ME 322- Professor Molian's Lecture Notes on


US industries spend annually $60 billion to perform metal removal operations that range from simple
clean-up of castings or welds to high precision work.
What is Machining?
 Machining is a process designed to change the size, shape, and surface of a material through removal
of materials that could be achieved by straining the material to fracture or by thermal evaporation.
 Why Machining?
 Offers important benefits such as
 Excellent dimensional tolerances
-Example is forged crankshaft where holes and bearing surfaces require tight tolerances.
External and internal geometrical features
- Sharp corners, grooves, fillets, various geometry
Surface finish
-Example is a copper mirror by diamond turning




Removal of heat treat distortion
- Parts such as crank and camshafts undergo distortion during heat treatment. Machining is
a process for "straightening" the parts.
Economical if small quantities
There are limitations that include
 o Material waste
o Time consuming
o Energy, capital and labor intensive
  What constitutes a machining system?
A machining system consists of three components: machine tool, cutting
tool, and workpiece (part to be machined).
How do we classify machining processes?
  See Figure 1 and also Figure 8.1 of Text.

Chip Forming Processes Chipless Forming Processes
(Cutting) (Finishing) (Non-traditional)
Turning Grinding Electrical Discharge
Boring Lapping Laser
Drilling Honing Plasma
Milling Polishing Water-jet
Planing Buffing Chemical
Shaping Electrochemical
What are the three fundamental machining parameters?


Shear Strain http://www. MRR= Vfd.   What is Material Removal Rate (MRR)? The volume of material removed per minute. for example.iastate. See the diagram (Figure 4) and video of an aluminum plate machined. In turning. Let us develop some equations that help us understand the process better./rev.   tan  = r Cos  /(1-r Sin  )  2.89 r is always less than unity.public. If the chip thickness is tc. MECHANICS OF MACHINING  In general. is of fundamental importance. In turning (Figure 2). it is given by: d = (D1-D2)/2 Feed (f) is movement of the tool per revolution. we simplify the process into a 2D-process called as Orthogonal Cutting as shown in Figure 3. it is the distance the tool travels in one revolution of the workpiece and is given the units of mm/rev or in. A smaller angle implies a large shear plane leading to requirement of high cutting forces.2. In turning. Cutting ratio.  The chip formation is a localized shear process in a narrow region where the metal is compressed and then made to flow on the face of the tool.  .02/01/2017 Machining   Cutting speed (V) is the largest of the relative velocities of cutting tool or workpiece.html 3/20 . In turning. In orthogonal cutting. In turning.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. it is the speed of the workpiece while in drilling and milling. The shear angle.  1. Depth of cut (d) is the distance the cutting tool penetrates into the workpiece. 2. it is given by the surface speed of the workpiece. machining is 3D-process. Rearranging the equation gives. it is the speed of the cutting tool. V =  D1N where D1 is the diameter of the workpiece. the workpiece is a flat plate (it can be a thin tube too) and is machined using a wedge-shaped tool with a rake angle of  and a relief angle of  . The workpiece is moving at a cutting speed of V with a depth of cut to. For providing an understanding of mechanics of machining. r   See Figure 8. The width remains unaffected. then we can show that   r = to/tc = Sin  /Cos( - ) WORK OUT PROBLEM 8.

106/sec  Thus. 2) the other side is the free workpiece surface that has a jagged appearance due to shear.02/01/2017 Machining   Consider a square element subjected to a shear stress. Shear Strain-rate   d /dt = Vs/d where d = OC ~ 10-3 to 10-4 inch   Shear strain rate is on the order of 103.iastate. tool life and dimensional tolerance.html 4/20 . In metal cutting. See Figure 8. WORK OUT PROBLEM 8. the shearing process is similar to a deck of playing cards sliding against each other as shown in figure. A.4 through 8. then the shear strain is given by:  = a/b.9)   Chip formation affects the surface finish.   5. temperature.3.   Q = w toV = w tc Vc   V/Cos ( - ) = Vs / Cos  = Vc/Sin    4.3). Chip Formation (Figures 8. Velocity Ratio   If the velocities are considered (see Figure 8. We can write:    = AB/OC = (AO + OB)/OC = Cot  + tan ( - )  Low shear and rake angles result in high  . If the distance sheared is "a" and the edge length of square is "b". A value of  >5 indicates much greater deformation in machining than in metal forming where it is under 1. it is this combination of large strains and high strain rates make it difficult to predict chip formation. A chip consists of two sides 1) the side in contact with the tool is called shiny side (flat.public.90   3.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. uniform) due to frictional effects. Continuous http://www. cutting forces.

low rake angle. residual stresses -Entanglement of chips with the tool holder. Use chip-breakers. The process is repeated continuously.Usually for ductile metals . and characterized by Wider shear zone that causes distortion. low rake angle in castoff soft metals.Narrow shear zone.Cutting fluids will prevent the formation of BUE   C. there is also a secondary shear zone .Favorable growth conditions such as high strain-hardening. large depth of cut.iastate.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. It becomes unstable. Discontinuous -Occurs in brittle materials -Inclusions/impurities promote this .Thin BUE helps to improve the tool life . breaks up and then forms again.Very low or hi V -Large depth of cut -Lack of cutting fluid http://www. low speed.html 5/20 . and high temperature .   .02/01/2017 Machining   .Occurs at high cutting speed and rake angle but may form at low speed. poor finish.Degrades the surface finish changes tool geometry .Excellent finish . BUE (continuous)   Built-up-edge (BUE) forms when there is a chemical affinity between workpiece and the tool.public.   B.

3. forces vary continually leading to vibrations and chatter in the machine tool with the end results of poor surface finish and loose tolerances.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. Draw the free body diagrams of chip.12. Serrated chips   . to understand how material strength affects the cutting forces.   The forces acting on the cutting tool are shown in Figure 8.iastate.   6.public.Semicontinuous with zones of high and low shear strains Occurs in metals where strength decreases sharply with temperature.02/01/2017 Machining Because of the discontinuous nature of the chips. to properly design machine tools for vibration and chatter-free operations. We can write the forces as:   R = (Fc2 + Ft2)1/2 = (Fs2 + Fn2)1/2 = (F2 + N2)1/2 Fc = R cos ( - ) Ft = R sin( - ) Fs = R cos( + - ) Ft = R Sin( + - )   http://www.   D.html 6/20 . 2. to determine the HP of motor to be installed on the machine tool. Force Analysis   The objectives are:   1. tool and workpiece to understand how the forces act on. Example: Titanium. all other forces can not be experimentally measured. A dynamometer (force transducer) mounted on the workpiece or tool holder is used to measure Fc and Ft. Except Fc and Ft.

3. fracture. c = constants  From Tables 8. The machine tool and tool holder must be stiff enough to withstand Ft. and decreasing rake angle. Ft can be positive or negative depending on ( - ). b.2 and 8. but the local stresses are very high due to smaller contact areas leading to wear.Ft sin   = F/N = (Ft + Fc tan  )/ (Fc-Ft tan  )  is on the order of 0. you note that Fc increases with increasing d. there is friction. Negative Ft implies upward force.   Cutting and Thrust Forces We rewrite the cutting force. High rake angles are not common in machining.  We rewrite the thrust force.   Coefficient of Friction   At the tool-chip interface.html 7/20 . The coefficient of friction. a. can be written as:    = F/N = tan   F and N are expressed in terms of other forces using a circular force diagram shown in Figure 5.5 to 2 indicating the chip faces considerable frictional resistance when climbing over the tool face. Fc = R cos ( - )   where R = K fadbV-c where K.   F = Fc sin  + Ft cos  and N = Fc cos  .   Ft = Fc tan ( - )  and since Fc is always positive.public. See Figure 8. Ft = R sin( - )=K fadbV-c sin( - )  Thrust force causes deflection of the tool and reduces the depth of cut and affect tolerances.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. chipping.  .02/01/2017 Machining These forces are small on the order of few hundred newtons.   Shear Angle http://www.iastate. decreasing V. The tool-chip contact length is also small (about 1 mm).13. High rake angle and low friction generally result in upward forces.

public.   7. and Fr the radial force contributes very small also because velocity in the radial direction is negligible. 92 and 93.17 to see how this equation poorly predicts the experimental data.02/01/2017 Machining  This is a challenging parameter to determine.  Let us substitute the above equation in Fc. "the shear angle leads to maximum shear stress".  Ignoring the thrust and radial forces. Ft requires very small power because feed rates are very small. which becomes   Fc = R cos ( - ) = R sin 2 Stresses in shear plane There are two stresses in the shear plane caused by Fs and Fn. Note another equation (8.21) has been developed but does equally poor in predicting the experimental data.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.iastate.  Hence we write.r.91. An increase in shear angle will reduce the chip thickness (how) and reduce the temperature rise. One of the earliest analyses (Merchant's) says. the total input power to cutting is given by: Pc = FcV Pc = Ps + Pf = FsVs + F Vc   where Ps = power required for shearing http://www. Power Analysis The cutting force system in 3D-turning consists of three forces: Fc is the largest force that accounts for 99% the power required.  = Fs/As = R cos( + - )/(w to/sin  )  Differentiate the shear stress w.to the shear angle and set it equal to zero (assume that  is independent of  ). the shear angle increases. As the rake angle increases.html 8/20 . then we find    = 45 + ( - )/2  see Figure 8. The average shear stress is:    = Fs/As and  = Fn/As   WORK OUT PROBLEMS 8. Several theories are advanced to find the shear angle.

html 9/20 .21 o Temperature can adversely affect the following:   On the cutting tool . The cutting fluid. raising the temperature of chip. UNIT POWER IS A MATERIALS PROPERTY.02/01/2017 Machining Pf = power to overcome tool-chip interface friction Additional power for creating new surfaces and for momentum changes as the metal crosses the shear plane is considered small. the shear process itself.1 and 8.22) implying that the shear process (plastic deformation) is most effective in producing heat. Heat and Temperature in Metal Cutting  The energy dissipated in cutting operations is largely converted into heat.  We can also find out the portion of frictional specific energy. energy per unit volume of material removal). Pmotor = Pc/0. That is. if used. UNIT POWER = ut = FcV/w toV = Fc/w to  See Table 8.   WORK OUT PROBLEM 8. which is assumed to be 80%. This UNIT POWER has been corrected for motor efficiency.   8.uf  Usually 30-40% of the total energy goes to overcome the friction. Experimental data showed that  o typical values of the temperature rise are 600 to 1500oF see Figure 8. and workpiece.25.Reduce strength and wear resistance http://www. There are three sources for heat development:   1.   uf = [sin  sin  / cos ( - ) cos ( - )] ut Note that us = ut . the tool-chip interface friction.public. you have to multiply the table data by 1. 3.2.  Most of the heat produced is carried by the chip (see Figure 8.iastate. 2. is an excellent heat sink. tool.8 .19 and Figure 8. For dull tools.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. In terms of specific energy or UNIT POWER (specific energy.115. the flank of the tool rubbing the workpiece (especially if the tool is dull). Go through example problems 8.4 for unit power of different materials.

oF Yf= Flow stress of workpiece.001 mm 3. psi  c= Volumetric specific heat of workpiece.lb/in3 oF K =Thermal diffusivity of workpiece. Shear angle.iastate. V/Cos ( - ) = Vs / Cos  = Vc/Sin  2.public. Cutting ratio = chip-thickness ratio = to/tc = Sin  /Cos ( - ) 2.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.2 (Yf/ c) (Vto/K)1/3 T= Mean value at tool-chip interface.02/01/2017 Machining On the workpiece. R = (Fc2 + Ft2)1/2 = (Fs2 + Fn2)1/2 = (F2 + N2)1/2 Fc = R cos ( - ) Ft = R sin( - ) Fs = R cos( + - ) Ft = R Sin( + - ) 7.01 to 0. in.116      SUMMARY EQUATIONS OF MECHANICS OF MACHINING   1. Temperature rise in orthogonal cutting is predicted by: T = 1.  = Cot  + tan ( - ) 1. Shear strain rate = Vs/d where d = 0. Coefficient of friction. WORK OUT PROBLEM 8.  = F/N = (Ft + Fc tan  )/ (Fc-Ft tan  ) http://www. Velocity ratio.html 10/20 .Dimensional accuracy and surface integrity   Temperature rise is obtained using thermocouples and infrared pyrometers (experimental) and by heat flow models. in2/sec Thermal properties of tool are relatively unimportant.  = 45 +  /2- /2 Typical  = -10o to +20o for which  <20o 6. Shear strain.

 = Fs/As and  = Fn/As 9. Tool may lose "hard atoms"  Tool Life is determined by different types of wear. 8. Plastic flow Crater Temperature.24 and 8.02/01/2017 Machining 8. Abrasion. Flank wear is said to be the governing factor. Power analysis UNIT POWER = ut = Fc/w to Friction UNIT POWER = uf = [sin  sin  / cos ( - ) cos ( - )] ut 10. Fracture Mechanical shock and Thermal fatigue (interrupted cutting)   Adhesion: High pressure/temperature cause adhesion of of asperities between the tool and the chip.23. TOOL LIFE. Temperature rise at the tool­chip T = 1. Oxidation Chipping. Adhesion.html 11/20 . SURFACE FINISH AND MACHINABILITY Tool Wear See Figures 8. TOOL WEAR.2 (Yf/(c) (Vto/K)1/3     3. Diffusion.25   o Degrades the surface finish o Increases the tolerance and o Increases the cost of machining   _PRIVATE __Types of wear Mechanisms Flank Temperature.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. http://www.public. Abrasion: Hard particles in the workpiece cause abrasion of the tool­­ Dominant mechanism for flank Plastic Flow: High temperature softens the tool and high stresses cause the plastic deformation of the cutting edges Diffusion: Exchange of atoms across the contact boundary between the chip and the tool. Stresses in shear plane.iastate.

html 12/20 . In the break­in period.iastate. several simple. In the steady­state. and in the accelerated region. subjective criteria may be used. C   C is influenced by the type of workpiece and cutting conditions.27. to develop flank wearland VB C = constant = Tool life for 1 min  See Figure 8.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. there is rapid wear due to high­temperature. we find Figure 7.6 for the maximum value of VB allowed for different machining operations. minutes. The plot is log­log. f) V = cutting speed.public. T = 60­120 min for HSS tool to develop VB and 30­60 min for carbide tool to develop VB. WORK OUT PROBLEMS 8. Flank wear (also called as wear land) is the distance VB which is the criterion for tool life (tool has to be resharpened or changed).97 and 98   Factors affecting n.  See Table 8.Cutting time  Surface Finish and Integrity http://www. n is a function of the cutting tool material  Since flank wear is cumbersome to evaluate in production environment. there is an uniform wear. most critical parameter T = tool life. VB is measured using a toolmaker's microscope. If we plot flank wear as a function of time.02/01/2017 Machining  Flank wear increases with time as shown in Figure 6. the cutting edges lose their sharpness rapidly.   VB is established based on Taylor's tool life equation given by V Tn = C (for given values of d.  ­­ Complete failure of the cutting edge ­­ Visible observation of the flank wear ­­ Fingernail test across the cutting edge ­­ Changes in the sound ­­Changes in chip formation ­­ Degradation of surface finish ­­ Increased consumption of power (watt meter connected to the machine tool) ­­ Number of workpieces machined -. In general.

 Roughness height (Peak­to­valley distance)   Surface profilometer (Figure 4.   Roughness ­­ closely spaced .edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.2. irregular deviations Waviness ­­ greater spacing deviations caused by the deflections of tools.33 shows the roughness data for various machining processes. depressions.2 shows the surface terminology and symbols. dies.iastate. corrosion etc. Variables that influence the roughness are:   http://www.3. thermal warping. _PRIVATE __Finish (geometric features)   Roughness Waviness Lay FlawsIntegrity     Residual stresses Phase transformation Plastic deformation Cracks   Figure 4. holes.4) is used to measure surface roughness.1 for more information on surface integrity.html 13/20 .02/01/2017 Machining  Finish represents geometric properties while integrity pertains to properties such as fatigue life. Arithmetic average (AA) ­ Widely adopted 2. Read section 4.  Figure 8. inclusions Lay ­ direction of the predominant surface pattern  Measures of Surface Roughness  1. Read Section 4. Root mean square (RMS) ­ Used mostly prior to 1950 3.public. vibrations etc Flaws ­­ scratches. cracks. uneven lubrication.

 AISI 1112 steel is given rating of 100.02/01/2017 Machining BUE ­ more damaging effect on roughness Tool radius­ sharper the tool. integrity. TOOL MATERIALS AND CUTTING FLUIDS Tool Materials   A cutting tool is subjected to: o High temperatures (300 to 1500oF) o High contact stresses (103 to 106 psi) o High speed chips (10 to 1000 fpm)   Required Properties o Hot hardness o Wear resistance o Chemical inertness o Toughness (for interrupted machining) http://www. The ratings are given for materials. force. chip formation. higher would be roughness Feed ­ larger the feed. Some other materials ratings are:   Material Machinability Rating AISI 3140 55 Brass 300 2011 Al 200 Gray iron 70 Inconel 30   4. higher is roughness Vibration/chatter ­ increase the roughness   Machinability Machinability is a term that includes several parameters: finish. In general.iastate. the steel can be machined at 100 fpm for 60 minutes of tool life. cutting speed. tool life and surface finish are measures of machinability. composition and properties of material etc. tool life.public.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. What it means is that.html 14/20 .

Machine tool with an attachment that is capable of turning parts with various contours.02/01/2017 Machining   Tool Materials  Steels Cast Alloys Carbides Ceramics Carbon Co-Cr-W WC. It is inefficient for large production runs (Figure 8.  The cutting fluid accelerates the thermal cycling in interrupted cutting operations such as in milling.Several cutting tools are mounted on the turret in the cross-slide.iastate.html 15/20 . Mist cooling is applied in grinding. Automatic Lathes .Simple and versatile but require a skilled machinist because all controls are manipulated by hand. http://www. This condition leads to thermal stresses and causes cracking.56). SELECTED MACHINE TOOLS AND MACHINING PROCESSES Lathes . they are usually vertical and do not have tailstock and are used for machining regular and irregular shapes. Tracer Lathe . They are capable of performing multiple operations such as turning. The mechanism of cutting fluid action involves capillary action in which case the fluid should have small molecules and proper wetting of the surface (see Figure 8. stress corrosion etc). Flood cooling is applied in lathe. some Co Si3N4. on the machine tool (slideways and bearings are to be compatible with the fluids).Oldest machine tools  Engine Lathe . Turret Lathe . CNC Lathe.50). drilling.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. Diamond High-speed   READ THE TEXT FOR DETAILS (READING ASSIGNMENT) Cutting Fluids  Cutting fluids reduce the heat.49 for the high activity of cutting fluids. The cutting fluids are applied in flood or in mist conditions. and protect the machined surface from oxidation. milling.Also called as chucking machines. boring.55). suitable for low to medium volumes of production (Figure 8. See Figure 8.public.turret lathe controlled by CNC. It is a coolant as well as a lubricant. facing. thread cutting. wash away the chips. CBN. and end milling. staining. TiC. and on the operator safety.  Selection of the cutting fluid depends on the workpiece (minimize chemical reactions.   5. gun drilling. Automated.

drilling.html 16/20 . and Cutting speed  See Table 8. Straight turning. and dust-free environment are needed.  Feed. > 2000 fpm -Important in aerospace and automotive to improve productivity only when cutting time is the largest. and knurling. The effects of tool geomtery on various aspects are given in the table below. 2.102. 8. High-stiffness machine tools.02/01/2017 Machining    Operations on a Lathe SEE Figure 8.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. relative ratings 2. and plastics.12 for typical values of cutting parameters.103  Turning Process Capabilities  1.See Table 8. Ag. tolerances (vibration and chatter) and cutting force. grooving. drums for copying machines.14 for a summary See Table 8. taper turning. The tool geometry affects cutting speed.51.  Tool Geometry  Turning operations use single-point geometry cutting tools. These forces are important in the design of machine tools as well as in the deflection of tools for precision machining. The workpiece materials include Cu. High-speed machining.52. feed.e. Diamond turning is common. Production Rates . 8.100.96.   http://www.public. Ultraprecision machining . Ni. TURNING  The turning parameters include tool geometry. and 8. vibration-isolation tables.iastate. Al. chip control. Au. cutting off. computer memory disks. boring. surface finish. depth of cut. The geometry of a right-hand cutting tool (i. profiling.  Forces in Turning  See Figure 8. The depth of cut is in the nanometer range. 1. Examples are optical mirrors.use CBN tools for finish-machining hardened steels. and accuracies in sub-micron range. Depth of Cut.101.  WORKOUT PROBLEMS 8.surface finish in nanometers. threading.15. Hard turning .53. and cutting speed. 8. tool travels from right to left) is shown in Figure 8. facing.

02/01/2017 Machining  Geometry Advantages Limitations Rake Angles Control chip flow Weakens edges ­5 to 20 Reduce Fc Difficult to grind Reduce Temp Decrease cutting angles Improve surface finish Relief (about 6) Reduce friction High stresses on the edge Less flank wear Side cutting (about 15) Reduce the heat Change f and d Improve surface finish1 Separate the tool and workpiece. hmax = f/(cot Cb + tan Cs) 2. vibration and type of machine tool.  BORING  Boring consists of producing circular.iastate. accurate locations.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining. Significant problems include the chip disposal. Boring can be accomplished in the lathe or in boring mills if large pieces are used. Chatter  Nose radius (about 1/8") Improve cutting speed Separate tool and work Improve surface finish2 Tool chatter 1. carefulness in preventing the drill from breaking and supplying cutting fluid. The boring bar is long and must be stiff.  DRILLING  Drilling machine.html 17/20 . SEE Figure 8.public. called as drill presses.58. internal profiles in hollow workpieces or on holes. hmax = f2/8R   Equations 1 and 2 do not include the effects of workpiece material. are vertical machine tools. http://www. Tool chatter End cutting (about 15) Reduce heat Reduce surface finish1.

02/01/2017 Machining Operations: Drilling. Trepanning technique can be used to drill larger diameter holes about 6 in. and reaming.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.uses standard chisel-point twist drills with diameters ranging from 0. Usually it is small.006 in.To begin the center for a hole. to 3 in. The most accurate holes are produced by a sequence of operations that involve centering.Enlarge the hole. drilling.deep holes with aspect ratios > 300  REAMING  Is an operation to make an existing hole dimensionally more accurate than can be obtained by drilling alone and to improve surface finish. It is a function of cutting parameters in addition to the strength of workpiece material. Gun Drilling. Reaming . provide better tolerance/finish.60 Drilling . Step drilling .17 for parameters  Axial speed of the drill = f N = feed rate and MRR = (Hole area) (fN) Horse power for drilling is to overcome thrust and torque forces. Useful to seat bolt heads in the holes. Center Drilling . A reamer is a multiple-edge cutting tool that removes very little material.public.stepper hole.iastate. Countersinking -Hole is cone shaped for flat head screws. Reaming.Double sized drill Counterboring . if excessive. boring.  Mechanics of Drilling Table 8.Drill a larger hole on a smaller hole. on the order of few hundred lbs. It can be small when http://www. the tool is mechanically collapsed and removed without having to rotate it. will break the tool. After tapping.html 18/20 .  TAPPING  Internal threads in the holes of workpieces are produced by taps. Tapping  DRILLING  See Figure 8. Core Drilling . Sizes up to 4 in. UNIT POWER = (power for torque + power for thrust)/MRR   Thrust force.

The depth of cut is in the range 0.9.   Conventional (Up) and Climb (Down) milling  Up Milling Down Milling . See next apages for calculations. See Figure 8.64) also called as peripheral milling.70) 2. the axis of cutter rotation is parallel to the workpiece surface. Go through Example 8. Go through Example 8. Rigidity is not critical because the cutter is opposed by the feed of the work (machine is even). Horizontal spindle (see Figure 8.   Slab milling .  Types of milling machines and their components 1.105 MILLING  Includes a number of processes that are capable of producing a variety of configurations.iastate.18 for milling parameters and formulas.3". (see Figure 8. http://www. can be used to produce various profiles including dies.63. Vertical spindle (see Figure 8.04" to 0. WORK OUT PROBLEMS 8.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.104 and 8.65) the cutter is mounted on a spindle having axis of rotation perpendicular to the workpiece surface. End milling.public.02/01/2017 Machining compared with torque.Beginning chip thickness is large Advantages Advantages 1.html 2. Smaller feed marks 3. (see Figure 8. where the cutter is smaller than the face miller. Low temperature (long tool life) 2.8 Face milling. Downward part of cutting force holds the workpiece (slender parts) 19/20 .71)  Three forms of milling: o Slab Milling (Horizontal) o Face Milling (Vertical) o End Milling (Vertical)  See Table 8.Beginning chip thickness is small . Oxide scale or hard surface of work does not matter 1.

MACHINING CENTERS READ TEXT SECTION 8.10 (READING ASSIGNMENT)   http://www.html 20/20 . Clamp workpiece (work moves up) 2. 3.   6. Tool chatter Drawbacks 2. 108.106. Feed marks 1.iastate. 109.public. 107. Rigid setup is needed due to the cutter pulling the workpiece along.edu/~mebbs/courses/ME322/Machining.   WORK OUT PROBLEMS 8. Not suitable for oxide scale surfaces.02/01/2017 Machining Drawbacks   1. 110 and 111.