Android (operating system

)
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This article is about the operating system. For other uses, see Android (disambiguation).

Android

Android 2.3 "Gingerbread"
Company /

Google Inc.,

developer

Open Handset Alliance

Programmed in

C (core),[1] C++ (some third party
libraries), Java (UI)

Working state

Current

Source model

Free and open source software

Initial release

21 October 2008
2.3.2 (Gingerbread) Build:

Latest stable release GRH78C[2] / 21 January 2011; 13 days
ago[2]
Supported platforms
Kernel type
Default user
interface
License
Official website

ARM, MIPS, Power Architecture,
x86[3][citation needed]
Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)
Graphical
Apache 2.0 (Linux kernel patches are
licensed under GPL v2[4])
android.com

Android is a mobile operating system initially developed by Android Inc. Android was bought
by Google in 2005.[5] Android is based upon a modified version of the Linux kernel. Google and
other members of the Open Handset Alliance collaborated on Android's development and release.
[6][7]
The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further
development of Android.[8]
In Q4 2010 the Android O.S. was the world's best-selling smartphone platform, dethroning
Nokia's Symbian from the 10 year top position, according to Canalys.[9][10]
Android has a large community of developers writing application programs ("apps") that extend
the functionality of the devices. There are currently over 200,000 apps available for Android.
[11]
Android Market is the online app store run by Google, though apps can be downloaded from
third-party sites (AT&T permits third-party apps only on their Aria phone [12]). Developers write
primarily in the Java language, controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries.[13]
Python, Ruby and other languages are also available for Android development via the Android
Scripting Environment.
The unveiling of the Android distribution on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding
of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 79 hardware, software, and telecom companies
devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[14][15] Google released most of the
Android code under the Apache License, a free software and open source license.[16]
The Android operating system software stack consists of Java applications running on a Javabased, object-oriented application framework on top of Java core libraries running on a Dalvik
virtual machine featuring JIT compilation. Libraries written in C include the surface manager,
OpenCore[17] media framework, SQLite relational database management system, OpenGL ES 2.0

3D graphics API, WebKit layout engine, SGL graphics engine, SSL, and Bionic libc. The
Android operating system consists of 12 million lines of code including 3 million lines of XML,
2.8 million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++.[18]

Contents
[hide]

1 History
o 1.1 Acquisition by Google
o 1.2 Open Handset Alliance
o 1.3 Licensing
o 1.4 Update history

2 Features

3 Hardware running Android

4 Software development
o 4.1 Software development kit
o 4.2 Android Market
o 4.3 App Inventor for Android
o 4.4 Android Developer Challenge
o 4.5 Google applications
o 4.6 Third party applications
o 4.7 Native code
o 4.8 Community-based firmware

5 Marketing

o 5.1 Logos
o 5.2 Typeface
o 5.3 Market share
o 5.4 Usage share

6 Linux compatibility

7 Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents

8 See also

9 References

10 Bibliography

11 External links

History
Acquisition by Google
In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc., a small startup company based in Palo Alto,
California, USA.[19] Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin
(co-founder of Danger),[20] Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),[21] Nick
Sears (once VP at T-Mobile),[22] and Chris White (headed design and interface development at
WebTV).[23] At the time, little was known about the functions of Android, Inc. other than that
they made software for mobile phones.[19] This began rumors that Google was planning to enter
the mobile phone market.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux
kernel which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a
flexible, upgradable system. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of
hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various
degrees of cooperation on their part.[24][25][26] More speculation that Google's Android would be
entering the mobile-phone market came in December 2006.[27] Reports from the BBC and The
Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it
was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that
Google was developing a Google-branded handset.[28] More speculation followed reporting that

Android has been available under a free software / open source license since 21 October 2008. it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. a consortium of several companies which include Texas Instruments. Android. Atheros Communications. These updates to the base operating system typically fix bugs and add new features. including PacketVideo. it was announced that 14 new members would be joining the Android Project. Google published the entire source code (including network and telephony stacks)[33] under an Apache License.[34] Google also keeps the reviewed issues list publicly open for anyone to see and comment.[31][32] Licensing With the exception of brief update periods.6. Qualcomm. Intel." Eric Schmidt. and Vodafone Group Plc. LG. Our vision is that the powerful platform we're unveiling will power thousands of different phone models. Marvell Technology Group. the OHA also unveiled their first product. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.[6] On 9 December 2008. Samsung Electronics. Asustek Computer Inc. Generally each update to the Android operating system is developed under a code name based on a dessert item. Motorola. Toshiba Corp. Sprint Nextel and TMobile was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. former Google Chairman/CEO[6] On the 5th of November 2007 the Open Handset Alliance. Nvidia. 1. HTC. Sony Ericsson.as Google was defining technical specifications. Softbank. Garmin Ltd.[35] Update history It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article. InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Broadcom Corporation. The code names are in alphabetical order. In September 2007.[29][30] Open Handset Alliance Main article: Open Handset Alliance "Today's announcement is more ambitious than any single 'Google Phone' that the press has been speculating about over the past few weeks. Google. ARM Holdings. (Discuss) Android has seen a number of updates since its original release.0 Released 23 September 2008[36] .[6] Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance.

5 update:[40] 1. the official 1.1 update for Android was released for TMobile G1 Only.5 (Cupcake) Based on Linux Kernel 2.6 (Donut) On 15 September 2009.On 9 February 2009. Android 1.6.1  Multiple resolved issues  API changes  Maps adds details and reviews  Screen timeout longer when using speakerphone  "Show" & "Hide" Dialpad included in-call menu  Support for saving attachments from MMS  Support for marquee in layouts On 30 April 2009.6 (Donut) SDK was released.6. [38][39] There were several new features and UI updates included in the 1.[42][43] Included in Based on Linux the update were:[41] Kernel 2.29[41]  An improved Android Market experience .27  Ability to record and watch videos through camcorder mode  Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone  A new soft-keyboard with text-prediction  Bluetooth A2DP and AVRCP support  Ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset within a certain distance  New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens  Animated screen transitions 1. Included in the update were:[37] 1. the 1.5 (Cupcake) update for Android was released.

contacts.1 (Eclair) On 26 October 2009.2  Microsoft Exchange Server by Exchange ActiveSync 2. and a text-to-speech engine  Support for WVGA screen resolutions  Speed improvements in searching and camera applications  Gesture framework and GestureBuilder development tool  Google free turn-by-turn navigation 2. camcorder.[45] Changes include: Based on Linux [46] Kernel 2. and the web from the home screen  Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO. An integrated camera.6.1x.5 support  Built in flash support for Camera . with faster response and deeper integration with native applications. the 2. VPNs. history.0 (Eclair) SDK was released. including the ability to dial contacts  Updated search experience to allow searching bookmarks. and gallery interface  Gallery now enables users to select multiple photos for deletion  Updated Voice Search.0 / 2. 802.29[44]  Optimized hardware speed  Support for more screen sizes and resolutions  Revamped UI  New Browser UI and HTML5 support  New contact lists  Better contrast ratio for backgrounds  Improved Google Maps 3.1.

32 [51]  General Android OS speed.[48] The 2. autodiscovery.6.1  Live Wallpapers The 2.1 SDK was released on 3 December 2009. Digital Zoom  MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events[47]  Improved virtual keyboard  Bluetooth 2.2.[49] 2. the 2. memory.2 (Froyo) SDK was released.1 SDK was released on 12 January 2010. calendar synchronization.[50] Changes included:[51] Based on Linux Kernel 2. and performance (2.2 latest optimizations[52] release)  Additional application speed improvements courtesy of JIT implementation[53]  Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application  Increased Microsoft Exchange support (security policies. GAL look-up. remote wipe)  Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications  USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality  Added an option to disable data access over mobile network  Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features[52]  Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries  Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth .0.2 (Froyo)[50] On 20 May 2010.

3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released.35[58]  Updated user interface design  Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher)[56]  Native support for SIP VoIP telephony  Support for WebM/VP8 video playback. the 2.[57] Changes (Gingerbread)[57] included:[58] Based on Linux Kernel 2.1 support[55]  Support for extra high DPI screens (320 dpi). such as 4" 720p[56] 2.6. and AAC audio encoding  New audio effects such as reverb. and input enhancements for game developers  Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance  Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers)  A download manager for long-running downloads . graphical. Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords  Support for file upload fields in the Browser application[54]  Support for installing applications to the expandable memory  Adobe Flash 10. equalization. and bass boost  Support for Near Field Communication  System-wide copy–paste functionalities  Redesigned multi-touch software keyboard  Enhanced support for native code development  Audio.3 On 6 December 2010. headphone virtualization.

[62] Features Current features and specifications:[63][64][65] . a preview of the 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK was released. Improved power management and application control  Native support for multiple cameras  Switched from YAFFS to the ext4 filesystem[59] On 26 January 2011. bookmark syncing with Google Chrome. Changes include:[61] 3.0 (Honeycomb) [60] Ice Cream Sandwich[62]  Optimized tablet support with a new user interface  Three dimensional desktop with redesigned widgets  Refined multi-tasking  Browser enhancements including tabbed web pages. and private browsing  Support for video chat using Google Talk  Hardware acceleration  Support for multi-core processors Possible mid-2011 release. form auto-fill.

UMTS. Wi-Fi. Bluetooth. and WiMAX. is used for data storage purposes Connectivity Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE. 2D graphics library. Architecture Diagram The platform is adaptable to larger. 3D graphics Handset layouts library based on OpenGL ES 2. VGA. a lightweight relational database. EV-DO. .The Android Emulator default home screen (v1. CDMA. and traditional smartphone layouts.5). Storage SQLite.0 specifications. LTE. IDEN.

Market The Android Market is a catalog of applications that can be downloaded and . Ogg Vorbis. HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). proximity and pressure sensors. MP3. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on the Dalvik virtual machine. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). touchscreens.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container). tools for debugging.1 plugin.[66] Apple HTTP Live Streaming Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Mobile[67] and planned to be media support supported by the operating system in Android 3. The programming languages are Java and C/C++. coupled with Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine. gyroscopes. MPEG-4 SP.0 (Honeycomb). memory and performance Development profiling.[65] RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS.263. H. The integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (currently environment 3. GIF. WAV. H. magnetometers. GPS.[61] Microsoft Smooth Streaming is planned to be supported through the awaited port of Silverlight plugin to Android. there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. AMR. Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by the Flash 10. MIDI. scaling. The browser scores a 93/100 on the Acid3 Test. including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM.Messaging SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging. J2ME support can be provided via third-party-applications. While most Android applications are written in Java. thermometers. AMR-WB (in Media support 3GP container). JPEG. PNG. Includes a device emulator. The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit Web browser layout engine. Java support Dalvik is a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. accelerometers. Additional hardware support Android can use video/still cameras. BMP. ISMA). AAC.4 or greater) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation.

The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-screen technology). voice dialing and sending contacts between phones.0 (Honeycomb). are supported on Android 2. Video calling through Google Talk is planned for Android 3. . Keyboard.[70] Voice based features Google search through Voice has been available since initial release. including the Dell Streak. the Nexus One. released on 22 October 2008.[68] Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively. Samsung Galaxy Tab and other devices.[74][75] The first commercially available phone to run the Android operating system was the HTC Dream.installed to Android devices over-the-air. accessing the phone book (PBAP). AVRCP. Full HID support is planned for Android 3. Prior to Android 2. texting.[61] The mainstream Android version does not support video calling. sending files (OPP). This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-made Nexus S. which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired hotspot.[72] Tethering Android supports tethering.[71] Voice actions for calling. Multi-touch Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. netbooks and tablets.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations.[69] Bluetooth Supports A2DP. mouse and joystick (HID) support is available through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.0 (Honeycomb). Video calling either via UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP.[76] In early 2010 Google collaborated with HTC to launch its flagship[77] Android device.[73] Hardware running Android Main article: List of Android devices The Android OS can be used as an operating system for cellphones. without the use of a PC. navigation etc.2 onwards. but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system which supports it. Multitasking Multitasking of applications is available.

inadequate QA infrastructure. a handset emulator (based on QEMU). While developers can use regular consumer devices purchased at retail to test and use their applications. "Functionality is not there. (Discuss) Early Android device. The first publicly available application was the Snake game. and no public issuetracking system.[79] Issues cited include bugs.5 or 3.4.[78] Software development It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article. The early feedback on developing applications for the Android platform was mixed. has also been launched by the company People of Lava.[84] These include a debugger. documentation. and tutorials. some developers may choose not to use a retail device.The world's first TV running Android.6) using the Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin. build and debug Android applications . lack of documentation. Software development kit The Android software development kit (SDK) includes a comprehensive set of development tools.. 3. though developers may use any text editor to edit Java and XML files then use command line tools (Java Development Kit and Apache Ant are required) to create.4. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse (currently 3.)[80] In December 2007. Mac OS X 10."[81] Despite this. is poorly documented or just doesn't work.. It's clearly not ready for prime time. (Google announced an issue tracker on 18 January 2008. preferring an unlocked or no-contract device. sample code. Currently supported development platforms include computers running Linux (any modern desktop Linux distribution). libraries. Androidtargeted applications began to appear the week after the platform was announced.[82][83] The Android Dev Phone is a SIMunlocked and hardware-unlocked device that is designed for advanced developers. Windows XP or later. called Scandinavia. MergeLab mobile startup founder Adam MacBeth stated.9 or later.

apk format and stored under /data/app folder on the Android OS (the folder is accessible to root user only for security reasons). resource files.[88] According to the release notes. installing software package(s) remotely)..9 SDK beta was released. [94] . it included "mainly bug fixes.0 SDK (Release 1) was released. triggering a reboot.[86] On 18 August 2008 the Android 0. older platforms and tools can also be downloaded for compatibility testing.g. improved development tools and an updated design for the home screen. The SDK also supports older versions of the Android platform in case developers wish to target their applications at older devices.000 games. etc. [89] Enhancements to Android's SDK go hand in hand with the overall Android platform development. Development tools are downloadable components. [87] On 23 September 2008 the Android 1. Multiple versions have been released since.9 version. APK package contains .[90] Android applications are packaged in . Android Market Main article: Android Market Android Market is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices. the Android Developer Challenge Team accidentally sent an email to all entrants in the Android Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK was available in a "private" download area.dex files[91] (compiled byte code files called Dalvik executable). This release provided an updated and extended API. The email was intended for winners of the first round of the Android Developer Challenge.[85] A preview release of the Android SDK was released on 12 November 2007. As of December 2010 there were about 200. It also included several API changes from the 0.5 billion total downloads.[92] Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall Google's closed-source Android Market app and access the Market. although some smaller features were added". with an estimated 2. The revelation that Google was supplying new SDK releases to some developers and not others (and keeping this arrangement private) led to widely reported frustration within the Android developer community at the time. On 15 July 2008. An application program ("app") called "Market" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers. and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.[93] The Market filters the list of applications presented by the Market app to those that are compatible with the user's device.as well as control attached Android devices (e. hosted on Android Market. so after one has downloaded the latest version and platform. applications and widgets available on the Android Market. Detailed instructions for upgrading are available to those already working with an earlier release.

where Professor David Wolber developed an introductory computer science course and tutorial book for non-computer science students based on App Inventor for Android. Support for paid applications was available from 13 February 2009 for US and UK developers. accelerometer and orientation data.[98] "We could only have done this because Android’s architecture is so open. speech-to-text conversion. ADC I accepted submissions from 2 January to 14 April 2008. The 50 most promising entries.Google announced the Android Market on 28 August 2008. and ten teams that received $100." said the project director.000 award to fund further development. text messaging. and Web services. based on MIT's Open Blocks Java library and providing access to Android devices' GPS. and it was available to users on 22 October 2008.000 each.[101][102] Android Developer Challenge Main article: Android Developer Challenge The Android Developer Challenge was a competition for the most innovative application for Android. phone functions.[99] Under development for over a year.[96] Users can install apps directly using APK files or alternative app markets. initially including Amazon and Twitter. each received a $25.[106] . contact data. and the University of San Francisco.000 each. [103][104] It ended in early September with the announcement of ten teams that received $275. a Web-based visual development environment for novice programmers.[100] the block-editing tool has been taught to non-majors in computer science at Harvard. including:[97]  Andspot  Handango  GetJar  SlideMe  AndAppStore  AndroLib  AppBrain App Inventor for Android Main article: Google App Inventor On 12 July 2010 Google announced the availability of App Inventor for Android. MIT. distributed between ADC I and ADC II. persistent storage. Wellesley.[95] with additional support from 29 countries on 30 September 2010. MIT's Hal Abelson.[105] ADC II was announced on 27 May 2009. Google offered prizes totaling 10 million US dollars. announced on 12 May 2008.

but does not provide the full-class libraries and APIs bundled with Java SE or ME. Gesture Search for using finger written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone. These applications include Google Voice for the Google Voice service.[113] However.[120][121][122][123] As of August 2010.[119] Further. which enable the developer to convert Java into Android. Maps Editor for their MyMaps service. a jogging application. In August 2010.[107] The first-round winners of ADC II comprising the top 200 applications were announced on 5 November 2009.[118] Such problems were pointedly brought into focus as they were encountered during the ADC2 contest. Java SE and ME. and initiate calls by voice. Google Shopper.5 and 1.[111][112] Obstacles to development include the fact that Android does not use established Java standards. i. Google launched "Voice Actions for Android". Google Translate. and 17% still run the 1. owing to compatibility issues between versions 1. Google Goggles that searches by image.000 applications. Android only reuses the Java language syntax. Google announced the top winners of ADC II on November 30.6 versions[124] Native code . As of December 2010. Voting for the second round also opened on the same day and ended on November 25. This prevents compatibility among Java applications written for those platforms and those for the Android platform. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks.x versions.e.5 and 1.The first round of the ADC II closed on 6 October 2009. What the Doodle!? and WaveSecure being nominated the overall winners of the challenge. there has also been an increased interest by third party developers to port their applications to the Android operating system.[108][109] Google applications Google has also participated in the Android Market by offering several applications for its services. with SweetDreams.[117] especially the different resolution ratios in use among various Android phones. 83% of Android phones run the 2. This is up from 70.[92] with over 1 billion downloads. the Android Marketplace had over 200.000 in July 2010. Companies like Myriad Group and UpOnTek provide these services.[114][115][116] Developers have reported that it is difficult to maintain applications on multiple versions of Android. Places Directory for their Local Search. the rapid growth in the number of Android-based phone models with differing hardware capabilities also makes it difficult to develop applications that work on all Android-based phones. Third party applications With the growing number of Android handsets.[110] which allows users to search.6. write messages. there are multiple tools in the market that provide J2ME to Android conversion services. Finance for their finance service. Sky Map for watching stars.

Even though most of Android OS is open source.[127] Running native code is complicated by the fact that Android uses a non-standard C library (libc.[135] Marketing . and it is the graphics engine underlying the Google Chrome web browser. phones come packaged with closedsource Google applications for functionality such as the application store and GPS navigation.Libraries written in C and other languages can be compiled to ARM native code and installed using the Android Native Development Kit.loadLibrary call. Google issued a cease and desist letter[133] to the modder Cyanogen. In order to use custom firmwares the devices bootloader must be unlocked. Rooting allows users root access to the operating system. He has provided a method to back up licensed Google applications during the mod's install process and restore them when it is complete. such as FLAC lossless audio support and the ability to store downloaded applications on the microSD card.[130] Community-based firmware There is a community of open-source enthusiasts that build and share Android-based firmware with a number of customizations and additional features. and it has been released under an open source license. On 24 September 2009. citing issues with the re-distribution of Google's closed-source applications[134] within the custom firmware. known as Bionic). Cyanogen has complied with Google's wishes and is continuing to distribute this mod without the proprietary software. Modified firmwares allow users of older phones to use applications available only on newer releases. which is part of the standard Android Java classes.[125][126] Complete applications can be compiled and installed using traditional development tools. and tend to have fewer limitations.[131] This usually involves rooting the device.[127] The ADB debugger gives a root shell under the Android Emulator which allows native ARM code to be uploaded and executed.[132] Those firmware packages are updated frequently.[128] The graphics library that Android uses to arbitrate and control access to this device is called the Skia Graphics Library (SGL). The underlying graphics device is available as a framebuffer at /dev/graphics/fb0. ARM code can be compiled using GCC on a standard PC. allowing the development of cross-platform applications. Native classes can be called from Java code running under the Dalvik VM using the System.[129] Skia has backends for both win32 and Unix. Google has asserted that these applications can only be provided through approved distribution channels by licensed distributors. giving more control over their environment variables. incorporate elements of Android functionality that haven't yet been officially released within a carrier-sanctioned firmware. CyanogenMod and VillainROM are two examples of such firmware. Rooting alone does not allow the flashing of custom firmware.

0% of the U. As of December 2010 Google said over 300.4 percent.[140] By the end of Q3 2010 Android's U. This estimate includes the Tapas and OMS variants of Android.[145] up from 100. only used in the text logo.[142] Furthermore. up 8% from the December quarter. as measured by current mobile subscribers.[137] Typeface The custom typeface of Android is called Norad. and still has to compete with heavy consumer demand for new competitor offerings.[141] In May 2010.8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments.[9] In February 2010 ComScore said the Android platform had 9.S. According to a report by the NPD group. Android achieved 25% smartphone sales in the US market. Google added 20 countries to its list of approved submitters.000 Android phones were being activated daily.Android robot logo Logos The Android logo was designed with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation. indicating that Android is taking market share mainly from RIM. market share had grown to 21. Apple's iOS was up by 11%.S. The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines. sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform.[139] By Q4 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market.S. smartphone market. By midOctober.[138] Market share Research company Canalys estimated in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2. multi-carrier OS. analysts pointed to advantages that Android has as a multi-channel. purchasing apps will be available in a total of 32 countries.[136] Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.000 per day in May 2010. In the second quarter. which allowed it to duplicate the quick success of Microsoft's Windows Mobile.[143] In early October 2010. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5.[146] Usage share . becoming the topselling smartphone platform. Android's first quarter U.2% in November 2009.[144] For a complete list of countries that are allowed to sell apps and those able to buy them see Android Market.

support for the X Window System is possible.[151][152] This was due to a disagreement about new features Google felt were necessary (some related to security of mobile applications). 2011 Platform Android 2. [150] Google no longer maintains the code they previously contributed to the Linux kernel as part of their Android effort.2 (Froyo) Android 2.1% of devices running obsolete versions[147] Data collected during two weeks ending on January 4.0/2. and this makes it difficult to port existing GNU/Linux applications or libraries to Android.[148] Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.[149] However.7% Linux compatibility Android's kernel was derived from Linux but has been tweaked by Google outside the main Linux kernel tree.8% 35.6 (Donut) Android 1.5 (Cupcake) API Level Distribution 9 8 7 4 3 0.2% 7. 2011 Other: 0.3 (Gingerbread) Android 2.1 (Eclair) Android 1. creating a separate version or fork of Linux.9% 4.[155] .[153] The code which is no longer maintained was deleted in January 2010 from the Linux codebase.Data collected during two weeks ending on January 4.[154] Google announced in April 2010 that they will hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community.4% 51.

and redistribute software". The lawsuit claims that.[156] Furthermore.[158] Claimed infringement of copyrights and patents On 12 August 2010. a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries. ("the '104 patent") entitled “Method And Apparatus For Resolving Data References In Generated Code” authored by James Gosling. 6. the FSF also criticized Google. because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. that Oracle's patents were invalid. sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents.205.104. 5. entitled "Interpreting Functions Utilizing A Hybrid Of Virtual And Native Machine Instructions".[160] It also references United States Patent No.910. They said that Android is based on Apache Harmony. share. It has also called the suit a "clear attack against someone's freedom to use. modify. and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik. Greg Kroah-Hartman. entitled "Method And Apparatus For Preprocessing And Packaging Class Files".". "In developing Android. said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux[157] Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team were getting fed up with the process".[162][163][164] The Free Software Foundation has said that Google could have avoided this suit by building Android on top of IcedTea whose GPL license provides some protection against patents. See also  Android Market  BlackBerry OS  Chromium OS .966. Oracle. Google knowingly. directly and repeatedly infringed Oracle's Java-related intellectual property. and remarking that Google had not taken any clear position or action against software patents.702.[161] In response Google submitted multiple lines of defense. owner of Java since it acquired Sun Microsystems in April 2009. the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch. and United States Patent No. as of January 2011. which is still rejected today.[165] However. writing that "It's sad to see that Google apparently shunned those protections in order to make proprietary software development easier on Android.However. instead of implementing it independently under the Apache License. best known as the father of the Java programming language. and several other defenses. points of contention still exist between Google and the Linux kernel team: Google tried to push upstream some Android-specific power management code in 2009. RE38."[159] Specifically the patent infringement claim references seven patents including United States Patent No. saying that Android did not infringe on Oracle's patents or copyright.

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103.blogspot. http://www. Retrieved 2010-07-12. ^ Claburn.nytimes. http://android-developers.html?src=busln. Android Developer Challenge.jhtml? articleID=225702880&subSection=News.blogspot. San Francisco Chronicle.google.com/news/NS3168326017. Google Research Blog. ^ Chen. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 100. html.google. http://www. Google.html.html. http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2010-07-12. Information Week. Jason (12 May 2008). "Android Developer Challenge announces firstround winners". 109.com/android/adc/adc_gallery/.html. http://articles. . Retrieved 2010-12-05. ^ Kharif. ^ Abelson.com/2009/10/adc-2-round-1scoring-complete. Retrieved 2009-11-03.com/2010/07/12/technology/12google. BusinessWeek. 106. ^ "ADC 2 Overall Winners".com/news/smb/mobile/showArticle. Hal (2009-07-31). http://code.com/2008/05/top-50-applications. "App Inventor for Android". ^ "Android Developer Challenge". Eric (6 October 2009).com/android/adc/. "The Top 50 Applications". http://googleresearch. Olga (30 November 2009). "Google App Inventor Simplifies Android Programming".com/the_thread/techbeat/archives/2009/11/android_develop_2. Thomas (2010-07-12). "AppInventor. David.com/2009/07/app-inventor-for-android. ^ Brown. "Google’s Do-It-Yourself App Creation Software".google. "ADC 2 Round 1 Scoring Complete". http://www.businessweek. ^ "ADC I Top 50 Gallery". 108. ^ Lohr. "Android Developer Challenge 2 Winners Announced". Retrieved 2010-07-12. http://code. Retrieved 2010-07-12. ^ Wolber. 107.blogspot.linuxdevices. Android Developer Challenge. http://android-developers. Retrieved 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2010-12-05.appinventor. 99. Android Developers Blog.html. 102. Android Developers Blog. New York Times.org". http://code. Ryan (2009-12-11).98.sfgate. ^ Kim. Eric (13 May 2008). ^ Chu. 104. "Google brings app-making to the masses". Retrieved 2010-07-12.org/. http://www. Steve (2010-07-11). 105. 101.informationweek.com/android/adc/gallery_winners. Google Code. Linux for Devices.com/2009-1211/business/17220628_1_computer-science-smart-phone-android.html.

http://www. ^ "Myriad CTO: J2Android moves MIDlets to "beautiful" Android framework".zdnet. http://www. "On the other hand. 2009-10-11. 112. Retrieved 2010-07-15. So those of you out there hoping to avoid learning how to write Android code may have to wait a while. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 23 March 2010. The tool isn't actually available on the open market just yet. http://www.com. Retrieved 2009-03-07.com/2009/11/news/complications-looming-for-androiddevelopers/. this will slow adoption.000 MIDlets in an afternoon. Retrieved 2009-10- . 19 March 2010. 2010-0715. http://www." at the moment they're working with a few providers to transform their back catalogs.com/community/node/4170. 31 March 2010. Ultimately. http://www.aspx." 116. would have at least mentioned the relationship between Java and Android to make the oddness of this announcement clear. ^ "Android Market Has 100. I don't understand why Google intends to ignore the vast amount of existing implementation out there.myriadgroup. ^ "Android Market Hits 1 Billion Downloads & 100.javaworld. ^ Voice Actions for Android 111." 117. TechCrunch.uk/2010/07/16/android-market-hits-1-billion-downloads100000-apps/. ^ "J2Android hopes you don't know that Android is Java-based".javalobby. 2009-1106. There are already too many Java platforms for the mobile world and this is yet another one" 114. ^ "Android's Weakest Link".000 apps". you might think this is kind of a scam aimed at developers who don't really understand the nature of the platform they're targeting. "We will have to wait and see exactly how much pickup J2Android actually sees. http://blogs. 113.co. androidandme. ZDNet.techcrunch. 2009-10-11. ^ "Complications looming for Android developers".000 Apps & Passes 1 Billion Downloads". Javalobby. "Frankly. 2010-07-15.110.fonehome.javaworld. 115. Retrieved 2010-01-15.com/Greenfield/?p=481. the IDG News Service reporter who wrote the first story linked to above (who toils for the same company that publishes JavaWorld). http://www. My biggest complaint is that you'd think that Mikael Ricknäs. ^ "A Chink In Android's Armor". http://androidandme. ^ van Gurp. http://www.com/community/?q=node/4210.com/Media-Centre/News/Myriad-NewJ2Android-Converter-Fuels-Android-Applications-Gold-Rush.html.com/2010/07/15/android-market-now-has-100-000-apps-passes1-billion-download-m/. while Schillings spoke optimistically about "converting 1. ^ "Myriad's New J2Android Converter Fuels Android Applications Gold Rush". 119.com/2009/10/11/a-chink-in-androids-armor/.org/nl/archive/jlnews_20071113o. 118. Retrieved 2010-01-15.engadget. "Google Android: Initial Impressions and Criticism". It seems like a bad case of "not invented here" to me. Jilles (13 November 2007).

wordpress..javaworld. And here's the problem – in almost every case. ^ a b Leslie.au/blog/2007/11/13/android-native-apps.id.. Also.0.html.]We haven’t heard of any major app developers complaining of backwards or forward compatibility problems.2.lang.android. http://www. 200911-16. some running v. but then when you run it on carriers’ ROMs it completely blows up. 123. Retrieved 2010-02-28. Davanum (2007-12-09). http://www.wired.. the compatibility between versions issue may be overblown. and every application continues to work fine. Retrieved 200909-04. Retrieved 2008-12-13. ^ "Google Android's self-destruction derby begins". I’ve now upgraded my phone from 1.com/reference/java/lang/System.com/resources/dashboard/platform-versions." 120.[. http://infoworld. http://davanum. http://benno. multiple ROMs and multiple devices with different hardware.com/gadgetlab/2009/11/android-fragmentation/.htm. All those manufacturers/carriers are racing to release their phones by the 2009 holiday season. BusinessWeek. we hear. developer.)"You may build an app that works perfectly with all three firmwares. The reported problems have been limited to an Android developer contest[.6 and some courageous souls even running android v.html. ... Android Developers. 126. JavaWorld. 124. an mobile app analytics company(. 2010-02-22.businessweek. Ben (13 November 2007). http://developer." 121. ^ "Platform Versions".com/d/mobilize/google-androids-self-destruction-derby-begins-863. "Fagan’s concerns about the fragmentation of Android is being echoed by other developers. 2009-11-17. "Native C application for Android". ^ "Android just reproducing Java ME's problems. Retrieved 2010-02-26. "Android — Invoke JNI based methods (Bridging C/C++ and Java)". http://developer. Retrieved 201002-26. now".android. ^ "Android’s Rapid Growth Has Some Developers Worried". InfoWorld. ^ Srinivas. ^ "java. says Sean Galligan. vice president of business development at Flurry. 2009-10-15.]First of all.com. ^ "Android's Spread Could Become a Problem". "So we find ourselves having to create apps that are compatible with multiple firmwares. http://www.System".1.11." says Fagan.com/community/node/3704.. 127.5 to 1. Wired News. 122.com/technology/content/oct2009/tc20091015_626136. Retrieved 2010-02-28. "And now they're faced with a landslide of new handsets. Benno's blog. and want to ensure the hot applications will work on their phones.com/2007/12/09/android-invokejni-based-methods-bridging-cc-and-java/. Retrieved 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 2010-05-03. 125.6.android. there are bugs and more serious problems with the apps.

Taylor (24 September 2009).cyanogenmod. 134.com/blog/. ^ "Android 2. ^ "Brand Guidelines". ^ "comScore Reports February 2010 U. 23 March 2009.android.com/2008/09/25/font-android-g1-tech-wire-cx_ew_0926font. http://androidandme.com/branding.forbes. "Android's Very Own Font". "A Note on Google Apps for Android". Tom (2007-11-07). Mobile Subscriber Market Share". Android.google. CyanogenMod Android Rom. Retrieved 2009-10-30.html. http://www. 130.com/forumdisplay. 135.com. http://www. ^ Wimberly. "CyanogenMod in trouble?". Retrieved 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2010-04-10. "Skia graphics library in Chrome: First impressions". Alp (2008-09-06). http://www. ^ "Skia source".S. Forbes. http://android-developers.org/viewvc/chrome/trunk/src/skia/. 23 March 2009. ^ Cooksey.".html. Dan (25 September 2009). 138. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 21 August 2009._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share. ^ "Dream android development". Retrieved 2009-09-21. Android.php?f=448. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 131. ^ "The current state. . http://www. http://src.html.xdadevelopers.1 from Motorola Droid Ported to G1". 5 April 2010.com/2009/09/hacks/cyanogenmod-in-trouble/. http://forum. ^ Toker. Retrieved 2009-09-26.. 140.appleinsider. 132. Android and me. Volt Mobile. Android Developers Blog. AppleInsider.html.S.com/branding. Elizabeth (26 September 2008).com/group/android-developers/msg/ace258af92fff692? dmode=source&pli=1.. Comscore. 133.com/2009/09/note-ongoogle-apps-for-android.com/articles/09/08/21/canalys_iphone_outsold_all_windows_mo bile_phones_in_q2_2009. http://groups.com/blog/2008/09/06/skia-graphics-library-in-chrome-firstimpressions/.android. 2010. http://voltmobileandtech. http://www. xda-developers forum. 129. ^ Woyke.chromium. Retrieved 2008-12-13. http://www. ^ "Android Brand Guidelines". 139. 136. Retrieved 24 December 2010. March 10. "Native C *GRAPHICAL* applications now working on Android emulator".mycomscore.com/home/the-current-state. 137. ^ "Canalys: iPhone outsold all Windows Mobile phones in Q2 2009".net/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/4/comScore_Reports_Fe bruary_2010_U. android-developers mailing list.atoker.html. ^ Morrill.128. 27 September 2009.blogspot. Retrieved 2009-09-27. http://www.

Charles (2010-06-25).com.S.0%.cnet. accepting paid apps from 20 more countries.uk/technology/2010/jun/25/android-schmidt-mobile-platform. http://www. http://www. "Eric Schmidt's dog whistle to mobile developers: abandon Windows Phone". ^ "comScore Reports September 2010 U.1%. "In fact. Mobile Subscriber Market Share". Retrieved 2010-10-29. Microsoft.) The problem with Google approach is that it makes Android an island.. Palm.4%. Engadget. 42.0%" 141.com/open-source/reviews/2009/02/anintroduction-to-google-android-for-developers.S. http://www. 144.cnet. Retrieved 24 December 2010. 143.engadget. ^ Greg Sandoval (2010-08-02).com/2010/12/09/andy-rubin-over-300-000android-phones-activated-daily/. 145.4%. 5.youtube.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/11/comScore_Reports_Sep tember_2010_U. (. Retrieved 2010-08-04. 9. selling to 18 more".. http://www. Google engineer Patrick Brady stated unambiguously that Android is not Linux. ^ "Android hits top spot in U. "More signs iPhone under Android attack". 142.com/resources/dashboard/platform-versions. smartphone market". http://news."RIM.android. http://arstechnica. London: The Guardian.Part 1 of 3 . Retrieved 24 December 2010. 9 December 2010. ^ "Platform Versions". Android doesn't officially support native C programs at all.com/8301-1035_3-20012627-94. Engadget. Google (Android). Retrieved 2010-12-01. 200809-06.comscore.com/watch?v=QBGfUs9mQYY. The highly insular nature of the platform prevents Android users and developers from taking advantage of the rich ecosystem of existing third-party Linux applications. ^ "Andy Rubin: over 300.com/8301-13579_3-20012418-37. Retrieved 2010-08-04.guardian. 3. so it won't be possible to port your favorite GTK+ or Qt applications to Android" .engadget.1%. http://www. Apple. 146. YouTube. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 2007-11-07.html.co.Architecture Overview. Retrieved 2009-03-07. ^ Androidology . 2010-10-01. "based on the number of Android devices that have accessed Android Market within a 14-day period ending on the data collection date noted below" 148.html.S. Ars Technica. [Video]. http://developer. Comscore._Mobile_Subscriber_Market_Share. Android Developers. 147. 15. others.ars. 2010-08-04. "Dream(sheep++): A developer's introduction to Google Android".com/2010/10/01/google-expands-androidss-reach-accepting-paidapps-from-20-mor/. Ryan (23 February 2009).000 Android phones activated daily". http://news.html. during a presentation at the Google IO conference. 149. ^ Arthur. 25. ^ "Google expands Android's reach. ^ Paul.

2011-08-10. http://www.com/log/linux/android-kernel-problems.com/open-source/?p=6274. 157. ^ Greg Kroah-Hartman (2010-02-02).150. http://blogs.h-online. Because of this. http://www. 155. but their proposed changes are still pending. Retrieved 2010-02-03.honline. whose field of expertise is power management at Red Hat. nonetheless admitted that when he first saw the patch submitted by Android. a minimal solution has been introduced to the mainline..html. 151. Companies with Android-specific platform and drivers cannot contribute upstream. ^ "Linux developer explains Android kernel code removal". http://news. http://developer. http://www. New undefined terms. 9 February 2010.kroah.html. KDE. 153. ^ "Garrett's LinuxCon Talk Emphasizes Lessons Learned from Android/Kernel Saga". cannot get merged into the main kernel tree because they have dependencies on code that only lives in Google's kernel tree. ^ "What is Android?". 156. Androidfanatic. such as "wakelock" and "earlysuspend.)As for Android's patch. making the patch very hard to understand(. Retrieved 2011-01-02.)There were questions about the very motivation of the patch: with the undefined terms.com.org".com/2100-9595_22-389733.zdnet.) But now they are stuck. kernel developers were unsure what problem was being addressed and if the problem would even apply to the Linux kernel as a whole(.linux. www.android.. ^ "Android versus Linux?".androidfanatic. IceWM or LXDE Desktop on your Android! AndroidFanatic Community Forums".com. www.zdnet.(. ^ Greg Kroah-Hartman (2010-12-09). which causes these companies a much larger maintenance and development cycle. ZDNet. 15 April 2010.org tree. Retrieved 2010-01-08.com/log/linux/android-kernel-problems. Retrieved 2010-10-29." 154.. "Android and the Linux kernel community". 152. 2010-02-02. Retrieved . Google has now prevented a large chunk of hardware drivers and platform code from ever getting merged into the main kernel tree. Android Developers. "This means that any drivers written for Android hardware platforms. he didn't even know what the patch was trying to fix and what specific functions were being called in the patch.html? %20func=view&catid=9&id=1615. Effectively creating a kernel branch that a number of different vendors are now relying on. causing it to fail to build in the kernel. Retrieved 2010-04-29. http://www..zdnet.html. Linux.html.com/guide/basics/what-is-android. "Android and the Linux kernel community".com quote=Garrett. http://www. Retrieved 2010-02-28.com/community-forums.. Retrieved 2010-02-03..html. ^ "Re:Gnome.com/open/features/Android-versus-Linux-924563. ^ "DiBona: Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel..com.kroah.com/news/embedded-mobile/mobile-linux/344486-garretta-linuxcontalk-emphasizes-lessons-learned-from-androidkernel-saga." were intermixed in the original January 2009 patch submittal to the mainline kernel.

164. Retrieved 2010-11-03. Groklaw. Retrieved 26 December 2010. It looks much more open. although. "There's less than 64K of patch.org/news/oracle-vgoogle/?searchterm=Oracle.php?story=20101111114933605. http://www. Free Software Foundation. Google and the threat of software patents".com/s/article/9180678/Update_Oracle_sues_Google_over_Ja va_use_in_Android?taxonomyId=13.2011-01-02. "Google shows no sign of working to get their code upstream anymore. time is not something the Android team has a lot of. http://groklaw. ^ "Google Files Sizzling Answer to Oracle's Amended Complaint and its Opposition to Motion to Dismiss .php? story=20101005114201136. http://blogs. 5 October 2010. ^ Ed Burnette (August 12. ^ "Android/Linux kernel fight continues". Wired News.com/doc/35811761/Oracle-s-complaint-against-Google-for-Javapatent-infringement. 165.. Retrieved 26 December 2010. according to Ts'o. and a much more active developer community. Some companies are trying to strip the Android-specific interfaces from their codebase and push that upstream. ^ "Google Answers Oracle. and Moves to Dismiss Copyright Infringement Claim". Retrieved 26 December 2010. "Oracle uses James Gosling patent to attack Google and Android developers".com/blog/burnette/oracleuses-james-gosling-patent-to-attack-google-and-android-developers/2035? tag=mantle_skin. 162. there's been over 1. http://www."" 159.fsf. 2010). http://groklaw. "Unfortunately. "FSF responds to Oracle v. Retrieved 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2010-11-03.. Counterclaims.com/16900/android_linux_kernel_fight_continues. with the code mostly all upstream. ^ James Niccolai (2010-08-12).)As for me.net/article. Retrieved 2010-08-13. Ts'o said that.scribd. http://www.content." Ts'o made it sound like the Android team is getting fed up with the process. Retrieved 2011-01-02.com. 11 November 2010. and is a pain that just should not be necessary(. 160.wired. 161. ZD Net. scribd. 2010). http://www..computerworld. 163. They're too busy running to keep up with hardware requirements.800 mail messages of discussion. I think I'll look into getting a Nokia N900.com/epicenter/2010/10/googleoracle-android/. ^ Ryan Singel (5 October 2010). "Android is a small team. ^ "Oracle's complaint against Google for Java patent infringement".zdnet. "Calling Oracle Hypocritical. Groklaw." 158. 2010-09-07.computerworld. "Oracle sues Google over Java use in Android". Google Denies Patent Infringement". Computerworld. ^ Brett Smith (September 8. Bibliography .net/article. They feel that they're spending a vast amount of time getting the code upstream (to the main Linux kernel).updated 2Xs". http://www. but that causes a much larger engineering effort.

Unlocking Android: A Developer's Guide (1st ed.com/book/view/1430226595. Apress. 2009). Frank. http://oreilly. External links Wikinews has related news: Google Android smartphone sales triple in the UK this year Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Android (operating system)  Official Android page . 2009). Chris (July 21. Hello. ISBN 0321627091. ISBN 0470344717.manning.  Meier. Apress. ISBN 1430226595. Jerome (July 30. ISBN 0071599886.).php? isbn=0071599886&cat=112. Mark (June 26.).apress..).com/book/view/1430210648.mhprofessional. ISBN 1430210648. Sayed Y. Darcey. Android: Introducing Google's Mobile Development Platform (2nd ed. Dave (February 26. Android a programmers guide (1st ed.  Rogers.  Ableson.wrox. Collins. Pragmatic Bookshelf. John. 2008).). MacLean.productCd-0470344717.apress. 2008). Komatineni. http://www. Meike. Apress. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. Wrox Press. Robi (May 1. Zigurd. ISBN 1933988673. Sen. Mednieks. Beginning Android (1st ed. 2009). Reto (November 24. http://www. Lauren (September 7. 2009).com/catalog/9780596521509. 2010). http://www.  Murphy. Lombardo.html. Charlie.com/book/view/1430224193. Android Application Development: Programming with the Google SDK (1st ed. ISBN 1430224193. Burnette (November 10. http://www.com/titles/eband2/hello-android. Pro Android 2 (2nd ed.).). http://pragprog. ISBN 1934356492.  Hashimi.com/product. http://www.informit. 2008).  Haseman. 2009).aspx?isbn=0321627091.). Blake (May 1. Android Essentials (1st ed.com/ableson/. Satya. Addison-Wesley Professional. Professional Android Application Development (1st ed. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0596521472. Android Wireless Application Development (1st ed.apress.).  DiMarzio. Shane. Ed.com/store/product. http://www. http://www. Rick.).  Conder.com/WileyCDA/WroxTitle/Professional-Android-ApplicationDevelopment. Manning.

 Android (operating system) at the Open Directory Project [show]v · d · eAndroid (Google Inc. Open Handset Alliance) [show]v · d · eAndroid devices Acer beTouch E110 · Liquid A1 · Liquid E (Ferrari) · Liquid Stream S110 CSL CSL Spice Dell Mini 3 · Streak Garmin Nüvifone HTC Corporation Aria · Desire · Desire Z (T-Mobile G2) · Desire HD · Dream (TMobile G1) · Glacier (T-Mobile myTouch 4G) · Hero (Droid Eris / TMobile G2 Touch) · Droid Incredible · Legend · Magic (Sapphire / TMobile myTouch 3G) · Tattoo (Click) · Thunderbolt · Evo 4G .. Richard Miner at Stanford University (video archive).o Android Open Source Project o Android Market o Android Developers o Android Developers Blog o Android Brand Guidelines  Google Projects for Android from Google Code  Android Wiki  Sergey Brin introduces the Android platform at YouTube  Android: Building a Mobile Platform to Change the Industry — lecture given by Google Mobile Platforms Manager.

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its popularity has surged and the loyalty of its users has increased to match that of iPhone owners. iPhone Race? JANUARY 27. 2011 Google’s mobile OS will be on top by year-end 2012 The iPhone may have captured the hearts and minds of many tech-savvy early smartphone adopters—not to mention marketers—with its sleek design. when 31% of all smartphone users will own a device running the Google OS. eMarketer estimates that after exploding from just 6% of the US smartphone market in 2009 to 24% in 2010. That same year Apple’s share of the market will hold steady at 30%. multitouch interface and available apps. . Android will continue to gain share through 2012. And in a few years the Android installed base will do the same. up only slightly from 2009. About Wikipedia  Disclaimers   ---------------- Who Will Win the Android vs. But as Android has rolled out to more and more handsets.

market share.” said Noah Elkin.” Market share figures from several research firms show just how fast that scale has come. scale for Android is coming quickly in terms of device. Android grabbed a significant slice of the pie. Between 2009 and 2010. . eMarketer principal analyst and author of a forthcoming report on mobile devices. mostly at the expense of Research In Motion and other non-Apple handsets.“The open-source Android OS requires no licensing fee and allows handset manufacturers and wireless carriers considerable latitude to customize the user interface according to their desired specifications. apps and ad revenues. “With a growing roster of manufacturer and carrier partners in every major market and market segment.

the yellow screen of death and the (remote) possibility of a recall. while Android quietly gains market share. the winner. while The Big Apple deals with antenna issues. engaging experiences for consumers. “Brand Values Yield Clues to Social Media Influence. Blackberry expects big things out of OS 6. . Learn more about becoming an eMarketer Total Access client today.Mobile Apps by Mike Brown The mobile wars are heating up! Microsoft is aggressively luring app developers for its Windows Phone 7 OS. Keep your business ahead of the digital curve. matters less than marketers’ ability to make the most of the growing number of smart devices to deliver rich. Testing . Interesting times indeed.“Ultimately. Check out today’s other article.” ----------- What’s the Best Mobile Operating System? Android FTW! Posted on July 15th.” said Elkin. if there is one. Tester Community. 2010 in Software Testing Trends.

Windows Mobile – 6% “What do uThink?” is a weekly poll. there’s a strong case to be made for each mobile operating system. we’ll be awarding monthly and quarterly prizes to randomly selected participants. Android – 38% 2. we’re giving away an iPod Touch. Got it? Good. posted by “pedro gonzalez”: “As a Google OS. since the OS is much flexible than others (less limitations allow the programmer-tester to be creative). Now back to the mobile OS results… As you can see from the fractured vote count. RIM Blackberry – 28% 3. in addition the testing part is much better in Android. Gmail. and a lot of other Google applications.As part of our newly-launched “What Do uThink?” series (more on this shortly). Apple – 16% 4. where we’ll be asking the uTest community their preferences and feedback on various apps. The case for Android. for instance. . Android knows better than any other OS how to manage Google maps. Geolocators. browsers. operating systems and other technologies. so the Gmail sync is one of the most valuable things for me. There are a lot of tools for developers/testers within SDK. I’m a Gmail user. we decided to ask our community they considered to be the best. The weekly polls open every Tuesday afternoon and voting takes place in the uTest Forums available to registered testers) as well as on our Facebook page. Symbian – 12% 5. Below are some updated excerpts from the Forums thread where this question first appeared. Here are the results: which mobile OS 1. To encourage voting. This quarter.

There are a lot of cons too regarding the OS maturity (like the total 254Mb limitation). kenny said: Please intervene the debate between my brother and i.you name it and Apple has an App for it and mostly for free.GSM for its roaming ability 3. posted by “madhukarjain”: I also voted for Apple….Camera and video capability 4. 5 Responses to “What’s the Best Mobile Operating System? Android FTW!” 1.” The case for Apple. which OS is best (Rim or Android)? Posted on July 19th. Once you use it you will know why Apple can become a part of you’re life. For example. Trinity Zion said: Personally I think Palm will smash the others next year with HP’s help and some new phones. 2010 at 5:51 am 2. although Android is getting better and better each release. The case for RIM. but it seems that the Android guys are working on this. Adobe’s Flash player is supported in mobile devices for the first time ever from the last Android release. even if not free then most apps are 99 cents which is worth the money for its use. but once you use its full capacity then you realize whats the Magic of Apple.Full QWERTY keyboard 4. Many people might disagree and will consider Blackberry or Android as better.Obviously its performance 2.. they don’t think Palm’s any good either . From GPS naviation to gaming to stock trading to radio….Push Email services and many other factors like “A very good deal that I could afford “ Care to weigh in on this debate? The comment box is all yours. Want to vote in the next weekly poll? Visit the uTest Forums or check out our Facebook page.ly/bwiZyB. so much that you can’t think of switching to another phone. posted by “jayadinu”: 1. There’s some interesting analysis in this blog here with a funny video http://bit.Android is not as mature yet as other OS (Blackberry for example was released 10 years ago).

2010 at 3:31 am 4. smoothly. editing and hacking and downloading and manipulating files. Windows Mobile has more 3rd party apps and freeware than ANY other mobile os. Can Iphone do that? Android? Blackberry? Palm? ??? Please. by all means. That’s right. Super Nintendo. It’s been out for way longer. I don’t want to like the mighty Bill Gates giant any more than you guys do. If you don’t like adding apps. No.then. By a million miles.get anything else. but the other os’s are trendy gimmicks.It’s not a new. go with the others. Posted on December 18th. It really is the shit. I just don’t get the hype. Windows Mobile is so powerful.. One. Master System. Windows Mobile is where it’s at. Posted on October 26th.hands down.Also Kenny. If you just want a really fancy phone that does a few things. Find me ONE thing the other os’s can do that WinMo can’t. Freshbrood said: and another note.WinMo. if you want a palm held computer that does everything your desktop does+a phone. all for FREE!! I can also use REMOTE DESKTOP from my PHONE. Nintendo.. or don’t mind paying for them. Also. The most intuitive mobile os is the one we are familiar with on our desktops. Freshbrood said: I will always choose Windows Mobile.. Anyone’s who’s familiar with a Windows PC can immediately dive into Windows Mobile. I do not work for Microsoft. you can install an emulated Linux or Android on top of it! Furthermore. I can remotely control my desktop from my WinMO. I guess WinMo is too advanced for the average user? It LITTERALLY does everything. 2010 at 10:57 am 3. 2010 at 3:40 am . Sega Genesis and PLAYSTATION games. foreign. proprietary os to learn from scratch. a Windows Mobile device is like having a miniature PC in my handsnearly all the programs are backwards compatible. Posted on December 18th. and I think all the other os’s are gimmicks. Tell me ONE (1) other MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM that can play Atari. and continues to develop.if you know how to use it. and it always will. Android is better than RIM.

a small start-up company based in Palo Alto. Scott said: Fresh Brood…. little was known about the functions of Android other than they made software for mobile phones. Just checked… lol Litterally and no they don’t they are so behind that you can’t even cut and paste. But I will say. At the time. I’ll be honest. You could be absolutely right and I’d be in the dark about it. although it was unclear at the time what function they might perform in that market. that’s just it. . Central America. I’m not going to down you for being so dedicated to windows mobile… but really…. Google acquired Android. But. The End… -Scott------------------ Android – The best mobile operating system Written by Guru on October 6.5. And look how young they are…. I’ve never seen an app I couldn’t find for Android. I’m not sure how true that is. It’s so completely old school. Their SDK is supplied with the phone…. Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire). If I couldn’t find an app for Android I wouldn’t be so worried about it seeing as it’s the easiest os to create and edit apps and software for. you say that Wondows-Mobile has more 3rd party apps. And you said you can install emulations of Linux or Android. Do they even support Flash yet? brb…. 2010 in Technology | 7 Comments Do you like this story? Android History – In July 2005. Nick Sears (once VP at TMobile) and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). There is NOWHERE to go but up. Android’s co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger). Meaning you won’t have absolute compatibility with much if any of the apps and software you attempt to use on your emulations. Which tells me its not so great that my friends tell me about it. This began rumors that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market. An emulation isn’t the real thing. Ok.

In November 2007 Google announced the introduction of the Android platform. and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. and telecommunications companies that had agreed to participate in the development and distribution of the Android platform. Let’s start off by taking a look at the overall system architecture–the key layers and components that make up the Android stack. at 33%.S. There are currently over 70. a group of hardware. Android has a large community of developers writing apps that extend the functionality of the devices.000 foot” view of Android: .At Google. software. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.33 or 34. and iOS is ranked third with 22%. in the second quarter of 2010. Developers write managed code in the Java language.6. Google released most of the Android code under the Apache License. It is based upon the Linux kernel and GNU software. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. The latest update was Gingerbread based on Linux Kernel 2. unit sales for Android OS smart-phones ranked first among all smart-phone OS handsets sold in the U. Introduction to Android OS Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as cellular phones. developed a Linux-based mobile device OS which they were marketing to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible. tablet computers and net-books. led by Rubin. the team. a free software and open source license). upgradeable system.000 apps available for Android with some estimates saying 100. According to NPD Group. software.000 have been submitted. along with the Open Handset Alliance (a consortium of 71 hardware. The following diagram shows the “20. which makes it the second most popular mobile development environment. BlackBerry OS is second at 28%.

Dex files are more compact and efficient than class files. However programming will never be done to this layer directly. the Surface Manager (for compositing windows). as is everything above this layer. and a native web browser engine (WebKit) can be found. . but will be called through Java interfaces.). which is an important consideration for the limited memory and battery powered devices that Android targets. memory management. Here. They are written in Java. including Collections.264. I/O. and networking. etc. They are all written in C/C++ internally. and parts are extensions or services that we write. including the Dalvik Virtual Machine. H. which are converted at compile time from standard class and jar files. The next level up is the Application Framework layer. Android uses Linux for its device drivers. Android provides a substantial subset of the Java 5 Standard Edition packages.Starting at the bottom is the Linux Kernel. MP3. which manages the life cycle of applications. process management. The next level contains the Android native libraries. and so forth. Media codecs (MPEG-4. The most important component of the framework is the Activity Manager. The core Java libraries are also part of the Android runtime. Parts of this toolkit are provided by Google. In this layer. the SQL database (SQLite). Dalvik runs dex files. 2D and 3D graphics. Next is the Android runtime.

It’s possible to arrange for two applications to share the same user ID. What I mean is that the applications Google writes have to go through the same public API that you use. it simply starts up that piece of the other application when the need arises. To conserve system resources. applications with the same ID can also arrange to run in the same Linux process. the system must be able to start an application process when any part of it is needed. rather than develop your own. For example. they have essential components that the system can instantiate and run as needed. For this to work. Your application doesn’t incorporate the code of the other application or link to it. each application is assigned a unique Linux user ID. Android starts the process when any of the application’s code needs to be executed. Most of the code will live here. The application framework provides access to the Bluetooth functionality through the Android Bluetooth APIs. .  By default. Rather. if your application needs to display a scrolling list of images and another application has developed a suitable scroller and made it available to others. You can even tell Android to make your application replace the standard applications if you like.  Each process has its own virtual machine (VM). so application code runs in isolation from the code of all other applications. sharing the same VM. A central feature of Android is that one application can make use of elements of other applications (provided those applications permit it). which allows a device to wirelessly exchange data with other Bluetooth devices. Key features of the Android OS App Fundamentals – All the apps are written in the java programming language. alongside built-in applications such as the Phone and Web Browser. and shuts down the process when it’s no longer needed and system resources are required by other applications. Bluetooth Data Transfer – The Android platform includes support for the Bluetooth network stack. for example). Rather. Permissions are set so that the application’s files are visible only to that user and only to the application itself — although there are ways to export them to other applications as well. every application runs in its own Linux process. and instantiate the Java objects for that part.Finally. you can call upon that scroller to do the work. One of the unique and powerful qualities of Android is that all applications have a level playing field. unlike applications on most other systems. in which case they will be able to see each others files. the top layer is the Applications layer. Therefore. In many ways. These APIs let applications wirelessly connect to other Bluetooth devices. each Android application lives in its own world By default. Android applications don’t have a single entry point for everything in the application (no main() function.

Android provides several options for you to save persistent application data. and you can publish one with an App Widget provider. an Android application can perform the following:  Scan for other Bluetooth devices  Query the local Bluetooth adapter for paired Bluetooth devices  Establish RFCOMM channels  Connect to other devices through service discovery  Transfer data to and from other devices  Manage multiple connections ANDROID APP SCREEN Application Widgets – App Widgets are miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates.enabling point-to-point and multipoint wireless features. An application component that is able to hold other App Widgets is called an App Widget host. The solution you choose depends on your specific needs. Using the Bluetooth APIs. such as whether the data should be private . These views are referred to as Widgets in the user interface. Data Storage.

 Internal Storage.to your application or accessible to other applications (and the user) and how much space your data requires. Android provides a way for you to expose even your private data to other applications — with a content provider.Store public data on the shared external storage.  External Storage. The search framework manages the life of the search dialog.Store private data on the device memory. At the same time.Store data on the web with your own network server. the platform exposes APIs that . Search Features – Search is a core user feature on Android. For applications.Store private primitive data in key-value pairs.Store structured data in a private database. Users should be able to search any data that is available to them. a search dialog appears at the top of the screen at the user’s command without interrupting the current Activity. Once your application is set up to use the search dialog. subject to whatever restrictions you want to impose. A content provider is an optional component that exposes read/write access to your application data.  SQLite Databases. the search framework passes the query text to your application so your application can perform a search. Android’s search framework provides a user interface in which users can perform a search and an interaction layer that communicates with your application. Instead. you can:  Enable voice search  Provide search suggestions based on recent user queries  Provide custom search suggestions that match actual results in your application data  Offer your application’s search suggestions in the system-wide Quick Search Box Support for multiple displays – Android is designed to run on a variety of devices that offer a range of screen sizes and resolutions. the platform provides a consistent environment across devices and handles much of the complexity of adapting an application’s UI to the screen on which it is being displayed. which is why Android provides a search framework to help you provide users with a familiar search dialog and a great search experience.  Network Connection. so you don’t have to build your own search Activity. whether the content is located on the device or the Internet. The search experience should be seamless and consistent across the entire system. When users execute a search.Your data storage options are the following:  Shared Preferences.

give application developers precise control over their application’s UI when displayed on specific screen sizes and resolutions. Sophisticated Apps . ANDROID WEATHER APP Android Compatibility .It’s hard to cover all the great apps.  MapActivity to handle creation. It also supports multiple media formats. as there are plenty out there. I shall describe the Maps app in detail. The map rendering facility on Android device is similar to Google Earth. loading. streaming and event handling  MapView to display a map as a component  MapController to navigate between map locations  Overlays used to display additional graphics as layers on top of a map  Locations on a map specified using the Geo-URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) standard – not fully supported  Specify latitude and longitude as a Point. translate this on map using the PixelCalculator class There are other fascinating applications like the one shown below which depicts weather conditions.

For developers. and traditional smartphone layouts. MPEG-4 SP.  SQLite. HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). coupled with Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine. Conclusion The features I explained above clearly illustrate reasons for Android being the best mobile OS to date. With a bit of forethought and some minor changes in your app’s manifest file.Android is designed to run on many different types of devices. GPS. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. UMTS. touchscreens. VGA. IDEN.BMP  Android can use video/still cameras. tools for debugging. MIDI. thermometers. and WiMAX. 2D graphics library. Some other great features of Android OS  The platform is adaptable to larger. accelerometers. 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.  Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: H. Ogg Vorbis. gyroscopes. CDMA. the range and number of devices means a huge potential audience: the more devices that run Android apps.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container). . JPEG.  Includes a device emulator. Bluetooth. In exchange. EVDO. WAV.263. AMR. MP3. however. while at the same time letting you maintain control of what types of devices your app is available to.  SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging. a lightweight relational database. AAC. scaling. PNG.  The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit layout engine. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation. Fortunately. and will not get in trouble by downloading it. proximity and pressure sensors.  Android has native support for multi-touch. it also means that your apps will have to cope with that same variety of hardware.0 specifications.AMR-WB (in 3GP container). including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. you can ensure that users whose devices can’t run your app will never see it in the Android Market. is used for data storage purposes  Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE. H. the more users who can access your app. Wi-Fi. memory and performance profiling. GIF. Android has built-in tools and support that make it easy for your apps to do that. magnetometers. The next android software update called HoneyComb is slated for release in 2011.

mobile multimedia formats. is the operating system that controls a mobile device or information appliance —similar in principle to an operating system such as Windows.1 Worldwide smartphone operating system market shares  5 Smartphone operating systems feature comparison  6 Feature phone operating systems  7 See also . also known as a mobile OS. a mobile platform. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. or other mobile devices and wireless devices. Typical examples of devices running a mobile operating system are smartphones. which may also include embedded systems. tablet computers and information appliances. or Linux that controls a desktop computer or laptop. or what are sometimes referred to as smart devices. search A mobile operating system. However. Mac OS. personal digital assistants (PDAs). and different input methods. Contents [hide]  1 History  2 Market description  3 Mobile navigation  4 Smartphone operating systems o 4.---------- Mobile operating system From Wikipedia. and deal more with the wireless versions of broadband and local connectivity. or a handheld operating system. they are currently somewhat simpler.

of which Nokia accounted for more than half (51%) having shipped cumulatively 83 million GPS devices. It is noteworthy that Intel is taking the initiative to focus on portable devices other than mobile phones. and any projection regarding the market growth is hard to make at the present time. which was to be a companion device for a smartphone. Microsoft. 8 References  9 External links [edit] History The increasing importance of mobile devices has triggered intense competition among technology giants. [edit] Mobile navigation Canalys has estimated that in 2009 the installed base of smartphones with integrated GPS was 163 million units worldwide. [edit] Smartphone operating systems . raising consumer awareness of the growing mobile platform frenzy. On January 22. In November 2007. Meantime. and Nokia in a bid to capture the bigger market share pre-emptively.[1] Palm. Google formed a Linux-based open source alliance to make inroads into this mobile platform market. like Google. They are Mobile Internet Devices (MID) and UltraMobile PC (UMPC).[2] [edit] Market description Mobile platforms are in the nascent stage. Palm abandoned its plan to develop Foleo. Apple. 2010. Research In Motion and Ericsson are also significant firms in the mobile platform sector. Nokia released a free version of Ovi Maps which is expected to double user amount.

according to Gartner.Table showing most of the current mobile operating systems for smartphones. RIM's BlackBerry OS. PDAs and netbooks in 2010 Share of 2010 Q3 smartphone sales to end users by operating system. Microsoft's Windows Phone. Linux. Palm/HP's WebOS. Apple's iOS. Nokia's Maemo and Meego among many others. . Samsung's Bada. Bada.[3] Operating systems that can be found on smartphones include Nokia's Symbian. and iOS is derived from the BSD and NeXTSTEP operating systems. Android. WebOS and Maemo are built on top of Linux. Google's Android. which are all related to Unix.

and MOAP from NTT DOCOMO. Android from Google Inc. Most major mobile service providers carry an Android device. 1. but lags behind other companies in the relatively small but highly visible North American market.[9] There have been six releases of Android.[7] It has been used by many major handset manufacturers. Sharp. LG.. HTC. though shipments of Symbian devices have increased. that form the Open Handset Alliance. 2.2. Recently.5) or Frozen Yogurt (2. Nokia.6% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[4] (open public license) Symbian has the largest share in most markets worldwide. 2. the operating system's worldwide market share has declined from over 50% to just over 40% from 2009 to 2010. Fujitsu. The Apple iPad tablet computer uses a version of iOS. Linux-derived platform backed by Google. All are nicknamed after a dessert item like Cupcake (1. along with major hardware and software developers (such as Intel. including BenQ. Nokia. In Japan Symbian is strong due to a relationship with NTT DoCoMo. Apache) Android was developed by a small startup company that was purchased by Google Inc.5% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[4] (open source.[5] This matches the success of its largest shareholder[6] and customer. Samsung. Motorola. Samsung. Sharp. to name a few).The most common operating systems (OS) used in smartphones by Q3 2010 sales are: The Symbian OS and its successor Symbian platform from the Symbian Foundation (36.0. 1. . the OS has a following among programmers.2). As part of the formation of the Symbian platform in 2009 these three UIs were merged into a single platform which is now fully open source. Prior to 2009 Symbian supported multiple user interfaces.6. Samsung. Nokia. UIQ from UIQ Technologies. Mitsubishi. Motorola and eBay. and Google continues to update the software. ARM.Android 1. i.0.[8] Release on November 5th 2007.e. with only one of the 44 Symbian handsets released in Japan coming from Nokia. and Sony Ericsson.5. in all markets except Japan. (25. Android is an open source. Current Symbian-based devices are being made by Fujitsu. and Sony Ericsson. S60 from Nokia.1 and 2.

It has been criticized for having a user interface which is not optimized for touch input by fingers. were unveiled in February 2007. The new OS platform has received some positive reception from the technology press. there is no backwards compatibility with Windows Mobile applications and some power-user features that were in Windows Mobile will not be present until near-future updates. iPod Touch and iPad all use an operating system called iOS. it does support both touch screen and physical keyboard configurations. Windows Phone 7. unlike iPhone OS. Windows Mobile's market share has sharply declined in recent years to just 5% in Q2 of 2010. Android's worldwide market share rose 850% from 1. proprietary) On February 15th. and this method is still available. From Q2 of 2009 to the second quarter of 2010.[12][13][14] As Windows Phone 7 is a new platform. Recently it has seen a surge in third-party applications and has been improved to offer full multimedia support. Zune. RIM BlackBerry OS (14. Xbox Live and Bing. The two improved variants of this operating system. Windows Phone from Microsoft (negligible Market Share Sales in October 2010)(closed source.[11] Microsoft is phasing out the Windows Mobile OS to specialized markets and is instead focusing on it's new platform. Third party applications were not officially supported until the release of iOS 2. instead.8% to 17.Since the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) was introduced. but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. which is derived from Mac OS X. Windows Mobile 6 Professional (for touch screen devices) and Windows Mobile 6 Standard.0 on July 11th 2008. proprietary) The Windows CE operating system and Windows Mobile middleware are widely spread in Asia. there has been an explosion in the number of devices that carry Android OS. 2010 Microsoft unveiled its next-generation mobile OS. Windows Mobile from Microsoft (2. proprietary) This OS is focused on easy operation and was originally designed for business. (16. proprietary) The Apple iPhone. Currently Blackberry's App World has over 15.7% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[4] (closed source. Windows Phone. The new mobile OS includes a completely new over-hauled UI inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language". It includes full integration of Microsoft services such as Windows Live. Before this. it is more usable with a stylus. Currently all iOS devices are developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.000 downloadable applications.8% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[4][10] (closed source. . However.8% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[4] (closed source. iOS from Apple Inc.2%. "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed.

Openmoko and Qt Extended. (closed source. bada from Samsung Electronics (closed source. Linux is used as a basis for a number of different platforms developed by several vendors.The name 'bada' is derived from 바다. The Access Linux Platform will include an emulation layer to support applications developed for Palmbased devices. Maemo. The first device to run bada is called 'Wave' and was unveiled to the public at Mobile World Congress 2010. non-Android Linux-based OS's only) Linux is strongest in China where it is used by Motorola. the Korean word for ocean or sea. NEC.[17][18] PalmSource (now Access) is moving towards an interface running on Linux. used by DoCoMo. Samsung claims that bada will rapidly replace its proprietary feature phone platform. and Vodafone. proprietary) Palm webOS is Palm's next generation operating system.The Palm Pre running HP (formerly Palm) webOS. LiMo. It will use technical specifications from the Linux Phone Standards Forum. proprietary) This is a mobile operating system being developed by Samsung Electronics. Linux operating system (open source. including Android. PalmSource traditionally used its own platform developed by Palm Inc. which are mostly incompatible. and in Japan. Panasonic. Access Linux Platform (ALP) is an improvement that was planned to be launched in the first half of 2007.[19] Another platform based on Linux is being developed by Motorola.[20] Palm webOS from HP (certain parts open sourced) and Palm OS/Garnet OS from Access Co. The Wave is a fully touchscreen phone running . HP purchased Palm in 2010. converting feature phones to smartphones. NTT DoCoMo.1% Market Share Sales Q3 2010. Samsung. GPL) (2. [15][16] Rather than being a platform in its own right.

5 [22] 10 36. GPL) Maemo is a software platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet Tablets. Inc t t Foundation (Google) Current 7. 4. Window Window Black Android webO iOS s Mobile s Phone Berry Symbian S OS Open Compan Handset HP/Pal Microsof Microsof Symbian Apple RIM y Alliance m. It is based on the Debian operating system. even though old versions may still be marketed.2.4.8% 2.2 Linux Linux Linux .0 9. GPL) At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.8% ner % % % 3Q [edit] Smartphone operating systems feature comparison Only the latest versions are shown in this table. Debian and GNOME.7004. Maemo from Nokia (open source.5 Version 0 OS Mac Linux Linux Windows Window Mobil Mobile OS Feature Maemo MeeGo Bada Linux Sams Nokia Foundati ung on 5. which allows the use of either proprietary Realtime operating system (RTOS) kernel.5 6. It has close to 3000[21] mobile applications. but as a platform with a kernel configurable architecture.2 1.1 2. called Samsung Apps. Nokia and Intel both unveiled 'MeeGo' a brand new mobile operating system which would combine the best of Moblin and the best of Maemo to create a truly open-sourced experience for users across all devices. and has been developed by Maemo Devices within Nokia in collaboration with many open source projects such as the Linux kernel. or the Linux kernel. the company still has a large lineup of Android phones.5.0.3 6. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTKbased Hildon as its GUI and application framework. frameworks and libraries from the GNOME project.0 1.7 1. Samsung has said that they don't see Bada as a smartphone platform. to the public. Limo [edit] Worldwide smartphone operating system market shares Wind Symb iOS Sour Da BlackB Andr ows Oth referen ian (App ce te erry OS oid Mobil ers ces OS le) e 20 Gart 25.1.2 1.5 16. With the phone. MeeGo from Nokia and Intel (open source. Samsung also released an app store. Maemo is based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its GUI.3.the new mobile operating system. Though Samsung plans to install bada on many phones.0. Maemo is mostly based on open source code.6% 14.

C med in Objec Java tive-C Propri Free Free and etary and open EULA open source except source except License for except closed open closed source source source compon comp modul ents onents es Public issues No Yes[23] No list Package iTune APK manager s Non english languag Yes es support Limited[ 27] CE 5. ed CPU ARM Power ARM Architec Architec ture ture. . x86 C.OS Family X/Uni x-like ARM. C++. C. C+ Program +.NET Java C++ (Silverlig ht/XNA) Eclipse Proprieta Proprieta Propri Public ry ry etary License No No No Windows Prewar Mobile e (3rd Device Zune PC party ? Center/A software homeb ctiveSyn rew) c ? Underlin ing spell Yes[28] No[29] No checker Keeps Yes Limited[ ? 31] state on ARM ARM. Support MIPS.2 s CE 7 e OS ARM ARM ARM ARM C++ C++. x86 C/C++ C++ ARM C++ Free and open source Free and Propri except open etary closed source source compon ents Not Yes[25] Yes[26] anymore[24] No rpm+yu Nokia Ovi dpkg+a m+zyppe ? Suite pt-get r Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ? Limit ed (Sear ch is not diacri tical mark insens itive) ? Only Yes Office[30] Yes Yes ? No No ? ? Yes ? Limit ed ? .

copy.shutdow n or crash Very Internal Limit Limited[ Yes Search ed[32] 33] ? No Universa Limit l ed on Search[34] most Yes and Very model Limited[3 s[36] Yes ? Yes ? Yes 5] Proxy Yes server Ondevice Yes[38] encrypti on Sync to Cloud commun Yes[43] ication encrypti on Desktop Yes Sync cut. with 3rd party apps ? ? Yes No[44] ? No[46] No[47] Yes No[48] Yes Yes Yes[49] Yes ? Yes[51] Yes No. but planned[5 Yes Yes Yes ? Yes[54] ? Yes 2][53] undo Yes[55] No[56] Phone Yes No[57] Limite No d No Yes No No ? Yes ? No Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? . Yes[50] and paste (Bro wser does not keep windo ws open) Very Limit ed (Only searc hes conta cts by name and is not diacri tical mark insens itive) No[37] No Yes Yes Yes No[39] No Yes[40] No[41] Yes[42] ? Yes ? No ? Yes[45] ? Yes.

POP3. POP3. Bluet ooth 3. POP3. Mobile . Verizo party homebre Hotsp software Perso n software) w[61][62] ot nal Wirele Hotsp ss ot only) (WiFi Tether ing) (carrie Gecko Webkit Webk it maemo. protocol BIS. IMAP.0. org.0 /Engine (Trident) (Trident) Official Windows Window App Symbian Applicat App Android Marketpl s Phone App Catalo Horizon. s Push IMAP MAPI MAPI MAPI MAPI MAPI supporte e-mail d Push Exam Notificat Example Yes Example Example Yes Yes ple ions Voice Exam Recogni No[59] No Yes Yes Yes Yes ple tion Call Recorde No No[60] ? ? ? ? ? r Tetherin Bluet Mobile Mobile USB. Bluetoo th. POP3.number linking to dialer Internet Internet Default Explorer Explorer Web Webki Webki Webkit Webkit Mobile Mobile Webkit Browser t t 6. Not USB. ooth. POP3. Mobil e WiFi Hotsp ot . USB. Exchan IMAP ge POP3 . Mobile Wi(carrie USB. Mobile Wi-Fi Hotspot ? ? micro USB. IMAP. IMAP. Hotspo h. g ooth.0 7. t Wi-Fi supporte Mobil Fi Hotspot r Bluetoot (officia Hotspot d e Wi. IMAP. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Bluetoot officially Bluet Bluetooth.Ov ion Store Market ace for Marketpl World g i store Store Mobile ace Unified Yes No[58] ? ? No[34] Yes ? Inbox Email Sync BES.(with 3rd depen h lly (with 3rd through Fi party dent). IMAP. IMAP Yes Yes ? microU SB. USB Hotspot. POP3. IMAP. POP3.Ovi ? store Sams ung Apps ? ? ? POP3.

3 (iPho ne only) or with 3rd party softw are and "jail break" ) Read only: Micro soft Office Micros Microsof . P. Mobile.NB. HTML. VCF AAC AAC MP3. Multipl e office formats with free 3rd party softwar e All (some require optiona l debian packag es) Most . eAAC+. AMRNB. PDF. WMA . PDF . AAC+. AACv1 QCEL Protec (AAC+). PDF. . Kbps) HEAMR. oft t Office iWork Office. (8 to LC/LTP AAC. AAC. ted HEWAV AAC AACv2 (from (enhance iTune d s AAC+). since iOS 4. .2. AAC +.5/ 4. All WAV E. Office Mobile. HE. TXT/ RTF. WAV. MIDI MP3. AMR. MIDI. FlAC.Text/Do cument Support Audio Playbac k r depen dent. Store) AMR. Microsof Micro Microsoft t Office soft Office Mobile. WMA pro. 320 3GPP. eAAC +.djvu MP3. AAC+. OGG text files. PDF PDF. PDF PDF Image s.

AMRWB.264.263. XviD Many Sams ung LBS . Lossle Ogg ss. . H.263. require MPE -4. 30fps. MP3 (Mono/S tereo 8320 kbit/s constant or variable AAC. Vorbis. Version Apple 1 and 2. WMV. DivX. 3rd n just Softw free global Softwar H. MPEG .263 H. H. WAVE MP4. 3gp Turn-by. packag JPEG WMV XviD MKV. AIFF. H.263.264 H. HD 720p l debian MH. . All H.264. PCM/W WAV AVE (8and 16bit linear PCM (rates up to limit of hardwar e). k SP. H. Party GPS softw Navigati re. (some AVC. Video AVC. WMV H. .3rd Google Carrier 3rd Party No 3rd 3rd Party 3rd turn Party Maps softwa Software navigatio Party Software. XviD XviD. MPEG4.264 WMV. bit-rate. MPEG4.264 Playbac MPEG-4 MPEG4@ optiona G-4. H. es) .264 DivX. MPEG4 @ HD 720p 30fps. DivX. DivX. MP3 MIDI (8 to (MIDI 320 Type 0 Kbps) and 1. MP3 DLS VBR.263..

720p on Video up to select No out 576p.are on (will not work with limited Party phone Softwa coverage re )[63] or 3rd Party software VGA. devices 480p iOS 4 Multitas only[64 Yes Yes king ] Desktop interacti No Yes No ve widgets Integrate d Hardwar Some No Yes e Models keyboar d Bluetoot h Yes[66] No[67] No keyboar d Yes Yes (Curre (Hardwa ntly Videoco re iPhon nference Currentl e4 front y No and video Availabl iPod camera e on Touch Some 4 Models) Only) Can No Yes No share images via Bluetoot maps[61] or 3rd are party software e. HDMI TSC) Yes Yes. with ? plugins No No[61] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No[61] Yes Yes Yes Yes ? . Nokia Ovi Nokia Maps Ovi Maps (Rout e 66)) Nokia AV Nokia Out AV Out None (PAL/NTSC (PAL/N ). limited[65 Yes DLN A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (through No "live tiles") Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ] Yes Yes [68] No Yes Yes Yes.

h with
all
mobile
Skype

Yes

Yes[69]

Faceboo
k IM
Yes Yes
chat
Jailbr
eakin
g
Requi
red
and
Open
SSH
ssh
Yes
Install
ed
(free
from
Cydia
Appli
cation
)
OpenVP
?
N

?

WPA
Yes[72] No[73]
PEAP
Remote
Frame ?
?
Buffer

Screens
Yes[74] No[75]
hot

Comin
g on
Verizo No
n with
2.0
3rd
party ?
patch

No[70]

Yes

Yes[71]

Yes

Yes

?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

?

No

Yes

?

Yes

Yes

?

?

Remote
?
Desktop

Yes

Yes(3rd
Party
Software)

Yes

Yes

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

Yes

Yes

?

No.
Possible
through
homebre
w or
SDK.[77]

Yes
(3rd
Party Yes[79]
Softw
are)

Yes

?

Yes

?

Yes

?

?

Homeb
rew
No
require
d

?

Yes[76]

[78]

GPU
Accelera Yes
ted GUI

No[80]

?

No

Yes[81]

Yes

Official
Windows/M
SDK
Mac Multipla Multip
Window Wind
GNU/L GNU/Li Wind
Windows
ultiplatform
platform OS X tform[82] latform
s
ows
inux[83] nux
ows
(Qt)
(s)
Window Black
webO Window
Feature iOS Android
s Phone Berry Symbian Maemo MeeGo Bada
S s Mobile
7
OS

[edit] Feature phone operating systems
Common operating systems for feature phones include Nokia OS with user interfaces S30 or
S40.[84] S40 offers APIs for Java ME.[84]

[edit] See also

Tablet computer

Smartphone

Smart TV

Nucleus RTOS

[edit] References
1. ^ Can Mac OS X succeed as a mobile platform? 2007-01-22
2. ^ Google Enters the Wireless World
3. ^ "Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 35 Percent in Third Quarter 2010;
Smartphone Sales Increased 96 Percent". Press release. 10 November 2010.
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1466313. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
4. ^ a b c d e[citation needed]
5. ^ North American Market
6. ^ Symbian Shareholders
7. ^ Symbian Facts
8. ^ http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/oha_members.html

9. ^
http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/146450/developers_praise_android_at_go
ogle_io.html?tk=rl_noinform
10. ^ "CEO Ballmer Reportedly Says Microsoft 'Screwed Up' with Windows Mobile".
eWeek. 28 September 2009. http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Windows/Microsoft-CEO-SteveBallmer-Says-Company-Screwed-Up-Windows-Mobile-241614/.
11. ^ [1]
12. ^ http://www.engadget.com/2010/02/15/windows-phone-7-series-is-official-andmicrosoft-is-playing-to/
13. ^ http://gizmodo.com/5471805/windows-phone-7-series-everything-is-different-now
14. ^ http://www.crunchgear.com/2010/02/15/windows-phone-7-series-our-take/
15. ^ Shipping Linux-based Phones at Technology News Daily
16. ^ Microsoft Excluded from DoCoMo at The Register
17. ^ Incompatibility in Mobile Linux at OS News
18. ^ Search Mobile Computing
19. ^ Running on Linux
20. ^ Motorola Press Release on Partnership on Linux Platform
21. ^ Samsung s8530 Wave II review
22. ^ "Worldwide Converged Mobile Device Operating System Market Shares and 20102014 Growth". 2010-09-07.
http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/qQjngE0rTd8yp1SXLrr4FA?feat=embedwebsite.
Retrieved 2010-09-08.
23. ^ Android Issues Tracker
24. ^ Symbian Foundation is completing its transition to a licensing body
25. ^ Maemo Issues Tracker
26. ^ MeeGo Issues Tracker

27. ^ Android Issue 3732: Search Improve contact searchAndroid Issue 3393: No Unicode
support on SMS sendingAndroid Issue 9199: SQLite3 Unicode Case not working (only
ASCII case works) (include ICU support)
28. ^ iOS 4 features: Spell-check and text replace
29. ^ Android Issue 10332: Retrospective spell checking on all input fields as an OS feature
(input device agnostic)
30. ^ http://www.engadget.com/2010/10/20/windows-phone-7-review/
31. ^ Android Issue 8880: Keep open URLs/windows on shutdown or crash
32. ^ iOS will not search Contacts notes field
33. ^ Android Issue 3732: Only search Contacts name field but not any other fieldAndroid
Issue 2518: Calendar app has no search.
34. ^ a b Bonnie Cha (27 October 2010). "Top 5 things I dislike about Windows Phone 7".
CNET. http://www.cnet.com/8301-17918_1-20020922-85.html.
35. ^ WP7 on HTC Mozart - Unable to search for additional Contact fields - by design or
bug?
36. ^ Notes search not available in BB Torch
37. ^ Android Issue 1273: IP Proxy Settings for Wifi Network
38. ^ iOS 4: Understanding data protection
39. ^ Android Issue 8686: Add support for ActiveSync Device Encryption Policy
Requirement
40. ^ Microsoft Windows Mobile encryption
41. ^ Galen Gruman (8 November 2010). "Windows Phone 7 lacks on-device encryption".
InfoWorld. http://www.infoworld.com/d/mobilize/windows-phone-7-lacks-deviceencryption-585.
42. ^ BlackBerry Stored Data Security
43. ^ Apple - iPhone in Business - Integration
44. ^ Android Sync Communication is not encrypted
45. ^ Standard BlackBerry encryption

62. http://dailymobile. dailymobile. ^ Android Issue 4471: Downloadable maps for offline navigation/location .com/windows_phone_7-review-521. ^ Phat^Trance (2009-05-23).46. ^ Android Issue 66: OpenSync desktop synchronisation support 47. ^ Does Bada OS have Cut. ^ http://wmpoweruser.se/2009/05/23/iphone-undo-typing-nice-feature-iniphone-30/. "iPhone: Undo Typing – Cool feature in iPhone 3. controlling music player. Engadget.php. ^ Android does not natively support voice commands. ^ Android Issue 6458: Enhancement: Undo 57. "iPhone finally gets copy and paste!". ^ Android Issue 3190: Improve copy-paste in Browser/WebView 52.gsmarena.com/2009/03/17/iphone-finally-gets-copy-and-paste/. Copy & Paste? 55. 8 October 2010. ^ Microsoft Windows Phone 7 does not have copy/paste 53. ^ a b c d "Windows Phone 7 OS review: From scratch". but Google provides a cloud based closed source implementation (Voice Actions for Android) that will only work when online Android Issue 11062: Offline voice commands for opening apps.engadget. GSM Arena. ^ Android Issue 4575: Phone number linking to dialer 58. 56. 51. ^ Nilay Patel (2009-03-17). ^ How to Sync Windows Phone 7 with Outlook 49.com/hackstethering-come-to-htc-wp7-handsets-htc-hub-comes-toall-other-wp7-devices/ 63. http://www.engadget.com/2010/10/11/copy-and-paste-coming-to-windows-phone-7-inearly-2011/ 54. ^ http://www. 48. ^ Maemo Sync 50. ^ Android Issue 8261: Unified Inbox (Gmail & other mailboxes in 1 place) 59. and making calls 60. ^ Android Issue 2117: Enhancement: Call Recorder 61. ^ Palm needs to develop a Palm Pre desktop sync application.0". http://www.

^ http://www. ^ "Skype says “no” to Windows Phone 7".com/2010/05/13/skype-says-no-to-windows-phone-7/. Bluetooth keyboard support for the iPhone 67.aspx 66. ^ Android Issue 6547: Screen shots 76. ^ http://www. ^ Android Issue 6914: Make android use the GPU (if available) for UI and browsing. 13 May 2010. 71. ^ Screenshot#iOS 75.com/sdk/index.com/intl/en-us/get-skype/on-your-mobile/skype-mobile/android/ 70.64. ^ http://www. ^ Bluetooth Keyboards On Windows Phone 7 69.il/blogs/alex_golesh/archive/2010/07/14/silverlight-forwindows-phone-7-tombstoning. ^ Android Issue 1147: RFE: Support for external keyboard.maximumpc. ^ http://www. ^ http://developer.maemo. ^ http://blogs.mobilecrunch.android. ^ http://wiki.skype. ^ Take a screenshot on Windows Phone 7 78.org/Documentation/Maemo_5_Final_SDK_Installation#Installing_Ma emo_5_SDK_using_GUI_Installer .anandtech.com/article/features/smartphone_face_ios_vs_android_vs_blackberry_vs_maemo 65.com/home-brew-delivers-againscreen-shot-functionality-arrive-onthe-htc-hd7/ 79.html 83. ^ How to make Windows Mobile screenshots? 77.co.microsoft. http://www. ^ Finally. ^ [2] 73. ^ http://wmpoweruser.skype.com/intl/en/get-skype/on-your-mobile/?cm_mmc=m102 72. mouse 68.com/show/2969/windows-phone-7-series-the-anandtechguide/13 82. ^ Screenshot for Symbian OS 80. MobileCrunch. 81. ^ Android Issue 1386: Feature req: support WPA2-Enterprise with EAP extensions 74.

com/Technology_Topics/Device_Platforms/Series_40/ [edit] External links  Mobile Platform  Java ME  Intel Mobile Platform  Android-based smartphone shipments leapfrog Apple's iPhone  Qualcomm Uplinq Mobile OS Developer Conference (Annual) [hide]v · d · eMobile operating systems Linuxbased Access Linux · Android · bada · DSLinux · Familiar · iPodLinux · LiMo · MeeGo (Moblin · Maemo · Qt Extended) · Mobilinux · Openmoko Linux · OPhone · SHR · Qt Extended Improved · Ubuntu Mobile · webOS Other Windows CE (Windows Phone 7 · Windows Mobile) · BlackBerry OS · BlackBerry Tablet OS · GEOS · iOS · Nintendo DSi OS · Nokia OS (S30 · S40) · Palm OS · PSP OS · Symbian platform (History of Symbian · MOAP(S) · UIQ · S60 · S80 · S90) · SavaJe Related platform BREW · Java ME (FX Mobile) s See also: List of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system" Categories: Mobile phones | Mobile operating systems | Mobile phone operating systems Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010 Personal tools  Log in / create account Namespaces  Article  Discussion .84. ^ a b http://www. Mobile development Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.forum.nokia.

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