IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Dynamic Source Routing Protocol with improved Route Maintenance
phase for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Pranita Awasthi1 Dr. L.G.Malik2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
1,2
G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering Nagpur, India
1,2

Abstract— A network consisting of a number of
autonomous mobiles nodes intended for data transmission
and reception is called a mobile Ad-Hoc Network. The
topology of mobile nodes continuously changes leading to
need of an appropriate routing protocol that requires less
control overhead and time delay incurred during
transmission. Dynamic Source Routing protocol is an ondemand routing protocol that has lesser control overhead
than table driven routing protocols. The paper presents an
optimisation over conventional DSR during the route
maintenance phase. The protocol avoids the backtracking of
data packet to the source and thus, further reduces the
control overhead and time delay incurred due to route
failure. This improves the efficiency of the routing protocol
whenever route failure occurs.
Key words: Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks, DSR,
RouteRequest Packet, RouteReply Packet
I. INTRODUCTION
Ad-Hoc wireless networks are multi-hop, infrastructure-less,
self organisable, packet switched networks in which each
mobile node functions as a router. These networks find a
wide range of applications in military purposes,
collaborative and distributive computing, disaster rescue
operations, etc[1]. In these networks, the mobile nodes
enter, leave and participate in the data transmission process
freely. Thus, the topology can be said to be dynamic in
nature. The route establishment procedure requires an
appropriate routing protocol that overcomes the basic
challenges of Ad-Hoc networks like control overhead, time
delay, mobility, hidden terminal and exposed terminal
problems, etc. On-demand routing protocols are the
protocols in which there is no need of maintaining network
topology information. The path is established when the data
packet is ready to be transmitted. Hence, these protocols
need not to periodically exchange the routing information
which reduces the control overhead. Dynamic Source
Routing protocol is an important example of such protocols
which has improved performance over other on-demand
routing protocols. The given figure 1 shows the route
construction phase of DSR protocol in which RouteRequest
packets are flooded by the source when it has data packets to
be sent to the destination. The neighboring nodes
rebroadcasts these packets until the destination is reached or
the time to live counter of packet has not exceeded. A
RouteReply packet is then sent to the source node to every
RouteRequest packet received through multiple paths by the
destination node. The source chooses an optimal path and
thus establishes a link to the destination.

Fig. 1: Route Construction phase in DSR
Each intermediate node consists of a route cache. Route
cache has routes that are extracted from the information
contained in the data packets which are being forwarded.
The intermediate nodes, after getting a RouteRequest packet,
use this information and reply to the source in case they
have a route to the destination node. When the route
established by the source to the destination fails, a
RouteError packet is again forwarded to the source node
and the source node restarts the route establishment phase.
destination
15
14

13
12

11

6

4

7

5

1
source

9

8

10

2

3

Network link
RREQ packet
RRER packet
Broken link

Fig. 2: Route Maintenance phase in DSR
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A proper routing protocol must combat all the constraints of
the adhoc networks and the mobile nodes. Dynamic Source
Routing protocol is an on-demand routing protocol that
intends to reduce the control overhead. The route
maintenance phase in conventional DSR protocol is prone to
time delay and larger control overhead problems. Several
approaches have been proposed till date that overcomes
these problems. Some of them are listed below:
Shilpa Shukla, Shreya Sharma and Suresh Kumar
modified the Route Request packet in the DSR protocol [2].

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1845

Dynamic Source Routing Protocol with improved Route Maintenance phase for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/514)

The source waits for a timeout period as mentioned in the
TIMER field and receives a Route Reply packet. If it does
not receive any Route Reply packet during this timeout
period, it rebroadcasts the Route Request packet with
increased TIMER and increased Request number. This
enables an easy cache maintenance approach and eliminated
the possibility of stale route information. The protocol
suffered from delayed transmission during the route
maintenance phase as the intermediate node is bound to
inform the source node about link failure.
Mustafa Al-Ghazal, Ayman El-Sayed and Hamedy
Kelash used Genetic Algorithm to improve routing. Genetic
Algorithm enables fast changing and fast updating of
routing information [3]. The proposed protocol is adaptable
to frequent topology changes and reduced the Medium
Access Control layer overhead. The authors examined the
technique experimentally and proved that Genetic
Algorithm can be efficiently used to find the shortest path
from any intermediate node to the destination node.
Baoxian Zhang and Hussein T. Mouftah proposed an
algorithm for establishment of a shortest tree for multicast
routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks [4]. The proposed
technique reduced the complexity and the control overhead
incurred in tree construction by allowing destination
initiated Route Discovery. The protocol eliminates the need
of flooding.
Ant algorithm is based on the principle of finding the
shortest path between source and destination by footprints
on the path travelled by the Ant [5]. The authors utilised this
principle to optimise the conventional DSR protocol. The
optimisation improved several parameters like end to end
delay and throughput of the network. The principle is used
to find the shortest route in DSR by ant algorithm tends to
increase the control overhead by approximately 58% than
the conventional DSR protocol.
Do Minh Ngoc and Hoon Oh proposed an efficient
clustering technique for incorporating stability to routing,
fast recovery of link failures and reduction of control
overhead [6]. The nodes having similar cluster labels are
intended for delivering the packets and send the data packets
to the clusters whose label is next in the routing cache cooperatively. Due to multiple paths among nearby clusters,
the failed links are repaired fastly. As a number of nodes
collaborating forward the data packets, the protocol
improves the routing stability and reduces the control
overhead incurred during the route discovery phase.
III. PROPOSED PLAN
It has been found that the conventional Dynamic Source
Routing protocol suffers from a basic disadvantage that the
route maintenance phase does not locally repair a broken
link.

15
14

13
12

11

6

4

7

5

1
source

9

8

10

2

3

RREP packet
Network link
RREQ packet
Broken link

Fig. 3: Optimised Route Maintenance phase in DSR
Backtracking of data packet to the source increases the
control overhead and time delay of the transmission process.
An optimised route maintenance phase is proposed in which
the node prior to the broken link starts a route establishment
phase by flooding the RouteRequest packet.
Every node
maintains a cache containing information about its one hop
neighboring nodes. As soon as a node/link fails, it removes
the entry of the failed node/link from its cache. During route
re-establishment, the intermediate node searches for other
nearest neighbours and re-establishes the link.
IV. PSEUDO CODE
The given pseudo code presents an algorithm on how the
intermediate node aims at finding an alternative path to the
destination. The intermediate node, on detecting route
failure, removes the failed node from its cache and checks
the nearest next hop node towards destination from its
cache. This reduces the possibility of backtracking the data
packet to source.
1) Initialize network.
2) Select source and destination.
3) Maintaining logs on every node (node and its
neighbors).
Initialize i, last_node, min_dist, current_node_dist, flag
For i=0 to last_node
Find distance between source and destination
Add neighbor into log table
If min_dist > current_node_dist
Select minimum distance will be next hope
4) Start communication
5) If the link failure(break) occurred on node
 Check logs on failure link failure node
1) Visit neighbor of that nodes
2) skip visited node
3) select new neighbor node
 Select alternate node for communication
 Re-communication (Start communication) .
V. SIMULATION
Simulation is done on NS 2.35. Sensor network with 50
nodes is created. Normal communication between nodes,
source and destination node takes place. Figure 4 shows
network topology initialisation and communication.

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1846

Dynamic Source Routing Protocol with improved Route Maintenance phase for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/514)

Fig. 4: Data communication between source and destination
Figure 5 shows link failure between intermediate node and
destination node.

Fig. 5: Link failure between intermediate node and
destination node
Figure 6 shows choosing an alternate path to destination by
the intermediate node.

Fig. 7: Comparison between DSR and proposed protocol in
terms of delay
Figure 8 shows the graphical comparison between
throughput of convention DSR protocol and the proposed
protocol.

Fig. 8: Comparison between DSR and proposed protocol in
terms of throughput
VII. CONCLUSION

Fig. 6: Choosing an alternate path to destination
VI. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
The proposed protocol, after simulation, proves to reduce
the time delay and improves the throughput of the system as
compared to the conventional Dynamic Source Routing
protocol. Figure 7 shows the graphical comparison in terms
of delay in data transmission during re-constructing the
route after failure.

There is no need of flooding the networks with table update
messages periodically in Dynamic Source Routing protocol.
This reduces the control overhead incurred during
transmission. Adopting an optimal route maintenance
technique in which the intermediate node locally repairs the
broken link further reduces the control overhead. Also, the
proposed protocol leads to less operational load on the
source node. This reduces the possibility of bottleneck at the
source and thus improves the efficiency and performance of
the system. The proposed protocol appropriately selects the
optimal path to the destination by eliminating the links from
the broken source route. This immunes the newly chosen
path from any further link failure. The time delay incurred in
route maintenance is reduced in the proposed protocol and
the throughput of the system is improved.
REFERENCES
[1] Deepadasarathan; Kumar, P.N., "A novel method to
avoid stale route cache problem of dynamic source
routing protocol for mobile ad hoc network," in Current
Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICCTET), 2013
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.167-170, 3-3
July 2013.
[2] Shukla, S.; Sharma, S.; Kumar, S., "Sequence-number
aided timer based DSR protocol in MANET: TDSR," in

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1847

Dynamic Source Routing Protocol with improved Route Maintenance phase for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/514)

Computer and Communication Technology (ICCCT),
2013 4th International Conference on , vol., no.,
pp.151-156, 20-22 Sept. 2013.
[3] Al-Ghazal, M.; El-Sayed, A.; Kelash, H., "Routing
Optimlzation using Genetic Algorithm in Ad Hoc
Networks," in Signal Processing and Information
Technology, 2007 IEEE International Symposium on ,
vol., no., pp.497-503, 15-18 Dec. 2007.
[4] Baoxian Zhang; Mouftah, H.T., "A destination-initiated
multicast routing protocol for shortest path tree
constructions,"
in
Global
Telecommunications
Conference, 2003. GLOBECOM '03. IEEE , vol.5, no.,
pp.2840-2844 vol.5, 1-5 Dec. 2003.
[5] Istikmal, "Analysis and evaluation optimization
dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol in Mobile
Adhoc network based on ant algorithm," in Information
and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2013
International Conference of , vol., no., pp.400-404, 2022 March 2013.
[6] Do Minh Ngoc, Hoon Oh. “A Group Dynamic Source
Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” in
Strategic Technology, The 1st International Forum on,
vol.,no., pp.134-137, 18-20 Oct. 2006.
[7] Hashim, R.; Nasir, Q.; Harous, S., "Adaptive Multi-path
QoS Aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for
Mobile Ad-Hoc Network," in Innovations in
Information Technology, 2006 , vol., no., pp.1-5, Nov.
2006.
[8] Limin Meng; Wanxia Wu, "Dynamic Source Routing
Protocol Based on Link Stability Arithmetic," in
Information Science and Engineering, 2008. ISISE '08.
International Symposium on , vol.2, no., pp.730-733,
20-22 Dec. 2008.
[9] Blywis, B.; Gunes, M.; Gutzmann, D.J.H.; Juraschek,
F., "A testbed-based study of uni- and multi-path
Dynamic Source Routing in a WMN," in Wireless Days
(WD), 2010 IFIP , vol., no., pp.1-5, 20-22 Oct. 2010.
[10] Gexin Peng; Shengli Xie; Yinglie Cao, "A position
information based algorithm of routing maintenance for
dynamic source routing," in Wireless Communications,
Networking and Mobile Computing, 2005. Proceedings.
2005 International Conference on , vol.2, no., pp.782786, 23-26 Sept. 2005.

All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com

1848