IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
Kush Patel1 Chirag Patel2 Dhaval M. Patel3 Abhijitsinh Parmar4 Dixit Patel5
1,2
U.G. Student 3,4,5Assistant Professor
1,2,3,4,5
Department of Civil Engineering
1,2,3,4,5
SVBIT, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Abstract— The purpose of this study is to develop tsunami
hazard maps by analyzing the coastal inundation
characteristics of Gujarat. The need for the study is to aware
people for the hazard of tsunami and saving maximum lives
when tsunami occurs there. The outcomes of this study can
be utilized by public policy and decision makers in
developing disaster management strategies. The overall goal
of this study is preparing a tsunami evacuation map for
Mundra city and western cost of Gujarat state. The past
historical earthquakes of Tsunamigenic source of Makran
subduction zone which was responsible for causing tsunami
on western coast of Gujarat state of for Indian subcontinent
are studied.
Key words: Tsunamigenic, Makran subduction, Tsunami

measurement studied. Population
20,338(asper2011census).

of

Mundra town is

I. INTRODUCTION
Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning “harbor” (tsu) and
“wave” (nami). The term was created by fishermen who
returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbor
devastated. It is a naturally occurring series of waves that
can result when there is a rapid, large-scale disturbance of a
body of water.
Tsunamis are water waves generated by the
disturbance caused by submarine earthquakes. The major
tsunamis of 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean
Tsunami demonstrated that the majority of reinforcedconcrete buildings, except those very close to the shoreline,
survived with minor structural damage, even though they
were not designed for tsunamis or earthquakes
(Lukkunaprasit et. al, 2009). The western coast of India is
having very less numbers of tsunami recorded in the past
compared to eastern coast & southern coast. Because of it,
very less work has been done on tsunami genic sources and
possible tsunami hazard from earthquakes in the Arabian
Sea and Western coast of India Due to unavailability of data,
Government and people in this region are not so active for
protective measures. (V.M.Patel et. al, 2013) Preparing
evacuation maps will help people to evacuate safely from
area vulnerable of tsunami. In recent years, the number of
people affected by natural disasters and in particular
tsunamis has been increasing. Artificial Intelligence and
Operation Research approaches to simulate crowd
evacuation and make cities ready for Tsunamis are critical
interest.[1]( NGUYEN Thi Ngoc Anh,2012)

Fig. 1: mundra city map
A tidal
wave evacuation arranges (TEP) could
be
arranging that may be invoked if a tidal wave alarm has
been triggered. Thence a TEP can have an effect on a range
of readiness measure to be activated within the case of tidal
wave alert. The purpose of TEP is to save lots of the lifetime
of those
persons which
may be littered
with the
incoming tidal wave wave.
A. Basic information of Mundra city
Mundra could be a census city in kachchh district within the
Indian state of Gujarat. Mundra port is that the largest
personal port in India. Mundra was documented for salt and
spice mercantilism within the past and solely little native
fishing craft navigate its silted waterways up the
watercourse. In 1994, the Mundra port was proclaimed at
Mundra.
The operation started in October 1998.
Inconsequent years, the port distend a place lending to
speedy growth of city and population.

II. STUDY AREA
Mundra city is situated in the Gujarat state latitude &
longitude of the city is
22.8500° N, 69.7300° E.
The want for the study is to aware people for the hazard
of movement and saving most lives once movement happens
there.
The
past
historical
earthquakes
of
Tsunamigenic supply of Makran subduction zone that
was accountable for inflecting movement on western coast
of Gujarat state of for Indian solid ground unit of

Fig. 2:Mundra port

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1817

Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

Fig. 3:Adani power

Fig. 4: Eurasian plate in Makran (source: Jaiswal et al 2008)
IV. RISK COMMUNICATION FOR NATURAL HAZARDS
The field of natural disaster risk communication is quite
mature. There are special needs of the disaster risk
communication for tourism industry during natural
disasters (Murphy, 1989, Drabek, 1994, Drabek, 1996),
tsunamis pose possibly unique challenges in risk
communication. First, although seismically active areas
and areas vulnerable to tsunamis can be identified fairly
readily, earthquakes themselves have defied prediction.

Fig. 4:Tata power
III. POSSIBILITY OF TSUNAMIS IN WESTERN COAST OF
GUJARAT

In Western Coast of Gujarat destructive tsunamis have been
generated from large earthquakes along the Makran Coast,
Chagos Ridge and kachchh Region in the past. Although the
historical record is incomplete, it is believed that such
Tsunamis were destructive on the coasts of India, Pakistan,
Iran, Oman and Sri Lanka and possibly had significant
effects on Islands (Ap sing and Vm patel et al 2013). The
most significant tsunami generate earthquake in recent times
was that of 28 November 1945 21:56 UTC with a magnitude
of 8 Mw and up to 5000 people is dead(V.M Patel, et al
2011)
One of the most deadly tsunamis ever recorded in
the Arabian Sea occurred with its epicenter located in
the offshore of Pansi in the northern Arabian Sea, about 100
km south of Churi (Baluchistan), Pakistan , at 21.56 UTC
(03.26 IST) on November 28, 1945. More than 4000
people lost their life along the Makran coast of Pakistan
by both the earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami was
responsible for great loss of life and destruction along
the coasts of India, Pakistan, Iran. The earthquake’s
Richter Magnitude (Ms) was 7.8 (Pendse, 1948) & the
Moment Magnitude (Mw) was revaluated to be 8.1 (7)

Fig. 4: Tsunami impact at the coast: an explanation of terms
(Source: UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami
Information Centre (ITIC) with modification.)
V. TSUNAMI GENERATED

The Earth's lithosphere is broken up into a bunch of
discrete pieces, called plates that move around the
surface of the planet (18). This motion is driven by the
flow of the mantle rock beneath the plates and by the
forces plates exert at their boundaries where they touch
each other.
There are three distinct types of plate boundaries.

A. Transform boundaries
when two plates slide past each other it’s called transform
boundaries. The San Andreas Fault in California occurs at
this type of plate boundary.
B. Divergent boundaries
when plates move away from each other it’s called divergent
boundaries. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a divergent
boundary.

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1818

Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

C. Convergent boundaries
when plates move toward each other it’s called convergent
boundaries. The Cascadia subduction zone in the US Pacific
Northwest is a convergent boundary.

VII. OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE




Fig. 3: tsunami generate
(Source:ttps://www.education.psu.edu/earth501/content/p2_
p3.html)

VI. TYPES OF TSUNAMI EVACUATION SYSTEM
A. Horizontal Evacuation system
If you have enough time for evacuate then you follow the
map and reach to the high level land zone. You have enough
time for escape then also you go to your nearby hilly area
and save your life.

Fig. 5: Setting up tsunami hazard map (Source: Newcomb,
K.R. et al 2001)
B. Vertical Evacuation system
If you have no time to follow the evacuation map or reach to
the high level land zone then you should high rise and strong
building and stay at a top floor. Important buildings like
hospital, school, fire station, power house, substation,
telephone exchange, VIP residence etc are good for this
situation.

To find Tsunamigenic sources for west coast of Gujarat
in Mundra city.
To analyze the site conditions from the map and to
suggest type of evacuation system for the same region.
The main objective of our project is to save as many
people as possible by guiding them to safer zones in
quickest time and zones that will least affected by
tsunami during tsunami conditions with the help of the
tsunami evacuation maps that will be suggested by us.
To prepare Hazard map of Mundra city of west coast of
Gujarat.
To prepare a Tsunami Evacuation Plan for Coastal
Mundra city of Gujarat.
In some locations, status might not exist, or tsunamis
triggered
by native events might
not
enable
comfortable warning time for communities to evacuate
lower areas. Wherever horizontal evacuation is
neither doable nor sensible, then a possible resolution is
vertical evacuation into the higher levels of structures
designed and careful to resist the consequences of
a moving ridge.
Propose sites of vertical evacuation structures.
VIII. METHODOLOGY

The Step wise procedure of evacuation mapping is as
following:
Step 1: Collect SRTM data
By using Global mapper software, collect SRTM data of
Gujarat.
Step 2: Collect Bathematric data
Bathematric data is collected with help of Global mapper
software.
Step 3: Generate Contour Map
By using Topography data of Mundra city, the contours are
generated in help of global mapper & geo-referenced image.
Step 4: Mapping
The process of mapping is stepwise. In mapping of tsunami
first the satellite image showing population is geo
referenced with the SRTM data of Gujarat.
Step 5: Generate Evacuation Map
The coastal regions are shown using different colours and
hazard map is prepared by showing 1 to 6 m heights
by different colours and then evacuation map is generated.
IX. CONCLUSIONS
The research is done for the assessment of tsunami
evacuationtechniques for some coastal cities using ALTM
data and RTKGPS is prepared and by using the same the
hazard map forother cities can be prepared. The SRTM data
of bathymetryand topography can also be helpful in
preparing hazard maps.
REFERENCES

Fig. 6: Elevated platform used on Okushiri Island (source:
Gardi, R et al 2011)

[1] Van Dorn, W. G. "Tsunamis." Contemporary Physics 9.2
(1968): 145-164.
[2] Dawson, Alastair G., and Iain Stewart. "Tsunami
deposits in the geological record." Sedimentary Geology
200.3 (2007): 166-183.

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1819

Literature study on Tsunami Evacuation System in Mundra city
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/507)

[3] Synolakis, Costas E., and Laura Kong. "Runup
measurements of the December 2004 Indian Ocean
tsunami." Earthquake Spectra 22.S3 (2006): 67-91.
[4] Rufener, Karl A. Developing a River Flood Evacuation
Plan for the City of Renton. National Fire Academy,
2008.
[5] Tinti, S., et al. "Handbook of tsunami hazard and
damage scenarios." JRC scientific and technical reports.
EUR 24691 (2011).
[6] Spahn, Harald, et al. "Walking the Last Mile:
Contributions to the Development of an End-to-End
Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia." Early
Warning for Geological Disasters. Springer Berlin
Heidelberg, 20. 179-20146.
[7] Byrne, Daniel E., Lynn R. Sykes, and Dan M. Davis.
"Great thrust earthquakes and aseismic slip along the
plate boundary of the Makran subduction zone."Journal
of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012)
97.B1 (1992): 449-478.
[8] Rani, V. Swaroopa, et al. "Spatial and temporal
variations of b-value and fractal analysis for the Makran
region." Marine Geodesy 34.1 (2011): 77-82
[9] Byrne, D.E.,L.R. Sykes And D.M. Davis, (1992). Great
Thrust Earthquakes And A Seismic Slip Along The Plate
Boundary Of The Makran Subduction Zone, J. Geophys.
Res., 97, 449-478.
[10] Dimri, V. P., (2007). Presentation on Solid Earth
Research in India: Contribution to International Year of
Planet Earth, http://www.iypeinsa.org /iype_ws2007/
ws_papers/ dimri.pdf.
[11] Pendse, C. G., (1948). The Mekran Earthquake Of The
28th November 1945, Scientific Notes, Vol. X. No. 125.
[12] V. m. patel, H. s. patel, A. p. singh tsunami propagation
in arabian sea & its
[13] effect on dwarka city of gujarat, india, Mar 16, 2011.
[14] Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical
Evacuation from Tsunamis FEMA P646 / June 2008 [15]
Byrne, D. E., Sykes, L. R. and Davis, D. M., Great thrust
earthquakes and seismic slip along the plate boundary of
the Makran subduction zone. J. Geophys. Res., 1992, 97,
449–478.
[15] Prof. (Dr.) V. M. Patel, Prof. Bhavesh Jaiswal, Dr. A. P.
Singh, Tsunami Hazard and Alert System for Western
Coast of Gujarat, 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian
Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTCSAS) | 23-24 August 2013.
[16] R. K. Jaiswal, B. K. Rastogi, Tad S. Murty,
TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES IN THE INDIAN
OCEAN, Science of Tsunami H
[17] Jaiswal, R. K., A. P. Singh, B. K. Rastogi, (2008),
Simulation Of The Arabian Sea Tsunami Propagation
Generated Due To 1945 Makran Earthquake And Its
Effect On Western Parts Of Gujarat (India), Natural
Hazards, 2008
[18] Christian Meinig, Scott E. Stalin, Alex I. Nakamura,
Frank González, NOAA, Technology Developments in
Real-Time Tsunami Measuring, Monitoring and
Forecasting, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
(PMEL), Hugh B. Milburn Oceanographic Engineer
[19] Shuto, N., T. Suzuki, K. Hasegawa, and K. Inagaki,
(1986). A Study of Numerical Techniques on the

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

[25]

[26]

[27]

[28]

[29]

[30]
[31]

[32]

[33]

[34]

Tsunami Propagation and Run-up. Science of Tsunami
Hazard, Vol.4:1
Demets C., R.G.Gordon, D.F.Argus, and S. Stein,
(1990). Current plate motions, Geophys. J. Int., 101,
425-478.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
(2009). Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis: A Guide for
Community Officials, FEMA P646 .
Murty, T. S., A. Bapat & Vinayak Prasad, (1999).
Tsunamis on the Coastlines of India, Science of Tsunami
Hazards, 17 (3), 167-172.
Thusyanthan, N. I. and S. P. Madabhushi, (2008).
Tsunami Wave Loading on Coastal Houses: a Model
Approach, New Civil Engineering International, pp. 2731.
Yeh, H., I. Robertson, and J. Pruess, (2005).
Development of Design Guidelines for Structures that
Serve as Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Sites, Washington
State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.
Singh, A. P., Murty T. S., Rastogi B. K., and Yadav R.
B. S. (2012).Earthquake generated Tsunami in the Indian
Ocean and probablevulnerability assessment for the east
coast of India, Marine Geodesy,
R. K. Jaiswal, A. P. Singh and B. K. Rastogi (2009).
Simulation ofthe Arabian Sea Tsunami Propagation
Generated due to 1945 MakranEarthquake and Its Effect
on Western Parts of Gujarat (India), NaturalHazards, and
48(2): 245-258.
Patel Dhaval M, Dr V.M Patel, Bhupesh Katariya, Patel
Khyati A. Performance Of Mangrove In Tsunami
Resistance, Volume 1, Issue 3, Mar-Apr, 2014, ISSN
(E): 2347-5900 ISSN (P): 2347-6079.
DR.V.M.PATEL, D.M.PATEL, K.A.PATEL, A. T.
MOTIYANI, ‘RESILIENCE OF TSUNAMI IN
COASTAL REGIONS BY USE OF MANGROVE
BELT’2319-507X, ISSN: 2319-507X, Accepted Date:
25/12/2013 ; Published Date: 01/01/2014.
Arikawa, T, (2008). Behaviors of concrete walls under
impulsive tsunami load, Proc. International Conference
on Coastal Engineering, American Soc. of Civil Engg.
Along The Plate Boundary Of The Makran Subduction
Zone, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 449-478.
Morey, S.L., Martin P.J., O’Brien J. J., Wallcraft A. A.,
Zavala-Hidalgo J., (2003). Export pathways for river
discharged fresh water in the northern Gulf of Mexico, J.
Geophys.
Res.
108:3303–3318.doi:
10.1029/2002JC001674.
Prof. (Dr.) V. M. Patel, Prof. Bhavesh Jaiswal, Dr. A. P.
Singh, Tsunami Hazard and Alert System for Western
Coast of Gujarat, 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian
Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTCSAS) | 23-24 August 2013
Patel, V. M., Patel, H. S., Singh A. P., Tsunami
Propagation in the Arabian sea and its effect on
Porbandar, Gujarat, India, 2010, JERS/Vol.I/ Issue
II/Oct.-Dec.,2010/206-217.
Patel, V. M., Patel, H. S., Singh A. P., Tsunami
Propagation in the Arabian sea and its effect on Dwarka,
Gujarat, India, 2010, JERS/Vol.I/ Issue II/Oct.Dec.,2010/206-217

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1820