Polynomial Functions

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Problem 1: A polynomial function p(x) with real coefficients and of degree 5 has
the zeros: -1, 2(with multiplicity 2) , 0 and 1. p(3) = -12. Find p(x).
Solution to Problem 1:

p(x) can be written as follows
p(x) = ax(x + 1)(x - 2)2(x - 1) , a is any real constant not equal to zero.
p(3) = -12 gives the following equation in a.
a(3)(3 + 1)(3 - 2)2(3 - 1) = -12
Solve the above equation for a to obtain
a = -1/2
p(x) is given by
p(x) = -0.5x(x + 1)(x - 2)2(x - 1)
The graph of p(x) is shown below.
Check the intercepts and the point (3 , -12) on the graph of p(x) found above.

Problem 2: The graph below is that of a polynomial function p(x) with real
coefficients. The degree of p(x) is 3 and the zeros are assumed to be integers.
Find p(x).

Solution to Problem 2 :

The y intercept is at (0 . Problem 5 :Given f(x) = –2x3 – 7x2 + 9x + 22. To find a we need to use more information in the graph. a is any real constant not equal to zero. Problem 4 : Given g(x) = 3x3 – 5x2 + 4x + 2.2) . The x intercept at -1 is of multiplicity 2. which means that p(0) = -2 a(0 + 1)2(0 . p(x) can be written as follows p(x) = a(x + 1)2(x . find f(4). -2).2) Problem 3: Given f(x) = –2x2 + 9x – 8. find f(3). find g(–2).The graph has 2 x intercepts: -1 and 2. .2) = -2 Solve the above equation for a to obtain a=1 p(x) is given by p(x) = (x + 1)2(x .

Solving . . find g(–2) Example 3: Given f(x) = –x3 + 5x2 – x + 9. Since to . we get . . Pulling out an x. find h(–3). we have factors Then. Solution: We must first put the equation into factored form. we find that the roots are and . find f(6). and . . EXAMPLE 4: Find the roots of . . we solve the equation . to find the roots. .Polynomial Functions: Example 1 : Given h(x) = –4x3 + 7x – 4. Example 2 : Given g(x) = 2x4 – 7x3 + 2x – 3.

. . Solution: We can write the function as find the roots by solving . we get . and . Setting each term individually equal to zero. respectively. and . the two unique roots are and . which have multiplicities of 2 and 3.EXAMPLE 5: Find all roots of and give their multiplicities. Thus. .

(x3 .3) Solution: x3 . (Remember to add a coefficient of 0 for the missing terms) Step 3: Bring down the first coefficient.18 4 .5x + 4 x . Express your answer as: (dividenddivisor) = quotient + (remainderdivisor). Step 1: Write down the constant of the divisor with the sign changed –3 Step 2: Write down the coefficients of the dividend.69 .9x2 .Synthetic Division: Example 1: Evaluate (x3 – 8x + 3) ÷ (x + 3) using synthetic division Solution: (x3– 8x + 3) is called the dividend and (x + 3) is called the divisor. Step 4: Multiply (1)( –3) = –3 and add to the next coefficient.5x + 4) ÷ (x .3 is the divisor. 3| 1 -9 3 -5 .9x2 . Repeat Step 4 for all the coefficients We find that (x3– 8x + 3) ÷ (x + 3) = x2 – 3x + 1 Example 2: Divide using synthetic division. Use the synthetic division.

16) ÷ (x + 3) Solution: x4 .65x .1911 ------------------------------[The x2 term is missing.23 .15x + 17) ÷ (x + 8) Solution: 4x3 .23) .32x + 241) .----------------------------1 -6 .32 241 .1928 ------------------------------4 .65 ----------------------------x3-9x2-5x+4x .90 .14x2 + 15x .15x + 17x + 8 = (4x2 .32 256 .3 = (x2 . Use the synthetic division. Express your answer as: (dividenddivisor) = quotient + (remainderdivisor).16 15 .15x + 17 x + 8 is the divisor.8| 4 0 .6x . . (4x3 .1911x + 8 Example 4: Divide using synthetic division.3 Example 3: Divide using synthetic division. Express your answer as: dividenddivisor = quotient + remainderdivisor. Use the synthetic division.3| 1 0 -3 . so insert 0 for 0x2.15 17 .14 9 15 .16 x + 3 is the divisor.14x2 + 15x . .] 4x3 . (x4 .

2| 1 -4 4 -2 3 2 -4 0 -4 -------------------------1 -2 0 -2 -1 -------------------------- x4 .4x3 + 4x2 . (x4 .2x2 .2x + 3x .5x + 30) .5 30 .106 ------------------------------[The x3 term is missing.2 .2x + 3) ÷ (x .3x2 .16x + 3 = (x3 . Use the synthetic division. so insert 0 for 0x3.2) Solution: x4 .4x3 + 4x2 .2 is the divisor.2) .106x + 3 Example 5: Divide using synthetic division.1x .2 = (x3 .2x + 3 x .] x4 . Express your answer as: (dividenddivisor) = quotient + (remainderdivisor).14x2 + 15x .------------------------------1 -3 .4x3 + 4x2 .

Use the synthetic division.] y4 .16 ---------------------------[The x3.2| 1 0 0 0 .8) . x2 and x terms are missing.6 x + 8 is the divisor. . Express your answer as: (dividenddivisor) = quotient + (remainderdivisor). .32y + 2 = (y3 .5x2 + 4x .16y + 2.6x + 8 = (x3 .6) ÷ (x + 8) Solution: x4 . .8| 1 -1 -5 4 -6 -8 72 .x3 .2y2 + 4y . (x4 .Synthetic Division Example 1 : Divide using synthetic division. so insert 0 for 0x3. Express your answer as: (dividenddivisor) = quotient + (remainderdivisor).32 y + 2 is the divisor. (y4 . Use the synthetic division.8 .532 4250 --------------------------------- x4-x3-5x2+4x .5x2 + 4x .532) + 4250x + 8 Example 2: Divide using synthetic division.x3 .9x2 + 67x . 0x2 and 0x.32 -2 4 -8 16 ---------------------------1 -2 4 .536 4256 ---------------------------------1 -9 67 .32) ÷ (y + 2) Solution: y4 .

into the form x – a. The answer is . To put the divisor. 4 -6x 3 -12x2 .10x + 2 is divided . Example 4: Divide (2 x – 11 + 3 x 3) by ( x – 3). The division answer is Example 5: What is the result when 4x by x .3 ? What is the remainder? . so a = –2. x + 2. use the constant's negative.Example 3: Divide (5 x 4 + 6 x 3 – 9 x 2 – 7 x + 6) by ( x + 2) using the synthetic method. That means using x – (+2).

The result is 4x 3 +6x 2 + 6x + 8 . and the remainder is 26. .