IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
Kush Patel1 Chirag Patel2 Dhaval M. Patel3 Abhijitsinh Parmar4 Dixit Patel5
U.G. Student 3,4,5Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
SVBIT, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Abstract— The purpose of this study is to develop tsunami
hazard maps by analyzing the coastal inundation
characteristics of Gujarat. The need for the study is to aware
people for the hazard of tsunami and saving maximum lives
when tsunami occurs there. The outcomes of this study can
be utilized by public policy and decision makers in
developing disaster management strategies. The overall goal
of this study is preparing a tsunami evacuation map for
Mundra city and western cost of Gujarat state. The past
historical earthquakes of Tsunamigenic source of Makran
subduction zone which was responsible for causing tsunami
on western coast of Gujarat state of for Indian subcontinent
are studied.
Key words: Tsunamigenic, Makran subduction, Tsunami

measurement studied. Population


Mundra town is

Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning “harbor” (tsu) and
“wave” (nami). The term was created by fishermen who
returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbor
devastated. It is a naturally occurring series of waves that
can result when there is a rapid, large-scale disturbance of a
body of water.
Tsunamis are water waves generated by the
disturbance caused by submarine earthquakes. The major
tsunamis of 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean
Tsunami demonstrated that the majority of reinforcedconcrete buildings, except those very close to the shoreline,
survived with minor structural damage, even though they
were not designed for tsunamis or earthquakes
(Lukkunaprasit et. al, 2009). The western coast of India is
having very less numbers of tsunami recorded in the past
compared to eastern coast & southern coast. Because of it,
very less work has been done on tsunami genic sources and
possible tsunami hazard from earthquakes in the Arabian
Sea and Western coast of India Due to unavailability of data,
Government and people in this region are not so active for
protective measures. (V.M.Patel et. al, 2013) Preparing
evacuation maps will help people to evacuate safely from
area vulnerable of tsunami. In recent years, the number of
people affected by natural disasters and in particular
tsunamis has been increasing. Artificial Intelligence and
Operation Research approaches to simulate crowd
evacuation and make cities ready for Tsunamis are critical
interest.[1]( NGUYEN Thi Ngoc Anh,2012)

Fig. 1: mundra city map
A tidal
wave evacuation arranges (TEP) could
arranging that may be invoked if a tidal wave alarm has
been triggered. Thence a TEP can have an effect on a range
of readiness measure to be activated within the case of tidal
wave alert. The purpose of TEP is to save lots of the lifetime
of those
persons which
may be littered
with the
incoming tidal wave wave.
A. Basic information of Mundra city
Mundra could be a census city in kachchh district within the
Indian state of Gujarat. Mundra port is that the largest
personal port in India. Mundra was documented for salt and
spice mercantilism within the past and solely little native
fishing craft navigate its silted waterways up the
watercourse. In 1994, the Mundra port was proclaimed at
The operation started in October 1998.
Inconsequent years, the port distend a place lending to
speedy growth of city and population.

Mundra city is situated in the Gujarat state latitude &
longitude of the city is
22.8500° N, 69.7300° E.
The want for the study is to aware people for the hazard
of movement and saving most lives once movement happens
Tsunamigenic supply of Makran subduction zone that
was accountable for inflecting movement on western coast
of Gujarat state of for Indian solid ground unit of

Fig. 2:Mundra port

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Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

Fig. 3:Adani power

Fig. 4: Eurasian plate in Makran (source: Jaiswal et al 2008)
The field of natural disaster risk communication is quite
mature. There are special needs of the disaster risk
communication for tourism industry during natural
disasters (Murphy, 1989, Drabek, 1994, Drabek, 1996),
tsunamis pose possibly unique challenges in risk
communication. First, although seismically active areas
and areas vulnerable to tsunamis can be identified fairly
readily, earthquakes themselves have defied prediction.

Fig. 4:Tata power

In Western Coast of Gujarat destructive tsunamis have been
generated from large earthquakes along the Makran Coast,
Chagos Ridge and kachchh Region in the past. Although the
historical record is incomplete, it is believed that such
Tsunamis were destructive on the coasts of India, Pakistan,
Iran, Oman and Sri Lanka and possibly had significant
effects on Islands (Ap sing and Vm patel et al 2013). The
most significant tsunami generate earthquake in recent times
was that of 28 November 1945 21:56 UTC with a magnitude
of 8 Mw and up to 5000 people is dead(V.M Patel, et al
One of the most deadly tsunamis ever recorded in
the Arabian Sea occurred with its epicenter located in
the offshore of Pansi in the northern Arabian Sea, about 100
km south of Churi (Baluchistan), Pakistan , at 21.56 UTC
(03.26 IST) on November 28, 1945. More than 4000
people lost their life along the Makran coast of Pakistan
by both the earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami was
responsible for great loss of life and destruction along
the coasts of India, Pakistan, Iran. The earthquake’s
Richter Magnitude (Ms) was 7.8 (Pendse, 1948) & the
Moment Magnitude (Mw) was revaluated to be 8.1 (7)

Fig. 4: Tsunami impact at the coast: an explanation of terms
(Source: UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami
Information Centre (ITIC) with modification.)

The Earth's lithosphere is broken up into a bunch of
discrete pieces, called plates that move around the
surface of the planet (18). This motion is driven by the
flow of the mantle rock beneath the plates and by the
forces plates exert at their boundaries where they touch
each other.
There are three distinct types of plate boundaries.

A. Transform boundaries
when two plates slide past each other it’s called transform
boundaries. The San Andreas Fault in California occurs at
this type of plate boundary.
B. Divergent boundaries
when plates move away from each other it’s called divergent
boundaries. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a divergent

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Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

C. Convergent boundaries
when plates move toward each other it’s called convergent
boundaries. The Cascadia subduction zone in the US Pacific
Northwest is a convergent boundary.


Fig. 3: tsunami generate

A. Horizontal Evacuation system
If you have enough time for evacuate then you follow the
map and reach to the high level land zone. You have enough
time for escape then also you go to your nearby hilly area
and save your life.

Fig. 5: Setting up tsunami hazard map (Source: Newcomb,
K.R. et al 2001)
B. Vertical Evacuation system
If you have no time to follow the evacuation map or reach to
the high level land zone then you should high rise and strong
building and stay at a top floor. Important buildings like
hospital, school, fire station, power house, substation,
telephone exchange, VIP residence etc are good for this

To find Tsunamigenic sources for west coast of Gujarat
in Mundra city.
To analyze the site conditions from the map and to
suggest type of evacuation system for the same region.
The main objective of our project is to save as many
people as possible by guiding them to safer zones in
quickest time and zones that will least affected by
tsunami during tsunami conditions with the help of the
tsunami evacuation maps that will be suggested by us.
To prepare Hazard map of Mundra city of west coast of
To prepare a Tsunami Evacuation Plan for Coastal
Mundra city of Gujarat.
In some locations, status might not exist, or tsunamis
by native events might
comfortable warning time for communities to evacuate
lower areas. Wherever horizontal evacuation is
neither doable nor sensible, then a possible resolution is
vertical evacuation into the higher levels of structures
designed and careful to resist the consequences of
a moving ridge.
Propose sites of vertical evacuation structures.

The Step wise procedure of evacuation mapping is as
Step 1: Collect SRTM data
By using Global mapper software, collect SRTM data of
Step 2: Collect Bathematric data
Bathematric data is collected with help of Global mapper
Step 3: Generate Contour Map
By using Topography data of Mundra city, the contours are
generated in help of global mapper & geo-referenced image.
Step 4: Mapping
The process of mapping is stepwise. In mapping of tsunami
first the satellite image showing population is geo
referenced with the SRTM data of Gujarat.
Step 5: Generate Evacuation Map
The coastal regions are shown using different colours and
hazard map is prepared by showing 1 to 6 m heights
by different colours and then evacuation map is generated.
The research is done for the assessment of tsunami
evacuationtechniques for some coastal cities using ALTM
data and RTKGPS is prepared and by using the same the
hazard map forother cities can be prepared. The SRTM data
of bathymetryand topography can also be helpful in
preparing hazard maps.

Fig. 6: Elevated platform used on Okushiri Island (source:
Gardi, R et al 2011)

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Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

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