Kilocalories (IT)...................................................................................................................................................... 60
8

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

17.

Kilocalories (Mean) ............................................................................................................................................... 60

18.

Kilocalories (ThermoChemical) ............................................................................................................................. 60

19.

Kiloelectron Volts .................................................................................................................................................. 60

20.

Kilogram Meters ................................................................................................................................................... 60

21.

Kilojoules ............................................................................................................................................................... 60

22.

Kilowatt Days ........................................................................................................................................................ 60

23.

Kilowatt Hours ...................................................................................................................................................... 60

24.

Kilowatt Minutes................................................................................................................................................... 60

25.

Kilowatt Seconds................................................................................................................................................... 60

26.

Kilowatt Years (360 Days) ..................................................................................................................................... 61

27.

Kilowatt Years (365 Days) ..................................................................................................................................... 61

28.

Kilowatt Years (Gregorian) .................................................................................................................................... 61

29.

Kilowatt Years (Julian) ........................................................................................................................................... 61

30.

Kilowatt Years (Tropical) ....................................................................................................................................... 61

31.

Megaelectron Volts............................................................................................................................................... 61

32.

Megajoules............................................................................................................................................................ 61

33.

Millijoules.............................................................................................................................................................. 61

34.

Newton Meters ..................................................................................................................................................... 61

35.

Therms (IT) ............................................................................................................................................................ 61

36.

Therms (Mean) ..................................................................................................................................................... 61

37.

Therms (ThermoChemical) ................................................................................................................................... 62

38.

Watt Days.............................................................................................................................................................. 62

39.

Watt Hours............................................................................................................................................................ 62

40.

Watt Minutes ........................................................................................................................................................ 62

41.

Wat tSeconds ........................................................................................................................................................ 62

42.

Watt Years (360 Days) .......................................................................................................................................... 62

43.

Watt Years (365 Days) .......................................................................................................................................... 62

44.

Watt Years (Gregorian) ......................................................................................................................................... 62

45.

Watt Years (Julian) ................................................................................................................................................ 62

46.

Watt Years (Tropical) ............................................................................................................................................ 62

Flow Mass or Mass Flow Rate............................................................................................................................................... 63
1.

Grams/Hour .............................................................................................................................................................. 63

2.

Grams/Minute .......................................................................................................................................................... 63

3.

Grams/Second .......................................................................................................................................................... 63

4.

Kilograms/Hour ......................................................................................................................................................... 63

5.

Kilograms/Minute ..................................................................................................................................................... 63
9

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

6.

Kilograms/Second ..................................................................................................................................................... 63

7.

Ounces/Hour............................................................................................................................................................. 63

8.

Ounces/Minute ......................................................................................................................................................... 63

9.

Ounces/Second ......................................................................................................................................................... 63

10.

Pounds/Hour ......................................................................................................................................................... 64

11.

Pounds/Minute ..................................................................................................................................................... 64

12.

Pounds/Second ..................................................................................................................................................... 64

13.

Slugs/Hour ............................................................................................................................................................ 64

14.

Slugs/Minute......................................................................................................................................................... 64

15.

Slugs/Second ......................................................................................................................................................... 64

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate ...................................................................................................................................... 65
1.

Acre Feet/Day ........................................................................................................................................................... 65

2.

Acre Inches/Day ........................................................................................................................................................ 65

3.

Barrels (Dry)/Day ...................................................................................................................................................... 65

4.

Barrels (Dry)/Hour .................................................................................................................................................... 65

5.

Barrels (Dry)/Minute................................................................................................................................................. 65

6.

Barrels (Dry)/Second ................................................................................................................................................. 65

7.

Barrels (Liquid)/Day .................................................................................................................................................. 65

8.

Barrels (Liquid)/Hour ................................................................................................................................................ 65

9.

Barrels (Liquid)/Minute............................................................................................................................................. 66

10.

Barrels (Liquid)/Second......................................................................................................................................... 66

11.

Barrels (Oil)/Day ................................................................................................................................................... 66

12.

Barrels (Oil)/Hour.................................................................................................................................................. 66

13.

Barrels (Oil)/Minute .............................................................................................................................................. 66

14.

Barrels (Oil)/Second .............................................................................................................................................. 66

15.

Centiliters/Hour .................................................................................................................................................... 66

16.

Centiliters/Minute ................................................................................................................................................ 66

17.

Centiliters/Second ................................................................................................................................................ 66

18.

Cubic Centimeters/Hour ....................................................................................................................................... 66

19.

Cubic Centimeters/Minute ................................................................................................................................... 66

20.

Cubic Centimeters/Second ................................................................................................................................... 66

21.

Cubic Feet/Day...................................................................................................................................................... 66

22.

Cubic Feet/Hour .................................................................................................................................................... 66

23.

Cubic Feet/Minute ................................................................................................................................................ 67

24.

Cubic Feet/Second ................................................................................................................................................ 67

25.

Cubic Inches/Day .................................................................................................................................................. 67
10

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

26.

Cubic Inches/Hour ................................................................................................................................................ 67

27.

Cubic Inches/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 67

28.

Cubic Inches/Second ............................................................................................................................................. 67

29.

Cubic Meters/Day ................................................................................................................................................. 67

30.

Cubic Meters/Hour ............................................................................................................................................... 67

31.

Cubic Meters/Minute ........................................................................................................................................... 67

32.

Cubic Meters/Second............................................................................................................................................ 67

33.

Cubic Millimeters/Hour ........................................................................................................................................ 67

34.

Cubic Millimeters/Minute..................................................................................................................................... 67

35.

Cubic Millimeters/Second..................................................................................................................................... 67

36.

Cubic Yards/Day .................................................................................................................................................... 68

37.

Cubic Yards/Hour .................................................................................................................................................. 68

38.

Cubic Yards/Minute .............................................................................................................................................. 68

39.

Cubic Yards/Second .............................................................................................................................................. 68

40.

Gallons (UKDry)/Day ............................................................................................................................................. 68

41.

Gallons (UKDry)/Hour ........................................................................................................................................... 68

42.

Gallons (UKDry)/Minute ....................................................................................................................................... 68

43.

Gallons (UKDry)/Second ....................................................................................................................................... 68

44.

Gallons (UK)/Day................................................................................................................................................... 68

45.

Gallons (UK)/Hour ................................................................................................................................................. 68

46.

Gallons(UK)/Minute .............................................................................................................................................. 68

47.

Gallons (UK)/Second ............................................................................................................................................. 68

48.

Gallons (USDry)/Day ............................................................................................................................................. 69

49.

Gallons (USDry)/Hour ........................................................................................................................................... 69

50.

Gallons (USDry)/Minute........................................................................................................................................ 69

51.

Gallons (USDry)/Second........................................................................................................................................ 69

52.

Gallons (US)/Day ................................................................................................................................................... 69

53.

Gallons (US)/Hour ................................................................................................................................................. 69

54.

Gallons (US)/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 69

55.

Gallons (US)/Second ............................................................................................................................................. 69

56.

Kiloliters/Day......................................................................................................................................................... 69

57.

Kiloliters/Hour....................................................................................................................................................... 69

58.

Kiloliters/Minute ................................................................................................................................................... 69

59.

Kiloliters/Second ................................................................................................................................................... 69

60.

Liters/Day .............................................................................................................................................................. 69

61.

Liters/Hour ............................................................................................................................................................ 69
11

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

62.

Liters/Minute ........................................................................................................................................................ 70

63.

Liters/Second ........................................................................................................................................................ 70

64.

MegaGallons (UK)/Day ......................................................................................................................................... 70

65.

MegaGallons (US)/Day .......................................................................................................................................... 70

66.

Milliliters/Hour...................................................................................................................................................... 70

67.

Milliliters/Minute .................................................................................................................................................. 70

68.

Milliliters/Second .................................................................................................................................................. 70

69.

Ounces (UK)/Hour ................................................................................................................................................. 70

70.

Ounces (UK)/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 70

71.

Ounces (UK)/Second ............................................................................................................................................. 70

72.

Ounces (US)/Hour ................................................................................................................................................. 70

73.

Ounces (US)/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 70

74.

Ounces (US)/Second ............................................................................................................................................. 70

75.

Quarts (UK Dry)/Hour ........................................................................................................................................... 70

76.

Quarts (UK Dry)/Minute ....................................................................................................................................... 71

77.

Quarts (UK Dry)/Second........................................................................................................................................ 71

78.

Quarts (UK)/Hour .................................................................................................................................................. 71

79.

Quarts (UK)/Minute .............................................................................................................................................. 71

80.

Quarts (UK)/Second .............................................................................................................................................. 71

81.

Quarts (US Dry)/Hour ........................................................................................................................................... 71

82.

Quarts (US Dry)/Minute ........................................................................................................................................ 71

83.

Quarts (US Dry)/Second ........................................................................................................................................ 71

84.

Quarts (US)/Hour .................................................................................................................................................. 71

85.

Quarts (US)/Minute .............................................................................................................................................. 71

86.

Quarts (US)/Second .............................................................................................................................................. 72

Force ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 73
1.

Atomic Units Force.................................................................................................................................................... 73

2.

Crinals ....................................................................................................................................................................... 73

3.

Dynes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 73

4.

Funals ........................................................................................................................................................................ 73

5.

Giganewtons ............................................................................................................................................................. 73

6.

Grams Force .............................................................................................................................................................. 73

7.

Joules/Meter ............................................................................................................................................................. 74

8.

Kilograms Force ........................................................................................................................................................ 74

9.

Kilonewtons .............................................................................................................................................................. 74

10.

Kilopounds Force .................................................................................................................................................. 74
12

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

11.

Kips Force .............................................................................................................................................................. 74

12.

Meganewtons ....................................................................................................................................................... 74

13.

Millinewtons ......................................................................................................................................................... 74

14.

Micronewtons ....................................................................................................................................................... 74

15.

Nanonewtons........................................................................................................................................................ 74

16.

Newtons ................................................................................................................................................................ 74

17.

Ounces Force ........................................................................................................................................................ 75

18.

Pounds Force ........................................................................................................................................................ 75

19.

Tonnes Force......................................................................................................................................................... 75

20.

Tons Force ............................................................................................................................................................. 75

Fuel Consumption or Fuel Efficiency .................................................................................................................................... 76
1.

Kilometers/Liter ........................................................................................................................................................ 76

2.

KPL ............................................................................................................................................................................ 76

3.

Liters/100 Kilometers................................................................................................................................................ 76

4.

Miles/Gallon (UK)...................................................................................................................................................... 76

5.

Miles/Gallon (US) ...................................................................................................................................................... 76

6.

Miles/Liter ................................................................................................................................................................. 76

7.

MPGUK ...................................................................................................................................................................... 76

8.

MPGUS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 76

Illumination ........................................................................................................................................................................... 77
1.

Centimeter Candles .................................................................................................................................................. 77

2.

Flame ........................................................................................................................................................................ 77

3.

FootCandles .............................................................................................................................................................. 77

4.

Lumens/Square Centimeter ...................................................................................................................................... 77

5.

LumensPerSquareFoot.............................................................................................................................................. 77

6.

LumensPerSquareMeter ........................................................................................................................................... 77

7.

Lux ............................................................................................................................................................................. 77

8.

Meter Candles........................................................................................................................................................... 78

9.

MilliPhots .................................................................................................................................................................. 78

10.

Noon Day Sun Brightness...................................................................................................................................... 78

11.

Nox ........................................................................................................................................................................ 78

12.

Phots ..................................................................................................................................................................... 78

Luminous Intensity................................................................................................................................................................ 79
1.

Candela ..................................................................................................................................................................... 79

2.

Candles...................................................................................................................................................................... 79

3.

Candles (German) ..................................................................................................................................................... 79
13

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

4.

Candles (International) ............................................................................................................................................. 79

5.

Candles (UK) .............................................................................................................................................................. 79

6.

Decimal Bougie ......................................................................................................................................................... 79

7.

HefnerUnits ............................................................................................................................................................... 80

8.

Lumens/Steradian ..................................................................................................................................................... 80

9.

Violle ......................................................................................................................................................................... 80

Magnetic Flux........................................................................................................................................................................ 81
1.

Gausses Centimeter Squared.................................................................................................................................... 81

2.

Kilolines ..................................................................................................................................................................... 81

3.

Lines .......................................................................................................................................................................... 81

4.

Maxwells ................................................................................................................................................................... 81

5.

Maxwells (Metric) ..................................................................................................................................................... 81

6.

Megalines.................................................................................................................................................................. 81

7.

Teslas Centimeter Squared ....................................................................................................................................... 81

8.

Teslas Meter Squared ............................................................................................................................................... 81

9.

Volts Second ............................................................................................................................................................. 82

10.

Webers .................................................................................................................................................................. 82

Mass ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 83
1.

Gigatonnes ................................................................................................................................................................ 83

2.

Grains ........................................................................................................................................................................ 83

3.

Grams ........................................................................................................................................................................ 83

4.

Kilograms .................................................................................................................................................................. 83

5.

Kilopounds ................................................................................................................................................................ 83

6.

Kilotonnes ................................................................................................................................................................. 84

7.

Kips ............................................................................................................................................................................ 84

8.

Megatonnes .............................................................................................................................................................. 84

9.

Micrograms ............................................................................................................................................................... 84

10.

Milligrams ............................................................................................................................................................. 84

11.

Nanograms ............................................................................................................................................................ 84

12.

Ounces .................................................................................................................................................................. 84

13.

Picograms.............................................................................................................................................................. 84

14.

Points .................................................................................................................................................................... 84

15.

Pounds .................................................................................................................................................................. 84

16.

Quarters ................................................................................................................................................................ 84

17.

Quintals ................................................................................................................................................................. 84

18.

Slugs ...................................................................................................................................................................... 85
14

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

19.

Tonnes................................................................................................................................................................... 85

20.

Tons....................................................................................................................................................................... 85

Power .................................................................................................................................................................................... 86
1.

Abwatts ..................................................................................................................................................................... 86

2.

BTUsITPerHour.......................................................................................................................................................... 86

3.

BTUsITPerMinute ...................................................................................................................................................... 86

4.

BTUsITPerSecond ...................................................................................................................................................... 86

5.

BTUsMeanPerHour ................................................................................................................................................... 86

6.

BTUsMeanPerMinute ............................................................................................................................................... 86

7.

BTUsMeanPerSecond ............................................................................................................................................... 87

8.

BTUsThermoChemicalPerHour ................................................................................................................................. 87

9.

BTUsThermoChemicalPerMinute ............................................................................................................................. 87

10.

BTUsThermoChemicalPerSecond ......................................................................................................................... 87

11.

CaloriesITPerHour ................................................................................................................................................. 87

12.

CaloriesITPerMinute ............................................................................................................................................. 87

13.

CaloriesITPerSecond ............................................................................................................................................. 87

14.

CaloriesMeanPerHour........................................................................................................................................... 87

15.

CaloriesMeanPerMinute ....................................................................................................................................... 87

16.

CaloriesMeanPerSecond ....................................................................................................................................... 88

17.

CaloriesThermoChemicalPerHour ........................................................................................................................ 88

18.

CaloriesThermoChemicalPerMinute ..................................................................................................................... 88

19.

CaloriesThermoChemicalPerSecond ..................................................................................................................... 88

20.

Foot Pounds/Hour ................................................................................................................................................ 88

21.

Foot Pounds/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 88

22.

FootPoundsPerSecond .......................................................................................................................................... 88

23.

Gigawatts .............................................................................................................................................................. 88

24.

Horsepower .......................................................................................................................................................... 88

25.

HorsepowerMetric................................................................................................................................................ 88

26.

JoulesPerHour ....................................................................................................................................................... 89

27.

JoulesPerMinute ................................................................................................................................................... 89

28.

JoulesPerSecond ................................................................................................................................................... 89

29.

KilocaloriesITPerHour ........................................................................................................................................... 89

30.

KilocaloriesITPerMinute........................................................................................................................................ 89

31.

KilocaloriesITPerSecond ........................................................................................................................................ 89

32.

KilocaloriesMeanPerHour ..................................................................................................................................... 89

33.

KilocaloriesMeanPerMinute ................................................................................................................................. 89
15

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

34.

KilocaloriesMeanPerSecond ................................................................................................................................. 89

35.

KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerHour ................................................................................................................... 90

36.

KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerMinute ............................................................................................................... 90

37.

KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerSecond ............................................................................................................... 90

38.

KilogramMetersPerHour ....................................................................................................................................... 90

39.

KilogramMetersPerMinute ................................................................................................................................... 90

40.

KilogramMetersPerSecond ................................................................................................................................... 90

41.

Kilowatts ............................................................................................................................................................... 90

42.

Megawatts ............................................................................................................................................................ 90

43.

Microwatts ............................................................................................................................................................ 91

44.

Milliwatts .............................................................................................................................................................. 91

45.

Watts..................................................................................................................................................................... 91

Pressure ................................................................................................................................................................................ 92
1.

Atmospheres ............................................................................................................................................................. 92

2.

Bars ........................................................................................................................................................................... 92

3.

CentimetersOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius ......................................................................................................... 92

4.

CentimetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius ............................................................................................................. 92

5.

DynesPerSquareCentimeter ..................................................................................................................................... 92

6.

DynesPerSquareMeter.............................................................................................................................................. 92

7.

FeetOfSeaWater ....................................................................................................................................................... 92

8.

Feet Of Water At 39 Degrees Fahrenheit ................................................................................................................. 93

9.

Gigapascals ............................................................................................................................................................... 93

10.

GramsPerSquareCentimeter ................................................................................................................................. 93

11.

Grams/Square Inch ............................................................................................................................................... 93

12.

GramsPerSquareMeter ......................................................................................................................................... 93

13.

Hectobars .............................................................................................................................................................. 93

14.

Hectopascals ......................................................................................................................................................... 93

15.

InchesOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius ............................................................................................................... 93

16.

InchesOfWaterAtThirtyNineDegreesFahrenheit .................................................................................................. 93

17.

KilogramsPerSquareCentimeter ........................................................................................................................... 93

18.

KilogramsPerSquareMeter.................................................................................................................................... 94

19.

Kilopascals............................................................................................................................................................. 94

20.

Megapascals ......................................................................................................................................................... 94

21.

MetersOfSeaWater ............................................................................................................................................... 94

22.

MetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius ................................................................................................................. 94

23.

Millibars ................................................................................................................................................................ 94
16

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

24.

MillimetersOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius ....................................................................................................... 94

25.

MillimetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius .......................................................................................................... 94

26.

NanonewtonsPerSquareMicron ........................................................................................................................... 94

27.

NewtonsPerSquareMeter ..................................................................................................................................... 94

28.

OuncesPerSquareFoot .......................................................................................................................................... 94

29.

OuncesPerSquareInch........................................................................................................................................... 95

30.

OuncesPerSquareYard .......................................................................................................................................... 95

31.

Pascals ................................................................................................................................................................... 95

32.

PoundsPerSquareFoot .......................................................................................................................................... 95

33.

PoundsPerSquareInch ........................................................................................................................................... 95

34.

PoundsPerSquareYard .......................................................................................................................................... 95

35.

PSI ......................................................................................................................................................................... 95

36.

TonnesPerSquareCentimeter ............................................................................................................................... 95

37.

TonnesPerSquareMeter ........................................................................................................................................ 95

38.

TonsPerSquareFoot............................................................................................................................................... 95

39.

TonsPerSquareInch ............................................................................................................................................... 96

Quantity ................................................................................................................................................................................ 97
1.

Braces........................................................................................................................................................................ 97

2.

Centuries ................................................................................................................................................................... 97

3.

Couples ..................................................................................................................................................................... 97

4.

Doubles ..................................................................................................................................................................... 97

5.

Dozens....................................................................................................................................................................... 97

6.

DozensBaker ............................................................................................................................................................. 97

7.

DozensMetric ............................................................................................................................................................ 97

8.

GreatGross ................................................................................................................................................................ 98

9.

Gross ......................................................................................................................................................................... 98

10.

HalfCenturies ........................................................................................................................................................ 98

11.

Pairs ...................................................................................................................................................................... 98

12.

Scores .................................................................................................................................................................... 98

13.

Trebles .................................................................................................................................................................. 98

14.

Triples.................................................................................................................................................................... 98

15.

Units ...................................................................................................................................................................... 98

Radioactivity ......................................................................................................................................................................... 99
1.

Becquerels ................................................................................................................................................................ 99

2.

Curies ........................................................................................................................................................................ 99

3.

Gigabecquerels ......................................................................................................................................................... 99
17

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

4.

Kilobecquerels........................................................................................................................................................... 99

5.

Megabecquerels ....................................................................................................................................................... 99

6.

Microcuries ............................................................................................................................................................... 99

7.

Millicuries.................................................................................................................................................................. 99

8.

Rutherfords ............................................................................................................................................................... 99

Sound .................................................................................................................................................................................. 100
1.

Bels .......................................................................................................................................................................... 100

2.

Centibels ................................................................................................................................................................. 100

3.

Decibels ................................................................................................................................................................... 100

4.

Millibels ................................................................................................................................................................... 100

5.

Nepers ..................................................................................................................................................................... 100

6.

Phons ...................................................................................................................................................................... 100

7.

Sones ....................................................................................................................................................................... 101

Temperature ....................................................................................................................................................................... 102
1.

Celsius ..................................................................................................................................................................... 102

2.

Delisle...................................................................................................................................................................... 102

3.

Fahrenheit ............................................................................................................................................................... 102

4.

Kelvin....................................................................................................................................................................... 102

5.

Newton ................................................................................................................................................................... 102

6.

Rankine ................................................................................................................................................................... 103

7.

Reaumur ................................................................................................................................................................. 103

8.

Romer ..................................................................................................................................................................... 103

Time .................................................................................................................................................................................... 104
1.

CenturiesGregorian................................................................................................................................................. 104

2.

CenturiesJulian........................................................................................................................................................ 104

3.

CenturiesTropical .................................................................................................................................................... 104

4.

Days......................................................................................................................................................................... 105

5.

DecadesGregorian .................................................................................................................................................. 105

6.

DecadesJulian ......................................................................................................................................................... 105

7.

DecadesTropical ...................................................................................................................................................... 106

8.

Fortnights ................................................................................................................................................................ 106

9.

Gigaseconds ............................................................................................................................................................ 106

10.

Hours ................................................................................................................................................................... 106

11.

Kiloseconds ......................................................................................................................................................... 106

12.

Megaseconds ...................................................................................................................................................... 106

13.

Microseconds ...................................................................................................................................................... 106
18

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

14.

Milliseconds ........................................................................................................................................................ 107

15.

Minutes ............................................................................................................................................................... 107

16.

Months ................................................................................................................................................................ 107

17.

Seconds ............................................................................................................................................................... 107

18.

Weeks ................................................................................................................................................................. 107

19.

Years360Days ...................................................................................................................................................... 107

20.

Years365Days ...................................................................................................................................................... 107

21.

YearsGregorian ................................................................................................................................................... 107

22.

YearsJulian .......................................................................................................................................................... 108

23.

YearsTropical....................................................................................................................................................... 108

Torque................................................................................................................................................................................. 109
1.

DyneCentimeters .................................................................................................................................................... 109

2.

Dyne Meters ........................................................................................................................................................... 109

3.

Dyne Millimeters..................................................................................................................................................... 109

4.

GramCentimeters ................................................................................................................................................... 109

5.

Gram Meters ........................................................................................................................................................... 109

6.

Gram Millimeters .................................................................................................................................................... 109

7.

Kilogram Centimeters ............................................................................................................................................. 109

8.

KilogramMeters ...................................................................................................................................................... 109

9.

Kilogram Millimeters............................................................................................................................................... 110

10.

Kilonewton Meters ............................................................................................................................................. 110

11.

NewtonCentimeters ........................................................................................................................................... 110

12.

NewtonMeters .................................................................................................................................................... 110

13.

Newton Millimeters ............................................................................................................................................ 110

14.

Ounce Feet .......................................................................................................................................................... 110

15.

OunceInches ....................................................................................................................................................... 110

16.

PoundFeet ........................................................................................................................................................... 110

17.

PoundInches ....................................................................................................................................................... 110

18.

TonFeet ............................................................................................................................................................... 111

19.

TonneMeters ...................................................................................................................................................... 111

Speed or Velocity ................................................................................................................................................................ 112
1.

Centimeters/Hour ................................................................................................................................................... 112

2.

Centimeters/Minute ............................................................................................................................................... 112

3.

Centimeters/Second ............................................................................................................................................... 112

4.

Feet/Hour................................................................................................................................................................ 112

5.

Feet/Minute ............................................................................................................................................................ 112
19

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

6.

Feet/Second ............................................................................................................................................................ 112

7.

Inches/Hour ............................................................................................................................................................ 113

8.

Inches/Minute......................................................................................................................................................... 113

9.

Inches/Second......................................................................................................................................................... 113

10.

Kilometers/Hour ................................................................................................................................................. 113

11.

Kilometers/Minute ............................................................................................................................................. 113

12.

Kilometers/Second.............................................................................................................................................. 113

13.

KnotsUK............................................................................................................................................................... 113

14.

KnotsUS ............................................................................................................................................................... 113

15.

KPH ...................................................................................................................................................................... 113

16.

Meters/Hour ....................................................................................................................................................... 114

17.

Meters/Minute ................................................................................................................................................... 114

18.

Meters/Second ................................................................................................................................................... 114

19.

Microns/Microsecond......................................................................................................................................... 114

20.

Microns/Second .................................................................................................................................................. 114

21.

Miles/Hour .......................................................................................................................................................... 114

22.

Miles/Minute ...................................................................................................................................................... 114

23.

Miles/Second ...................................................................................................................................................... 114

24.

Millimeters/Hour ................................................................................................................................................ 114

25.

Millimeters/Minute ............................................................................................................................................ 114

26.

Millimeters/Second ............................................................................................................................................ 114

27.

MPH .................................................................................................................................................................... 114

28.

Speed Of Light ..................................................................................................................................................... 115

29.

Speed Of Sound .................................................................................................................................................. 115

Viscosity Dynamic ............................................................................................................................................................... 116
1.

Centipoises.............................................................................................................................................................. 116

2.

Dynes Second/Centimeter Squared........................................................................................................................ 116

3.

Grams Force Second/Centimeter Squared ............................................................................................................. 116

4.

Grams/Centimeter Second ..................................................................................................................................... 116

5.

Hyls/Meter Second ................................................................................................................................................. 116

6.

Kilograms Force Second/Meter Squared ................................................................................................................ 116

7.

Kilograms/Meter Hour ............................................................................................................................................ 116

8.

Kilograms/Meter Second ........................................................................................................................................ 117

9.

Millipascals Second ................................................................................................................................................. 117

10.

Millipoises ........................................................................................................................................................... 117

11.

Newtons Second/Meter Squared ....................................................................................................................... 117
20

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

12.

Pascals Second .................................................................................................................................................... 117

13.

Poises .................................................................................................................................................................. 117

14.

Poiseuilles ........................................................................................................................................................... 117

15.

Poundals Hour/Foot Squared ............................................................................................................................. 117

16.

Poundals Second/Foot Squared.......................................................................................................................... 117

17.

Pounds Force Second/Foot Squared................................................................................................................... 118

18.

Pounds Force Second/Inch Squared ................................................................................................................... 118

19.

Pounds/Foot Hour .............................................................................................................................................. 118

20.

Pounds/Foot Second ........................................................................................................................................... 118

21.

Reyns ................................................................................................................................................................... 118

22.

Slugs/Foot Secon................................................................................................................................................. 118

Viscosity Kinematic ............................................................................................................................................................. 119
1.

Centimeters Squared/Second ................................................................................................................................. 119

2.

Centistokes.............................................................................................................................................................. 119

3.

Feet Squared/Second.............................................................................................................................................. 119

4.

Inches Squared/Second .......................................................................................................................................... 119

5.

Meters Squared/Second ......................................................................................................................................... 119

6.

Millistokes ............................................................................................................................................................... 119

7.

Stokes ...................................................................................................................................................................... 119

Volume ................................................................................................................................................................................ 120
1.

AcreFeet .................................................................................................................................................................. 120

2.

AcreInches............................................................................................................................................................... 120

3.

BarrelsDry ............................................................................................................................................................... 120

4.

BarrelsLiquid ........................................................................................................................................................... 120

5.

BarrelsOil................................................................................................................................................................. 121

6.

Centiliters ................................................................................................................................................................ 121

7.

CubicCentimeters.................................................................................................................................................... 121

8.

CubicFeet ................................................................................................................................................................ 121

9.

CubicInches ............................................................................................................................................................. 121

10.

CubicMeters ........................................................................................................................................................ 121

11.

CubicMicrometers .............................................................................................................................................. 121

12.

CubicMicrons ...................................................................................................................................................... 121

13.

CubicMillimeters ................................................................................................................................................. 121

14.

CubicYards .......................................................................................................................................................... 121

15.

GallonsUK............................................................................................................................................................ 121

16.

GallonsUKDry ...................................................................................................................................................... 121
21

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

17.

GallonsUS ............................................................................................................................................................ 122

18.

GallonsUSDry ...................................................................................................................................................... 122

19.

Kiloliters .............................................................................................................................................................. 122

20.

Liters ................................................................................................................................................................... 122

21.

MegaGallonsUK .................................................................................................................................................. 122

22.

MegaGallonsUS ................................................................................................................................................... 122

23.

Microliters ........................................................................................................................................................... 122

24.

Milliliters ............................................................................................................................................................. 122

25.

OuncesUK............................................................................................................................................................ 123

26.

OuncesUS ............................................................................................................................................................ 123

27.

QuartsUK ............................................................................................................................................................. 123

28.

QuartsUKDry ....................................................................................................................................................... 123

29.

QuartsUS ............................................................................................................................................................. 123

30.

QuartsUSDry ....................................................................................................................................................... 123

22

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Acceleration
In physics, acceleration is the rate at which the velocity of a body changes with time. Velocity and acceleration are vector quantities,
with magnitude, direction, and add according to the parallelogram law. As described by Newton's Second Law, acceleration is
caused by a net force; the force, as a vector, is equal to the product of the mass of the object being accelerated (scalar) and the
acceleration (vector). The SI unit for acceleration is the meter per second squared (m/s2).
For example, an object such as a car that starts from standstill, then travels in a straight line at increasing speed, is accelerating in
the direction of travel. If the car changes direction at constant speedometer reading, there is strictly speaking acceleration although
it is often not so described; passengers in the car will experience a force pushing them back into their seats in linear acceleration,
and a sideways force on changing direction. If the speed of the car decreases, it is usual and meaningful to speak of deceleration;
mathematically it is acceleration in the opposite direction to that of motion.

1. Centimeters/Second Squared
A centimeter per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 0.01 m/с². Physical
interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 cm/s², its speed is increasing by 1 cm/s every second.

2. Feet/Second Squared
A foot per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems, equal to 0.3048 m/с². Physical
interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 ft/s², its speed is increasing by 1 ft/s every second.

3. Gravity
Acceleration of gravity is the acceleration of objects freely falling under the influence of the Earth’s gravitational field. Its value near
the Earth’s surface is denoted g and is equal to 9.80665 m/s², or about 35.30394 (km/h)/s (≈32.174 ft/s2 or ≈21.937 mph/s).

4. Inches/Second Squared
An inch per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems, equal to 0.0254 m/s².
Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 in/s², its speed is increasing by 1 in/s every second.

5. Kilometers/Hour Second
A kilometer per hour per second is a unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 0.277777778 m/s².
Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 km/hour second, its speed is increasing by 1 km/hour every second.

6. Kilometers/Second Squared
A kilometer per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 1000 m/s². Physical
interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 km/s², its speed is increasing by 1 km/s every second.

7. Knots (UK)/Second
A knot (UK) per second is a unit of in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems,, equal to 0.515 m/s². Physical interpretation:
if an object accelerates at 1 knot (UK)/s, its speed is increasing by 1 knot (UK)/s every second.

8. Knots (US)/Second
A knot (US) per second is a unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 0.51444 m/s². Physical
interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 knot (US)/s, its speed is increasing by 1 knot (US)/s every second.

9. Meters/Second Squared
A meter per second squared is a unit of measurement for acceleration in the International System of Units (SI). It is a derived unit of
the SI and it is composed from the SI base units, the meter and the second. Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1
m/s², its speed is increasing by 1 m/s every second.

10. Miles/Hour Minute
A mile per hour per minute is a unit of acceleration in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems, equal to 0.00745066667
m/s². Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 mile/hour minute, its speed is increasing by 1 mile/hour every minute.

23

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

11. Miles/Hour Second
A mile per hour per second is a unit of acceleration in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems, equal to 0.44704 m/s².
Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 mile/hour second, its speed is increasing by 1 mile/hour every second.

12. Miles/Second Squared
A mile per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems, equal to 1609.344 m/s².
Physical interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 mi/s², its speed is increasing by 1 mi/s every second.

13. Millimeters/Second Squared
A millimeter per second squared is a unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 0.001 m/s². Physical
interpretation: if an object accelerates at 1 mm/s², its speed is increasing by 1 mm/s every second.

24

Acceleration | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Angle
Plan Angle: in geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called
the vertex of the angle. Angles are usually presumed to be in a Euclidean plane or in the Euclidean space, but are also defined in
non-Euclidean geometries. In particular, in spherical geometry, the spherical angles are defined, using arcs of great circles instead of
rays. Angle is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation. This measure is the ratio of the length of a circular arc
to its radius. In the case of a geometric angle, the arc is centered at the vertex and delimited by the sides. In the case of a rotation,
the arc is centered at the center of the rotation and delimited by any other point and its image by the rotation.
Solid Angle: In geometry, a solid angle (symbol: Ω) is the two-dimensional angle in three-dimensional space that an object subtends
at a point. It is a measure of how large the object appears to an observer looking from that point. In the International System of
Units (SI), a solid angle is a dimensionless unit of measurement called a steradian (symbol: sr). A small object nearby may subtend
the same solid angle as a larger object farther away. For example, although the Moon is much smaller than the Sun, it is also much
closer to Earth. Therefore, as viewed from any point on Earth, both objects have approximately the same solid angle as well as
apparent size. This is most easily observed during a solar eclipse.

1. Arc Minutes
A minute of arc, acrminute or simply minute is a unit of angle equal to (1/60) of one degree or π/10,800 radians. It is not an
International System of Units (SI) unit.

2. Arc Seconds
A second of arc, arcsecond, or simply second is 1⁄60 of one minute of arc. The arcsecond is equal to 1⁄3,600 of a degree, or
1⁄1,296,000 of a circle, or π⁄648,000 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.

3. Binary Degrees
The binary degree, also known as the binary radian (or brad), is 1/256 of a turn. The binary degree is used in computing so that an
angle can be efficiently represented in a single byte (albeit to limited precision). Other measures of angle used in computing may be
based on dividing one whole turn into 2n equal parts for other values of n.

4. Binary Radians
The binary degree, also known as the binary radian (or brad), is 1/256 of a turn. The binary degree is used in computing so that an
angle can be efficiently represented in a single byte (albeit to limited precision). Other measures of angle used in computing may be
based on dividing one whole turn into 2n equal parts for other values of n.

5. Centiturns
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc.
1 centiturn = 3.6°

6. Degrees
A degree or degree of arc (°) is a measurement of plane angle representing 1/360 of a full rotation. One degree is equivalent to
π/180 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.

7. Gradians
A grad also known as gradian, gon or grade is a unit of plane angle, equivalent to 1/400 of a turn. One grad equals π/200 radians or
9/10 of a degree. 1 grad is divided into 100 metric minutes and 1 metric minute is divided into 100 metric seconds.
1 gradian = 0.9°

25

Angle | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

8. Microdegrees
A degree or degree of arc (°) is a measurement of plane angle representing 1/360 of a full rotation. One degree is equivalent to
π/180 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.
1 microdegree = 0.000001°

9. Microradians
In mathematics and physics, Radian (rad) is the standard unit of angle and is defined as the ratio between the length of an arc and
its radius. Thus, one full angle or full circle is equal to 2π radians. The radian is an SI derived unit. One radian is the angle subtended
at the center of a circle by an arc that is equal in length to the radius of the circle.
1 microradian = 5.729x10-6°

10. Millidegrees
A degree or degree of arc (°) is a measurement of plane angle representing 1/360 of a full rotation. One degree is equivalent to
π/180 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.
1 millidegree = 0.01°

11. Milliradians
In mathematics and physics, Radian (rad) is the standard unit of angle and is defined as the ratio between the length of an arc and
its radius. Thus, one full angle or full circle is equal to 2π radians. The radian is an SI derived unit. One radian is the angle subtended
at the center of a circle by an arc that is equal in length to the radius of the circle.
1 milliradian = 5.729x10-3°

12. Milliturns
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc.
1 milliiturn = 0.36°

13. Minutes
A minute of arc, acrminute or simply minute is a unit of angle equal to (1/60) of one degree or π/10,800 radians. It is not an
International System of Units (SI) unit.

14. Nanodegrees
A degree or degree of arc (°) is a measurement of plane angle representing 1/360 of a full rotation. One degree is equivalent to
π/180 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.
1 nanodegree = 0.00000001°

15. Nanoradians
In mathematics and physics, Radian (rad) is the standard unit of angle and is defined as the ratio between the length of an arc and
its radius. Thus, one full angle or full circle is equal to 2π radians. The radian is an SI derived unit. One radian is the angle subtended
at the center of a circle by an arc that is equal in length to the radius of the circle.
1 nanoradian = 5.729x10-9°

16. Octants
A circular sector or circle is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor
sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the
arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a semicircle. Sectors with other central angles are
sometimes given special names; these include quadrants (90°), sextants (60°), octants (45°) and signs (30°).
1 octant = 45°

26

Angle | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

17. Points
The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal
directions: North, South, East, and West. The number of points may be only the 4 cardinal points, or the 8 principal points adding
the inter-cardinal (or ordinal) directions northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW).
1 point = 11.25°

18. Quadrants
Quadrant is one of the four divisions of the plane made by the axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system. They are usually
numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals I to IV.
1 quadrant = 90°

19. Radians
In mathematics and physics, Radian (rad) is the standard unit of angle and is defined as the ratio between the length of an arc and
its radius. Thus, one full angle or full circle is equal to 2π radians. The radian is an SI derived unit. One radian is the angle subtended
at the center of a circle by an arc that is equal in length to the radius of the circle.
1 radian ≈ 57.3°

20. Seconds
A second of arc, arcsecond, or simply second is 1⁄60 of one minute of arc. The arcsecond is equal to 1⁄3,600 of a degree, or
1⁄1,296,000 of a circle, or π⁄648,000 radians. It is not an International System of Units (SI) unit.

21. Sextants
Sextant is a sixth part of a circle having an arc, which subtends an angle of 60 degrees. From Latin sextans — one-sixth of a unit.
1 sextant = 60°

22. Signs
Sign is a unit of angle used in astrology and defined as 1/12 of a turn, or 30 degrees. This is so because astrologers divide the Sun’s
annual path through the sky into 12 parts, which they call signs. Each sign corresponds to one of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
1 sign = 30°

23. Turns
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc.
1 turn = 360°

27

Angle | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Angular Velocity
In physics, the angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity which specifies the
angular speed (rotational speed) of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating. The SI unit of angular velocity is
radians per second, although it may be measured in other units such as degrees per second, degrees per hour, etc. Angular velocity
is usually represented by the symbol omega (ω, rarely Ω).
The direction of the angular velocity vector is perpendicular to the plane of rotation, in a direction which is usually specified by the
right-hand rule.

1. Degrees/Day
A degree per day (degree•d⁻¹, degree/d) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The degree per day is also a unit
of angular frequency. One degree per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one degree, every 24 hours.

2. Degrees/Hour
A degree per hour (degree•h⁻¹, degree/h) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The degree per hour is also a unit
of angular frequency. One degree per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one degree, every hour.

3. Degrees/Minute
A degree per minute (degree•min⁻¹, degree/min) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The degree per minute is
also a unit of angular frequency. One degree per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one degree,
every minute.

4. Degrees/Second
A degree per second (degree•s⁻¹, degree/s) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The degree per second is also a
unit of angular frequency. One degree per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one degree, every
second.

5. Gradians/Day
The gradian is a unit of plane angle, equivalent to 1⁄400 of a turn. It is also known as gon, grad, or grade. One grad equals 9⁄10 of a
degree or π⁄200 of a radian. One gradian per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one grade, every 24
hours.

6. Gradians/Hour
The gradian is a unit of plane angle, equivalent to 1⁄400 of a turn. It is also known as gon, grad, or grade. One grad equals 9⁄10 of a
degree or π⁄200 of a radian. One gradian per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one grade, every hour.

7. Gradians/Minute
The gradian is a unit of plane angle, equivalent to 1⁄400 of a turn. It is also known as gon, grad, or grade. One grad equals 9⁄10 of a
degree or π⁄200 of a radian. One gradian per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one grade, every
minute.

8. Gradians/Second
The gradian is a unit of plane angle, equivalent to 1⁄400 of a turn. It is also known as gon, grad, or grade. One grad equals 9⁄10 of a
degree or π⁄200 of a radian. One gradian per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one grade, every
second.

28

Angular Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

9. Octants/Day
A circular sector or circle is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor
sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the
arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a semicircle. Sectors with other central angles are
sometimes given special names; these include quadrants (90°), sextants (60°), octants (45°) and signs (30°). 1 octant = 45°.
An octant per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The octant per day is also a unit of angular frequency.
One octant per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one octant, every 24 hours.

10. Octants/Hour
A circular sector or circle is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor
sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the
arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a semicircle. Sectors with other central angles are
sometimes given special names; these include quadrants (90°), sextants (60°), octants (45°) and signs (30°). 1 octant = 45°.
An octant per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The octant per hour is also a unit of angular frequency.
One octant per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one octant, every hour.

11. Octants/Minute
A circular sector or circle is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor
sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the
arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a semicircle. Sectors with other central angles are
sometimes given special names; these include quadrants (90°), sextants (60°), octants (45°) and signs (30°). 1 octant = 45°.
An octant per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The octant per minute is also a unit of angular
frequency. One octant per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one octant, every minute.

12. Octants/Second
A circular sector or circle is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor
sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the
arc length of the minor sector. A sector with the central angle of 180° is called a semicircle. Sectors with other central angles are
sometimes given special names; these include quadrants (90°), sextants (60°), octants (45°) and signs (30°). 1 octant = 45°.
An octant per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The octant per second is also a unit of angular
frequency. One octant per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one octant, every second.

13. Points/Day
The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal
directions: North, South, East, and West. 1 point = 11.25°.
A point per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The point per day is also a unit of angular frequency. One
point per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one point, every 24 hours.

14. Points/Hour
The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal
directions: North, South, East, and West. 1 point = 11.25°.
A point per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The point per hour is also a unit of angular frequency. One
point per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one point, every hour.

15. Points/Minute
The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal
directions: North, South, East, and West. 1 point = 11.25°.

29

Angular Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

A point per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The point per minute is also a unit of angular frequency.
One point per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one point, every minute.

16. Points/Second
The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal
directions: North, South, East, and West. 1 point = 11.25°.
A point per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The point per second is also a unit of angular frequency.
One point per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one point, every second.

17. Quadrants/Day
Quadrant is one of the four divisions of the plane made by the axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system. They are usually
numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals I to IV. 1 quadrant = 90°.
A quadrant per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The quadrant per day is also a unit of angular
frequency. One quadrant per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one quadrant every day.

18. Quadrants/Hour
Quadrant is one of the four divisions of the plane made by the axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system. They are usually
numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals I to IV. 1 quadrant = 90°.
A quadrant per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The quadrant per hour is also a unit of angular
frequency. One quadrant per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one quadrant every hour.

19. Quadrants/Minute
Quadrant is one of the four divisions of the plane made by the axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system. They are usually
numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals I to IV. 1 quadrant = 90°.
A quadrant per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The quadrant per minute is also a unit of angular
frequency. One quadrant per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one quadrant every minute.

20. Quadrants/Second
Quadrant is one of the four divisions of the plane made by the axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system. They are usually
numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals I to IV. 1 quadrant = 90°.
A quadrant per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The quadrant per second is also a unit of angular
frequency. One quadrant per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one quadrant every second.

21. Radians/Day
A radian per day (rad•d⁻¹, rad/d, 1/d, d⁻¹) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The radian per day is also a unit
of angular frequency. One radian per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one radian, every 24 hours.

22. Radians/Hour
A radian per hour (rad•h⁻¹, rad/h, 1/h, h⁻¹) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The radian per hour is also a unit
of angular frequency. One radian per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one radian, every hour.

23. Radians/Minute
A radian per minute (rad•min⁻¹, rad/min, 1/min, min⁻¹) is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The radian per
minute is also a unit of angular frequency. One radian per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one
radian, every minute.

30

Angular Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

24. Radians/Second
A radian per second (rad•s⁻¹, rad/s, 1/s, s⁻¹) is the SI and CGS unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The radian per second is
also a unit of angular frequency. One radian per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one radian, every
second.

25. Sextants/Day
Sextant is a sixth part of a circle having an arc, which subtends an angle of 60 degrees. From Latin sextans — one-sixth of a unit. 1
sextant = 60°.
A sextant per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sextant per day is also a unit of angular frequency.
One sextant per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sextant every day.

26. Sextants/Hour
Sextant is a sixth part of a circle having an arc, which subtends an angle of 60 degrees. From Latin sextans — one-sixth of a unit. 1
sextant = 60°.
A sextant per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sextant per hour is also a unit of angular frequency.
One sextant per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sextant every hour.

27. Sextants/Minute
Sextant is a sixth part of a circle having an arc, which subtends an angle of 60 degrees. From Latin sextans — one-sixth of a unit. 1
sextant = 60°.
A sextant per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sextant per minute is also a unit of angular
frequency. One sextant per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sextant every minute.

28. Sextants/Second
Sextant is a sixth part of a circle having an arc, which subtends an angle of 60 degrees. From Latin sextans — one-sixth of a unit. 1
sextant = 60°.
A sextant per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sextant per second is also a unit of angular
frequency. One sextant per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sextant every second.

29. Signs/Day
Sign is a unit of angle used in astrology and defined as 1/12 of a turn, or 30 degrees. This is so because astrologers divide the Sun’s
annual path through the sky into 12 parts, which they call signs. Each sign corresponds to one of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
1 sign = 30°.
A sign per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sign per day is also a unit of angular frequency. One sign
per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sign every day.

30. Signs/Hour
Sign is a unit of angle used in astrology and defined as 1/12 of a turn, or 30 degrees. This is so because astrologers divide the Sun’s
annual path through the sky into 12 parts, which they call signs. Each sign corresponds to one of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
1 sign = 30°.
A sign per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sign per hour is also a unit of angular frequency. One
sign per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sign every hour.

31. Signs/Minute
Sign is a unit of angle used in astrology and defined as 1/12 of a turn, or 30 degrees. This is so because astrologers divide the Sun’s
annual path through the sky into 12 parts, which they call signs. Each sign corresponds to one of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
1 sign = 30°.

31

Angular Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

A sign per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sign per minute is also a unit of angular frequency.
One sign per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sign every minute.

32. Signs/Second
Sign is a unit of angle used in astrology and defined as 1/12 of a turn, or 30 degrees. This is so because astrologers divide the Sun’s
annual path through the sky into 12 parts, which they call signs. Each sign corresponds to one of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
1 sign = 30°.
A sign per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The sign per second is also a unit of angular frequency.
One sign per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one sign every second.

33. Turns/Day
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc. 1
turn = 360°.
A turn per day is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The turn per day is also a unit of angular frequency. One
turn per day is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one turn every day.

34. Turns/Hour
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc. 1
turn = 360°.
A turn per hour is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The turn per hour is also a unit of angular frequency. One
turn per hour is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one turn every hour.

35. Turns/Minute
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc. 1
turn = 360°.
A turn per minute is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The turn per minute is also a unit of angular frequency.
One turn per minute is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one turn every minute.

36. Turns/Second
A turn (also revolution, complete rotation, cycle or full circle) is a unit of angle measurement. It is equal to 2 π radians or 360
degrees. It can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc. 1
turn = 360°
A turn per second is the metric unit of rotational speed or angular velocity. The turn per second is also a unit of angular frequency.
One turn per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object by one turn every second.

32

Angular Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Area
Surface area is the total area of the faces and curved surface of a solid figure. Mathematical description of the surface area is
considerably more involved than the definition of arc length or polyhedra (objects with flat polygonal faces) the surface area is the
sum of the areas of its faces. Smooth surfaces, such as a sphere, are assigned surface area using their representation as parametric
surfaces. This definition of the surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double
integration.

1. Acres
An acre is an Imperial and US customary unit of land area and defined as the area of 1/640 sq mile. 640 acres make up one square
mile. Its symbol is ac. 1 ac is equal to 0.4 ha– slightly smaller than an American football field.

2. Ares
An are is a non-SI metric unit of area and defined as 100 square meters. It is primarily used in the measurements of land area. Its
symbol is a.

3. Cents
The cent is an Indian measure of land and is equal to 40.47 m².

4. Dunams
A dunam or dönüm, donum was a unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and representing the amount of land that can be
plowed in a day; its value varied from 900–2500 m². In many formerly Ottoman regions, it is now defined as exactly one decare
(1000 m²).

5. Hectares
A hectare is a non-SI metric unit of area and defined as 10,000 square meters or 100 ares. It is primarily used in the measurements
of land area. Its symbol is ha.

6. Sections
A section is defined as a square unit of land with an area of one square mile. It is primarily used by the United States Public Land
Survey System. 36 sections make up one US Survey township. One section is equal to 1 sq mile or 2.59 sq km.

7. Square Centimeters
A square centimeter is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 0.0001 m². Its symbol is cm².

8. Square Feet
A square foot is an Imperial and US customary unit of area and defined as the area of a square with sides of one foot. . It is defined
as the area of a square with sides of 1 foot. Its symbol is ft² or sq ft. 1 sq ft is equal to 0.093 sq m.

9. Square Inches
A square inch is an Imperial and US customary unit of area and defined as the area of a square with sides of one inch. Its symbol is
in² or sq in. 1 square inch is equal to 6.4516 sq cm.

10. Square Kilometers
A square kilometer is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 1,000,000 m². Its symbol is km².

33

Area | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

11. Square Meters
The square meter is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2. It is defined as the area of a square whose sides measure exactly
one meter. The square meter is derived from the SI base unit of the meter, which itself is defined as the length of the path travelled
by light in absolute vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

12. Square Micrometers
A square micrometer is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 10⁻¹² m². Its symbol is μm².

13. Square Microns
A square microron is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 10⁻¹² m².

14. Square Miles
A square mile is an Imperial and US customary unit of area and defined as the area of a square whose sides are one statute mile. Its
symbol is mi² or sq mi. 1 sq mi is equal to 2.59 sq km.

15. Square Millimeters
A square millimeter is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 0.000001 m². Its symbol is mm².

16. Square Nanometers
A square nanometer is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit square meter and is equal to 10⁻¹⁸ m². Its symbol is nm².

17. Square Yards
A square yard is an Imperial and US customary unit of area and defined as the area of a square with sides of one yard. Its symbol is
yd² or sq yd. 1 sq yd is equal to 0.836 sq m.

34

Area | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Capacitance
Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. A
common form of energy storage device is a parallel-plate capacitor. In a parallel plate capacitor, capacitance is directly proportional
to the surface area of the conductor plates and inversely proportional to the separation distance between the plates.

1. Abfarads
The abfarad (abF) is an obsolete emu cgs (electromagnetic centimeter-gram-second system of units) unit of capacitance, which is
equal to 10⁹ farads or 1 gigafarad (GF). This very large unit is used in medical terminology only. A capacitor of one abfarad produces
a potential difference of one abvolt between its plates when it stores an electric charge of one abcoulomb.

2. EMUs Of Capacitance
The EMU of capacitance is another name for an obsolete emu cgs (electromagnetic centimeter-gram-second system of units) unit of
capacitance, which is equal to 10⁹ farads or 1 gigafarad (GF). This extremely large unit is used in medical terminology only. A
capacitor of one EMU of capacitance produces a potential difference of one abvolt between its plates when it stores an electric
charge of one abcoulomb.

3. ESUs Of Capacitance
The ESU of capacitance is another name for the statfarad (stF), the obsolete esu cgs (centimeter-gram-second electrostatic system
of units) unit of capacitance. One ESU of capacitance is equal to 1 microfarad. A capacitor of one ESU of capacitance produces a
potential difference of one statvolt between its plates when it stores an electric charge of one statcoulomb.

4. Farads
A farad (F) is the SI derived unit of capacitance. A capacitor of one farad produces a potential difference of one volt between its
plates when it stores an electric charge of one coulomb.

5. Jars
Jar is a traditional unit of electric capacitance, approximately equal to the capacitance of one of the Leiden jars used in electrical
experiments as long ago as the eighteenth century. Benjamin Franklin is said to have measured the storage power of his electrical
equipment in jars. There are 9 x 108 jars in a farad, so 1 jar is approximately 1.1 nanofarad.

6. Microfarads
A microfarad (μF) is a decimal multiple of farad, the SI derived unit of capacitance. A capacitor of one farad produces a potential
difference of one volt between its plates when it stores an electric charge of one coulomb. Microfarad is commonly used in
electronics and electrical engineering.

7. Picofarads
A picofarad (pF) is a decimal multiple of farad, the SI derived unit of capacitance. A capacitor of one farad produces a potential
difference of one volt between its plates when it stores an electric charge of one coulomb. Picofarad is commonly used in
electronics and electrical engineering.

8. Statfarads
The statfarad (stF) is the obsolete esu cgs (centimeter-gram-second electrostatic system of units) unit of capacitance, and is equal to
1.112 picofarad. A capacitor of one statfarad produces a potential difference of one statvolt between its plates when it stores an
electric charge of one statcoulomb. By another definition, one statfarad is the capacitance of a sphere with 1 cm radius in a vacuum.

35

Capacitance | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Charge
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged
matter. There are two types of electric charges – positive and negative. Positively charged substances are repelled from other
positively charged substances, but attracted to negatively charged substances; negatively charged substances are repelled from
negative and attracted to positive. An object will be negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and will otherwise be
positively charged or uncharged. The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also
common to use the ampere-hour (Ah), and in chemistry it is common to use the elementary charge (e) as a unit. The symbol Q is
often used to denote a charge. The study of how charged substances interact is classical electrodynamics, which is accurate insofar
as quantum effects can be ignored.
The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic
interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a moving
charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces.

1. Abcoulombs
An abcoulomb (abC or aC) or electromagnetic unit of charge (emu of charge) is the basic physical unit of electric charge in the cgsemu system of units. One abcoulomb is equal to ten coulombs.

2. Amperes Hour
An ampere-hour or amp-hour (symbol Ah, AHr, A·h, A h) is a non-SI unit of electric charge. One ampere-hour is equal to 3600
coulombs (ampere-seconds). Physical interpretation: One ampere-hour is the electric charge transferred by a steady current of one
ampere for one hour. This unit is commonly used in measurement of the capacity of electric batteries.

3. Amperes Minute
An ampere-minute or amp-minute is a non-SI unit of electric charge. One ampere-minute is equal to 60 coulombs (ampereseconds). Physical interpretation: One ampere-minute is the electric charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere for one
minute.

4. Amperes Second
An ampere-second or amp-second is a non-SI unit of electric charge. One ampere-second is equal to 1 coulomb. Physical
interpretation: One ampere-second is the electric charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere for one second.

5. Coulombs
A coulomb (C) is the SI derived unit of electric charge. It is defined as the charge transported by a steady current of one ampere in
one second. The coulomb can also be defined in terms of capacitance. One coulomb is the amount of charge on the positive side of
a capacitor of one farad charged to a potential difference of one volt.

6. Faradays
A faraday is a non-SI unit of electrical charge. It is used in electrochemistry. One faraday of charge is the magnitude of the charge of
one mole of electrons, that is, 96.48 kC.

7. Franklins
A franklin is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the centimeter-gram-second system of units (cgs) and Gaussian units. It is
a cgs derived unit. The franklin is also called statcoulomb or esu of charge.

8. Statcoulombs
A statcoulomb (statC) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the centimeter-gram-second system of units (cgs) and
Gaussian units. It is a cgs derived unit. The statcoulomb is also called franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu).

36

Charge | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Conductance
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that conductor; the
inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual
parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is
measured in siemens (S).
An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its crosssectional area. All materials show some resistance, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero.

1. Abmhos
An abmho (ab℧) is a unit of electrical conductance in the emu-cgs (electromagnetic units – centimeter gram second) system of
units. It is equal to gigasiemens (inverse of nanoohm) and also known as absiemens.

2. Gemmhos
A gemmho is a unit of conductance, equal to 10⁻⁶ mho. 1 gemmho is the conductance of a conductor, which has a resistance of 10⁶
ohms.

3. Kilosiemenses
A kilosiemens (kS) is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of electrical conductance and admittance siemens and is equal to 1000
siemens. Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to
the reciprocal of one ohm.

4. Megasiemenses
A megasiemens (MS) is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of electrical conductance and admittance siemens and is equal to 10⁶
siemens. Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to
the reciprocal of one ohm.

5. Mhos
A mho (℧) is an alternative name of the same SI unit of electrical conductance and admittance siemens, the reciprocal of one ohm.
Mho is derived from spelling ohm backwards and is written with an upside-down capital Greek letter Omega ℧.

6. Micromhos
A micromho (μ℧) is a decimal fraction of the mho, which is the alternative name of the SI unit of electric conductance and
admittance siemens, the reciprocal of one ohm. Mho is derived from spelling ohm backwards and is written with an upside-down
capital Greek letter Omega ℧. 1 μ℧ = 10⁻⁶ ℧.

7. Microsiemenses
A microsiemens (μS) is a decimal fraction of the SI unit of electrical conductance and admittance siemens and is equal to 10⁻⁶
siemens. Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to
the reciprocal of one ohm.

8. Millimhos
A millimho (m℧) is a decimal fraction of the mho, which is the alternative name of the SI unit of electric conductance and
admittance siemens, the reciprocal of one ohm. Mho is derived from spelling ohm backwards and is written with an upside-down
capital Greek letter Omega ℧. 1 m℧ = 10⁻³ ℧.

37

Conductance | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

9. Millisiemenses
A millisiemens (mS) is a decimal fraction of the SI unit of electrical conductance and admittance siemens and is equal to 10⁻³
siemens. Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to
the reciprocal of one ohm.

10. Siemenses
A siemens (S) is the SI derived unit of electrical conductance and electric admittance. Conductance and admittance are the
reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to the reciprocal of one ohm. Another name of the
siemens is the mho, which is written with an upside-down capital Greek letter Omega ℧. A device has a conductance of one siemens
if the electric current through this device will increase by one ampere for every increase of one volt of electric potential difference
across the device.

11. Statmhos
A statmho (stat℧) is the unit of electrical conductance and admittance in the CGSE (electrostatic centimeter-gram-second system of
units). It is equal to the conductance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 statvolt applied
between the points produces in this conductor a current of 1 statampere. 1 statmho is equal to approximately 1.113 × 10⁻¹² S.

38

Conductance | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Current
An electric current is a flow of electric charge. Electric charge flows when there is voltage present across a conductor. In electric
circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and
electrons such as in plasma. The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charges through
a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current can be measured using an ammeter. Electric currents cause many
effects, notably heating, but also induce magnetic fields, which are widely used for motors, inductors and generators.

1. Abamperes
An abampere (aA) is the basic electromagnetic unit of electric current in the emu-cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system of units. It is
also called the biot after a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician Jean-Baptiste Biot. One abampere is equal to ten
amperes in the SI system of units. One abampere is the current, which produces a force of 2 dyne/cm between two infinitively long
parallel wires that are 1 cm apart.

2. Amperes
An ampere (A), is the SI unit of electric current and is one of the seven SI base units. The ampere is often shortened to amp (plural
amps). The formal definition of the ampere states that “the ampere is the constant current that will produce an attractive force of 2
× 10⁻⁷ newton per meter of length between two straight, parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section
placed one meter apart in a vacuum”. In terms of SI units, the ampere can be also defined as a measure of the amount of electric
charge of 6.241·10¹⁸ electrons, or one coulomb passing a cross section of a wire per one second.

3. EMUs Of Current
An ESU of current is the electrostatic unit of electric current in the esu-cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system of units. It is also called
a statampere. The statampere (statA, A-esu) is the equivalent of one statcoulomb (1 statC) of charge moving past a specific point in
one second.

4. ESUs Of Current
An ESU of current is the electrostatic unit of electric current in the esu-cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system of units. It is also called
a statampere. The statampere (statA, A-esu) is the equivalent of one statcoulomb (1 statC) of charge moving past a specific point in
one second.

5. Gilbert
By the 17th century, many electricity-related discoveries had been made, such as the invention of an early electrostatic generator,
the differentiation between positive and negative charges, and the classification of materials as conductors or insulators. In the year
1600, English physician William Gilbert first made the connection between the attraction of oppositely charged objects and
magnetism. He coined the term electric, from the Greek elektron — meaning amber — to identify the force that certain substances
exert when rubbed against each other.

6. Microamperes
A microampere (µA), is a decimal fraction of the ampere, the SI unit of electric current. The formal definition of the ampere states
that “the ampere is the constant current that will produce an attractive force of 2 × 10⁻⁷ newton per meter of length between two
straight, parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section placed one meter apart in a vacuum”. In terms of
SI units, the ampere can be also defined as a measure of the amount of electric charge of 6.241·10¹⁸ electrons, or one coulomb
passing a cross section of a wire per one sec

7. Milliamperes
A milliampere (mA), is a decimal fraction of the ampere, the SI unit of electric current. The formal definition of the ampere states
that “the ampere is the constant current that will produce an attractive force of 2 × 10⁻⁷ newton per meter of length between two

39

Current | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

straight, parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section placed one meter apart in a vacuum”. In terms of
SI units, the ampere can be also defined as a measure of the amount of electric charge of 6.241·10¹⁸ electrons, or one coulomb
passing a cross section of a wire per one second.

8. Statamperes
A statampere (statA, A-esu) is the unit of electric current in the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system of electrostatic units (esu). It is
the equivalent of one statcoulomb (1 statC) of charge moving past a specific point in one second.

40

Current | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Data Storage
A unit of information is the capacity of a standard data storage device or a communication channel used to measure the capacities
of other systems and channels. The most common units are the bit and the byte (or octet). Information capacity is a dimensionless
quantity, because it refers to a count of binary symbols.
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and telecommunications; a bit can have the value of either 1 or 0 only. A bit can
also be defined as a variable or computed quantity that can have only two possible values. These two values are often denoted by
the numerical digits 0 and 1. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), on/off state or any other
two-valued attribute or physical condition such as flow/no flow or high pressure/low pressure. A byte is a unit of digital information
in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits.

1. Bits
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and data transmission; a bit can have only the value of either one or zero, which
may be implemented in a variety of systems by means of a two-state device. An example of such a device in electronics can be a flipflop, a logic gate or a relay (in relay logic). The two values can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), activation
states (on/off), or any other two-valued attribute.

2. Blocks
In data transmission and data storage, a block is a sequence of bytes or bits, having a nominal length (a block size). Putting data into
blocks (blocking) blocking is used to speed up the handling of the data-stream by the communication equipment. Blocked data is
normally read a whole block at a time.

3. Bytes
A byte is a unit of digital information in computing and data transmission that most commonly consists of eight bits. The de facto
standard of eight bits is a convenient power of two (2⁸) permitting the values 0 through 255 for one byte.

4. CDs (74 min)
A compact disc (CD) is an optical disc designed to store digital data. It was originally developed to store and play back sound
recordings only, but the format was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM) and other formats. Audio CDs and audio CD players
have been commercially available since October 1982. As of 2012, CD are still in production.

5. CDs (80 min)
A compact disc (CD) is an optical disc designed to store digital data. It was originally developed to store and play back sound
recordings only, but the format was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM) and other formats. Audio CDs and audio CD players
have been commercially available since October 1982. As of 2012, CD are still in production.

6. Double Words
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word can be considered as a fixed-size
group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and the processor hardware. The number of bits in a word (also called
word width, word size, or word length) is an important characteristic of specific processor design or computer architecture, which is
often described as n-bit architecture where n is usually equal to 8, 16, 32 or 64.
A double word is 32-bits where a word is 16-bits. This can also be doubled again and made into a very long word, which would be
64-bits.

7. DVDs (1 Layer 1 Side)
The DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by several multinational electronics companies in 1995. DVDs
offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. The most common format is 4.7 GB single-

41

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

sided, single-layer. Other formats include 8.5—8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer), 9.4 GB (double-sided, single layer) and 17.08 GB
(double-sided, double-layer). The last format is rare.

8. DVDs (1 Layer 2 Sides)
The DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by several multinational electronics companies in 1995. DVDs
offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. The most common format is 4.7 GB singlesided, single-layer. Other formats include 8.5—8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer), 9.4 GB (double-sided, single layer) and 17.08 GB
(double-sided, double-layer). The last format is rare.

9. DVDs (2 Layers 1 Side)
The DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by several multinational electronics companies in 1995. DVDs
offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. The most common format is 4.7 GB singlesided, single-layer. Other formats include 8.5—8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer), 9.4 GB (double-sided, single layer) and 17.08 GB
(double-sided, double-layer). The last format is rare.

10. DVDs (2 Layers 2 Sides)
The DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by several multinational electronics companies in 1995. DVDs
offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. The most common format is 4.7 GB singlesided, single-layer. Other formats include 8.5—8.7 GB (single-sided, double-layer), 9.4 GB (double-sided, single layer) and 17.08 GB
(double-sided, double-layer). The last format is rare.

11. Exabits
An exabit (Eb or Ebit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix exa (symbol E) is
defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁸, therefore, 1 exabit = 10¹⁸ bits. At the same time, traditionally
this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁶⁰, so 1 Ebit = 1024 Pbits. The correct prefix for 2⁶⁰, exbibit (Eibit),
introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

12. Exabytes
An exabyte (Eb or Ebyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix exa (symbol E)
is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁸, therefore, 1 exabyte = 10¹⁸ bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁶⁰, so 1 Ebyte = 1024 Pbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁶⁰,
exbibyte (EiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

13. Exabytes (10^18 bytes)
An exabyte (Eb or Ebyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix exa (symbol E)
is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁸, therefore, 1 exabyte = 10¹⁸ bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁶⁰, so 1 Ebyte = 1024 Pbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁶⁰,
exbibyte (EiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

14. Floppy Disks (3.5 DD)
A floppy disk was a data storage and transfer device that could be found in every computer from the mid-1970s well into 2000s.
Even in late 2000s they still installed floppy disks in servers. Double density (DD), high density (HD), extended density (ED) and other
formats were produced.

15. Floppy Disks (3.5 ED)
A floppy disk was a data storage and transfer device that could be found in every computer from the mid-1970s well into 2000s.
Even in late 2000s they still installed floppy disks in servers. Double density (DD), high density (HD), extended density (ED) and other
formats were produced.

42

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

16. Floppy Disks (3.5 HD)
A floppy disk was a data storage and transfer device that could be found in every computer from the mid-1970s well into 2000s.
Even in late 2000s they still installed floppy disks in servers. Double density (DD), high density (HD), extended density (ED) and other
formats were produced.

17. Floppy Disks (5.25 DD)
A floppy disk was a data storage and transfer device that could be found in every computer from the mid-1970s well into 2000s.
Even in late 2000s they still installed floppy disks in servers. Double density (DD), high density (HD), extended density (ED) and other
formats were produced.

18. Floppy Disks (5.25 HD)
A floppy disk was a data storage and transfer device that could be found in every computer from the mid-1970s well into 2000s.
Even in late 2000s they still installed floppy disks in servers. Double density (DD), high density (HD), extended density (ED) and other
formats were produced.

19. Gigabits
A gigabit (Gb or Gbit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix giga (symbol G) is
defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁹, therefore, 1 gigabit = 10⁹ bits = 1,000,000,000 bits. At the
same time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2³⁰, so 1 Gbit = 1024 Mbits. The correct prefix for
2³⁰, gibibit (Gibit), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

20. Gigabytes
A gigabyte (GB or Gbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix giga (symbol
G) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁹, therefore, 1 gigabyte = 10⁹ bytes = 1,000,000,000 bytes.
At the same time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2³⁰, so 1 GB = 1024 Mbytes. The correct prefix
for 2³⁰, gibibyte (GiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer
and telecommunication industry.

21. Gigabytes (10^9 bytes)
A gigabyte (GB or Gbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix giga (symbol
G) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁹, therefore, 1 gigabyte = 10⁹ bytes = 1,000,000,000 bytes.
At the same time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2³⁰, so 1 GB = 1024 Mbytes. The correct prefix
for 2³⁰, gibibyte (GiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer
and telecommunication industry.

22. Jazes 1 GB
A Jaz drive was a removable disk storage system, introduced by the Iomega company in 1995. The Jaz disks were originally released
with a 1 GB capacity in a 3½-inch form factor, which was a significant increase over Iomega's most popular product at the time, the
Zip drive with its 100 MB capacity. Later the capacity was increased to 2 GB. The Jaz line of products was discontinued in 2002.

23. Jazes 2 GB
A Jaz drive was a removable disk storage system, introduced by the Iomega company in 1995. The Jaz disks were originally released
with a 1 GB capacity in a 3½-inch form factor, which was a significant increase over Iomega's most popular product at the time, the
Zip drive with its 100 MB capacity. Later the capacity was increased to 2 GB. The Jaz line of products was discontinued in 2002.

24. Kilobits
A kilobit (kb or kbit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix kilo (symbol k) is
defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10³, therefore, 1 kilobit = 10³ bits = 1000 bits. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2¹⁰ = 1024, so 1 Kbit = 1024 bits (note the capital K). The correct

43

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

prefix for 2¹⁰, kibibit (Kibit), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the
computer and telecommunication industry.

25. Kilobytes
A kilobyte (kB) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix kilo (symbol k) is defined
in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10³, therefore, 1 kilobyte = 10³ bytes = 1000 bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2¹⁰ = 1024, so 1 Kbyte = 1024 bytes (note the capital K). The
correct prefix for 2¹⁰, kibibyte (KiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by
the computer and telecommunication industry.

26. Kilobytes (10^3 bytes)
A kilobyte (kB) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix kilo (symbol k) is defined
in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10³, therefore, 1 kilobyte = 10³ bytes = 1000 bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2¹⁰ = 1024, so 1 Kbyte = 1024 bytes (note the capital K). The
correct prefix for 2¹⁰, kibibyte (KiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by
the computer and telecommunication industry.

27. Megabits
A megabit (Mb or Mbit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix mega (symbol M)
is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁶, therefore, 1 megabit = 10⁶ bits = 1,000,000 bits. At the same
time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2²⁰, so 1 Mbit = 1024 Kbits (note the capital K). The correct
prefix for 2²⁰, mebibit (Mibit), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the
computer and telecommunication industry.

28. Megabytes
A megabyte (MB or Mbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix mega
(symbol M) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁶, therefore, 1 megabyte = 10⁶ bytes = 1,000,000
bytes. At the same time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2²⁰, so 1 MB = 1024 Kbytes (note the
capital K). The correct prefix for 2²⁰, mebibyte (MiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was
not adopted by the computer and telecommunication industry.

29. Megabytes (10^6 bytes)
A megabyte (MB or Mbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix mega
(symbol M) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10⁶, therefore, 1 megabyte = 10⁶ bytes = 1,000,000
bytes. At the same time, traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2²⁰, so 1 MB = 1024 Kbytes (note the
capital K). The correct prefix for 2²⁰, mebibyte (MiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was
not adopted by the computer and telecommunication industry.

30. Nibbles
In computing, a nibble (also called nybble or nyble) is a four-bit aggregation, in other words, half of an octet. There are sixteen
(2⁴=16) possible values of a nibble, therefore it corresponds to a single hexadecimal digit.

31. Petabits
A petabit (Pb or Pbit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix peta (symbol P) is
defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁵, therefore, 1 petabit = 10¹⁵ bits. At the same time, traditionally
this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁵⁰, so 1 Pbit = 1024 Tbits. The correct prefix for 2⁵⁰, pebibit (Pibit),
introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

44

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

32. Petabytes
A petabyte (Pb or Pbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix peta (symbol
P) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁵, therefore, 1 petabyte = 10¹⁵ bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁵⁰, so 1 Pbyte = 1024 Tbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁵⁰,
pebibyte (PiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

33. Petabytes (10^15 bytes)
A petabyte (Pb or Pbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix peta (symbol
P) is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹⁵, therefore, 1 petabyte = 10¹⁵ bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁵⁰, so 1 Pbyte = 1024 Tbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁵⁰,
pebibyte (PiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

34. Quadruple Words
Quadruple-word is four computer words. In computing, word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A
word can be considered as a fixed-size group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and the processor hardware.
The number of bits in a word (also called word width, word size, or word length) is an important characteristic of specific processor
design or computer architecture, which is often described as n-bit architecture where n is usually equal to 8, 16, 32 or 64.

35. Terabits
A terabit (Tb or Tbit) is a decimal multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage. The prefix tera (symbol T) is
defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹², therefore, 1 terabit = 10¹² bits. At the same time, traditionally
this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁴⁰, so 1 Tbit = 1024 Gbits. The correct prefix for 2⁴⁰, tebibit (Tibit),
introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

36. Terabytes
A terabyte (TB or Tbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix tera (symbol T)
is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹², therefore, 1 terabyte = 10¹² bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁴⁰, so 1 Tbyte = 1024 Gbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁴⁰,
tebibyte (TiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

37. Terabytes (10^12 bytes)
A terabyte (TB or Tbyte) is a decimal multiple of the unit byte for digital information or computer storage. The prefix tera (symbol T)
is defined in the International System of Units (SI) as a multiplier of 10¹², therefore, 1 terabyte = 10¹² bytes. At the same time,
traditionally this metric prefix is used to designate binary multiplier 2⁴⁰, so 1 Tbyte = 1024 Gbytes. The correct prefix for 2⁴⁰,
tebibyte (TiB), introduced by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1999, was not adopted by the computer and
telecommunication industry.

38. Words
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word can be considered as a fixed-size
group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and the processor hardware. The number of bits in a word (also called
word width, word size, or word length) is an important characteristic of specific processor design or computer architecture, which is
often described as n-bit architecture where n is usually equal to 8, 16, 32 or 64.

39. Zips 100
A Zip drive was a medium-capacity removable disk storage system introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks had
capacities of 100 MB, but in later versions their capacity was increased to 250 MB, then to 750 MB.

45

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

40. Zips 250
A Zip drive was a medium-capacity removable disk storage system introduced by Iomega in late 1994. Originally, Zip disks had
capacities of 100 MB, but in later versions their capacity was increased to 250 MB, then to 750 MB.

46

Data Storage | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Density
The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho).
Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry),
density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more properly
called specific weight.
Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging. Osmium and
iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical compounds may
be denser.
To simplify comparisons of density across different systems of units, it is sometimes replaced by the dimensionless quantity "specific
gravity" or "relative density", i.e. the ratio of the density of the material to that of a standard material, usually water. Thus a specific
gravity less than one means that the substance floats in water.
The density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. This variation is typically small for solids and liquids but much
greater for gases. Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density. Increasing
the temperature of a substance (with a few exceptions) decreases its density by increasing its volume. In most materials, heating the
bottom of fluid results in convection of the heat from the bottom to the top, due to the decrease in the density of the heated fluid.
This causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material.
The reciprocal of the density of a substance is occasionally called its specific volume, a term sometimes used in thermodynamics.
Density is an intensive property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density; rather it increases its
mass.

1. API Gravity (Fresh Water 10)
The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to
water. If its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks. API gravity is thus an
inverse measure of the relative density of a petroleum liquid and the density of water, but it is used to compare the relative
densities of petroleum liquids. For example, if one petroleum liquid floats on another and is therefore less dense, it has a greater API
gravity. Although mathematically, API gravity has no units (see the formula below), it is nevertheless referred to as being in
"degrees". API gravity is gradated in degrees on a hydrometer instrument. The API scale was designed so that most values would fall
between 10 and 70 API gravity degrees.

2. Grains/Cubic Foot
A grain per cubic foot (gr/ft³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems. It is equal to 0.00229 kg/m³.

3. Grains/Cubic Inch
A grain per cubic inch (gr/in³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems. It is equal to 3.9543 kg/m³.

4. Grains/Gallon (UK)
A grain per UK gallon (gr/UK gal) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) system. It is equal to 0.014 kg/m³.

5. Grains/Gallon (US)
A grain per US gallon (gr/US gal) is the unit of density in the US customary system. It is equal to 0.017 kg/m³.

6. Grams/Cubic Centimeter
A gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of density kg/m³, which is defined as mass in
kilograms per volume in cubic meters. It is equal to 1000 kg/m³. Gram per cubic centimeter is also the cgs unit of density.

47

Density | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

7. Grams/Cubic Millimeter
A gram per cubic millimeter (g/mm³) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of density kg/m³, which is defined as mass in
kilograms per volume in cubic meters. It is equal to 10⁶ kg/m³.

8. Grams/Liter
A gram per liter (g/L) is the unit of density, which is acceptable for use with SI. It is equal to 1 kg/m³.

9. Kilograms/Cubic Meter
A kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m³ or kg·m⁻³) is the SI derived unit of density. It is defined as mass in kilograms per volume in cubic
meters. Its SI symbol is kg·m⁻³ or kg/m³.

10. Kilograms/Liter
A kilogram per liter (kg/L) is the unit of density, which is acceptable for use with SI. It is equal to 1000 kg/m³.

11. Milligrams/Cubic Centimeter
A milligram per cubic centimeter (mg/cm³) is equal to the SI derived unit of density kg/m³, which is defined as mass in kilograms per
volume in cubic meters. 1 mg/cm³ = 1 kg/m³.

12. Milligrams/Cubic Millimeter
A milligram per cubic millimeter (mg/mm³) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of density kg/m³, which is defined as mass in
kilograms per volume in cubic meters. It is equal to 1000 kg/m³.

13. Milligrams/Liter
A milligram per liter (mg/L) is the unit of density, which is acceptable for use with SI. It is equal to 0.001 kg/m³.

14. Ounces/Cubic Foot
An ounce per cubic foot (oz/ft³) is the unit of density in various systems of units including the British (Imperial) and US customary
systems. Its size can vary from system to system.

15. Ounces/Cubic Inch
An ounce per cubic inch (oz/in³) is the unit of density in various systems of units including the British (Imperial) and US customary
systems. Its size can vary from system to system.

16. Ounces/Gallon (UK)
An ounce per UK gallon (oz/UK gal) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) system. It is equal to 6.24 kg/m³.

17. Ounces/Gallon (US)
An ounce per US gallon (oz/US gal) is the unit of density in the US customary system. It is equal to 7.49 kg/m³.

18. Parts/Million (ppm)
PPM is an abbreviation of parts per million. PPM is a value that represents the part of a whole number in units of 1/1000000. PPM is
dimensionless quantity, a ratio of 2 quantities of the same unit. PPM is a unit of density equals to 0.001 kg/m³.

19. Pounds/Cubic Foot
A pound per cubic foot (lb/ft³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems. It is equal to 16.02 kg/m³.

20. Pounds/Cubic Inch
A pound per cubic inch (lb/in³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) and US customary systems. It is equal to 27679.91
kg/m³.

21. Pounds/Gallon (UK)
A pound per UK gallon (lb/UK gal) is the British (Imperial) system unit of density. It is equal to 99.78 kg/m³.

48

Density | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

22. Pounds/Gallon (US)
A pound per US gallon (lb/US gal) is the US customary system unit of density. It is equal to 119.83 kg/m³.

23. Pounds/Square Inch/Foot
A pound per square inch per foot is a unit of density equals to 2306.66 kg/m³.

24. PSI/Foot
A PSI per foot is a unit of density equals to 2306.66 kg/m³.

25. Slugs/Cubic Foot
A slug per cubic foot (slug/ft³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) system. It is equal to 515.38 kg/m³. One slug is defined a
mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when a force of one pound-force (lb·F) is exerted on it.

26. Slugs/Cubic Inch
A slug per cubic inch (slug/in³) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) system. It is equal to 890,574.6 kg/m³. One slug is
defined a mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when a force of one pound-force (lb•F) is exerted on it.

27. Slugs/Gallon (UK)
A slug per UK gallon (slug/UK gal) is the unit of density in the British (Imperial) system. It is equal to 3,210.2 kg/m³. One slug is
defined a mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when a force of one pound-force (lb·F) is exerted on it.

28. Slugs/Gallon (US)
A slug per US gallon (slug/US gal) is the unit of density in the US customary system. It is equal to 3,855.3 kg/m³. One slug is defined a
mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when a force of one pound-force (lb·F) is exerted on it.

29. Specific Gravity (Fresh Water 1)
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance.
Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference
substance. The reference substance is nearly always water for liquids or air for gases. For Density, it is equal to 1000 kg/m³.

49

Density | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Digital Image
A digital image is a numeric representation (normally binary) of a two-dimensional image. Depending on whether the image
resolution is fixed, it may be of vector or raster type. Without qualifications, the term "digital image" usually refers to raster images
also called bitmap images.

1. Dots/Inch
A dot per inch (DPI) is a measure of resolution in printing or video displaying. It is also called dot density. The unit represents the
number of individual dots that can be placed in a line within the span of 1 inch (2.54 cm).

2. Dots/Meter
A dot per meter (dot/m) is a measure of resolution in printing or video displaying. It is also called dot density. The unit represents
the number of individual dots that can be placed in a line within the span of 1 meter.

3. Dots/Millimeter
A dot per millimeter (dot/mm) is a measure of resolution in printing or video displaying. It is also called dot density. The unit
represents the number of individual dots that can be placed in a line within the span of 1 millimeter.

4. Pixels/Inch
A pixel per inch (PPI) or pixel density is a measurement of the resolution of various video displaying or video capturing devices, such
as displays, image scanners, and digital cameras. The unit represents the number of individual pixels in a computer display or
camera image sensor within the span of 1 inch (2.54 cm).

50

Digital Image | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Distance (or Length)
In geometric measurements, length is the longest dimension of an object. In other contexts "length" is the measured dimension of
an object. For example it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire thickness.
Length may be distinguished from height, which is vertical extent, and width or breadth, which is the distance from side to side,
measuring across the object at right angles to the length. Length is a measure of one dimension, whereas area is a measure of two
dimensions (length squared) and volume is a measure of three dimensions (length cubed). In most systems of measurement, the
unit of length is a fundamental unit, from which other units are defined.

1. Angstroms (Å)
The Ångström (Å) is a unit of length equal to 0.1 nm. Its symbol is the Swedish letter Å. The Ångström is used in the natural sciences
and technology to express very small sizes comparing to that of atoms, and molecules. The Ångström is not formally a part of the
International System of Units (SI) and its use is officially discouraged in SI. The closest SI unit, the nanometer (10⁻⁹ m), is
recommended for use instead of Ångström.

2. Astronomical Units (ua)
An attometer (am) is a decimal fraction of the base SI unit of length, the meter, which is defined as the length of the path travelled
by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

3. Attometers (am)
A centimeter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a meter, which is the SI base unit of length. Centi is
the SI prefix for a factor of 10−2. The centimeter was the base unit of length in the now deprecated centimeter-gram-second (CGS)
system of units.

4. Bohr Radius
Bohr radius (b a.u.) is a part of a system of natural units which is convenient for atomic physics calculations. The Bohr radius is an
atomic unit of length. It is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the proton and electron
in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. The Bohr radius has a value of 5.2917721092(17)·10⁻¹¹ m or approximately 53 pm.

5. Centimeters
A centimeter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a meter, which is the SI base unit of length. Centi is
the SI prefix for a factor of 10−2. The centimeter was the base unit of length in the now deprecated centimeter-gram-second (CGS)
system of units.

6. Cubits (Greek)
A Greek cubit is a traditional unit of length, based on the length of the forearm: from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. It is
equal to 46 cm.

7. Cubits (UK)
A cubit is a traditional unit of length equal to approximately 50 cm and based on the length of the forearm: from the elbow to the
tip of the middle finger. Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world from classical antiquity, into early
modern times.

8. Earth's Distance from Sun
The Earth’s distance from the Sun also called the astronomical unit (AU, au, a.u., or ua) is a unit of length equal to approximately the
mean Earth–Sun distance, which is equal to 149,597,870,700 meters or 92,955,807.273 miles.

51

Distance (or Length) | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

9. Earth's Equatorial Radius
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically-defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth.
Reference ellipsoids are used as a surface to perform computations. The difference between Earth’s equatorial and polar radii is
about 21 km.

10. Earth's Polar Radius
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically-defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth.
Reference ellipsoids are used as a surface to perform computations. The difference between Earth’s equatorial and polar diameters
is about 42 km.

11. Electron Radius
The classical electron radius, also known as the Lorentz radius or the Thomson scattering length, is based on a classical (i.e., nonquantum) relativistic model of the electron. Its value is calculated as 2.81794092X10-15 m.

12. Feet
A foot is a unit of length. Since 1960 the term has usually referred to the international foot, defined as being one third of a yard,
making it 0.3048 meters exactly. It is an integral part of both the imperial and United States customary systems of units. It is
subdivided into 12 inches.

13. Femtometers (fm)
A femtometer (fm) is a decimal fraction of the base SI unit of length, the meter, which is defined as the length of the path travelled
by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. This unit can also be called fermi (fm).

14. Fingers
A finger is any of several units of measurement that are approximately the width of an adult human finger. It is sometimes also
called fingerbreadth or finger’s breadth. It is used for measuring short lengths of fabric and in medicine and related disciplines
(anatomy, radiology, etc.) where the fingerbreadth is often informally used as a unit of measure.

15. Hands
A hand (h) is a non-SI unit of measurement of length, now used only for the measurement of the height of horses in some Englishspeaking countries. In ancient Egypt, it was originally based on the breadth of a human hand. It is today equal to four inches or
10.16 centimeters.

16. Inches
An inch is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. Historically an inch was also used in
a number of other systems of units. Traditional standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but now the
imperial or US customary inch is defined to be exactly 25.4 mm. There are 12 inches in a foot and therefore 36 inches in a yard.

17. Kilometers
The kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand meters (kilo- being the SI prefix for 1000). It is now the
measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable
exceptions are the United States and the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.

18. Kiloparsecs (kpc)
A kiloparsec (kpc) is an decimal multiple of the astronomical unit of length parsec, which is equal to about 3.26 light-years, which is
about 30.9 trillion (3.09×10¹³) kilometers. A parsec is the distance from the Sun to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle
of one arcsecond.

19. Lightyears (ly)
A light-year (also light year or lightyear, ly), is a non-SI unit of length equal to just under 10 trillion kilometers or about 6 trillion miles
or 0.306 parsec. It is defined as the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year.

52

Distance (or Length) | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

20. Links
A link (l., li. or lnk.) is a unit of length or distance in the in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units. Prior to the 20th
century, links were commonly used for in surveying real property. A link is exactly 33⁄50 of a survey foot. Twenty-five links make a
rod. One hundred links make a chain. One thousand links make a furlong. Eight thousand links make a statute mile.

21. Links (US)
A US survey link (l., li. or lnk.) is a unit of length or distance in the US Customary system. Links were commonly used for in surveying
real property. A link is exactly 33⁄50 of a survey foot. Twenty-five links make a rod. One hundred links make a chain. One thousand
links make a furlong. Eight thousand links make a statute mile.

22. Long Reeds
A long reed is a traditional unit of length equal to 6 long cubits or approximately 3.2 m.

23. Megaparsecs (mpc)
A megaparsec (Mpc) is an decimal multiple of the astronomical unit of length parsec, which is equal to about 3.26 light-years, which
is about 30.9 trillion (3.09×10¹³) kilometers. A parsec is the distance from the Sun to an astronomical object which has a parallax
angle of one arcsecond.

24. Meters
The meter is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). Originally intended to be one ten-millionth of
the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole (at sea level), its definition has been periodically refined to reflect growing
knowledge of metrology. Since 1983, it has been defined as "the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time
interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

25. Micrometers
The micrometer is an SI derived unit of length equaling 1×10−6 of a meter; that is, one-millionth of a meter (or one-thousandth of a
millimeter, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch). The micrometer is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared
radiation as well as sizes of cells and bacteria.

26. Microns
A micron (μ) is an obsolete name of a micrometer, which is a decimal fraction of the base SI unit of length, the meter. The term
micron and the symbol µ, representing the micrometer, were officially revoked by the International System of Units (SI) in 1967.
However, in practice, “micron” remains a widely used term, which is preferred to “micrometer” in many English-speaking countries
because it helps to differentiate between the unit of length and the “micrometer”, a device used for precise measurement of small
distances.

27. Miles
A mile is a unit of length most commonly equivalent to 5,280 feet (1,760 yards, or about 1,609 meters). The mile of 5,280 feet is
sometimes called the statute mile or land mile to distinguish it from the nautical mile (about 6,076 feet, or 1,852 meters).

28. Millimeters
The millimeter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a meter, which is the SI base unit of length. It is
equal to 1,000 micrometers and 1,000,000 nanometers. There are 25.4 mm in one inch.

29. Mils
A mil or thousandth of an inch is a derived unit of length equal to 0.001 inch. The unit is used in English-speaking countries in
engineering and manufacturing for specifying the small thicknesses (paper, paint coatings) or tolerances in the automotive and
other industries.

30. Nails
A nail is an obsolete unit of cloth measurement generally equal to a sixteenth of a yard or 2¹⁄₄ inches (5.715 cm). The nail was
apparently named after the practice of hammering brass nails into the counter at shops where cloth was sold.

53

Distance (or Length) | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

31. Nanometers
The nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a meter. It can be written in scientific notation as
1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1 m / 1,000,000,000. One manometer equals ten Angstroms.

32. Nautical Miles (International)
An international nautical mile (mi) is a non-metric unit of length. It is defined as exactly 1,852 meters.

33. Nautical Miles (UK)
A nautical mile (UK) is a unit of length in the British imperial Units. It is also called the Admiralty nautical mile and defined as 6,080
feet or 1,853.184 meters.

34. Parsecs (pc)
A parsec (pc) is an astronomical unit of length, which is equal to about 3.26 light-years, which is about 30.9 trillion (3.09×10¹³)
kilometers. A parsec is the distance from the Sun to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arcsecond.

35. Picometers (pm)
A picometer (pm) is a decimal fraction of the base SI unit of length, the meter, which is defined as the length of the path travelled by
light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

36. Points
>A point (pt) is the smallest unit of measure in typography. It is a subdivision of the larger pica. The contemporary desktop
publishing point (also called the PostScript point) was defined as 72 points to the inch (1 point = 1⁄72 inches = 25.4⁄72 mm = 0.3527
mm). There are 12 points to the pica.

37. Reeds
A reed is a traditional unit of length equal to 6 cubits or 2.7432 m.

38. Spans
A span is the distance measured by a human hand, from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger. In ancient times, a span
was considered to be half a cubit. It is today equal to 9 inches or 0.2286 m.

39. Sun's Radius
The solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy equal to the current radius of the Sun. The solar
radius is approximately 695,500 kilometers (432,450 miles) or about 109 times the radius of the Earth.

40. Twips
A twip (abbreviated from “twentieth of a point”) is a typographical unit of measurement, defined as 1/20 of a typographical point.
One twip is 1/1440 inch or 17.639 µm when derived from the PostScript point at 72 to the inch (used in this converter), and
1/1445.4 inch or 17.573 µm based on the printer’s point at 72.27 to the inch.

41. Yards
A yard is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. The yard is equal to 3 feet or 36
inches. Under an agreement in 1959 between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United
States, the yard (known as the "international yard" in the United States) was legally defined to be exactly 0.9144 meters.

54

Distance (or Length) | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Electric Field
An electric field is generated by electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field describes the
electric force experienced by a motionless electrically charged test particle at any point in space relative to the source(s) of the field.
The concept of an electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday.

1. Abvolts/Centimeter
A abvolt per centimeter (abV/cm) is the CGS unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 abV/cm is achieved if a
voltage of 1 abV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 cm apart. 1 abV/cm = 1 μV/m.

2. Kilovolts/Centimeter
A kilovolt per centimeter (kV/cm) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of the strength of the electric field volt per meter. The
strength of 1 kV/cm is achieved if a voltage of 1 kV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 cm apart. 1 kV/cm =
100,000 V/m

3. Microvolts/Meter
A microvolt per meter (µV/m) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of the strength of the electric field volt per meter. The
strength of 1 µV/m is achieved if a voltage of 1 µV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 m apart. 1 µV/m =
0.000001 V/m

4. Millivolts/Meter
A millivolt per meter (mV/m) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of the strength of the electric field volt per meter. The
strength of 1 mV/m is achieved if a voltage of 1 mV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 m apart. 1 mV/m =
0.001 V/m

5. Statvolts/Centimeter
A statvolt per centimeter (statV/cm) is the CGS unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 statV/cm is achieved if a
voltage of 1 statV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 cm apart. 1 statV/cm = 29979.2 V/m = 1 G. 1 statV =
299.792 V.

6. Statvolts/Inch
A statvolt per inch (statV/in) is the unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 statV/in is achieved if a voltage of 1
statV is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 inch apart. 1 statV/in = 11802.8 V/m. 1 statV = 299.792 V.

7. Volts/Centimeter
A volt per centimeter (V/cm) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 V/cm is
achieved if a voltage of 1 V is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 cm apart. 1 V/cm = 100 V/m

8. Volts/Inch
A volt per inch (V/in) is the non-SI unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 V/in is achieved if a voltage of 1 V is
applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 inch apart. 1 V/in = 39.37 V/m

9. Volts/Meter
A volt per meter (V/m) is the SI derived unit of the strength of the electric field. The strength of 1 V/m is achieved if a voltage of 1 V
is applied between two infinite parallel planes spaced 1 m apart. When reduced to base SI units, 1 V/m is the equivalent of one
meter per kilogram per second cubed per ampere (m · kg · s⁻³ · A⁻¹).

55

Electric Field | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Electric Potential
Voltage, electrical potential difference, electric tension or electric pressure (denoted ∆V and measured in units of electric potential:
volts, or joules per coulomb) is the electric potential difference between two points, or the difference in electric potential energy of
a unit charge transported between two points. Voltage is equal to the work done per unit charge against a static electric field to
move the charge between two points. A voltage may represent either a source of energy (electromotive force), or lost, used, or
stored energy (potential drop). A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a
system; usually a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points. Voltage can be caused
by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field, by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these
three.

1. Abvolts
An abvolt (abV) is the unit of electric potential (voltage), electric potential difference, and electromotive force in the cgs
(centimeter-gram-second) electromagnetic system of units. 1 abV is equal to 10⁻⁸ volts. A potential difference of one abV will drive a
current of one abampere through a resistance of one abohm. One erg of energy is needed to move one abcoulomb of charge
between the two points having the potential difference of one abvolt.

2. EMU Of Electric Potential
An electromagnetic unit (EMU) of electric potential is another name for the abvolt (abV) — the unit of electric potential (voltage),
electric potential difference, and electromotive force in the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) electromagnetic system of units. 1 EMU
of electric potential is equal to 10⁻⁸ volts. A potential difference of one abV will drive a current of one abampere through a
resistance of one abohm. One erg of energy is needed to move one abcoulomb of charge between the two points having the
potential difference of one abvolt.

3. ESU Of Electric Potential
An electrostatic unit (ESU) of electric potential is another name for the statvolt — the unit of electric potential (voltage), electric
potential difference, and electromotive force in the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) electrostatic system of units. The conversion to
the SI system is 1 statvolt = 299.79 volts. A potential difference of one statV will drive a current of one statampere through a
resistance of one statohm. The statvolt is a large unit, therefore electrical engineers and electricians prefer using the SI unit volt
instead.

4. Kilovolts
A kilovolt (kV) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit for electromotive force, electric potential (voltage), and electric potential
difference. 1 kV = 1000 Volt.

5. Microvolts
A microvolt (µV) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit for electromotive force, electric potential (voltage), and electric potential
difference. 1 µV = 0.000001 Volt.

6. Millivolts
A millivolt (mV) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit for electromotive force, electric potential (voltage), and electric potential
difference. 1 µV = 0.001 Volt.

7. Statvolts
A statvolt is the unit of electric potential (voltage), electric potential difference, and electromotive force in the cgs (centimetergram-second) electrostatic system of units. 1 statvolt = 299.79 volts. A potential difference of one statV will drive a current of one
statampere through a resistance of one statohm. The statvolt is a large unit, therefore electrical engineers and electricians prefer
using the SI unit volt instead.

56

Electric Potential | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

8. Volts
A volt (V) is the SI derived unit for electromotive force, electric potential (voltage), and electric potential difference. By definition,
one volt is the difference in electric potential across a wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. It
is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced one meter apart that create an electric field of
one newton per coulomb.

9. Watt/Ampere
A watt per ampere (W/A) is equal to volt (V), which is the SI derived unit for electromotive force, electric potential (voltage), and
electric potential difference. By definition, one volt is the difference in electric potential across a wire when an electric current of
one ampere dissipates one watt of power. It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1
meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb.

57

Electric Potential | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Energy
In physics, energy is a conserved extensive property of a physical system, which cannot be observed directly but can be calculated
from its state. Energy is of central importance in physics. It is impossible to give a comprehensive definition of energy because of the
many forms it may take, but the most common definition is that it is the capacity of a system to perform work. The definition of
work in physics is the movement of a force through a distance, and energy is measured in the same units as work. The SI unit of
energy is the joule (J) (equivalent to a newton-meter or a watt-second); the CGS unit is the erg, and the Imperial unit is the foot
pound. Other energy units such as the electron volt, calorie, BTU, and kilowatt-hour are used in specific areas of science and
commerce.
Energy is necessary for things to change. All living things require available energy to stay alive; humans get such energy from food,
along with the oxygen needed to metabolize the food. Human civilization requires a continual supply of energy to function; energy
resources such as fossil fuels are a vital topic in economics and politics. Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant
energy Earth receives from the sun, and are delicately sensitive to changes in the amount received.

1. BTU (IT)
The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a traditional unit of energy equal to about 1055 joules. It is the amount of energy needed to
cool or heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. In scientific contexts the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI unit of
energy, the joule. The unit is most often used as a measure of power (as BTU/h) in the power, steam generation, heating, and air
conditioning industries, and also as a measure of agricultural energy production (BTU/kg). The most widespread BTU, uses the
International [Steam] Table (IT) calorie, which was defined by the Fifth International Conference on the Properties of Steam
(London, July 1956) to be exactly 4.1868 J.

2. BTU (Mean)
The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a traditional unit of energy equal to about 1055 joules. It is the amount of energy needed to
cool or heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. In scientific contexts the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI unit of
energy, the joule. The unit is most often used as a measure of power (as BTU/h) in the power, steam generation, heating, and air
conditioning industries, and also as a measure of agricultural energy production (BTU/kg). BTU_Mean uses a calorie averaged over
water temperatures 0 to 100 °C (32 to 212 °F).

3. BTU (ThermoChemical)
The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a traditional unit of energy equal to about 1055 joules. It is the amount of energy needed to
cool or heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. In scientific contexts the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI unit of
energy, the joule. The unit is most often used as a measure of power (as BTU/h) in the power, steam generation, heating, and air
conditioning industries, and also as a measure of agricultural energy production (BTU/kg). BTU_Mean uses the "thermochemical
calorie" of exactly 4.184 J.

4. Calories (IT)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's
calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. For calories IT, 1.163 mW.h = 4.1868 J exactly. This definition was
adopted by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam (London, July 1956).

5. Calories (Mean)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's

58

Energy | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. For Calories Mean, 1⁄100 of the amount of energy required to
warm one gram of air-free water from 0 °C to 100 °C at standard atmospheric pressure.

6. Calories (ThermoChemical)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's
calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. ThermoChemical Calories is the amount of energy equal to
exactly 4.184 joules.

7. Electron Volts
In physics, the electron volt is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6 × 10−19 joules. By definition, it is the amount of energy
gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt.

8. Ergs
An erg is a unit of energy and mechanical work equal to 10−7 joules. It originated in the centimeter–gram–second (CGS) system of
units. An erg is the amount of work done by a force of one dyne exerted for a distance of one centimeter. In the CGS base units, it is
equal to one gram centimeter-squared per second-squared (g·cm2/s2). It is thus equal to 10−7 joules or 100 nanojoules in SI units.

9. Foot Pounds
The foot-pound (symbol: ft·lb) is a unit of work or energy in the Engineering and Gravitational Systems in United States customary
and imperial units of measure. It is the energy transferred on applying a force of one pound-force (lbf) through a displacement of
one foot. The corresponding SI unit is the joule.

10. Gigaelectron Volts
In physics, the electron volt is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6 × 10 −19 joules. By definition, it is the amount of energy
gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt.

11. Gigajoules
The gigajoule (GJ) is equal to one billion (109) joules. Six gigajoules is about the amount of potential chemical energy in a barrel of
oil, when combusted.

12. Horsepower Hours
A Horsepower-hour (hph) is an outdated unit of energy, not used in the SI system of units. The unit represents an amount of work a
horse is supposed capable of delivering during an hour (a horsepower integrated over a time interval of an hour). The horsepowerhour is still used in the railroad industry when sharing motive power.

13. Horsepower Minutes
A Horsepower-minute (hpm) is an outdated unit of energy, not used in the SI system of units. The unit represents an amount of
work a horse is supposed capable of delivering during a minute (a horsepower integrated over a time interval of a minute).

14. Horsepower Seconds
A Horsepower-second (hps) is an outdated unit of energy, not used in the SI system of units. The unit represents an amount of work
a horse is supposed capable of delivering during a second (a horsepower integrated over a time interval of a second).

15. Joules
The joule (symbol J) is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the
energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one meter or in passing an electric current
of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule.

59

Energy | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

16. Kilocalories (IT)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's
calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. For calories IT, 1.163 mW.h = 4.1868 J exactly. This definition was
adopted by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam (London, July 1956).

17. Kilocalories (Mean)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's
calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. For Calories Mean, 1⁄100 of the amount of energy required to
warm one gram of air-free water from 0 °C to 100 °C at standard atmospheric pressure.

18. Kilocalories (ThermoChemical)
The name calorie is used for two units of energy. The small calorie or gram calorie is the approximate amount of energy needed to
raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's
calorie or food calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. The
large calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or one kilocalorie. ThermoChemical Calories is the amount of energy equal to
exactly 4.184 joules.

19. Kiloelectron Volts
In physics, the electron volt is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6 × 10−19 joules. By definition, it is the amount of energy
gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt.

20. Kilogram Meters
A kilogram-force meter (kgf·m) is the unit of energy and mechanical work, which is equal to 9.81 joules in SI units. It is the amount of
work done by a force of one kilogram-force when moving an object through a distance of one meter.

21. Kilojoules
A kilojoule (kJ) is equal to one thousand (103) joules. Nutritional food labels in certain countries express energy in standard kilojoules
(kJ).

22. Kilowatt Days
A kilowatt day or kilowatt-day is a unit of energy equal to 24,000 watt hours or 86.4 megajoules. One kW day is equivalent to one
kilowatt of constant power expended for one day of time.

23. Kilowatt Hours
A kilowatt hour (also kilowatt-hour, kW·h or kWh) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 watt hours or 3600 kilojoules. One kWh is
equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one hour of time. This unit is often used as a billing unit for energy
delivered to consumers by power generation companies.

24. Kilowatt Minutes
A kilowatt minute, or kilowatt-minute, is a unit of energy equal to 16.67 watt hours or 60,000 jouls. One kW minute is equivalent to
one kilowatt of constant power expended for one minute of time.

25. Kilowatt Seconds
A kilowatt second (also kilowatt-second, kW·s or kWs) is a unit of energy approximately equal to 0.28 watt hour or 1000 joules. One
kWs is equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one second of time.

60

Energy | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

26. Kilowatt Years (360 Days)
A kilowatt year (360 Days) is a unit of energy equal to 8,640,000 watt hours or 31,104 megajoules. One kW Year (360 Days) is
equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one year (360 days) of time.

27. Kilowatt Years (365 Days)
A kilowatt year (365 Days) is a unit of energy equal to 8,760,000 watt hours or 31,536 megajoules. One kW Year (365 Days) is
equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one year (365 days) of time.

28. Kilowatt Years (Gregorian)
A kilowatt year (Gregorian) is a unit of energy equal to 8,765,820 watt hours or 31,556.952 megajoules. One kW Year (Gregorian) is
equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one year (Gregorian) of time.

29. Kilowatt Years (Julian)
A kilowatt year (Julian) is a unit of energy equal to 8,766,000 watt hours or 31,557.6 megajoules. One kW Year (Julian) is equivalent
to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one year (Julian) of time.

30. Kilowatt Years (Tropical)
A kilowatt year (Tropical) is a unit of energy equal to 8,765,812.584 watt hours or 31,556.9253024 megajoules. One kW Year
(Tropical) is equivalent to one kilowatt of constant power expended for one year (Tropical) of time.

31. Megaelectron Volts
In physics, the electron volt is a unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6 × 10 −19 joules. By definition, it is the amount of energy
gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt.

32. Megajoules
The megajoule (MJ) is equal to one million (10 6) joules, or approximately the kinetic energy of a one-ton vehicle moving at 160 km/h
(100 mph).

33. Millijoules
The millijoule (mJ) is equal to one thousandth of a joule.

34. Newton Meters
The newton meter (N·m) is a unit of energy equivalent to 1 joule. It is equal to the energy expended or work done in applying a force
of one newton through a distance of one meter. One newton meter of energy is required to lift a small (102 g) tomato one meter
straight up.

35. Therms (IT)
Natural Gas is usually measured by volume in the United States and is stated in cubic feet. A cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas
needed to fill a volume of one cubic foot under set conditions of pressure and temperature. To measure larger amounts of natural
gas, "ccf" is used to denote 100 cubic feet, and "mcf" is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet. To provide greater accuracy in comparing
fuels, energy content is measured in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's)." A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one
pound of water (approximately a pint), one degree Fahrenheit at or close to its point of maximum density. One British therm
(symbol thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). It is approximately the energy equivalent
of burning 100 cubic feet (often referred to as 1 CCF) of natural gas.

36. Therms (Mean)
Natural Gas is usually measured by volume in the United States and is stated in cubic feet. A cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas
needed to fill a volume of one cubic foot under set conditions of pressure and temperature. To measure larger amounts of natural
gas, "ccf" is used to denote 100 cubic feet, and "mcf" is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet. To provide greater accuracy in comparing
fuels, energy content is measured in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's)." A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one
pound of water (approximately a pint), one degree Fahrenheit at or close to its point of maximum density. One British therm

61

Energy | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

(symbol thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). It is approximately the energy equivalent
of burning 100 cubic feet (often referred to as 1 CCF) of natural gas.

37. Therms (ThermoChemical)
Natural Gas is usually measured by volume in the United States and is stated in cubic feet. A cubic foot of gas is the amount of gas
needed to fill a volume of one cubic foot under set conditions of pressure and temperature. To measure larger amounts of natural
gas, "ccf" is used to denote 100 cubic feet, and "mcf" is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet. To provide greater accuracy in comparing
fuels, energy content is measured in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's)." A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one
pound of water (approximately a pint), one degree Fahrenheit at or close to its point of maximum density. One British therm
(symbol thm) is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). It is approximately the energy equivalent
of burning 100 cubic feet (often referred to as 1 CCF) of natural gas.

38. Watt Days
The watt day is a unit of energy equal to 86.4 kilojoules. One W·day is equivalent to one watt of constant power expended for one
day of time.

39. Watt Hours
The watt hour (also watt-hour, W·h or Wh) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 kilojoules. One W·h is equivalent to one watt of constant
power expended for one hour of time.

40. Watt Minutes
The watt minute is a unit of energy equal to 60 joules. One W·minute is equivalent to one watt of constant power expended for one
minute of time.

41. Wat tSeconds
The watt second (also watt-second, W·s) is a unit of energy equal to 1 joule. One W·s is equivalent to one watt (1 W) of constant
power expended for one second of time.

42. Watt Years (360 Days)
The watt year (360 days) is a unit of energy equal to 31,104 kilojoules. One W·year (360 days) is equivalent to one watt of constant
power expended for one year (360 days) of time.

43. Watt Years (365 Days)
The watt year (365 days) is a unit of energy equal to 31,536 kilojoules. One W·year (365 days) is equivalent to one watt of constant
power expended for one year (365 days) of time.

44. Watt Years (Gregorian)
The watt year (Gregorian) is a unit of energy equal to 31,556.952 kilojoules. One W·year (Gregorian) is equivalent to one watt of
constant power expended for one year (Gregorian) of time.

45. Watt Years (Julian)
The watt year (Julian) is a unit of energy equal to 31,557.6 kilojoules. One W·year (Julian) is equivalent to one watt of constant
power expended for one year (Julian) of time.

46. Watt Years (Tropical)
The watt year (Tropical) is a unit of energy equal to 31,556.93 kilojoules. One W·year (Tropical) is equivalent to one watt of constant
power expended for one year (Tropical) of time.

62

Energy | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Flow Mass or Mass Flow Rate
In physics and engineering, mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. Its unit
is kilogram per second in SI units, and slug per second or pound per second in US customary units. Sometimes, mass flow rate is
termed mass flux or mass current, see for example Fluid Mechanics, Schaum's et al.
The overdot on the m is Newton's notation for a time derivative. Since mass is a scalar quantity, the mass flow rate (the time
derivative of mass) is also a scalar quantity. The change in mass is the amount that flows after crossing the boundary for some time
duration, not simply the initial amount of mass at the boundary minus the final amount at the boundary, since the change in mass
flowing through the area would be zero for steady flow.

1. Grams/Hour
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Grams per Hour is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one gram in an hour.

2. Grams/Minute
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Grams per Minute is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one gram in a minute.

3. Grams/Second
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Grams per Second is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one gram in a second.

4. Kilograms/Hour
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Kilograms per Hour is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one kilogram in an hour.

5. Kilograms/Minute
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Kilograms per Minute is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one kilogram in a minute.

6. Kilograms/Second
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Kilograms per Second is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one kilogram in a second.

7. Ounces/Hour
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Ounce per Hour is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one ounce in an hour.

8. Ounces/Minute
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Ounce per Minute is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one ounce in a minute.

9. Ounces/Second
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Ounce per Second is a
mass unit to calculate the flow of one ounce in a second.

63

Flow Mass or Mass Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

10. Pounds/Hour
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Pound per Hour is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one pound in an hour.

11. Pounds/Minute
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Pound per Minute is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one pound in a minute.

12. Pounds/Second
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Pound per Second is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one pound in a second.

13. Slugs/Hour
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Slug per Hour is a mass unit
to calculate the flow of one slug in an hour.

14. Slugs/Minute
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Slug per Minute is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one slug in a minute.

15. Slugs/Second
The mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. The Slug per Second is a mass
unit to calculate the flow of one slug in a second.

64

Flow Mass or Mass Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate,
rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. The SI unit is m 3·s−1
(cubic meters per second). In US Customary Units and British Imperial Units, volumetric flow rate is often expressed as ft 3/s (cubic
feet per second). It is usually represented by the symbol Q.
Volumetric flow rate should not be confused with volumetric flux, as defined by Darcy's law and represented by the symbol q, with
units of m3/(m2·s), that is, m·s−1. The integration of a flux over an area gives the volumetric flow rate.

1. Acre Feet/Day
In fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is
the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. The Acre Feet per day is a volume unit to calculate the fluid
flow of one acre by one foot in a day.

2. Acre Inches/Day
In fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is
the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. The Acre inch per day is a volume unit to calculate the fluid
flow of one acre by one inch in a day.

3. Barrels (Dry)/Day
Barrels are used as a unit of measurement for dry goods, such as flour or produce. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry
goods, excepting cranberries, contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L. A barrels-dry per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of
one barrel-dry exchanged or moving each day.

4. Barrels (Dry)/Hour
Barrels are used as a unit of measurement for dry goods, such as flour or produce. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry
goods, excepting cranberries, contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L. A barrels-dry per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of
one barrel-dry exchanged or moving each hour.

5. Barrels (Dry)/Minute
Barrels are used as a unit of measurement for dry goods, such as flour or produce. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry
goods, excepting cranberries, contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L. A barrels-dry per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate
of one barrel-dry exchanged or moving each minute.

6. Barrels (Dry)/Second
Barrels are used as a unit of measurement for dry goods, such as flour or produce. In modern times, produce barrels for all dry
goods, excepting cranberries, contain 7,056 cubic inches, about 115.627 L. A barrels-dry per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate
of one barrel-dry exchanged or moving each second.

7. Barrels (Liquid)/Day
The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L). A barrel of liquid per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of
liquid exchanged or moving each day.

8. Barrels (Liquid)/Hour
The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L). A barrel of liquid per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of
liquid exchanged or moving each hour.

65

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

9. Barrels (Liquid)/Minute
The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L). A barrel of liquid per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel
of liquid exchanged or moving each minute.

10. Barrels (Liquid)/Second
The modern US beer barrel is 31 US gallons (117.34777 L). A barrel of liquid per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel
of liquid exchanged or moving each second.

11. Barrels (Oil)/Day
The standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (158.9873 L). A barrel of oil per day is
a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of oil exchanged or moving each day.

12. Barrels (Oil)/Hour
The standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (158.9873 L). A barrel of oil per hour
is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of oil exchanged or moving each hour.

13. Barrels (Oil)/Minute
The standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (158.9873 L). A barrel of oil per
minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of oil exchanged or moving each minute.

14. Barrels (Oil)/Second
The standard barrel of crude oil or other petroleum product (abbreviated bbl) is 42 US gallons (158.9873 L). A barrel of oil per
second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one barrel of oil exchanged or moving each second.

15. Centiliters/Hour
A centiliter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one centiliter exchanged or moving each hour.

16. Centiliters/Minute
A centiliter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one centiliter exchanged or moving each minute.

17. Centiliters/Second
A centiliter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one centiliter exchanged or moving each second.

18. Cubic Centimeters/Hour
A cubic centimeter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one centimeter in length
exchanged or moving each hour.

19. Cubic Centimeters/Minute
A cubic centimeter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one centimeter in length
exchanged or moving each minute.

20. Cubic Centimeters/Second
A cubic centimeter per second is a SI unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one centimeter in length
exchanged or moving each second.

21. Cubic Feet/Day
A cubic feet per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one foot in length exchanged or moving
each day.

22. Cubic Feet/Hour
A cubic feet per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one foot in length exchanged or moving
each hour.

66

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

23. Cubic Feet/Minute
A cubic feet per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one foot in length exchanged or moving
each minute.

24. Cubic Feet/Second
A cubic feet per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one foot in length exchanged or moving
each second.

25. Cubic Inches/Day
A cubic inch per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one inch in length exchanged or moving
each day.

26. Cubic Inches/Hour
A cubic inch per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one inch in length exchanged or moving
each hour.

27. Cubic Inches/Minute
A cubic inch per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one inch in length exchanged or moving
each minute.

28. Cubic Inches/Second
A cubic inch per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one inch in length exchanged or moving
each second.

29. Cubic Meters/Day
A cubic meter per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a stere or cube with sides of one meter (≈ 39.37 in) in length
exchanged or moving each day.

30. Cubic Meters/Hour
A cubic meter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a stere or cube with sides of one meter (≈ 39.37 in) in length
exchanged or moving each hour.

31. Cubic Meters/Minute
A cubic meter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a stere or cube with sides of one meter (≈ 39.37 in) in
length exchanged or moving each minute.

32. Cubic Meters/Second
A cubic meter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a stere or cube with sides of one meter (≈ 39.37 in) in
length exchanged or moving each second. It is popularly used for water flow, especially in rivers and streams, and fractions for HVAC
values measuring air flow.

33. Cubic Millimeters/Hour
A cubic millimeter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one millimeter in length exchanged
or moving each hour.

34. Cubic Millimeters/Minute
A cubic millimeter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one millimeter in length
exchanged or moving each minute.

35. Cubic Millimeters/Second
A cubic millimeter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one millimeter in length
exchanged or moving each second.

67

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

36. Cubic Yards/Day
A cubic yard per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one yard in length exchanged or moving
each day.

37. Cubic Yards/Hour
A cubic yard per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one yard in length exchanged or moving
each hour.

38. Cubic Yards/Minute
A cubic yard per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one yard in length exchanged or
moving each minute.

39. Cubic Yards/Second
A cubic yard per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate equal to that of a cube with sides of one yard in length exchanged or
moving each second.

40. Gallons (UKDry)/Day
A British gallon per day (gal (UK)⋅d⁻¹, gal (UK)/d) is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British gallon of fluid
passing through a given surface each 24 hours.

41. Gallons (UKDry)/Hour
A British gallon per hour (gal (UK)⋅h⁻¹, gal (UK)/h) is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British gallon of fluid
passing through a given surface each hour.

42. Gallons (UKDry)/Minute
A British gallon per minute (gal (UK)⋅min⁻¹, gal (UK)/min) is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British gallon
of fluid passing through a given surface each minute.

43. Gallons (UKDry)/Second
A British gallon per minute (gal (UK)⋅s⁻¹, gal (UK)/s) is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British gallon of fluid
passing through a given surface each second.

44. Gallons (UK)/Day
The imperial (UK) gallon, defined as exactly 4.54609 liters, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was originally based on the
volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F (17 °C). A UK gallon per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one UK gallon exchanged or
moving each day.

45. Gallons (UK)/Hour
The imperial (UK) gallon, defined as exactly 4.54609 liters, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was originally based on the
volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F (17 °C). A UK gallon per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one UK gallon exchanged or
moving each hour.

46. Gallons(UK)/Minute
The imperial (UK) gallon, defined as exactly 4.54609 liters, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was originally based on the
volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F (17 °C). A UK gallon per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one UK gallon exchanged
or moving each minute.

47. Gallons (UK)/Second
The imperial (UK) gallon, defined as exactly 4.54609 liters, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was originally based on the
volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F (17 °C). A UK gallon per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one UK gallon exchanged
or moving each second.

68

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

48. Gallons (USDry)/Day
The US dry gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches
or 4.40488377086 L. A US dry gallon per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry gallon exchanged or moving each day.

49. Gallons (USDry)/Hour
The US dry gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches
or 4.40488377086 L. A US dry gallon per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry gallon exchanged or moving each hour.

50. Gallons (USDry)/Minute
The US dry gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches
or 4.40488377086 L. A US dry gallon per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry gallon exchanged or moving each
minute.

51. Gallons (USDry)/Second
The US dry gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches
or 4.40488377086 L. A US dry gallon per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry gallon exchanged or moving each
second.

52. Gallons (US)/Day
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. A US gallon per day is a unit of volumetric
flow rate of one US gallon of liquid exchanged or moving each day.

53. Gallons (US)/Hour
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. A US gallon per hour is a unit of volumetric
flow rate of one US gallon of liquid exchanged or moving each hour.

54. Gallons (US)/Minute
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. A US gallon per minute is a unit of
volumetric flow rate of one US gallon of liquid exchanged or moving each minute.

55. Gallons (US)/Second
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. A US gallon per second is a unit of
volumetric flow rate of one US gallon of liquid exchanged or moving each second.

56. Kiloliters/Day
A kiloliter per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one kiloliter exchanged or moving each day.

57. Kiloliters/Hour
A kiloliter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one kiloliter exchanged or moving each hour.

58. Kiloliters/Minute
A kiloliter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one kiloliter exchanged or moving each minute.

59. Kiloliters/Second
A kiloliter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one kiloliter exchanged or moving each second.

60. Liters/Day
A liter per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one liter exchanged or moving each day.

61. Liters/Hour
A liter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one liter exchanged or moving each hour.

69

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

62. Liters/Minute
A liter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one liter exchanged or moving each minute.

63. Liters/Second
A liter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one liter exchanged or moving each second.

64. MegaGallons (UK)/Day
The imperial (UK) gallon, defined as exactly 4.54609 liters, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was originally based on the
volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F (17 °C). A UK megagallon per day is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one UK megagallon
exchanged or moving each day.

65. MegaGallons (US)/Day
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. A US megagallon per day is a unit of
volumetric flow rate of one US megagallon of liquid exchanged or moving each day.

66. Milliliters/Hour
A milliliter per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one milliliter exchanged or moving each hour.

67. Milliliters/Minute
A milliliter per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one milliliter exchanged or moving each minute.

68. Milliliters/Second
A milliliter per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one milliliter exchanged or moving each second.

69. Ounces (UK)/Hour
An imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon. A UK ounce per hour is a unit of volumetric flow
rate of one UK ounce exchanged or moving each hour.

70. Ounces (UK)/Minute
An imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon. A UK ounce per minute is a unit of volumetric flow
rate of one UK ounce exchanged or moving each minute.

71. Ounces (UK)/Second
An imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon. A UK ounce per second is a unit of volumetric flow
rate of one UK ounce exchanged or moving each second.

72. Ounces (US)/Hour
A US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A US ounce per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US ounce
exchanged or moving each hour.

73. Ounces (US)/Minute
A US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A US ounce per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US ounce
exchanged or moving each minute.

74. Ounces (US)/Second
A US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A US ounce per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US ounce
exchanged or moving each second.

75. Quarts (UK Dry)/Hour
A British quart per hour is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British quart of fluid passing through a given
surface each hour.

70

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

76. Quarts (UK Dry)/Minute
A British quart per minute is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British quart of fluid passing through a given
surface each minute.

77. Quarts (UK Dry)/Second
A British quart per second is a British Imperial unit of volumetric flow rate equal to one British quart of fluid passing through a given
surface each second.

78. Quarts (UK)/Hour
A gallon is equal to four quarts, eight pints, sixteen cups or thirty-two gills. The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces
whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces. Thus an imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial
gallon whilst a US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A UK quart per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one
UK quart exchanged or moving each hour.

79. Quarts (UK)/Minute
A gallon is equal to four quarts, eight pints, sixteen cups or thirty-two gills. The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces
whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces. Thus an imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial
gallon whilst a US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A UK quart per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of
one UK quart exchanged or moving each minute.

80. Quarts (UK)/Second
A gallon is equal to four quarts, eight pints, sixteen cups or thirty-two gills. The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces
whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces. Thus an imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an imperial
gallon whilst a US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon. A UK quart per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of
one UK quart exchanged or moving each second.

81. Quarts (US Dry)/Hour
This gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches or
4.40488377086 L. The US dry gallon is less commonly used, and is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart
to the peck. A US dry quart per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry quart exchanged or moving each hour.

82. Quarts (US Dry)/Minute
This gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches or
4.40488377086 L. The US dry gallon is less commonly used, and is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart
to the peck. A US dry quart per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry quart exchanged or moving each minute.

83. Quarts (US Dry)/Second
This gallon is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, thus it is equal to exactly 268.8025 cubic inches or
4.40488377086 L. The US dry gallon is less commonly used, and is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart
to the peck. A US dry quart per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US dry quart exchanged or moving each second.

84. Quarts (US)/Hour
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints
in a quart and sixteen fluid ounces in a pint. A US quart per hour is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US quart exchanged or
moving each hour.

85. Quarts (US)/Minute
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints
in a quart and sixteen fluid ounces in a pint. A US quart per minute is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US quart exchanged or
moving each minute.

71

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

86. Quarts (US)/Second
The US gallon, which is equal to 3.785411784 liters, is legally defined as 231 cubic inches. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints
in a quart and sixteen fluid ounces in a pint. A US quart per second is a unit of volumetric flow rate of one US quart exchanged or
moving each second.

72

Flow Volume or Volume Flow Rate | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Force
In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or
geometrical construction. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin
moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or a flexible object to deform, or both. Force can also be described by intuitive
concepts such as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit
of newtons and represented by the symbol F.
The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum
changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to
the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Related concepts to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag, which decreases the velocity of an object;
and torque which produces changes in rotational speed of an object. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the
adjacent parts; the distribution of such forces through the body is the so-called mechanical stress. Pressure is a simple type of stress.
Stress usually causes deformation of solid materials, or flow in fluids.

1. Atomic Units Force
Atomic units (au or a.u.) form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations. There are two
different kinds of atomic units, Hartree atomic units and Rydberg atomic units, which differ in the choice of the unit of mass and
charge.

2. Crinals
A Crinal is a unit of force measurement equals to 0.1 Newton.

3. Dynes
A dyne (dyn) is a unit of force specified in the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system of units. Equivalently, the dyne is defined as the
force required to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of one centimeter per second squared. One dyne is equal to 10
micronewtons.

4. Funals
The sthène (symbol sn), meaning "force", is an obsolete unit of force or thrust in the metre–tonne–second system of units (mts)
introduced in France in 1919. When proposed by the British Association in 1876, it was called the funal, but the name was changed
by 1914. The mts system was soon abandoned in favour of the mks system and has now been superseded by the System
International (SI).

5. Giganewtons
A giganewton (GN) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

6. Grams Force
A gram-force (gf) , is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the force exerted by one gram of mass in a standard
gravitational field. Therefore, one gram-force is by definition equal to 9.80665 mN. A gram-force is a convenient unit because its
value is equal to the weight of an object with a mass of 1 g and it is easy to imagine what is, e.g., a 100 gf force.

73

Force | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

7. Joules/Meter
A joule per meter (J/m) is a metric unit of force. In mechanics, a joule is defined as the work done by a force of one newton acting to
move an object through a distance of one meter in the direction in which the force is applied (1 J = 1 N·m). Therefore, joule per
meter is equal to newton.

8. Kilograms Force
A kilogram-force (kgf), also called kilopond (kp), is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the force exerted by one kilogram
of mass in a standard gravitational field. Therefore, one kilogram-force is by definition equal to 9.80665 N. A kilogram-force is a
convenient unit because its value is equal to the weight of an object with a mass of 1 kg and it is easy to imagine what is, e.g., a 10
kgf force.

9. Kilonewtons
A kilonewton (kN) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

10. Kilopounds Force
A kilopound-force, also called kip, kip-force (kip, klb, kipf) is a non-SI non-metric unit of force. It is equal to 1,000 pounds-force and
used primarily by American architects and engineers to measure engineering loads. 1 kip = 4448.22 newtons (N) = 4.44822
kilonewtons (kN). The name kip comes from combining two words: “kilo” and “pound”

11. Kips Force
A kip or kip-force, or kilopound (kip, klb, kipf) is a non-SI non-metric unit of force. It is equal to 1,000 pounds-force and used
primarily by American architects and engineers to measure engineering loads. 1 kip = 4448.22 newtons (N) = 4.44822 kilonewtons
(kN). The name kip comes from combining two words: “kilo” and “pound”. It is also called kilopound-force.

12. Meganewtons
A meganewton (MN) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

13. Millinewtons
A millinewton (mN) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

14. Micronewtons
A micronewton (μN) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

15. Nanonewtons
A nanonewton (nN) is a decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of force newton. According to Newton’s second law of motion, one
newton is equal to the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

16. Newtons
A newton (N) is the SI derived unit of force. According to Newton’s second law of motion, it is equal to the amount of force required
to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared. Therefore, 1 N = 1 kg·m/s².

74

Force | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

17. Ounces Force
An ounce-force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.
It is equal to the force exerted by one ounce of mass in a standard gravitational field. 1 ounce-force = 1/16 lbf ≈ 0.27801 N.

18. Pounds Force
A pound-force (lb, lbf) is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational
units. It is equal to the force exerted by one pound of mass in a standard gravitational field. 1 pound-force ≈ 4.44822 N.

19. Tonnes Force
A long ton-force (long tf), is a gravitational US Customary and British Imperial unit of force. It is equal to the force exerted by one
short ton of mass in a standard gravitational field. One long ton-force is approximately equal to 9.964 kN.

20. Tons Force
A metric ton-force (tf), is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the force exerted by one metric ton of mass in a standard
gravitational field. One metric ton-force is approximately equal to 9.80665 kN.

75

Force | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Fuel Consumption or Fuel Efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained
in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application fuel
efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber
process.
In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, is given as a ratio of distance travelled per
unit of fuel consumed. Fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon (mpg) in the USA and usually also in the UK—there is
sometimes confusion as the imperial gallon is 20% larger than the US gallon so that mpg values are not directly comparable. In
countries using the metric system fuel economy is stated in kilometers per liter (km/L). Fuel consumption is a more accurate
measure of a vehicle’s performance because it is a linear relationship while fuel economy leads to distortions in efficiency
improvements.

1. Kilometers/Liter
A kilometer per liter (km/L) is a decimal multiple of the metric unit of measurement for fuel economy, meter per liter, which defines
the number of meters a vehicle can drive using one liter of fuel.

2. KPL
A kilometer per liter (km/L) is a decimal multiple of the metric unit of measurement for fuel economy, meter per liter, which defines
the number of meters a vehicle can drive using one liter of fuel.

3. Liters/100 Kilometers
A liter per 100 km (L/100 km) is a metric unit of measurement for fuel consumption. It defines the amount of fuel in liters a vehicle
used for travelling 100 km.

4. Miles/Gallon (UK)
A mile per British gallon (mi/UK gal) is a unit of measurement for fuel economy in the British Imperial system of units, equal to
354.01 m/L in the metric units. It defines the number of miles a vehicle can travel using one British gallon of fuel.

5. Miles/Gallon (US)
A mile per US gallon (mi/US gal) is a unit of measurement for fuel economy in the US customary system of units, equal to 425.14
m/L in the metric units. It defines the number of miles a vehicle can travel using one US gallon of fuel.

6. Miles/Liter
A US mile per liter (mi/L) is a unit of measurement for fuel economy in the US customary system of units, equal to 1609.344 m/L in
the metric units. It defines the number of US miles a vehicle can drive using one liter of fuel.

7. MPGUK
A mile per British gallon (mi/UK gal) is a unit of measurement for fuel economy in the British Imperial system of units, equal to
354.01 m/L in the metric units. It defines the number of miles a vehicle can travel using one British gallon of fuel.

8. MPGUS
A mile per US gallon (mi/US gal) is a unit of measurement for fuel economy in the US customary system of units, equal to 425.14
m/L in the metric units. It defines the number of miles a vehicle can travel using one US gallon of fuel.

76

Fuel Consumption or Fuel Efficiency | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016
www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Illumination
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the
amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle. The SI unit for
luminance is candela per square meter (cd/m2). A non-SI term for the same unit is the "nit". The CGS unit of luminance is the stilb,
which is equal to one candela per square centimeter or 10 kcd/m2.

1. Centimeter Candles
A centimeter-candle is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity widely used in the United States in photography, film, television,
conservation lighting, the lighting industry, construction-related engineering and in building codes. The unit is defined as the
amount of illumination the inside surface of a one-foot-radius sphere would be receiving if there were a uniform point source of one
candela in the exact center of the sphere. Alternatively, it can be defined as the illuminance on a one-square foot surface of which
there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. Thus one foot-candle is equal to one lumen per square foot or approximately
10.764 lux.

2. Flame
A flame (from Latin flamma) is the visible, gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin
zone. Some flames, such as the flame of a burning candle, are hot enough to have ionized gaseous components and can be
considered plasma. As a unit of illumination, one flame equals to 4 foot candles.

3. FootCandles
A foot-candle is a non-SI unit of illuminance or light intensity widely used in the United States in photography, film, television,
conservation lighting, the lighting industry, construction-related engineering and in building codes. The unit is defined as the
amount of illumination the inside surface of a one-foot-radius sphere would be receiving if there were a uniform point source of one
candela in the exact center of the sphere. Alternatively, it can be defined as the illuminance on a one-square foot surface of which
there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen. Thus one foot-candle is equal to one lumen per square foot or approximately
10.764 lux.

4. Lumens/Square Centimeter
A lumen per square centimeter (lm·cm⁻²) is the derived SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per
unit area and equal to 10,000 lux. 1 lm/cm² = 10,000 lx = 10,000 cd·sr·m⁻². If a light source emits one candela of luminous intensity
uniformly across a solid angle of one steradian, the total luminous flux emitted into that angle is one lumen (1 cd·1 sr = 1 lm).

5. LumensPerSquareFoot
A lumen per square foot (lm·ft⁻²) is a US Customary and British Imperial unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring
luminous flux per unit area and equal to 10.76 lux.

6. LumensPerSquareMeter
A lumen per square meter (lm·m⁻²) is the derived SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit
area and equal to 1 lux. 1 lx = 1 lm/m² = 1 cd·sr·m⁻². If a light source emits one candela of luminous intensity uniformly across a solid
angle of one steradian, the total luminous flux emitted into that angle is one lumen (1 cd·1 sr = 1 lm).

7. Lux
The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area. It is equal to one
lumen per square meter. In photometry, this is used as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits
or passes through a surface. It is analogous to the radiometric unit watts per square meter, but with the power at each wavelength
weighted according to the luminosity function, a standardized model of human visual brightness perception.

77

Illumination | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

8. Meter Candles
A meter-candle (m·cd) is a metric unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area. One metercandle can be defined as illuminance of a one-candela source illuminating a surface one meter away from the light source. One
meter-candle is equal to one lumen per square meter: 1 m·cd = 1 lx = 1 lm/m² = 1 cd·sr·m⁻². The term “meter-candle” does not
conform to SI standards for unit names and its use is discouraged.

9. MilliPhots
A phot (ph) is a photometric unit of illuminance, or luminous flux through an area. It is not an SI unit, but rather is associated with
the older centimeter gram second system of units. The name was coined by André Blondel in 1921. One milliphot equals to 10 lux.

10. Noon Day Sun Brightness
The noonday sun brightness is a unit of luminous flux measures the total amount of visible light of the sun in the noon time of the
day.

11. Nox
A nox (nx) is a non-SI photometric unit of illuminance, or luminous flux through an area. 1 nox = 1 millilux.

12. Phots
A phot (ph) is a photometric unit of illuminance, or luminous flux through an area. It is not an SI unit, but rather is associated with
the older centimeter gram second system of units. The name was coined by André Blondel in 1921. One phot (ph) equals 10 kilolux.

78

Illumination | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Luminous Intensity
In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction
per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye. The SI unit of
luminous intensity is the candela (cd), an SI base unit.
Photometry deals with the measurement of visible light as perceived by human eyes. The human eye can only see light in the visible
spectrum and has different sensitivities to light of different wavelengths within the spectrum. When adapted for bright conditions
(photopic vision), the eye is most sensitive to greenish-yellow light at 555 nm. Light with the same radiant intensity at other
wavelengths has a lower luminous intensity. The curve which measures the response of the human eye to light is a defined
standard, known as the luminosity function. For instance, the measured responses of the eye to violet light varied by a factor of ten.
Luminous intensity should not be confused with another photometric unit, luminous flux, which is the total perceived power
emitted in all directions. Luminous intensity is the perceived power per unit solid angle. Luminous intensity is also not the same as
the radiant intensity, the corresponding objective physical quantity used in the measurement science of radiometry.

1. Candela
The candela is the SI base unit of luminous intensity; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by
the luminosity function (a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the
luminous efficiency function). A common candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one candela. If emission in some
directions is blocked by an opaque barrier, the emission would still be approximately one candela in the directions that are not
obscured.

2. Candles
A candle is a solid block of wax with an embedded wick, which is ignited to provide light, and sometimes heat, and historically was
used as a method of keeping time.

3. Candles (German)
German candle (from German Vereinskerze — association candle) is an obsolete unit of luminous intensity, which expressed levels
of light intensity in terms of the light emitted by a specific candle. It was used in 19th century Prussia and represented the light from
a standard cylindrical candle made of paraffin and having a standard cotton wick.

4. Candles (International)
An international candle is an obsolete unit of luminous intensity first defined in 1909 in terms of the output of a Hefner lamp, which
at that time was used in photometry and burned amyl acetate. Later it was several times redefined until it was replaced with the
new candle in 1946, which was in turn renamed the candela in 1948.

5. Candles (UK)
A British candle or candlepower (cp) is an obsolete unit of luminous intensity, which was used to express levels of light intensity in
terms of the light emitted by a candle of specific size and made from a specific substance (spermaceti — wax of the sperm whale).
The value of the candlepower was different at various times. The modern candlepower equates directly to one candela.

6. Decimal Bougie
A decimal bougie (from the French bougie for candle) is an obsolete French standard unit of luminous intensity. Its value was set at
1⁄20th of a violle, which was defined as the light emitted by 1 cm² of glowing platinum at the temperature of platinum freezing and
was equal to about 20 candlepower.

79

Luminous Intensity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

7. HefnerUnits
The Hefner lamp, or in German Hefnerkerze, is a flame lamp used in photometry that burns amyl acetate. The lamp was invented by
Friedrich von Hefner-Alteneck in 1884 and he proposed its use as a standard flame for photometric purposes with a luminous
intensity unit of the Hefnerkerze (HK). The lamp was specified as having a 40 mm flame height and an 8 mm diameter wick.

8. Lumens/Steradian
A lumen per steradian (lm/sr) is the SI derived unit of luminous intensity, which is defined in relation to the candela as 1 lm/sr = 1
cd.

9. Violle
Jules Louis Gabriel Violle (November 16, 1841, Langres, Haute-Marne - September 12, 1923, Fixin) was a French physicist and
inventor. He is notable for having determined the solar constant at Mont Blanc in 1875, and, in 1881, for proposing a standard for
luminous intensity, called the Violle, equal to the light emitted by 1 cm² of platinum at its melting point. (It was notable as the first
unit of light intensity that did not depend on the properties of a particular lamp, but it was made obsolete by the candela, the
standard SI unit.)

80

Luminous Intensity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Magnetic Flux
In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted Φ or ΦB) through a surface is the component of the
magnetic B field passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the
CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics, which
evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux.

1. Gausses Centimeter Squared
A gauss-square centimeter (G·cm²) is a CGS unit of magnetic flux equal to maxwell (Mx). In a magnetic field having the strength of
one gauss, one maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1 G·cm² = 10⁻⁸
Wb.

2. Kilolines
A kiloline is a decimal multiple of the line, which is an old name of the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux, the maxwell
(Mx). In a magnetic field having the strength of one gauss, one maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter
perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1 G·cm² = 10⁻⁸ Wb.

3. Lines
A line is an old name of the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux, the maxwell (Mx). In a uniform magnetic field having the
strength of one gauss, one maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1
G·cm² = 10⁻⁸ Wb.

4. Maxwells
A maxwell (Mx) is the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux. In a magnetic field having the strength of one gauss, one
maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1 G·cm² = 10⁻⁸ Wb. An old unit
name of a maxwell is a line.

5. Maxwells (Metric)
A maxwell (Mx) is the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux. In a magnetic field having the strength of one gauss, one
maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1 G•cm² = 10⁻⁸ Wb. An old unit
name of a maxwell is a line. Maxwell-meteric is the equivalent of Maxwell unit in metric system.

6. Megalines
A megaline is a decimal multiple of the line, which is an old name of the compound derived CGS unit of magnetic flux, the maxwell
(Mx). In a magnetic field having the strength of one gauss, one maxwell is the total flux across a surface of one square centimeter
perpendicular to the field: 1 Mx = 1 G·cm² = 10⁻⁸ Wb.

7. Teslas Centimeter Squared
A tesla-square centimeter (T·cm²) is a decimal multiple of tesla-square meter (T·m²), which is the unit of magnetic flux equal to
weber (Wb). By definition, a change in flux of one weber per second will induce in a circuit of one turn an electromotive force of one
volt. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A). In terms of other derived units, the weber is expressed as the
tesla-square meter (T·m²), or volt-seconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).
1 Wb = 1 V·s = 1 T·m² = 1 J/A = 10⁸ Mx (maxwells).

8. Teslas Meter Squared
A tesla-square meter (T·m²) is a unit of magnetic flux equal to weber (Wb). By definition, a change in flux of one weber per second
will induce in a circuit of one turn an electromotive force of one volt. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A).

81

Magnetic Flux | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

In terms of other derived units, the weber is expressed as the tesla-square meter (T·m²), or volt-seconds (V·s), or joules per ampere
(J/A).
1 Wb = 1 V·s = 1 T·m² = 1 J/A = 10⁸ Mx (maxwells).

9. Volts Second
A volt-second (V·s) is a derived SI unit of magnetic flux, which is equal to weber. By definition, a change in flux of one weber per
second will induce in a circuit of one turn an electromotive force of one volt. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are
(kg·m²)/(s²·A). In terms of other derived units, the weber is expressed as the tesla-square meter (T·m²), or volt-seconds (V·s), or
joules per ampere (J/A).
1 Wb = 1 V·s = 1 T·m² = 1 J/A = 10⁸ Mx (maxwells).

10. Webers
A weber (Wb) is a derived SI unit of magnetic flux. By definition, a change in flux of one weber per second will induce in a circuit of
one turn an electromotive force of one volt. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A). In terms of other
derived units, the weber is expressed as the tesla-square meter (T·m²), or volt-seconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).
1 Wb = 1 V·s = 1 T·m² = 1 J/A = 10⁸ Mx (maxwells).

82

Magnetic Flux | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Mass
In physics, mass is a property of a physical system or body, giving rise to the phenomena of the body's resistance to being
accelerated by a force and the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction with other bodies. Instruments such as mass balances
or scales use those phenomena to measure mass. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). For everyday objects and energies welldescribed by Newtonian physics, mass has also been said to represent an amount of matter, but this view breaks down, for
example, at very high speeds or for subatomic particles. Holding true more generally, anybody having mass has an equivalent
amount of energy, and all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction; the term matter has no
universally-agreed definition under this modern view.
As noted, besides its equivalence to energy, several types of observable and measurable phenomena arise from mass. All have been
shown to be equivalent and to agree with each other when they are used to measure mass.

Inertial mass is a quantitative measure of an object's resistance to changes in velocity, (acceleration).
Gravitational mass is a quantitative measure that is proportional to the magnitude of the gravitational force which is:
1. Exerted by an object (active gravitational mass), or
2. Experienced by an object (passive gravitational force) when interacting with a second object.

In the above second instance mass induces changes in motion; such as when earth's gravitational force induces changes in motion in
daily life, such as Newton's falling apple or the cause behind the arc of a baseball. This applies to all earth-bound objects, from
feathers and ants to mountain boulders and elephants.

1. Gigatonnes
A gigatonnes is a mass unit equal to 109 of a tonne.

2. Grains
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass that is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age
into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definition of units of mass. However,
there is no evidence of any country ever having used actual seeds or cereal grains. Rather, expressions such as "thirty-two grains of
wheat, taken from the middle of the ear" appear to have been ritualistic formulas, essentially the premodern equivalent of legal
boilerplate.

3. Grams
The gram (alternative British English spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Greek/Latin root grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the
temperature of melting ice" (later 4 °C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3
kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures.

4. Kilograms
The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg; SI dimension symbol: M), is the base unit of mass in the International System of
Units (SI) and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK). The avoirdupois (or
international) pound, used in both the Imperial system and U.S. customary units, is defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg, making one
kilogram approximately equal to 2.2046 avoirdupois pounds.

5. Kilopounds
A kilopound (kip), which is also called kip, is a non-SI unit of force. It is equal to 1,000 pounds-force and used primarily by American
architects and engineers to measure engineering loads. It is sometimes considered a unit of mass, equal to 1,000 pounds. The name
comes from the words “kilo” and “pound”.

83

Mass | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

6. Kilotonnes
A metric kiloton (kt) is a decimal multiple of the metric unit of mass, ton, which is equal to 1,000 kg. The ton is a non-SI unit
accepted for use with SI. The kiloton is also used as a unit of energy. The kiloton of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a decimal multiple of the
ton of TNT, which is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules. This is approximately the amount of energy released in the
detonation of one ton of TNT. The kiloton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules. The kiloton and megaton of TNT have
traditionally been used to rate the destructive power of nuclear weapons.

7. Kips
A kip is a non-SI unit of force. It equals 1000 pounds-force, used primarily by American architects and engineers to measure
engineering loads. Although uncommon, it is occasionally also considered a unit of mass, equal to 1000 pounds, i.e., one half of a
short ton. One use is as a unit of deadweight to compute shipping charges.

8. Megatonnes
A megatonnes is a mass unit equal to 106 of a tonne.

9. Micrograms
A microgram (µg) is a decimal fraction of the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) kilogram, which is defined as
being equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, which is almost exactly equal to the mass of one liter of water. 1 μg
= 10⁻⁶ g = 10⁻⁹ kg.

10. Milligrams
A milligram (mg) is a decimal fraction of the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) kilogram, which is defined as
being equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, which is almost exactly equal to the mass of one liter of water. 1
mg = 10⁻³ g = 10⁻⁶ kg.

11. Nanograms
A nanogram (ng) is a decimal fraction of the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) kilogram, which is defined as
being equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, which is almost exactly equal to the mass of one liter of water. 1 ng
= 10⁻⁹ g = 10⁻¹² kg.

12. Ounces
The troy ounce (oz t) is a unit of imperial measure. In the present day it is most commonly used to gauge the mass of precious
metals. One troy ounce is currently defined as exactly 0.0311034768 kg or 31.1034768 g. There are approximately 32.15 troy oz in 1
kg. One troy ounce is equivalent to approximately 1.09714 avoirdupois ounces.

13. Picograms
A picogram (pg) is a decimal fraction of the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) kilogram, which is defined as
being equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, which is almost exactly equal to the mass of one liter of water. 1 pg
= 10⁻¹² g = 10⁻¹⁵ kg.

14. Points
A point is a mass unit equal to 2 mg.

15. Pounds
The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, lbm) is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other
systems of measurement. A number of different definitions have been used, the most common today being the international
avoirdupois pound which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms.

16. Quarters
A US quarter is a unit of mass in the US Customary Units equal to one-fourth of a short (US) hundredweight (100 lb or 45.35 kg).

17. Quintals
The metric quintal or centner is a unit of mass in several countries which is defined as 100 basic units of mass (pounds or kilograms).
For example, in Russia one centner equals to 100 kg and in Germany it is equal to 100 metric pounds or 45.359237 kg.

84

Mass | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

18. Slugs
A slug is a unit of mass in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units. It is a mass of an object that accelerates by 1 ft/s² when
a force of one pound-force (lbf) is exerted on it. 1 slug = 1 lbf·s²/ft. One slug has a mass of approximately 14.594 kg.

19. Tonnes
The tonne (SI symbol: t) is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms (2,204.6 pounds) or 1 megagram (1 Mg). It is a nonSI unit accepted for use with SI. To avoid confusion with the much smaller short ton and the slightly larger long ton, it is also known
as a metric ton in the United States.

20. Tons
Long ton (weight ton or Imperial ton) is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of
measurements that was used in the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries before metrication. One long ton
is equal to 2,240 pounds (1,016 kg), 12% larger than a short ton and 1.6% larger than the 1,000-kilogram (2,205 lb) tonne, or 35
cubic feet (0.9911 m3) of salt water with a density of 64 lb/cu ft (1.025 g/ml).

85

Mass | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Power
In physics, power (symbol: P) is defined as the amount of energy consumed per unit time. In the MKS system, the unit of power is
the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt (in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine). For
example, the rate at which a light bulb converts electrical energy into heat and light is measured in watts—the more wattage, the
more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time.
Energy transfer can be used to do work, so power is also the rate at which this work is performed. The same amount of work is done
when carrying a load up a flight of stairs whether the person carrying it walks or runs, but more power is expended during the
running because the work is done in a shorter amount of time. The output power of an electric motor is the product of the torque
the motor generates and the angular velocity of its output shaft. The power expended to move a vehicle is the product of the
traction force of the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle.
The integral of power over time defines the work done. Because this integral depends on the trajectory of the point of application of
the force and torque, this calculation of work is said to be path dependent.

1. Abwatts
A attowatt (aW) is a decimal fraction of the derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) watt, which is defined as
one joule per second. Power measures the rate of energy conversion or the rate at which work is done. One watt is the rate at
which work is done when an object’s velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one
newton. In electromagnetism, one watt is defined as the rate at which work is done when one ampere of current flows across a
potential difference of one volt. Attowatts are used for describing the sensitivity of infrared phototransistors and bolometers.

2. BTUsITPerHour
An international British thermal unit (IT) per hour (Btu/h) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units.
This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners. When using the BTU to
describe the power, the “per hour” is sometimes dropped.

3. BTUsITPerMinute
An international British thermal unit (IT) per minute (Btu/min) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial
Units. This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners.

4. BTUsITPerSecond
An international British thermal unit (IT) per second (Btu/s) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units.
This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners.

5. BTUsMeanPerHour
An international British thermal unit (mean) per hour (Btu/h) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units.
This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners. When using the BTU to
describe the power, the “per hour” is sometimes dropped. Mean uses a calorie averaged over water temperatures 0 to 100 °C (32 to
212 °F). 1 British Thermal Unit (mean) equals approximately 1,055.87 Joules. The mean energy required to raise the temperature of
1lb of water 1°F for the range of temperatures where water is liquid.

6. BTUsMeanPerMinute
An international British thermal unit (mean) per minute (Btu/min) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial
Units. This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners. When using the BTU to
describe the power, the “per minute” is sometimes dropped. Mean uses a calorie averaged over water temperatures 0 to 100 °C (32
to 212 °F). Mean uses a calorie averaged over water temperatures 0 to 100 °C (32 to 212 °F). 1 British Thermal Unit (mean) equals

86

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

approximately 1,055.87 Joules. The mean energy required to raise the temperature of 1lb of water 1°F for the range of
temperatures where water is liquid.

7. BTUsMeanPerSecond
An international British thermal unit (mean) per second (Btu/s) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial
Units. This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners. When using the BTU to
describe the power, the “per second” is sometimes dropped. Mean uses a calorie averaged over water temperatures 0 to 100 °C (32
to 212 °F). 1 British Thermal Unit (mean) equals approximately 1,055.87 Joules. The mean energy required to raise the temperature
of 1lb of water 1°F for the range of temperatures where water is liquid.

8. BTUsThermoChemicalPerHour
A thermochemical British thermal unit (th) per hour (Btu/h) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units.
This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners. When using the BTU to
describe the power, the “per hour” is sometimes dropped.

9. BTUsThermoChemicalPerMinute
A thermochemical British thermal unit (th) per minute (Btu/min) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial
Units. This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners.

10. BTUsThermoChemicalPerSecond
A thermochemical British thermal unit (th) per second (Btu/s) is a unit of power in the US Customary Units and British Imperial
Units. This unit is most often used to measure the power of steam generators, heaters and air conditioners.

11. CaloriesITPerHour
An international calorie (IT) per hour (cal/h) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (IT cal) is an outdated non-SI metric
unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly used
unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of
Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of
water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

12. CaloriesITPerMinute
An international calorie (IT) per minute (cal/min) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (IT cal) is an outdated non-SI
metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly
used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties
of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of
water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

13. CaloriesITPerSecond
An international calorie (IT) per second (cal/s) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (IT cal) is an outdated non-SI metric
unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly used
unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of
Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of
water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

14. CaloriesMeanPerHour
An international calorie (mean) per hour (cal/h) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an outdated non-SI
metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly
used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on
Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of
1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

15. CaloriesMeanPerMinute
An international calorie (mean) per minute (cal/min) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an outdated
non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a

87

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International
Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

16. CaloriesMeanPerSecond
An international calorie (mean) per second (cal/s) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an outdated non-SI
metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly
used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on
Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of
1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

17. CaloriesThermoChemicalPerHour
A thermochemical calorie (th) per hour (kcal (th)/h) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical calorie (th kcal) is an outdated nonSI metric unit of energy equal to 4.184 J.

18. CaloriesThermoChemicalPerMinute
A thermochemical calorie (th) per minute (kcal (th)/min) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical calorie (th kcal) is an outdated
non-SI metric unit of energy equal to 4.184 J.

19. CaloriesThermoChemicalPerSecond
A thermochemical calorie (th) per second (kcal (th)/s) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical calorie (th kcal) is an outdated
non-SI metric unit of energy equal to 4.184 J.

20. Foot Pounds/Hour
A foot pound-force per hour (ft ·lbf/h) is the Imperial unit of power. It is the amount of work done by a force of one pound-force
when moving an object through a distance of one foot during one hour.

21. Foot Pounds/Minute
A foot pound-force per minute (ft ·lbf/min) is the Imperial unit of power. It is the amount of work done by a force of one poundforce when moving an object through a distance of one foot during one minute.

22. FootPoundsPerSecond
A foot pound-force per second (ft ·lbf/s) is the Imperial unit of power. It is the amount of work done by a force of one pound-force
when moving an object through a distance of one foot during one second.

23. Gigawatts
The gigawatt is equal to one billion (109) watts or 1 gigawatt = 1000 megawatts. This unit is sometimes used for large power plants
or power grids. For example, by the end of 2010 power shortages in China's Shanxi province were expected to increase to 5–6 GW
and the installed capacity of wind power in Germany was 25.8 GW. The largest unit (out of four) of the Belgian Nuclear Plant Doel
has a peak output of 1.04 GW. HVDC converters have been built with power ratings of up to 2 GW. The London Array, the world's
largest offshore wind farm, is designed to produce a gigawatt of power.

24. Horsepower
Horsepower (hp) is the name of several units of measurement of power, the rate at which work is done. The most common
conversion factor, especially for electrical power, is 1 hp = 746 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish
engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the
output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit
varied between geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation
of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is only permitted as supplementary unit.

25. HorsepowerMetric
The various units used to indicate this definition all translate to horse power in English, so it is common to see these values referred
to as horsepower or hp in the press releases or media coverage of the German, French, Italian, and Japanese automobile
companies. British manufacturers often intermix metric horsepower and mechanical horsepower depending on the origin of the
engine in question. Sometimes the metric horsepower rating of an engine is conservative enough so that the same figure can be

88

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

used for both 80/1269/EEC with metric hp and SAE J1349 with imperial hp. DIN 66036 defines one metric horsepower as the power
to raise a mass of 75 kilograms against the earth's gravitational force over a distance of one meter in one second; this is equivalent
to 735.49875 W or 98.6% of an imperial mechanical horsepower.

26. JoulesPerHour
A joule per hour (J/h) is a metric unit of power. 1 J/h =2.78*104 watt.

27. JoulesPerMinute
A joule per minute (J/min) is a metric unit of power. 1 J/min =1.67*102 watt.

28. JoulesPerSecond
A joule per second (J/s) is a derived SI unit of power. By definition, one watt is one joule per second.

29. KilocaloriesITPerHour
An international kilocalorie (IT) per hour (kcal/h) is a metric unit of power. An International Steam Table kilocalorie (IT kcal) is a
decimal multiple of an international calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been
replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT
calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram
calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure
(101.325 kPa).

30. KilocaloriesITPerMinute
An international kilocalorie (IT) per minute (kcal/min) is a metric unit of power. An International Steam Table kilocalorie (IT kcal) is a
decimal multiple of an international calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been
replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT
calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram
calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure
(101.325 kPa).

31. KilocaloriesITPerSecond
An international kilocalorie (IT) per second (kcal/s) is a metric unit of power. An International Steam Table kilocalorie (IT kcal) is a
decimal multiple of an international calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been
replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 IT
calorie = 4.1868 J as defined by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram
calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure
(101.325 kPa).

32. KilocaloriesMeanPerHour
An international kilocalorie (mean) per hour (kcal/h) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an outdated
non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a
commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International
Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

33. KilocaloriesMeanPerMinute
An international kilocalorie (mean) per minute (kcal/min) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an
outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it
remains a commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International
Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

34. KilocaloriesMeanPerSecond
An international kilocalorie (mean) per second (kcal/s) is a metric unit of power. An International calorie (mean cal) is an outdated
non-SI metric unit of energy. In most fields its use has been replaced by, the joule, the SI unit of energy. However, it remains a

89

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

commonly used unit for energies in the field of chemistry. 1 mean calorie = 4.19002 J as defined by the Fifth International
Conference on Properties of Steam. By definition, the small calorie or gram calorie approximates the energy needed to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C at standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).

35. KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerHour
A thermochemical kilocalorie (th) per hour (kcal/h) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical kilocalorie (th kcal) is a decimal
multiple of a thermochemical calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. The thermochemical kilocalorie is equal to
4184 J.

36. KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerMinute
A thermochemical kilocalorie (th) per minute (kcal/min) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical kilocalorie (th kcal) is a decimal
multiple of a thermochemical calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. The thermochemical kilocalorie is equal to
4184 J.

37. KilocaloriesThermoChemicalPerSecond
A thermochemical kilocalorie (th) per second (kcal/s) is a metric unit of power. A thermochemical kilocalorie (th kcal) is a decimal
multiple of a thermochemical calorie, which is an outdated non-SI metric unit of energy. The thermochemical kilocalorie is equal to
4184 J.

38. KilogramMetersPerHour
Kilogram Force-Meter per hour (kgf-m/h) is a unit in the category of Power (Heat flow). It is also known as kilogram force meter per
hour, kg-m/h. This unit is commonly used in the MKpS unit system. Kilogram Force-Meter per Hour (kgf-m/h) has a dimension of
ML2T-3 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 kg-m/h = 2.724*10-3 watt

39. KilogramMetersPerMinute
Kilogram Force-Meter per Minute (kgf-m/min) is a unit in the category of Power (Heat flow). It is also known as kilogram force meter
per minute, kg-m/min. This unit is commonly used in the MKpS unit system. Kilogram Force-Meter per minute (kgf-m/min) has a
dimension of ML2T-3 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 kg-m/min = 0.1634 watt.

40. KilogramMetersPerSecond
Kilogram Force-Meter per Second (kgf-m/s) is a unit in the category of Power (Heat flow). It is also known as kilogram force meter
per second, kg-m/s. This unit is commonly used in the MKpS unit system. Kilogram Force-Meter per Second (kgf-m/s) has a
dimension of ML2T-3 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 kg-m/s = 9.80665 watt.

41. Kilowatts
The kilowatt is equal to one thousand (103) watts, or one sthene-metre per second. This unit is typically used to express the output
power of engines and the power of electric motors, tools, machines, and heaters. It is also a common unit used to express the
electromagnetic power output of broadcast radio and television transmitters. One kilowatt is approximately equal to 1.34
horsepower. A small electric heater with one heating element can use 1.0 kilowatt, which is equivalent to the power of a household
in the United States averaged over the entire year. Also, kilowatts of light power can be measured in the output pulses of some
lasers. A surface area of one square meter on Earth receives typically one kilowatt of sunlight from the sun (on a clear day at midday).

42. Megawatts
The megawatt is equal to one million (106) watts. Many events or machines produce or sustain the conversion of energy on this
scale, including lightning strikes; large electric motors; large warships such as aircraft carriers, cruisers, and submarines; large server
farms or data centers; and some scientific research equipment, such as supercolliders, and also in the output pulses of very large
lasers. A large residential or commercial building may use several megawatts in electric power and heat. On railways, modern highpowered electric locomotives typically have a peak power output of 5 or 6 MW, although some produce much more. The Eurostar,
for example, uses more than 12 MW, while heavy diesel-electric locomotives typically produce/use 3 to 5 MW. U.S. nuclear power
plants have net summer capacities between about 500 and 1300 MW.

90

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

43. Microwatts
The microwatt is equal to one millionth (10−6) of a watt. Important powers that are measured in microwatts are typically stated in
medical instrumentation systems such as the EEG and the ECG, in a wide variety of scientific and engineering instruments and also in
reference to radio and radar receivers. Compact solar cells for devices such as calculators and watches are typically measured in
microwatts.

44. Milliwatts
The milliwatt is equal to one thousandth (10−3) of a watt. A typical laser pointer outputs about five milliwatts of light power,
whereas a typical hearing aid for people uses less than one milliwatt.

45. Watts
The watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James
Watt (1736–1819). The unit defined as one joule per second, measures the rate of energy conversion or transfer.

91

Power | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Pressure
Pressure (symbol: P or p) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. Pressure is force per unit area applied
in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the
local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Pressure is measured in any unit of force divided by any unit of area. The SI unit of pressure
is (the newton per square meter), which is called the pascal (Pa) after the seventeenth-century philosopher and scientist Blaise
Pascal. A pressure of 1 Pa is small; it approximately equals the pressure exerted by a dollar bill resting flat on a table. Everyday
pressures are often stated in kilopascals (1 kPa = 1000 Pa).

1. Atmospheres
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is an international reference pressure defined as 101325 Pa and formerly used as a unit of
pressure. For practical purposes it has been replaced by the bar which is 100 kPa. The difference of about 1% is not significant for
many applications, and is within the error range of common pressure gauges.

2. Bars
The bar is a non-SI unit of pressure, defined by the IUPAC as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa. It is about equal to the atmospheric
pressure on Earth at sea level, and since 1982 the IUPAC has recommended that the standard for atmospheric pressure should be
harmonized to 100,000 Pa = 1 bar ≈ 750.0616827 Torr. The same definition is used in the compressor and the pneumatic tool
industries (ISO 2787). The bar and the millibar were introduced by the British meteorologist William Napier Shaw in 1909, while he
was the director of the Meteorological Office in London. Units derived from the bar are the megabar (symbol: Mbar), kilobar
(symbol: kbar), decibar (symbol: dbar), centibar (symbol: cbar), and millibar (symbol: mbar or mb). They are not SI or cgs units, but
they are accepted for use with the SI. The bar is legally recognized in countries of the European Union.

3. CentimetersOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius
A centimeter of mercury (cmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury
1 cm high, when the density of the fluid is 13.5951 g/cm³ (this occurs at 0°C or 32°F), at a place where the acceleration of gravity is
9.80665 m/s². 1 cmHg is roughly equal to 10 Torr.

4. CentimetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius
A centimeter of water (cmAq, cmH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of
water 1 cm high, at 4°C (temperature of maximum water density), at the standard acceleration of gravity. 1 cmAq is roughly equal to
0.74 Torr. This unit is often used in medicine and in water supply networks.

5. DynesPerSquareCentimeter
A dyne per square centimeter (dyn/cm²) is the CGS derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Another name of this unit is barye or barad. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one dyne per square centimeter.

6. DynesPerSquareMeter
A dyne per square meter (dyn/m²) is the CGS derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Another name of this unit is barye or barad. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one dyne per square meter.

7. FeetOfSeaWater
A foot of seawater is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted by a column of seawater 1 foot in height at 39 °F
or 4 °C (temperature of maximum water density) at the standard acceleration of gravity;
1 ft of seawater is approximately equal to 23.0134669 Torr at 4 °C.

92

Pressure | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

8. Feet Of Water At 39 Degrees Fahrenheit
A foot of water or foot water column (foot WC, ftAq, ftH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted by a
column of water 1 foot in height at 39 °F or 4 °C (temperature of maximum water density) at the standard acceleration of gravity;
1 ftAq is approximately equal to 22.42 Torr at 4 °C.

9. Gigapascals
A gigapascal (GPa) is a decimal multiple of the pascal, which is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate
tensile strength. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter.

10. GramsPerSquareCentimeter
A gram-force per square centimeter (gf/cm²) is a non-SI metric unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile
strength. It is a measure of force per unit area.
1 Gram/Square Centimeter = 98.0665 Pa

11. Grams/Square Inch
A gram-force per square inch (gf/in²) is a non-SI metric unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is a
measure of force per unit area.
1 Gram/Square Inch = 15.2003379 Pa

12. GramsPerSquareMeter
A gram-force per square meter (gf/m²) is a non-SI metric unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is
a measure of force per unit area.
1 Gram/Square Meter = 0.00980665 Pa

13. Hectobars
A hectobar (hbar) is a decimal fraction of bar, which is the non-SI unit of pressure, defined as exactly equal to 100,000,000 Pa.

14. Hectopascals
A hectopascal (hPa) is a decimal multiple of the pascal, which is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate
tensile strength. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter.

15. InchesOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius
An inch of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury 1
inch (25.4 mm) high, when the density of the fluid is 13.5951 g/cm³ (this occurs at 0°C or 32°F), at a place where the acceleration of
gravity is 9.80665 m/s². 1 inHg is roughly equal to 25.4 Torr.

16. InchesOfWaterAtThirtyNineDegreesFahrenheit
An inch of water or inch water column (wc, inch WC, inAq, inH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted by
a column of water 1 inch in height at 39 °F or 4 °C (temperature of maximum water density) at the standard acceleration of gravity;
1 inAq is approximately equal to 1.868 torr at 4 °C.

17. KilogramsPerSquareCentimeter
A kilogram-force per square centimeter (kgf/cm²) is a non-SI metric unit of pressure. It is a measure of force per unit area. Another
name of this unit is technical atmosphere (symbol at).
1 at = 98.0665 kPa ≈ 0.96784 standard atmospheres.

93

Pressure | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

18. KilogramsPerSquareMeter
A kilogram-force per square meter (kgf/m²) is a non-SI metric unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile
strength. It is a measure of force per unit area.

19. Kilopascals
A kilopascal (kPa) is a decimal multiple of the pascal, which is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate
tensile strength. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter.

20. Megapascals
A megapascal (MPa) is a decimal multiple of the pascal, which is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and
ultimate tensile strength. It is a measure of force per unit area, defined as one newton per square meter.

21. MetersOfSeaWater
A meter of sea water (mAq, mH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of
seawater 1 m high, at 4°C (temperature of maximum water density), at the standard acceleration of gravity. 1 m of seawater is
roughly equal to 75.5035 Torr.

22. MetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius
A meter of water (mAq, mH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of water 1 m
high, at 4°C (temperature of maximum water density), at the standard acceleration of gravity. 1 mAq is roughly equal to 73.554 Torr.

23. Millibars
A millibar (mbar) is a decimal fraction of bar, which is the non-SI unit of pressure, defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa. It is
approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level. The unit name is derived from the Greek βάρος, meaning
weight.
100,000 Pa = 1 bar ≈ 750.0616827 Torr.

24. MillimetersOfMercuryAtZeroDegreesCelsius
A millimeter of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of mercury
1 mm high, when the density of the fluid is 13.5951 g/cm³ (this occurs at 0°C or 32°F), at a place where the acceleration of gravity is
9.80665 m/s². 1 mmHg is roughly equal to 1 Torr.

25. MillimetersOfWaterAtFourDegreesCelsius
A millimeter of water (mmAq, mmH₂O) is a non-SI unit of pressure. It is defined as the pressure exerted at the base of a column of
water 1 mm high, at 4°C (temperature of maximum water density), at the standard acceleration of gravity. 1 mmAq is roughly equal
to 0.074 Torr.

26. NanonewtonsPerSquareMicron
A nanonewton per square micron (nN/µm²) is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
By definition, it is equal to 1000 pascal.

27. NewtonsPerSquareMeter
A newton per square meter (N/m²) is the SI derived unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength. By
definition, it is equal to pascal.

28. OuncesPerSquareFoot
Ounce Force (av.) Per Square Foot (ozf/ft2, osi) is a unit in the category of Pressure. It is also known as ounce force per square foot,
ounce force/square foot. This unit is commonly used in the UK, US unit systems. Ounce Force (av.) Per Square foot (ozf/ft2, osi) has a
dimension of ML-1T-2 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 ozf/ft2 = 2.992516 Pa.

94

Pressure | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

29. OuncesPerSquareInch
Ounce Force (av.) Per Square Inch (ozf/in2, osi) is a unit in the category of Pressure. It is also known as ounce force per square inch,
ounce force/square inch. This unit is commonly used in the UK, US unit systems. Ounce Force (av.) Per Square Inch (ozf/in 2, osi) has
a dimension of ML-1T-2 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 ozf/in2 = 430.922330895 Pa.

30. OuncesPerSquareYard
Ounce Force (av.) Per Square Yard (ozf/yard2, osi) is a unit in the category of Pressure. It is also known as ounce force per square
yard, ounce force/square yard. This unit is commonly used in the UK, US unit systems. Ounce Force (av.) Per Square yard (ozf/yard 2,
osi) has a dimension of ML-1T-2 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. 1 ozf/yard 2 = 0.3325 Pa.

31. Pascals
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength, named
after the French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and philosopher Blaise Pascal. It is a measure of force per unit area,
defined as one newton per square meter. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa ≡ 100 Pa), kilopascal (1
kPa ≡ 1000 Pa), megapascal (1 MPa ≡ 1,000,000 Pa), and gigapascal (1 GPa ≡ 1,000,000,000 Pa). On Earth, standard atmospheric
pressure is 101.325 kPa. Meteorological barometric pressure reports typically report atmospheric pressure in hectopascals. The
kilopascal is used in other applications such as inflation guidance markings on bicycle tires. One hectopascal corresponds to about
0.1% of atmospheric pressure slightly above sea level; one kilopascal is about 1% of atmospheric pressure. One hectopascal is
equivalent to one millibar; one standard atmosphere is exactly equal to 101.325 kPa or 1013.25 hPa or 101325 Pa. The
corresponding Imperial unit is pounds per square inch (psi).

32. PoundsPerSquareFoot
A pound-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) is a unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength in the US
Customary Units and British Imperial Units. It is a measure of force per unit area.

33. PoundsPerSquareInch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: psi or lbf/in2 or lbf/in2 or lbf/sq in or lbf/sq
in)/ pressure per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of
one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch.

34. PoundsPerSquareYard
The pound per square yard or, more accurately, pound-force per square yard is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois
units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square yard.

35. PSI
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: psi or lbf/in2 or lbf/in2 or lbf/sq in or lbf/sq
in)/ pressure per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of
one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch.

36. TonnesPerSquareCentimeter
Ton Force (metric) Per Square Centimeter (tonf/cm2 (metric)) is a unit in the category of Pressure. This unit is commonly used in the
MTS unit system. Ton Force (metric) Per Square Centimeter (tonf/cm2 (metric)) has a dimension of ML-1T-2 where M is mass, L is
length, and T is time. 1 tonf/cm2 = 98066500 pa.

37. TonnesPerSquareMeter
Ton Force (metric) Per Square Meter (tonf/m2 (metric)) is a unit in the category of Pressure. This unit is commonly used in the MTS
unit system. Ton Force (metric) Per Square Meter (tonf/m2 (metric)) has a dimension of ML-1T-2 where M is mass, L is length, and T
is time. 1 tonf/m2 = 9806.65 pa.

38. TonsPerSquareFoot
A short ton-force per square foot (tf/ft²) is a unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength in the US
Customary Units and British Imperial Units. It is a measure of force per unit area.

95

Pressure | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

39. TonsPerSquareInch
A short ton-force per square inch (tf/in²) is a unit of pressure, stress, Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strength in the US
Customary Units and British Imperial Units. It is a measure of force per unit area.

96

Pressure | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Quantity
Quantity is a property that can exist as a magnitude or multitude. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less" or "equal",
or by assigning a numerical value in terms of a unit of measurement. Quantity is among the basic classes of things along with
quality, substance, change, and relation. Being a fundamental term, quantity is used to refer to any type of quantitative properties
or attributes of things. Some quantities are such by their inner nature (as number), while others are functioning as states
(properties, dimensions, attributes) of things such as heavy and light, long and short, broad and narrow, small and great, or much
and little. A small quantity is sometimes referred to as a quantulum. Two basic divisions of quantity, magnitude and multitude, imply
the principal distinction between continuity (continuum) and discontinuity.
Under the names of multitude come what is discontinuous and discrete and divisible into indivisibles, all cases of collective nouns:
army, fleet, flock, government, company, party, people, chorus, crowd, mess, and number. Under the names of magnitude come
what is continuous and unified and divisible into divisibles, all cases of non-collective nouns: the universe, matter, mass, energy,
liquid, material, animal, plant, and tree.
Thus quantity is a property that exists in a range of magnitudes or multitudes. Mass, time, distance, heat, and angular separation are
among the familiar examples of quantitative properties. Two magnitudes of a continuous quantity stand in relation to one another
as a ratio, which is a real number.

1. Braces
Brace is another name for a pair which equals t0 2. The word is used mostly by hunters, who may speak of a brace of partridges or a
brace of shotguns. Derived from the Latin word bracchia for both arms, it literally means "one for each arm."

2. Centuries
Century is a unit of quantity equal to 100. In ancient Rome, a "century" was originally a company of about 100 soldiers led by an
officer called a centurion.

3. Couples
Couple is a traditional prefix meaning 2.

4. Doubles
Double is a traditional prefix meaning 2. In the original (1795) definition of the metric system, this prefix was allowed for the weight
and volume units such as the gram, kilogram, and liter, but not for the length units. These uses have been obsolete for many years.

5. Dozens
Dozen is a familiar unit of quantity equal to 12. Division into units of 12 rather than 10 has the advantage that 12 can be evenly
divided into halves, thirds, or quarters. For this reason, units of 12 have been common since the earliest civilizations of the Middle
East. "Dozen" comes from an old French word dozaine related to the Latin word duodecem, "twelve." One dozen dozen (that is,
144) is called a gross, and one dozen gross is called a great gross.

6. DozensBaker
Dozen Baker is an informal unit of quantity, equal to 13. Bakers sometimes toss in an extra item for each dozen bought, making a
total of 13. This custom is very old, dating at least from the thirteenth century, when the weights and prices of loaves of bread were
strictly regulated by royal proclamations called assizes, and bakers could be jailed if they failed to provide fair weight at the listed
prices.

7. DozensMetric
Dozen (metric) is an informal unit of quantity, equal to 10.

97

Quantity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

8. GreatGross
Great Gross is a traditional unit of quantity equal to a dozen gross, or 1728.

9. Gross
Gross is a unit of quantity equal to a dozen dozen, or 144. This commercial unit has been in use since at least the 1400's.

10. HalfCenturies
Half is a unit of proportion equal to 1/2. Half century equals to 50.

11. Pairs
Pair is a unit of quantity equal to 2. The word is from the Latin paria, meaning "equals." Originally a pair was simply a group of
similar objects, number unspecified. Eventually this meaning was specialized to refer to a group of two.

12. Scores
Score is a traditional unit of quantity equal to 20. The score, like the dozen, helps us describe a moderate number of objects. This is
one of the many cases in which English has two words for similar concepts, one word from the Old French spoken in 1066 by the
Norman conquerors of England and one from the Old English spoken by the Anglo-Saxon people they conquered. In this case, dozen
is the French word and score is the Old English word, derived from the Norse word skor meaning a notch cut in a stick as a tally
mark. The suffix -score can be added to a number, as in threescore (60) or fivescore (100).

13. Trebles
Treble is a group of 3 items, especially 3 identical items; the word triplet is also used for one member of such a group.
Mathematicians prefer triple for an ordered string of three elements.

14. Triples
Triple is a group of 3 items, especially 3 identical items; the word triplet is also used for one member of such a group.
Mathematicians prefer triple for an ordered string of three elements.

15. Units
When counting, the word "unit" means "one." For example, if a car dealer expects a shipment of 20 units that means 20 cars.

98

Quantity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Radioactivity
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy
by emitting particles of ionizing radiation. A material that spontaneously emits this kind of radiation—which includes the emission of
energetic alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays—is considered radioactive.
A decay, or loss of energy, results when an atom with one type of nucleus, called the parent radionuclide, transforms to an atom
with a nucleus in a different state, or to a different nucleus containing different numbers of protons and neutrons. Either of these
products is named the daughter nuclide. In some decays the parent and daughter are different chemical elements, and thus the
decay process results in nuclear transmutation (creation of an atom of a new element).

1. Becquerels
The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI-derived unit of radioactivity. One Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive
material in which one nucleus decays per second. The Bq unit is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s−1. The becquerel is
named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering
radioactivity.

2. Curies
The Curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity, named after Marie and Pierre Curie. One Curie is roughly the activity of 1 gram
of the radium isotope 226Ra, a substance studied by the Curies.

3. Gigabecquerels
A gigabecquerel (GBq) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of radiation activity. The Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity
of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s⁻¹.

4. Kilobecquerels
A kilobecquerel (kBq) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of radiation activity. The Bq is defined as the activity of a quantity of
radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s⁻¹.

5. Megabecquerels
A megabecquerel (MBq) is a decimal multiple of the SI derived unit of radiation activity. The Bq is defined as the activity of a
quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse
second, s⁻¹.

6. Microcuries
A microcurie (µCi) is a decimal fraction of the deprecated non-SI unit of radioactivity defined as 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10¹⁰ decays per second.
One curie is roughly the activity of 1 gram of the radium isotope ²²⁶Ra.

7. Millicuries
A millicurie (mCi) is a decimal fraction of the deprecated non-SI unit of radioactivity defined as 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10¹⁰ decays per second.
One curie is roughly the activity of 1 gram of the radium isotope ²²⁶Ra.

8. Rutherfords
The rutherford (symbol rd) is an obsolete unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which
one million nuclei decay per second. It is therefore equivalent to one megabecquerel. It was named after Ernest Rutherford. It is not
an SI unit.

99

Radioactivity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Sound
Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through compressible media such as air or water. (Sound can propagate
through solids as well, but there are additional modes of propagation). Sound that is perceptible by humans has frequencies from
about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. In air at standard temperature and pressure, the corresponding wavelengths of sound waves range from
17 m to 17 mm. During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.

1. Bels
A bel (B) it is a seldom used logarithmic unit. A more commonly used unit is the decibel, which is one tenth of a bell and indicates
the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level. Examples are gain and loss of electrical signals in electronic
equipment and levels of sound. A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities.

2. Centibels
A centibel (cB) is a seldom used logarithmic unit. A more commonly used unit is the decibel, which is one tenth of a bell and
indicates the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level. Examples are gain and loss of electrical signals in
electronic equipment and levels of sound. A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power
quantities.

3. Decibels
A decibel (dB) it is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level. Examples
are gain and loss of electrical signals in electronic equipment and levels of sound. A ratio in decibels is the logarithm to base 10 of
the ratio of two power quantities multiplied by ten. A decibel is one tenth of a bel, a seldom-used unit.

4. Millibels
A millibel (mB) is a seldom used logarithmic unit. A more commonly used unit is the decibel, which is one tenth of a bell and
indicates the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level. Examples are gain and loss of electrical signals in
electronic equipment and levels of sound. A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power
quantities.

5. Nepers
A neper (Np) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity relative to a specified reference level. Examples are
gain and loss of electronic signals and levels of sound. Both the decibel and neper are not the units in the International System of
Units (SI). However, they are accepted for use alongside the SI units. Like the decibel, the neper is a unit in a logarithmic scale. While
the bel uses the decadic (base-10) logarithm to compute ratios, the neper uses the natural logarithm, based on Euler’s number (e ≈
2.71828).

6. Phons
Phon is a logarithmic measure of sound loudness closely related to the decibel. Decibels are used for objective measurements, that
is, they measure the actual pressure of the sound waves as recorded using a microphone. Phons are used for subjective
measurements, that is, measurements made using the ears of a human listener. A sound has loudness p phons if it seems to the
listener to be equal in loudness to the sound of a pure tone of frequency 1 kilohertz and strength p decibels. A measurement in
phons will be similar to a measurement in decibels, but not identical, since the perceived loudness of a sound depends on the
distribution of frequencies in the sound as well as the pressure of the sound waves. In the U.S., sound loudness is frequently
measured in sones rather than phons: a sound of loudness s sones has loudness 10 log2 s + 40 phons. In English the unit is
pronounced "fon" rather than "phone."

100

Sound | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

7. Sones
Sone is a unit of subjective sound loudness. One sone is the loudness of a pure tone of frequency one kilohertz and strength 40
decibels. A sound has loudness s sones if a listener judges it to be s times louder than a sound of 1 sone. The phon is another unit of
sound loudness; a sound of loudness p phons has loudness 2(p - 40)/10 sones. The sone is often used in industrial engineering to
express the perceived loudness of engines, fans, and other items of industrial equipment. The unit was introduced by S.S. Stevens
and H. Davis in 1938. Its name is from the Latin word sonus, sound.

101

Sound | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Temperature
A temperature is a numerical measure of hot or cold. Its measurement is by detection of heat radiation or particle velocity or kinetic
energy, or by the bulk behavior of a thermometric material. It may be calibrated in any of various temperature scales, Celsius,
Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc. The fundamental physical definition of temperature is provided by thermodynamics.
Measurements with a small thermometer, or by detection of heat radiation, can show that the temperature of a body of material
can vary from time to time and from place to place within it. For example, a lightning bolt can heat a small portion of the
atmosphere hotter than the surface of the sun. If changes happen too fast, or with too small a spacing, within a body, it may be
impossible to define its temperature.

1. Celsius
Celsius, also known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer
Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius (°C) can refer to a specific temperature
on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval, a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty.
The unit was known until 1948 as "centigrade" from the Latin centum translated as 100 and gradus translated as "steps".

2. Delisle
The Delisle scale (°D) is a temperature scale invented in 1732 by the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (1688–1768). Delisle
was the author of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire et aux progrès de l'Astronomie, de la Géographie et de la Physique (1738).

3. Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–
1736), after whom the scale is named. The scale is defined by two fixed points: the temperature at which water freezes into ice is
defined as 32 degrees, and the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees. On Fahrenheit's original scale the lower defining
point was the freezing point of brine, defined as zero degrees. By the end of the 20 th century, most countries used the Celsius scale
rather than the Fahrenheit scale, though Canada retains it as a supplementary scale that can be used alongside Celsius. Fahrenheit
remains the official scale for the following countries: Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and the United States of America and associated
territories (Palau, the Bahamas, Belize, Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands). The Rankine temperature scale was based
upon the Fahrenheit temperature scale, with its zero representing absolute zero instead.

4. Kelvin
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units (SI) and is
assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero,
the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the
fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The Kelvin scale is
named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who
wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred
to or typeset as a degree. The kelvin is the primary unit of measurement in the physical sciences, but is often used in conjunction
with the degree Celsius, which has the same magnitude. Subtracting 273.16 K from the temperature of the triple point of water
(0.01 °C) makes absolute zero (0 K) equivalent to −273.15 °C (−459.67 °F).

5. Newton
The Newton scale is a temperature scale devised by Isaac Newton around 1700. Applying his mind to the problem of heat, he
elaborated a first qualitative temperature scale, comprising about twenty reference points ranging from "cold air in winter" to
"glowing coals in the kitchen fire". This approach was rather crude and problematic, so Newton quickly became dissatisfied with it.
He knew that most substances expand when heated, so he took a container of linseed oil and measured its change of volume
against his reference points. He found that the volume of linseed oil grew by 7.25% when heated from the temperature of melting

102

Temperature | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

snow to that of boiling water. After a while, he defined the "zeroth degree of heat" as melting snow and "33 degrees of heat" as
boiling water. His scale is thus a precursor of the Celsius scale, being defined by the same temperature references. Indeed it is likely
that Celsius knew about the Newton scale when he invented his. Newton called his instrument a "thermometer". Thus the unit of
this scale, the Newton degree, equals 100/33 (approximately 3.03) kelvin or degrees Celsius and has the same zero as the Celsius
scale.

6. Rankine
Rankine is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John
Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859. The symbol for degrees Rankine is °R (or °Ra if necessary to distinguish it from the
Rømer and Réaumur scales). Zero on both the Kelvin and Rankine scales is absolute zero, but the Rankine degree is defined as equal
to one degree Fahrenheit, rather than the one degree Celsius used by the Kelvin scale. A temperature of −459.67 °F is exactly equal
to 0 °R. Some engineering fields in the U.S. measure thermodynamic temperature using the Rankine scale. In the scientific world,
thermodynamic temperature is usually measured using the Kelvin scale. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology
recommends not using degrees Rankine in NIST publications.

7. Reaumur
The Réaumur scale (°Ré, °Re, °R), also known as the "octogesimal division", is a temperature scale in which the freezing and boiling
points of water are set to 0 and 80 degrees respectively. The scale is named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first
proposed something similar in 1730.

8. Romer
Rømer is a temperature scale named after the Danish astronomer Ole Christensen Rømer, who proposed it in 1701. In this scale, the
zero was initially set using freezing brine. The boiling point of water was defined as 60 degrees. Rømer then saw that the freezing
point of pure water was roughly one eighth of the way (about 7.5 degrees) between these two points, so he redefined the lower
fixed point to be the freezing point of water at precisely 7.5 degrees. This did not greatly change the scale but made it easier to
calibrate by defining it by reference to pure water. Thus the unit of this scale, a Rømer degree, is 100/52.5 = 40/21 of a kelvin (or of
a Celsius degree). The symbol is sometimes given as °R, but since that is also sometimes used for the Rankine scale, the other
symbol °Rø is to be preferred. The name should not be confused with Réaumur.

103

Temperature | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Time
Time is a dimension in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of
durations of events and the intervals between them. Time has long been a major subject of study in religion, philosophy, and
science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Nevertheless, diverse
fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their
respective measuring systems. Some simple, relatively uncontroversial definitions of time include "time is what clocks measure" and
"time is what keeps everything from happening at once".

1. CenturiesGregorian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian
year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered
ordinally in English and many other languages (e.g. "the 7th century AD/CE").
1 Year (Gregorian) = 31,556,952 s

2. CenturiesJulian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian
year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered
ordinally in English and many other languages (e.g. "the 7 th century AD/CE").
1 Year (Julian) = 31,557,600 s

3. CenturiesTropical
A tropical year (also known as a solar year), for general purposes, is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same
position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer
solstice to summer solstice. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the seasonal cycle does not remain exactly synchronized

104

Time | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

with the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. As a consequence, the tropical year is about 20 minutes shorter than the
time it takes Earth to complete one full orbit around the Sun as measured with respect to the fixed stars (the sidereal year).
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is one hundred consecutive years. Centuries are numbered
ordinally in English and many other languages (e.g. "the 7 th century AD/CE").
1 Year (Tropical) ≈ 365.242 190 d ≈ 31 556 925 s

4. Days
A day is a unit of time. In common usage, it is an interval equal to 24 hours. It also can mean the consecutive period of time during
which the Sun is above the horizon of a location, also known as daytime. The period of time measured from local noon to the
following local noon is called a solar day. Several definitions of this universal human concept are used according to context, need
and convenience. In 1967, the second was redefined in terms of the wavelength of light, and it became the SI base unit of time. The
unit of measurement for time called "day", redefined in 1967 as 86,400 SI seconds and symbolized d, is not an SI unit, but it is
accepted for use with SI. A civil day is usually also 86,400 seconds, plus or minus a possible leap second in Coordinated Universal
Time UTC, and, in some locations, occasionally plus or minus an hour when changing from or to daylight saving time.
1 day = 24 h = 1440 min = 86400 s

5. DecadesGregorian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian
year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the Ancient Greek dekas which means ten. Other
words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium, triennium, quadrennium, quinquennium (5 years), lustrum (5 years),
century (100 years), and millennium (1000 years).
1 Year (Gregorian) = 31,556,952 s

6. DecadesJulian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian
year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the Ancient Greek dekas which means ten. Other
words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium, triennium, quadrennium, quinquennium (5 years), lustrum (5 years),
century (100 years), and millennium (1000 years).

105

Time | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

1 Year (Julian) = 31,557,600 s

7. DecadesTropical
A tropical year (also known as a solar year), for general purposes, is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same
position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer
solstice to summer solstice. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the seasonal cycle does not remain exactly synchronized
with the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. As a consequence, the tropical year is about 20 minutes shorter than the
time it takes Earth to complete one full orbit around the Sun as measured with respect to the fixed stars (the sidereal year).
A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the Ancient Greek dekas which means ten. Other
words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium, triennium, quadrennium, quinquennium (5 years), lustrum (5 years),
century (100 years), and millennium (1000 years).
1 Year (Tropical) ≈ 365.242 190 d ≈ 31 556 925 s

8. Fortnights
A fortnight is a unit of time equal to 14 days (2 weeks). The word derives from the Old English: fēowertyne niht, meaning "fourteen
nights". Fortnight and fortnightly are commonly used words in Britain, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries such as Australia,
India, New Zealand, and Pakistan, where many wages and salaries and most social security benefits are paid on a fortnightly basis.
The word is rarely used in North America, except regionally in Canada and in insular traditional communities (e.g. Amish) in the
United States. American and Canadian payroll systems may use the term biweekly in reference to pay periods every two weeks.
Neither term should be confused with semimonthly (in one year there are 26 fortnightly or biweekly versus 24 semimonthly pay
periods).
1 fortnight = 2 wk = 1,209,600 s

9. Gigaseconds
A gigasecond is a time unit equals to 109 of a second.

10. Hours
The hour (common symbol: h or hr) is a unit of measurement of time. In modern usage, an hour comprises 60 minutes, or 3,600
seconds. It is approximately 1/24 of a mean solar day. An hour in the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) time standard can include a
negative or positive leap second, and may therefore have a duration of 3,599 or 3,601 seconds for adjustment purposes. Although it
is not a standard defined by the International System of Units, the hour is a unit accepted for use with SI, represented by the symbol
h.
1 Hour = 60 min = 3,600 s

11. Kiloseconds
A kilosecond is a time unit equals to 103 of a second.

12. Megaseconds
A megasecond is a time unit equals to 106 of a second.

13. Microseconds
A microsecond (µs) is a decimal fraction of the second, which is the unit of time and one of the seven SI base units. It is also a CGS
unit of time. It is defined as the time taken by 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation that comes from electrons moving between two
energy levels of the caesium-133 atom.
Example: A high-speed air-gap flash can produce short-duration light pulses often shorter than one microsecond. It is used for taking
photographs of extremely fast-moving objects like bullets or bursting balloons.

106

Time | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

14. Milliseconds
A millisecond (ms) is a decimal fraction of the second, which is the unit of time and one of the seven SI base units. It is also a CGS
unit of time. It is defined as the time taken by 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation that comes from electrons moving between two
energy levels of the caesium-133 atom.
Example: A typical photo flash strobe can produce a light pulse with the duration of 1 millisecond.

15. Minutes
The minute is a unit of time or of angle. As a unit of time, the minute is equal to 1⁄60 (the first sexagesimal fraction) of an hour or 60
seconds. In the UTC time standard, a minute on rare occasions has 59 or 61 seconds, a consequence of leap seconds. The SI symbols
for minute or minutes are min for time measurement, and the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5′, for angle measurement. The
prime is also sometimes used informally to denote minutes of time.

16. Months
A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which was first used and invented in Mesopotamia, as a natural period related to the
motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such months
(lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that
people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. Synodic months, based on the Moon's orbital
period, are still the basis of many calendars today, and are used to divide the year.
1 Month ≈ 2.6297×106 s

17. Seconds
The second (symbol: s) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) and is also a unit of time in other systems of
measurement (abbreviated s or sec) it is the second division of the hour by sixty, the first division by 60 being the minute. Since
1967, the second has been defined to be the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition
between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom. The second is also the base unit of time in the
centimetre-gram-second, metre-kilogram-second, metre-tonne-second, and foot-pound-second systems of units.

18. Weeks
A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of work days and rest days in most parts of
the world. The term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days. Such "weeks" of between
four and ten days have been used historically in various places. Intervals longer than 10 days are not usually termed "weeks" as they
are closer in length to the fortnight or the month than to the seven-day week.
1 Week = 7d = 168 h = 10,080 min = 604,800 s

19. Years360Days
A year equals to 360 Days

20. Years365Days
A year equals to 365 Days

21. YearsGregorian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian

107

Time | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
1 Year (Gregorian) = 31,556,952 s

22. YearsJulian
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes
the Sun to complete one course throughout the zodiac along the ecliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as
365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds each (no leap seconds). There is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time. The
International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is a (for Latin annus), in English
also y or yr. A calendar year is an approximation of the Earth's orbital period in a given calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian
calendar (as well as in the Julian calendar) has either 365 (common years) or 366 (leap years) days. The word "year" is also used of
periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the
fiscal year or the academic year, etc. By extension, the term year can mean the orbital period of any planet: for example, a "Martian
year" is the time in which Mars completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as
the "Great Year".
1 Year (Julian) = 31,557,600 s

23. YearsTropical
A tropical year (also known as a solar year), for general purposes, is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same
position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer
solstice to summer solstice. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the seasonal cycle does not remain exactly synchronized
with the position of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. As a consequence, the tropical year is about 20 minutes shorter than the
time it takes Earth to complete one full orbit around the Sun as measured with respect to the fixed stars (the sidereal year).
1 Year (Tropical) ≈ 365.242 190 d ≈ 31 556 925 s

108

Time | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Torque
Torque, moment or moment of force, is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is
a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the
lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an
object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a
torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically τ, the Greek letter tau. When it is
called moment, it is commonly denoted M.
The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm connecting the axis to the point
of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm.

1. DyneCentimeters
A dyne centimeter (dyn·cm) is a CGS unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One dyne centimeter is equal to
the torque resulting from a force of one dyne applied perpendicularly to a one centimeter long moment arm.

2. Dyne Meters
A dyne meter (dyn·m) is a decimal multiple of the CGS unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”), dyne
centimeter. One dyne centimeter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one dyne applied perpendicularly to a one
centimeter long moment arm.

3. Dyne Millimeters
A dyne millimeter (dyn·mm) is a decimal fraction of the CGS unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”), dyne
centimeter. One dyne centimeter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one dyne applied perpendicularly to a one
centimeter long moment arm.

4. GramCentimeters
A gram-force centimeter (gf·cm) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One gram-force centimeter
is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one gram-force applied perpendicularly to a one centimeter long moment arm.

5. Gram Meters
A gram-force meter (kgf·m) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One gram-force meter is equal
to the torque resulting from a force of one gram-force applied perpendicularly to a one meter long moment arm.

6. Gram Millimeters
A gram-force millimeter (gf·mm) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One gram-force millimeter
is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one gram-force applied perpendicularly to a one millimeter long moment arm.

7. Kilogram Centimeters
A kilogram-force centimeter (kgf·cm) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One kilogram-force
centimeter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one kilogram-force applied perpendicularly to a one centimeter long
moment arm.

8. KilogramMeters
A kilogram-force meter (kgf·m) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One kilogram-force meter is
equal to the torque resulting from a force of one kilogram-force applied perpendicularly to a one meter long moment arm.

109

Torque | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

9. Kilogram Millimeters
A kilogram-force millimeter (kgf·mm) is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One kilogram-force
millimeter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one kilogram-force applied perpendicularly to a one millimeter long
moment arm.

10. Kilonewton Meters
A kilonewton meter (N·m) is a decimal multiple of a newton meter, which is a derived SI unit of torque (also called “moment” or
“moment of force”). One newton meter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a one
meter long moment arm.

11. NewtonCentimeters
A newton centimeter (N·cm) is a decimal fraction of a newton meter, which is a derived SI unit of torque (also called “moment” or
“moment of force”). One newton meter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a one
meter long moment arm.

12. NewtonMeters
A newton meter is a unit of torque (also called "moment") in the SI system. The symbolic form is N m or N·m,. One newton meter,
sometimes hyphenated newton-meter, is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a
moment arm which is one meter long. It is also used less commonly as a unit of work, or energy, in which case it is equivalent to the
more common and standard SI unit of energy, the joule. In this very different usage the meter term represents the distance
travelled or displacement in the direction of the force, and not the perpendicular distance from a fulcrum as it does when used to
express torque. This usage is discouraged by the SI authority, since it can lead to confusion as to whether a given quantity expressed
in newton-meters is a torque or a quantity of energy.

13. Newton Millimeters
A newton millimeter (N·mm) is a decimal fraction of a newton meter, which is a derived SI unit of torque (also called “moment” or
“moment of force”). One newton meter is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a one
meter long moment arm.

14. Ounce Feet
An ounce-force foot (ozf·ft) is a unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”) in the US Customary Units and British
Imperial Units. One ounce-force foot is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one ounce-force applied perpendicularly to a
one foot long moment arm.

15. OunceInches
An ounce-force inch (ozf·in) is a unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”) in the US Customary Units and British
Imperial Units. One ounce-force inch is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one ounce-force applied perpendicularly to a
one inch long moment arm.

16. PoundFeet
A pound-force foot (lbf·ft) is a unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”) in the US Customary Units and British
Imperial Units. One pound-force foot is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one pound-force applied perpendicularly to a
one foot long moment arm.

17. PoundInches
A pound-force inch (lbf·in) is a unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”) in the US Customary Units and British
Imperial Units. One pound-force inch is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one pound-force applied perpendicularly to a
one inch long moment arm.

110

Torque | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

18. TonFeet
A ton-force foot (tonf•ft) is a unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”) in the US Customary Units and British
Imperial Units. One ton-force foot is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one ton-force applied perpendicularly to a one
foot long moment arm.

19. TonneMeters
A tonne-force meter is a metric unit of torque (also called “moment” or “moment of force”). One tonne-force meter is equal to the
torque resulting from a force of one tonne-force applied perpendicularly to a one meter long moment arm.

111

Torque | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Speed or Velocity
In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance travelled by the object divided by the duration of the interval;
the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as the duration of the time interval approaches zero. Like velocity, speed
has the dimensions of a length divided by a time; the SI unit of speed is the meter per second, but the most usual unit of speed in
everyday usage is the kilometer per hour or, in the USA and the UK, miles per hour. For air and marine travel the knot is commonly
used. The fastest possible speed at which energy or information can travel, according to special relativity, is the speed of light in a
vacuum c = 299,792,458 meters per second, approximately 1079 million kilometers per hour (671,000,000 mph). Matter cannot
quite reach the speed of light, as this would require an infinite amount of energy. In relativity physics, the concept of rapidity
replaces the classical idea of speed. In kinematics, velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object, equivalent to a
specification of its speed and direction of motion. For motion in one dimension, velocity can be defined as the slope of the position
vs. time graph of an object. Speed describes only how fast an object is moving; whereas velocity gives both how fast and in what
direction the object is moving. If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed has been specified. However, if the car is said to move at
60 km/h to the north, its velocity has now been specified. To have a constant velocity, an object must have a constant speed in a
constant direction. Constant direction constrains the object to motion in a straight path (the object's path does not curve). Thus, a
constant velocity means motion in a straight line at a constant speed. If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the
object is said to have a changing velocity and is undergoing acceleration. For example, a car moving at a constant 20 kilometers per
hour in a circular path has a constant speed, but does not have a constant velocity because its direction changes. Hence, the car is
considered to be undergoing acceleration.
Velocity is a vector physical quantity; both magnitude and direction are required to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude)
of velocity is called "speed", a quantity that is measured in meters per second (m/s or m⋅s−1) when using the SI (metric) system. For
example, "5 meters per second" is a scalar (not a vector), whereas "5 meters per second east" is a vector. The rate of change of
velocity (in m/s) as a function of time (in s) is "acceleration" (in m/s2 – stated "meters per second per second"), which describes how
an object's speed and direction of travel change at each point in time.

1. Centimeters/Hour
A centimeter per hour is a speed unit equals to 10-2 of a meter per hour.

2. Centimeters/Minute
A centimeter per minute is a speed unit equals to 10-2 of a meter per minute.

3. Centimeters/Second
A centimeter per second is a speed unit equals to 10-2 of a meter per second.

4. Feet/Hour
A foot per hour is a speed unit approximately equals to 8.466667×10−5 m/s.

5. Feet/Minute
A foot per minute is a speed unit equals to 5.08×10−3 m/s.

6. Feet/Second
The foot per second (plural feet per second) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity, which includes direction).
It expresses the distance in feet (ft) traveled or displaced, divided by the time in seconds (s, or sec). The corresponding unit in the
International System of Units (SI) is the meter per second. Abbreviations include ft/s, ft/sec and fps, and the rarely used scientific
notation ft s-1.

112

Speed or Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

1 fps = 3.048×10−1 m/s

7. Inches/Hour
An inch per hour is a speed unit approximately equals to 7.05 556×10 −6 m/s.

8. Inches/Minute
An inch per minute is a speed unit approximately equals to 4.23 333×10 −4 m/s.

9. Inches/Second
An inch per second is a speed unit equals to 2.54×10−2 m/s.

10. Kilometers/Hour
The kilometer per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometers travelled in one hour. The unit symbol is km/h or
km·h−1. Worldwide, the km/h is the most commonly used speed unit on road signs and car speedometers. Along with the kilowatt
hour, km/h is the most commonly used metric unit based on the hour. Although the "hour" is not an SI unit, it is accepted for use
with the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). In Australian, South African and
North American slang and military usage, km/h is commonly pronounced, and sometimes even written, as klicks or kays (K's),
although these may also be used to refer to kilometers.
1 kilometer per hour ≈ 2.777778×10−1 m/s

11. Kilometers/Minute
A kilometer per minute is a speed unit approximately equals to 16.66667 m/s.

12. Kilometers/Second
A kilometer per second is a speed unit equals to 1000 m/s.

13. KnotsUK
The knot (pronounced not) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1.852 km) per hour, approximately 1.151 mph. The ISO
Standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the IEEE; kt and NMPH are also seen. The knot is a non-SI unit
that is "accepted for use with the SI". Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example,
a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour. Etymologically,
the term derives from counting the number of knots in the line that unspooled from the reel of a chip log in a specific time.
1,852 m is the length of the internationally-agreed nautical mile. The US adopted the international definition in 1954, having
previously used the US nautical mile (1,853.248 m). The UK adopted the international nautical mile definition in 1970, having
previously used the UK Admiralty nautical mile (6,080 ft [1,853.184 m]).
1 UK Knot = 1.853184 km/h = 0.514773 m/s

14. KnotsUS
The knot (pronounced not) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile (1.852 km) per hour, approximately 1.151 mph. The ISO
Standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the IEEE; kt and NMPH are also seen. The knot is a non-SI unit
that is "accepted for use with the SI". Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example,
a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour. Etymologically,
the term derives from counting the number of knots in the line that unspooled from the reel of a chip log in a specific time.
1,852 m is the length of the internationally-agreed nautical mile. The US adopted the international definition in 1954, having
previously used the US nautical mile (1,853.248 m). The UK adopted the international nautical mile definition in 1970, having
previously used the UK Admiralty nautical mile (6,080 ft [1,853.184 m]).
1 US Knot = 1.852 km/h ≈ 0.514444m/s

15. KPH
The kilometer per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometers travelled in one hour. The unit symbol is km/h or
km·h−1. Worldwide, the km/h is the most commonly used speed unit on road signs and car speedometers. Along with the kilowatt

113

Speed or Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

hour, km/h is the most commonly used metric unit based on the hour. Although the "hour" is not an SI unit, it is accepted for use
with the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). In Australian, South African and
North American slang and military usage, km/h is commonly pronounced, and sometimes even written, as klicks or kays (K's),
although these may also be used to refer to kilometers.
1 kilometer per hour ≈ 2.777778×10−1 m/s

16. Meters/Hour
A meter per hour is a speed unit approximately equals to 2.77777×10-4 m/s.

17. Meters/Minute
A meter per minute is a speed unit approximately equals to 0.0166667 m/s.

18. Meters/Second
Meter per second is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a
specific direction), defined by distance in meters divided by time in seconds. The SI unit symbols are m·s−1, m s−1, m/s, or m/s.
Where meters per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements,
velocities may be given in kilometers per second, where 1 km/s is 1000 meters per second.

19. Microns/Microsecond
A micron per microsecond is a speed unit equals to 1 m/s.

20. Microns/Second
A micron per second is a speed unit equals to 10-6 m/s.

21. Miles/Hour
Miles per hour is an imperial unit of speed expressing the number of statute miles covered in one hour. It is currently the standard
unit used for speed limits, and to express speeds generally, in many countries throughout the world. Miles per hour are also used in
the Canadian rail system. In some countries it may be used to express the speed of delivery of a ball in sporting events such as
cricket, tennis, and baseball. A common abbreviation is mph or MPH. Nautical and aeronautical applications, however, favour the
knot as a common unit of speed: one knot is one nautical mile per hour.
1 mph = 0.447 04 m/s

22. Miles/Minute
A mile per minute is a speed unit equals to 26.8224 m/s.

23. Miles/Second
A mile per second is a speed unit equals to 1,609.344 m/s.

24. Millimeters/Hour
A millimeter per hour is a speed unit approximately equals to 2.77777×10 -7 m/s.

25. Millimeters/Minute
A millimeter per minute is a speed unit approximately equals to 1.66667×10 -5 m/s.

26. Millimeters/Second
A millimeter per second is a speed unit equals to 10-3 m/s.

27. MPH
Miles per hour is an imperial unit of speed expressing the number of statute miles covered in one hour. It is currently the standard
unit used for speed limits, and to express speeds generally, in many countries throughout the world. Miles per hour are also used in
the Canadian rail system. In some countries it may be used to express the speed of delivery of a ball in sporting events such as
cricket, tennis, and baseball. A common abbreviation is mph or MPH. Nautical and aeronautical applications, however, favour the
knot as a common unit of speed: one knot is one nautical mile per hour.

114

Speed or Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

1 mph = 0.447 04 m/s

28. Speed Of Light
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is
exactly 299,792,458 meters per second, a figure that is exact because the length of the meter is defined from this constant and the
international standard for time. This is approximately 186,282.4 miles per second, or about 671 million miles per hour. According to
special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all energy, matter, and information in the universe can travel. It is the speed at
which all massless particles and associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as light) travel in vacuum. It is also the
speed of gravity (i.e. of gravitational waves) predicted by current theories. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the
motion of the source or the inertial frame of reference of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and
also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.
1 speed of light = 299,792,458 m/s

29. Speed Of Sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled during a unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. In dry air
at 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 343.2 meters per second (1,126 ft/s). This is 1,236 kilometers per hour (768 mph), or about a
kilometer in three seconds or a mile in five seconds. In fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a fluid medium (gas or liquid) is used as
a relative measure of speed itself. The speed of an object divided by the speed of sound in the fluid is called the Mach number.
Objects moving at speeds greater than Mach1 are traveling at supersonic speeds.

115

Speed or Velocity | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Viscosity Dynamic
Dynamic (absolute) viscosity or the coefficient of absolute viscosity is a measure of the internal resistance. In other words, it is a
measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. Dynamic viscosity is defined as
the tangential force per unit area required to move one horizontal plane with respect to the other at unit velocity when maintained
a unit distance apart by the fluid. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is thickness or thinness or internal friction. Thus,
we call oil “thick”, that is, having a higher viscosity while we call water “thin” that is, having a lower viscosity.
The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the pascal-second (Pa·s). This unit is equivalent to N·s/m², or kg/(m·s). If a fluid with a
viscosity of one Pa·s is placed between two plates, and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one pascal, it moves a
distance equal to the thickness of the layer between the plates in one second. The cgs physical unit for dynamic viscosity is the poise
(P). The more common unit is centipoise (cP). Water at 20°C has a viscosity of 0.001002 Pa·s or 1.0020 cP.

1. Centipoises
A centipoise (cP) is a decimal fraction of the unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the centimeter gram second (CGS) system of
units, poise. The poise is equivalent to dyn•s/cm². If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 poise is placed between two plates, and the top
plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one dyn/cm², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the
fluid layer between the plates in one second. This unit is used very often.

2. Dynes Second/Centimeter Squared
A dyne second per square centimeter (dyn•s/cm²) is a CGS unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1
dyne•s/cm² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one
dyn/cm², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

3. Grams Force Second/Centimeter Squared
A gram-force second per square centimeter (gf•s/cm²) is a metric unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1
gf•s/cm² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one gf/cm², it
moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

4. Grams/Centimeter Second
A gram per centimeter per second (g/(cm•s)) is a CGS unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. It is equivalent to dyn•s/cm². If a fluid
with a viscosity of one g/(cm•s) is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear
stress of one dyn/cm², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

5. Hyls/Meter Second
Hyl is an obsolete MKS unit of mass. One hyl is the mass that is accelerated at one meter per second per second by one kilogram of
force (kgf). Since 1 kgf = 9.80665 newtons, the hyl is equivalent to 9.80665 kilograms. The name of the unit comes from an ancient
Greek word for matter. The hyl is known in German engineering as the Technische Mass Einheit (engineering mass unit) or TME; in
English it is called the metric slug, or "mug" for short.

6. Kilograms Force Second/Meter Squared
A kilogram-force second per square meter (kgf•s/m²) is a metric unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1
kgf•s/m² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one kgf/m², it
moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

7. Kilograms/Meter Hour
A kilogram per meter per hour (kg/(m•h)) is a CGS unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. If a fluid with a viscosity of one kg/(m•h) is
placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one kg/m², it moves a

116

Viscosity Dynamic | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one hour. 1 kilogram per meter per hour = 0.0002778 Pascal
second.

8. Kilograms/Meter Second
A kilogram per meter per second (kg/(m•s)) is a CGS unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. If a fluid with a viscosity of one kg/(m•s) is
placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one kg/m², it moves a
distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second. 1 kilogram per meter per second = 1 Pascal
second.

9. Millipascals Second
Millipascal second is an SI unit of dynamic viscosity equal to the centipoise (cP). This unit is gradually replacing the centipoise in
many contexts.

10. Millipoises
A millipoise (mP) is a decimal fraction of the unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the centimeter gram second (CGS) system of
units, poise. The poise is equivalent to dyn•s/cm². If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 poise is placed between two plates, and the top
plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one dyn/cm², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the
fluid layer between the plates in one second.

11. Newtons Second/Meter Squared
A newton second per square meter (N•s/m²) is a metric unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. It is equivalent to Pa•s, kgf•s/m², or
kg/(m•s). If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 N•s/m² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom
plate with a shear stress of one N/m² (or 1 Pa), it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in
one second.

12. Pascals Second
A pascal second (Pa•s) is a derived SI unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity. It is equivalent to N•s/m², or kg/(m•s). If a fluid with a
viscosity of one Pa•s is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of
one pascal, it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

13. Poises
A poise (P) is the unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the centimeter gram second (CGS) system of units. It is equivalent to
dyn•s/cm². If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 poise is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate
with a shear stress of one dyn/cm², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

14. Poiseuilles
Poiseuille is an MKS unit of dynamic viscosity equal to 1 Pascal second or 10 poises or 1000 centipoises (cP). The poiseuille has been
proposed, but not accepted, as an SI derived unit. See previous entry for more detail.

15. Poundals Hour/Foot Squared
A poundal hour per square inch (pdl•h/ft²) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American customary
system of units. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 pdl•h/ft² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the
bottom plate with a shear stress of one pdl/ft², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in
one hour.

16. Poundals Second/Foot Squared
A poundal second per square inch (pdl•s/ft²) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American customary
system of units. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 pdl•s/ft² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the
bottom plate with a shear stress of one pdl/ft², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in
one second.

117

Viscosity Dynamic | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

17. Pounds Force Second/Foot Squared
A pound-force second per square foot (lbf•s/ft²) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American
customary system of units. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 lbf•s/ft² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel
to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one lbf/ft², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates
in one second.

18. Pounds Force Second/Inch Squared
A pound-force second per square inch (lbf•s/in²) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American
customary system of units. If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 lbf•s/in² is placed between two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel
to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one lbf/in², it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates
in one second.

19. Pounds/Foot Hour
A pound per foot per hour (lb/(ft•h)) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American customary system
of units.

20. Pounds/Foot Second
A pound per foot per second (lb/(ft•s)) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American customary
system of units.

21. Reyns
Reyn is a unit of dynamic viscosity in the customary English system. With force measured in pounds of force (lbf), one reyn equals 1
lbf·s/in2, approximately 68.947 57 kilopoise, or 6.894 757 kilopascal second. The unit, pronounced "ren", was named for a British
scientist, Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912).

22. Slugs/Foot Secon
A slug per foot per second (slug/(ft•s)) is a unit of dynamic (absolute) viscosity in the British Imperial and American customary
system of units. As 1 slug = 1 lbf•s²/ft, this unit is equivalent to lbf•s/ft². If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 slug/(ft•s) is placed between
two plates, and the top plate is pushed parallel to the bottom plate with a shear stress of one lbf/ft², it moves a distance equal to
the thickness of the fluid layer between the plates in one second.

118

Viscosity Dynamic | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Viscosity Kinematic
Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio of absolute or dynamic viscosity to density. Kinematic viscosity can be obtained by dividing
the absolute viscosity of a fluid with its mass density. In the SI the unit is m²/s. However, the commonly used measure is the Stokes
(or stoke) where 1 St = 10⁻⁴ m²/s. Its symbol is St. In engineering centistokes (cSt) are usually used. 1 St = 100 cSt or 1 cSt = 10⁻⁶
m²/s. Water at 20 °C has a kinematic viscosity of about 1 cSt.

1. Centimeters Squared/Second
Square Centimeter Per Second (cm²/s) is a unit in the category of Kinematic viscosity. It is also known as square centimeters per
second, square centimetre per second, square centimeter/second, square centimetre/second. This unit is commonly used in the SI
unit system. Square Centimeter Per Second (cm²/s) has a dimension of L²/T where L is length, and T is time. It can be converted to
the corresponding standard SI unit m²/s by multiplying its value by a factor of 0.0001.

2. Centistokes
A centistokes (cSt) is a decimal fraction of the CGS unit of kinematic viscosity stokes, which is equal to centimeter per second
(cm²/s). 1 stokes is a kinematic viscosity of a fluid with a density of 1 g/cm³ and a dynamic viscosity of 1 poise.

3. Feet Squared/Second
A square foot per second (ft²/s) is a unit of kinematic viscosity in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units.

4. Inches Squared/Second
Square Inch Per Second (in²/s) is a unit in the category of Kinematic viscosity. It is also known as square inches per second, square
inch/second. This unit is commonly used in the UK, US unit systems. Square Inch Per Second (in²/s) has a dimension of L²/T where L
is length, and T is time. It can be converted to the corresponding standard SI unit m²/s by multiplying its value by a factor of
0.00064516.

5. Meters Squared/Second
A square meter per second (m²/s) is a derived SI unit of kinematic viscosity. The conversion is 1 m²/s = 10⁶ cSt = 10⁴ St.

6. Millistokes
A millistokes (mSt) is a CGS unit of kinematic viscosity equal to one part of a thousand of centimeter per second (cm²/s). 1 stokes is a
kinematic viscosity of a fluid with a density of 1 g/cm³ and a dynamic viscosity of 1 poise. Sometimes singular stoke is used.

7. Stokes
A stokes (St) is a CGS unit of kinematic viscosity equal to centimeter per second (cm²/s). 1 stokes is a kinematic viscosity of a fluid
with a density of 1 g/cm³ and a dynamic viscosity of 1 poise. Sometimes singular stoke is used.

119

Viscosity Kinematic | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

Volume
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance
(solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the
cubic meter. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or
liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces.
Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straightedged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be
calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. One-dimensional figures (such as lines) and twodimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.
The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can
also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of
the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive.
In differential geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In
thermodynamics, volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure.

1. AcreFeet
An international acre-foot (ac ft) is a unit of volume in the US Customary Units used in measurement of large-scale water resources,
such as aqueducts, reservoirs, sewer flow capacity, and river flows. The acre-foot is defined as the volume of one acre of surface
area to a depth of one foot. It is equal by definition to 43,560 international cubic feet or approximately 1233.48 cubic meters.

2. AcreInches
An acre-inch is a unit of volume in the US Customary Units used in measurement of large-scale water resources, such as aqueducts,
reservoirs, sewer flow capacity, and river flows. The acre-inch is defined as the volume of one acre of surface area to a depth of one
inch. It is equal to 102.790 153 128 96 cubic meters.

3. BarrelsDry
A barrel is one of several units of volume. There are dry barrels, fluid barrels (UK beer barrel, US beer barrel), oil barrels, etc. The
volume of some barrel units is double others, with various volumes in the range of about 100–200 liters (22–44 imp gal; 26–53 US
gal), due to historical reasons.
1 US Dry Barrel = 0.115628198985075 m3

4. BarrelsLiquid
Fluid barrels vary depending on what is being measured and where. In the UK a beer barrel is 36 imperial gallons (43 US gal; 164 L).
In the US most fluid barrels (apart from oil) are 31.5 US gallons (26 imp gal; 119 L) (half a hogshead), but a beer barrel is 31 US
gallons (26 imp gal; 117 L). The size of beer kegs in the US is based loosely on fractions of the US beer barrel. When referring to beer
barrels or kegs in many countries, the term may be used for the commercial package units independent of actual volume, where
common range for professional use is 20-60 L, typically a DIN or Euro keg of 50 L.
1 US Liquid Barrel = 0.119240471196 m3

120

Volume | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

5. BarrelsOil
An oil barrel (abbreviated as bbl) is a unit of volume whose definition has not been universally standardized. In the United States
and Canada, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, which is equivalent to 158.987294928 liters exactly or approximately 34.9723
imperial gallons. Depending on the context, it can also be defined as 35 imperial gallons or as 159 liters.
1 US Oil Barrel = 0.158987294928 m3

6. Centiliters
A centiliter (cL or cl) is a decimal fraction of the non-SI metric unit of volume, the liter, which is equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm³),
1,000 cubic centimeters (cm³) or 10⁻³ cubic meter.

7. CubicCentimeters
The volume of a cube of side length one centimeter (0.01 m) equal to a milliliter
1 cm3 = 0.000001 m3 = 10-6 m3 = 1 mL

8. CubicFeet
The term cubic foot is an Imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States and the United Kingdom.
It is defined as the volume of a cube with sides of one foot (0.3048 m) in length.

9. CubicInches
A cubic inch (in³) is a unit of volume in the US Customary Units and British Imperial Units. The cubic inch is defined as the area of a
square whose sides are one inch.

10. CubicMeters
The cubic meter (SI symbol: m3) is the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with edges one meter in length. An
alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, still sometimes used for dry measure, for
instance, with wood. Another alternative name, not widely used any more, is the kiloliter.

11. CubicMicrometers
The cubic micrometer (symbol: µm3) is decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with edges one
micrometer in length.
1 µm3 = 10-18 m3

12. CubicMicrons
The cubic micron or micrometer (symbol: µm3) is decimal fraction of the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with
edges one micrometer in length.
1 µm3 = 10-18 m3

13. CubicMillimeters
The volume of a cube of side length one millimeter (0.001 m) equal to a microliter
1 mm3 = 0.000000001 m3 = 10-9 m3 = 1 µL

14. CubicYards
A Cubic Yard is a volume unit equals to 0.764554857984 m3.

15. GallonsUK
A UK (imperial) gallon (gal) is a unit of volume in the British Imperial Units equal to the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62°F or 17°С
or approximately 4,55 L. There are four 160 fluid ounces in an imperial gallon.

16. GallonsUKDry
A historic British unit of dry volume still used implicitly in the U.S. In the U.S., the term "gallon" is not used in dry measure, but if it
were it would be equal to 1/2 peck, or 4 dry quarts, or 268.8025 cubic inches, or approximately 4.404 884 liters. This unit is the

121

Volume | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

English corn or grain gallon, standardized during the reign of Elizabeth I in the sixteenth century. The earliest official definition of a
dry gallon in Britain is a 1303 proclamation of Edward I, where the gallon is defined as the volume of 8 pounds of wheat; the current
U.S. "gallon" contains about 7.5 pounds of wheat. Grain gallons have tended to be larger than liquid gallons throughout the history
of British units, apparently because they were based on heaped rather than "struck" (leveled) containers. A container in which grain
has been heaped above the top will hold as much as 25% more grain, and the traditional corn gallon is in fact 16.4% larger than the
wine gallon. A British Imperial unit of volume larger than either of the American gallons. The Imperial Weights and Measures Act of
1824 established a new unit for all volumes, liquid or dry, replacing all the other gallons in previous use in Britain. The Imperial
gallon, designed to contain exactly 10 pounds of distilled water under precisely defined conditions, holds exactly 4.546 09 liters or
approximately 277.4194 cubic inches. The Imperial gallon equals 1.20095 U.S. liquid gallons (British wine gallons) or 1.03206 U.S. dry
gallons (British corn gallons).

17. GallonsUS
A US gallon (gal) is a unit of volume in the US Customary Units equal to 231 cubic inches or approximately 3.79 L. There are four US
quarts in a gallon.

18. GallonsUSDry
A historic British unit of dry volume still used implicitly in the U.S. In the U.S., the term "gallon" is not used in dry measure, but if it
were it would be equal to 1/2 peck, or 4 dry quarts, or 268.8025 cubic inches, or approximately 4.404 884 liters. This unit is the
English corn or grain gallon, standardized during the reign of Elizabeth I in the sixteenth century. The earliest official definition of a
dry gallon in Britain is a 1303 proclamation of Edward I, where the gallon is defined as the volume of 8 pounds of wheat; the current
U.S. "gallon" contains about 7.5 pounds of wheat. Grain gallons have tended to be larger than liquid gallons throughout the history
of British units, apparently because they were based on heaped rather than "struck" (leveled) containers. A container in which grain
has been heaped above the top will hold as much as 25% more grain, and the traditional corn gallon is in fact 16.4% larger than the
wine gallon. A British Imperial unit of volume larger than either of the American gallons. The Imperial Weights and Measures Act of
1824 established a new unit for all volumes, liquid or dry, replacing all the other gallons in previous use in Britain. The Imperial
gallon, designed to contain exactly 10 pounds of distilled water under precisely defined conditions, holds exactly 4.546 09 liters or
approximately 277.4194 cubic inches. The Imperial gallon equals 1.20095 U.S. liquid gallons (British wine gallons) or 1.03206 U.S. dry
gallons (British corn gallons).

19. Kiloliters
A kiloliter (kL or kl) is a decimal multiple of the non-SI metric unit of volume, the liter, which is equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm³),
1,000 cubic centimeters (cm³) or 10⁻³ cubic meter.

20. Liters
The liter (SI symbols l or L) is a non-SI metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimeters (cm3)
or 1/1,000 cubic meter. A cubic decimeter (or liter) occupies a volume of 10 x 10 x 10 centimeters and is thus equal to onethousandth of a cubic meter. One liter of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, due to the gram being defined in
1795 as one cubic centimeter of water at the temperature of melting ice.

21. MegaGallonsUK
A UK (imperial) gallon (gal) is a unit of volume in the British Imperial Units equal to the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62°F or 17°С
or approximately 4,55 L. There are four 160 fluid ounces in an imperial gallon.

22. MegaGallonsUS
A US gallon (gal) is a unit of volume in the US Customary Units equal to 231 cubic inches or approximately 3.79 L. There are four US
quarts in a gallon.

23. Microliters
A microliter (µL or µl) is a decimal fraction of the non-SI metric unit of volume, the liter, which is equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm³),
1,000 cubic centimeters (cm³) or 10⁻³ cubic meter.

24. Milliliters
A milliliter (mL or ml) is a decimal fraction of the non-SI metric unit of volume, the liter, which is equal to 1 cubic decimeter (dm³),
1,000 cubic centimeters (cm³) or 10⁻³ cubic meter.

122

Volume | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com

www.HBSNumerics.com

HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0

25. OuncesUK
A fluid ounce is a unit of liquid capacity equal to 1⁄20 of a pint or 1⁄160 of an Imperial gallon in the imperial system or 1⁄16 of a US
liquid pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon in the US system. However, the fluid ounce is sometimes referred to simply as an "ounce" in the
context of liquid capacity.

26. OuncesUS
A fluid ounce is a unit of liquid capacity equal to 1⁄20 of a pint or 1⁄160 of an Imperial gallon in the imperial system or 1⁄16 of a US
liquid pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon in the US system. However, the fluid ounce is sometimes referred to simply as an "ounce" in the
context of liquid capacity.

27. QuartsUK
The quart is a unit of volume (for either the imperial or United States customary units) equal to a quarter of a gallon (hence the
name quart), two pints, or four cups. Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, quarts of various sizes have also
existed. Three of these kinds of quarts remain in current use, all approximately equal to one liter. Its proper abbreviation is qt.

28. QuartsUKDry
The quart is a unit of volume (for either the imperial or United States customary units) equal to a quarter of a gallon (hence the
name quart), two pints, or four cups. Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, quarts of various sizes have also
existed. Three of these kinds of quarts remain in current use, all approximately equal to one liter. Its proper abbreviation is qt.

29. QuartsUS
The quart is a unit of volume (for either the imperial or United States customary units) equal to a quarter of a gallon (hence the
name quart), two pints, or four cups. Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, quarts of various sizes have also
existed. Three of these kinds of quarts remain in current use, all approximately equal to one liter. Its proper abbreviation is qt.

30. QuartsUSDry
The quart is a unit of volume (for either the imperial or United States customary units) equal to a quarter of a gallon (hence the
name quart), two pints, or four cups. Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, quarts of various sizes have also
existed. Three of these kinds of quarts remain in current use, all approximately equal to one liter. Its proper abbreviation is qt.

123

Volume | HBS BigDecimal Unit Converter V 3.0| © 2016 www.HBSNumerics.com