Prev. Nutr. Food Sci.

2013;18(4):256-262
http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.4.256
pISSN 2287-1098ㆍeISSN 2287-8602

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.)
Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings
1

1

1

2

Sang Won Choi , Yeon Jeong Jang , Yu Jin Lee , Hyun Hee Leem , and Eun Ok Kim

3

1

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 712-702, Korea
Department of Natural Product, Institute for Korea Traditional Medical Industry, Gyeongbuk 712-260, Korea
3
Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangwon 210-340, Korea
2

ABSTRACT: Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-β-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol
(RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation
procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their
chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals
in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry
cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry
cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content.
Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in
early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those
produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as
steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat
processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods.
Keywords: mulberry (Morus alba) twigs, functional constituents, cultivars, producing area, heat processing

INTRODUCTION
Mulberry (Morus alba L., Moraceae) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-headache, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and diuretic agent (1). In particular, mulberry twigs have been widely used for the
treatment of aching and numbness of joints in oriental
medicine (2). Several prenylflavonoids, flavonoids, coumarins and stilbenes have been isolated and identified
from mulberry twigs (3-6). Among them, prenylflavonoids and flavonoids have been reported as major principles for anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-aging, and hepatoprotective activities of mulberry twigs (3-5). In addition, some coumarins and resveratrol derivatives in mulberrytwigs were found to have strong radical scavenging
and anti-inflammatory activities (4,7). Thus, mulberry
twigs are receiving much interest as promising sources
of functional foods with health benefits.
Mulberry twigs are widely used as a promising source

of well-being healthy teas, together with mulberry fruits
and leaves. In addition, mulberry soups and wines made
with mulberry twigs were known to have potential
health benefits in folk medicine against diabetes, stroke,
cough, and beriberi, etc. (1). Therefore, study on analysis of functional constituents for standardization and
quality control of mulberry twig teas, soups, and wines
is required.
Functional constituents in plants are affected by varieties, cultivation, maturation, storage, and processing
(8-11). In particular, the content and compositions of
functional constituents in different parts of mulberry
trees varied considerably amongst some Morus species
(12-14). A suitable heat processing is necessary to make
the best quality processed foods using mulberry twigs
for removing peculiar off-flavors like smell of greens and
beans. In addition, thermal processingis known to increase functionality, palatability, and bioavailability of
medicinal plants (15). To date, several studies have been

Received 25 September 2013; Accepted 18 December 2013
Correspondence to Sang Won Choi, Tel: +82-53-850-3525, E-mail: swchoi@cu.ac.kr
Copyright © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights Reserved.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits
unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Analysis of Phytochemicals in Mulberry Twigs performed on chemical analysis and screening of bioactive compounds from mulberry twigs. and shade-dried and chopped before use. . 1. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify major functional constituents from mulberry twigs. and roasted in an electric roaster (Dongkwang Oil Machine Co. Gimcheon. and microwaved in a rotating glass container (dimensions 290 mm i. Sangju. were purchased in each regional oriental market. Incheon. Korea) for 2 h. The crude EtOH extract (80. EtOH and washed with n-hexane. All other reagents used in this study were of analytical grade. "Whicaso". JISICO. Seoul.) twigs. Darmstadt. Seoul. availability of information on functional constituents from mulberry twigs produced in Korea and on their quantitative changes according to varieties and processing is scarce. "Somok". Mulberry twigs produced in five different producing areas. The EtOAc fraction (9. Korea) for 5 min. Samsung Electronics. "Guksang". Sangju. Korea. ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH).d.07 g) was chromatographed on a silica Fig. including Yeongcheon. EtOH) (20 L) at o 40 C under an ultrasonic cleaner (Power Sonic 420. and further to quantify them by HPLC according to cultivars and processing. Korea) at 50±5oC and stored into plastic bags at −40oC until further analysis.8 g) was suspended in water and successively partitioned with methylene chloride (CH2Cl2). grown in the field of Sericulture and Entomology Experimental Station. 257 Heat processing Dried and chopped mulberry twigs were steamed in a domestic stainless steel steamer (Kitchen-Art. Daegu. Schematic procedure for isolation and purification of four functional constituents from mulberry (Morus alba L. "Gaeryang". 2012. were obtained in early July and September. Uiseong. and "Cheongil". MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials and reagents Mulberry twigs of 6 different mulberry (Morus alba) varieties.) at the center of a domestic microwave oven (RE-C200T. Gyeonggi. Uljin. Hwashin Tech.2 g) was redissolved in 80% aq. Germany). Three heat pretreated mulberry twigs were dried for 12 h in a drying oven (J-300M. Isolation and identification of resveratrol derivatives and moracin The dried mulberry twigs (2. "Yongcheon".0 kg) were continuously extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol (aq. However. filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. Korea) with constant stirring at 180oC for 5 min. The defatted and de-pigmented EtOH extract (61. All solvents for HPLC analysis were obtained from Merck HPLC Grade Solvent (Merck Millipore International. Korea) for 30 min..

82 g). Branson. MA. 1 (ORT. Fr. oxyresveratrol. and Fr. Fr.2×40 cm) with CHCl3-MeOH (3:1. Danbury.32 g).4 mg). Fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) was performed on a JMS700 mass spectrometer: ion source. 1 and Comp..46 g). HPLC chromatograms of standard resveratrol derivatives and moracin (A) and the EtOH extract (B) of mulberry (Morus alba L. Uppsala.83 g). 5 (0. Maidstone. H-NMR 13 (400 MHz) and C-NMR (100 MHz) spectra of compounds were measured in CD3OD on a spectrometer (Unity Plus 500. 1 (0. 2. filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure.02 g). USA) for 1 h. 4. and Fr. and chemical shifts are given as δ value with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard. Fr. 2.4×80 cm. Fr. . Korea). oxyresveratrol 3`-O -β-D-glucoside. 4 (ORTG. 4 (0. 1 and 2 were finally chromatograhed on a Sephadex LH-20 column (2. Fr.. 4 (1. 7 (0.3 mg) from fr. 2.65 g). gel (70∼230 mesh. Quantification of functional constituents by HPLC Dried mulberry twigs (10 g) were extracted twice with 200 mL of 80% aq. 3 was also subjected to the same purification procedure on ODS-A (eluted with 40% aq. accelerating voltage. 3 (2. Pharmacia Biotech. Fr. 2 (RT. Xe atom beam. n-BuOH fr. EtOH) and Sephadex LH-20 (eluted with 80% aq. Fr. t-resveratrol.48 g). Palo Alto. Sinco. 3.45 μm membrane filter (Whatman. 3 (MC. CT. 3 (0. Japan) using m-butyl alcohol as a mounting matrix. EtOH and obtained four fractions: Fr. EtOH and left to stand overnight at room temperature. 4 was also chromatograhed on a Sephadex LH-20 to isolate Comp. The upper layer was taken and filled up 100 mL with the same solvent. EtOH in an ultrasonic cleaner (Bransonic 5210R-DTH. (23. 2 (0. Sweden) with 80% aq. Fr.46 g). UK) and finally injected into an analytical Fig. The aliquot was properly diluted.) twigs. 2 (2. 3 (0. Identification of functional constituents UV absorption spectra of isolated four phytochemicals (in MeOH) were obtained with a photodiode array UV-vis 1 spectrophotometer (S-1100. The EtOH extract was further redissolved in 10 mL of 80% aq.73 g). v/v) and obtained five fractions. and thereby isolating pure Comp.39 g).47 g). Milford. Merck Millipore International) column (6. 5 (0. Seoul. 1. Tokyo.49 g) was chromatographed on a silica gel column (6. Fr. and Fr.22 g). moracin.24 g). 140.0×45 cm) with 60% aq.5 mg). EtOH) columns. passed through 0. Fr. EtOH and obtained Comp. v/v) as an eluent and obtained seven fractions: Fr. Fr. 6 (0. Meanwhile. USA).6 mg) from fr. Fr. 6. 2 was chromatographed on an ODS-A (YMC Inc. The schematic procedure for isolation and purification of four functional constituents from mulberry twigs is shown in Fig.. 4 (0. 10 kV (JEOL Ltd. Fr. 1 (2. 1.87 g). Fr. 1 (0. USA) column (4. Varian.52 g). 75.05 g). CA.258 Choi et al. 2. The above fr.2×40 cm) with CHCl3-MeOH (2:1. 2 (5.

and thermal processes. YMC Inc. followed by a 45 min linear gradient to 80% B.0271x−18. y=4.) twigs. Chemical structures of resveratrol derivatives and moracin isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L. USA) equipped with 2998 photodiode array detector at 310 (RT & MC) and 320 (ORTG & ORT).18). Individual compounds were identified by a comparison of their retention times with those of the four standard compounds isolated previously. MC. ORTG and MC were not yet found in mulberry twigs. y=1. Moreover.14. and MC in mulberry twigs were found in the 80% aq. ORT. including solvent fractionation. The typical HPLC chromatograms of the four standard compounds and the 80% aq. solvent A. 2. The gradient elution program was performed as follows: initial 5 min run of 10% B (v/v). the three resveratrol derivatives. EtOH extract of mulberry twigs are shown in Fig. antimicrobial. MA.17). Statistical analysis Data are expressed as mean±SD of two determinations. (6) isolated and identified ORT and RT as major principles for antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of mulberry twigs. 0. oxyresveratrol is well-known as a tyrosinase inhibitor and has been received a potential anti-browning and skin-whitening agent in food and cosmetics. Oh et al. and autosampler. 3) were isolated from mulberry twigs by a series of isolation procedures. Meanwhile. HPLC analysis was carried out using a YMC-Pack Pro C18 column (46 mm i. although there is no published evidence on any clinical trial for efficacy in humans (24). anti-inflamamtory.995 for each compound. 2. producing area. Thus. although their application to food and cosmetic industries is not implemented yet due to stability and safety (20-22). First. oxyresveratrol (ORT) and t-resveratrol (RT). Resveratrol derivatives and moracin in mulberry tree have been reported as anti-inflammatory. Milford. y=7. antiaging. and antioxidant activities (6.Analysis of Phytochemicals in Mulberry Twigs HPLC. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives including moracin have recently been attracted much attention as promising phytochemicals due to their anticancer.7. producing area.) with a Guard-Pak C18 precolumn insert. Quantitative changes of functional constituents in mulberry twigs by cultivars.5083x+1. Levels of four compounds were determined by calibration curves of the four standards (ORTG. by comparison with retention time of each standard compound (A).6583) and expressed as mg per 100 g of dried weight of mulberry twigs. and holding for 5 min.4835x−3.26). ORT and RT. berry twigs. trans-resveratrol. HPLC was performed on a Waters e2690/5 HPLC system (Waters.×250 mm. Linear correlation coefficients were superior to 0.25. solvent B. Zhang et al. anti-hyperlipidemic. Thus. antidiabetic. levels of the four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs from the six different . The detailed NMR and FABMS spectral data of four functional constituents from mulberry twigs were given in Table 1. and thermal process Four functional constituents in mulberry twigs were quantified by HPLC according to variety. Four functional compounds have already been isolated and identified from mulberry twigsand root barks (4. and antioxidant activities (7. mulberry twigs having resveratrol derivatives and moracin are useful as promising sources of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. this is the first report on isolation and identification of ORTG derivatives and MC from mul- 259 Fig. has been reported to possess a variety of biological and pharmacological actions (23). Recovery rates of four compounds were above 97%.2447x+6. and by comparison of spectral data of the published reports (16. Especially.18). RT. ODS-A and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatograpies.8 mL/min.4372. As shown in Fig. Statistical analysis is omitted for simplicity. ORTG. EtOH extract (B) of mulberry twigs. The injection volume was 10 μL.6. such as oxyresveratrol 3'-O-β-D-glucoside (ORTG).8663. CH3CN at a flow rate of 0. a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants including grape and peanut when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. The separation was conducted using a linear gradient of two solvent systems.d. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Isolation and identification of four functional constituents from mulberry twigs Three resveratrol derivatives.948. y=8.05% H3PO4 in H2O. (19) also isolated and identified ORTG and MC derivatives from mulberry root bark and fruit. and is receiving a renewed interest as a potential nutritional supplement for extending the lifespan of humans. and silica gel. (18) and Lee et al. However. and moracin (MC) (Fig. (4) and Chang et al. In particular. 3.

10 127. d.4) 6. d. oxyresveratrol.5 Hz) dd. J =2.66 128. oxyresveratrol 3'-O -β-D-glucoside.71 (1H. (2H. Moreover.48 105.5 mg/100 g of dry weight of mulberry twigs.5 Hz) 120. J =2. followed by "Guksang" (87. there are considerable differences in phytochemical contents of mulberry twigs in relation to mulberry varieties and harvest time.95 104.66 158.25 (H. d. J =2.260 Table 1. J =8.04 107. d.35 (2H.13 160.36 159.2. (1H. d.and Choi et al. J =2.5 Hz) J =8. (1H.3 Hz) m. Of six different mulberry cultivars. d.14 102.19 141. mulberry varieties harvested at early July were shown in Table 2.43 (1H. d.55 108.19 130.61 (2H.4 Hz) 6. Thus.95 159. J=9. d.90 (H.0) J =8. taking TMS as an internal standard. and especially three minor compounds in the mulberry twigs harvested at early July increased at early September. J =12. J =2. coupling constant (J ) expressed in Hz in parenthesis and measured in the solvent CD3OD. J =7.5 Hz) 6. d. t. J =2. the contents of four compounds in mulberry twigs gen- erally increased by an increase of harvest time.91 3.99 104. dd.0 Hz) 6.32 (1H.5 Hz) t. d. s) 7. J =9.74 (H.45 (1H.76 (H.90 3.0) 6. J =2. J =2.48 125.69 104.64 160.0 Hz) 7. Levels of ORTG and ORT . J =8.5 Hz) 6.76 (H.47 3.30 3. J =16.28 71. t.45 123. otherwise ORTG was a major abundant compound in mulberry twigs harvested in early July.5 Hz) 6.4 Hz) 4.27 102.8 mg%)>"Whicaso" (84. ORTG was a major predominant compound in mulberry twig.97 78. J =2.97 127. t. d. 6. J =16. ORTG.06 160.96 (2H.0 Hz) 6. d. d. dd.45 (2H.35 (H.19 127.30 129.2 Hz) 6. d.0 Hz) 6.0) 6.61 (2H.67 109. (1H.98 98.83 105.0) J =16.95 142.) twigs Position ORTG ORT RT MC 1 H-NMR 2 3 4 5 6 7 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' H-α H-β Glucose H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5 H-6a H-6b 13 C-NMR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' α β G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 G-5 G-6 + FABMS [M+H] 6. J =8. FABMS spectra were determined by m -butyl alcohol as a matrix. J =2. "Yongcheon" cultivar (105.45 (2H.5 Hz) J =16.8 mg%)>"Gaerayng" (38. d.97 116.77 (1H. (1H. (1H. Additionally. 1H.64 156. RT. d.14 (1H.35 74.82 (1H. J =2.76 102.18 133.5 Hz) dd.60 245 229 156. ORTG and ORT were found as major compounds in mulberry twigs. 6.61 125.7 Hz) m.33 (1H.27 (1H. t.35 6.0 Hz) 6. In contrast. (1H.39 123. J =8.31 104. d.83 102.4 & 8.5 Hz) d.3 mg%) >"Somok" (23. J =16.47 78.06 243 Chemical shift (δ ppm).13 159.41 3. dd.0 Hz) 6. other compounds were nearly found in mulberry twigs. J =2.60 157.07 158.5 mg%) had the greatest amount of ORTG in mulberry twigs.45 (2H.64 159.35 158.3 Hz) t.34 128. J =7.09 104.09 103.33 (1H.80 6.55 116. in descending order. J =2. Among four compounds detected. J =2. MC.75 (2H. 2.7 mg%). d. J =16. and its contents ranged from 23. 2.45 158. d.34 122.57 128.55 116. J =2.14 113.0 Hz) 6.5 & 5.5 Hz) 6.37 104. d.10 107. (1H.0 Hz) 6. J =8.4 mg%)>"Cheongil" (46.0 Hz) 6. ORT. J =2.39 156. moracin.0 Hz) 7. t -resveratrol.39 157.44 3. J =12. J =8. levels of four compounds of mulberry twigs produced in several different cultivated areas were presented in Table 3.24 (1H.7 to 105. d.91 (H. d.16 (1H.4. Among five different mulberry twigs examined.0 Hz) 7. (1H. J =2. J =2.75 7.0 Hz) 6.4 Hz) 6.0 Hz) 6. d. 13 C-NMR spectral data of resveratrol derivatives and moracin isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.5 Hz) 7.45 (2H.31 (1H.37 101.5 Hz) 7.60 407 140.94 (1H. t.24 62.

Further study on preparation of high quality mulberry twigs increasing functionality.5±5.2 All data are mean±SD of two determinations.8±0. which is widely used for production of mulberry fruit. roasting. mulberry twigs with higher amounts of resveratrol derivatives and moracin could be useful as potential sources of functional foods. 1) Trace(< 0. RT.7±5.2 0. Statistical analysis is omitted for simplicity.2) Tr (0. the conversion of glycosides of plants into aglycones varied considerably according to chemical structures of phytochemicals in plants.6±0. t -resveratrol.7±5.7±6. the conversion of ORTG into ORT by a heat processing was not occurred in mulberry twigs.3±2. the quantitative changes of resveratrol derivatives and moracin in mulberry twigs are greatly affected by a thermal process. dried weight) ORTG ORT Control 196.1 1. ORTG.1 Steaming (30 min) 65. A previous study demonstrated that the heat treatment at a high temperature converts glycosides in plants into its Table 3.7±0.2) Cheongil 46. Thus.1) Tr (0. In particular.4 (198.2±0.3±0. quantitative changes of the four functional constituents in mulberry twigs from “Cheongil” cultivar.8±0.6±3.2 0. and did not considerably vary among producing areas.7±3. Table 4. t-resveratrol. oxyresveratrol.9) Tr (41. platability.8 106.6) Guksang 87. aglycones of resveratrol and moracin have been reported to have higher biological activity and bioavailability than their corresponding glycosides (7.3±3.2 0.5±3.) twigs produced in Uljin according to heat processes Heat processing Content (mg/100 g. and bioavailability by microbial fermentation is now under way.4) ND (10. ORTG.9 Roasting (5 min) 189.3 0. oxyresveratrol 3'-O -β-D-glucoside.3 72.2) Tr (0.3±0. corresponding aglycones (9). moracin.3 All data are mean±SD of two determinations.1 1. we found that oxyresveratrol derivatives are very susceptible to heat treatments.6±3. and their quantitative changes of mulberry twigs were dependent on heat treatments including roasting.6) Yongcheon 105. moracin. Statistical analysis is omitted for simplicity. such as steaming. oxyresveratrol. ORT.3±0. as compared to mulberry twigs harvested at early July.3) ND (1.1) 2) ND (49.5 mg%. there were not big quantitative changes in levels of RT and MC in mulberry twigs in relation to thermal process.9±0.7±0. were investigated according to three different thermal pre-treatments.5±1.5±3.2±0.8±0. Statistical analysis is omitted for simplicity.5±2.7±0.6±3.5 90. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs with higher content of ORT without grassy and beany flavors may be useful as potential sources of functional foods. MC. Thus.2 95. and twig.1 0.5±3.3 0.7±4.9±0.6±2. Contents of resveratrol derivatives and moracin of mulberry twigs harvested at early July according to mulberry (Morus alba L.2 1.3 106.3) Tr (18. 2)Not detected.2) Tr (30. moracin. and microwaving processes. As shown in Table 4.1 0. ORT.4±5. MC. levels of RT and MC were very small amount at below 1.5±11. dried weight) Producing area Yeongcheon Sangju Uljin Uiseong Gimcheon ORTG ORT RT MC 85.1) All data are mean±SD of two determinations.2±0.3) ND (3.) cultivars Cultivar Whicaso Content (mg/100 g.0±0. In contrast. Parentheses represent content of functional constituents of mulberry twigs harvested in early September. Contents of resveratrol derivatives and moracin of "Cheongil" mulberry (Morus alba L.3±2. In conclusion.4) RT 1) Tr (1.3±0.1 0. levels of ORTG and ORT of mulberry twigs decreased with a heat processing except a roasting process. of mulberry twigs varied greatly with producing areas of mulberry tree. the three resveratrol derivatives and moracin were first isolated and identified from mulberry twigs.2 0.1 1.1 (72. Quantitative changes of resveratrol derivatives and moracin in "Cheongil" mulberry (Morus alba L. and especially their levels greatly decreased by steaming process.7±0.7±0. as shown in Table 2.28).0) ORT Tr (39.8±4. However.8 Microwaving (5 min) 172. dried weight) ORTG 84.4±2.9 88. . It was already known that raw plants contain mostly glycoside forms of phytochemicals and low percentage of aglycone. leaf.0±3.1) Tr (2.3 92.0 (165.1±4.1 0.4±0.2 (93. oxyresveratrol 3'-O -β-D-glucoside.8 RT MC 0.9 (162. MC.9±0.261 Analysis of Phytochemicals in Mulberry Twigs Table 2.) twigs produced in several different areas Content (mg/100 g.5±3. oxyresveratrol 3'-O -β-D-glucoside.1) Tr (0.5±4.2±0. Their contents and compositions were varied considerably with cultivars and processing.7±1. ORT. and aglycone forms increased with growth and aging of plants (27). Additionally. this fact suggest following possibility that ORTG in mulberry twigs was partly converted into its corresponding aglycone. Meanwhile.3) Tr (1. oxyresveratrol.7±0.1) Somok 23.0±2. by enzymatic conversion during drying and aging processes. steaming and microwaving.5) Tr (1.2 0.8±0.4±3.5) Gaerayng 38.4±0.6 196.0±0.1 21. ORTG.4±3.8±0.7±0. ORT.3 (43.4) Tr (1.5±2.1) MC Tr (1.9 96.1 66.5 68. Quantitative analysis of functional constituents in mulberry twigs is necessary to set up quality control system for standardization and biological evaluation of processed foods using mulberry twigs and their extracts.8±5.4±1. In particular.2 0.7±6. However.1 mg/100 g).7±2.7±2.1±0. RT.3 174. Thus.2 1. t -resveratrol. RT.6±0.

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