ISSN 1829-9466

(Jurnal Komunitas Migas Indonesia)

Volume II

Second Volume
December 2006

Published by the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community 

                               December 2006 


Komunitas Migas Indonesia (KMI)
Before professional organization KMI being officialized, KMI ( with the support of
Migas Indonesia Mailing List (, Migas Indonesia Online
( and Migas Indonesia Network ( managed to create
some scientific activities. KMI even has several chapters in Indonesia such as in Jakarta, Banten, West Java, Central
Java, East Java, East Kalimantan, Batam, Riau, South Sumatera, South Sulawesi, Papua and also international chapters
such as in America, Europe, Middle East, Asia and Australia. Concurrent to the creation of KMI chapter, a mailing list
was also being created. The mailing list acts as media for communication and acquaintance among members who reside
in the chapter’s area.
Interactions with partners, i.e. companies, institutions or organizations, dictate the requirement of legality which could
not be handled only by a mailing list. From the intensive discussion in the Migas Indonesia mailing list, it was agreed to
create a professional organization Komunitas Migas Indonesia (KMI) or Indonesia Oil & Gas Community. It is
realized that KMI members are not coming from oil & gas industry only. However, since the history of its creation was
pioneered by Migas Indonesia mailing list, the chapter’s chairmen and the members decided to choose “KMI” as the
Draft of organization constitution and rules (Anggaran Dasar - AD and Anggaran Rumah Tangga – ART) of KMI was
formulated by KMI initiators, and reviewed by the chapter’s chairmen and members through Migas Indonesia mailing
list. After several revisions, the AD/ART was formalized on 17 November 2003 by notaries Bonardo Nasution SH in
notaries act number 06 for Anggaran Dasar KMI and number 07 for Anggaran Rumah Tangga KMI. The witnesses
were the chapter’s chairmen.
When KMI was formed, members are not available. Members were expected to be coming from Migas Indonesia
mailing list members. Thus, an election to form the first KMI organization committee could not be done. Therefore, in
line with the Anggaran Dasar KMI, the founder Mr. Swastioko Budhi Suryanto formed the first committee for 20032005, and Mr. Elwin Rachmat was elected as the President.
KMI as a professional organization always refers to its value, vision, mission and strategy to achieve its objectives as
stated in organization constitution and AD/ART rules. These value, vision, mission and strategy become the reference
for implementation in every activity done by KMI.
Properties of Komunitas Migas Indonesia
KMI is an organization with the following properties:
1. Prioritizing the nation and country interest.
2. Non-profit.
3. Not doing any practical political activity.
4. Non-discriminative
5. Multi-discipline
6. Independent from any binding with any other organization.
Values in Komunitas Migas Indonesia
In doing its activities KMI and the members fully adhere and multiplying the following values:
1. Honesty
2. Transparency
3. Awareness
4. Equivalency
5. Independent
6. Competency
7. Cooperation
Vision of Komunitas Migas Indonesia
1. Professional organization, independently and actively, contribute to national development that is sustainable,
honest and environment-friendly
2. Multi-discipline organization that further improves competency of Indonesia human resources in winning
global competition.

Mission of Komunitas Migas Indonesia
1. Managing multi discipline approaches, equipped with honesty and ethics, in finding the best solution.
2. Ensuring application of science and technology systematically and consistently in every area of activities.
Targets of Komunitas Migas Indonesia
In the future KMI is expected to be able to obtain the following targets:
1. Training activities to improve competency.
2. Professional certification to acknowledge the professional competency.
3. Spreading member’s knowledge and experience to multiply professional’s quantity directly in the mailing list
or in chain reaction through electronic and publishing media.
4. Organizing professional events as a training ground and information exchange either within a single discipline
or among other related discipline.
5. Recognizing the professional who shows the performance and dedication for the development of national
6. Participating actively in facilitating formation of standardization and certification body to support
improvement of national goods and services quality.
7. Participating actively in finding alternative solution for national industry development.
8. Collecting erudite articles for the Journal of KMI.
9. Continuing social activities by coordinating and mobilizing member’s aspiration and ability to help someone in
10. In achieving the above targets KMI prioritizing potencies and resources of KMI and members without ignoring
the possibility of cooperation with any party without compromising the KMI independence.
11. Separating commercial activities in Koperasi Mitra KMI.
KMI Journal (No ISSN 1829-9466) is issued at least once a year as a media for KMI members to publish the technical
paper in a respectable and reputable journal. So far KMI journal has been distributed to many institution, library and
members of Migas Indonesia Mailing List freely as a fruit of hard working and coordination done by KMI Europe
Chapter. The writers who are interested to publish technical paper KMI Journal can contact email address
Hoping KMI can answer the challenges as a part of winning Indonesia in global competition.
Best Regards,

Swastioko Budhi Suryanto
KMI Founder

Swastioko Budhi Suryanto, or his fellow-friends usually call him Budhi, is a founder of Migas Indonesia
mailing list since August 25, 2001. The website of Migas Indonesia Online was born on the same day of
subsequent year (2002). Komunitas Migas Indonesia, which presently has 8000 local and overseas members,
was established on 17 November 2003 and he was elected as General Secretary by KMI members. Mr Budhi
was born in Bandung on 30th April 1964, and married with three children. He obtained Bachelor degree in
Engineering Physics from Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) in 1987. He has more than 19 years of
experience in management and design, especially in instrumentation and electrical (engineering,
procurement, construction and installation) for offshore and onshore gas production/processing facilities,
petrochemical, power plant and industrial plant as well. He started his carrier as first lieutenant in the
Department of Research and Development, Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI-AD), and worked part time in PT. Petroindo
Gunapersada Engineering (1987). He joined PT. Gunanusa Utama Fabricators (1990), PT. Tripatra Engineering & Constructor
(1991), PT. Rekajasindo Bina Abadi (1993), PT. Singgar Mulia (1995), PT. Ceria Worley (1997 - 4 months), PT. McDermott
Indonesia (1997), WorleyParsons Indonesia (2004) and Nippon Steel Construction Indonesia (NISCONI) (early 2006 – 4 months).
Currently, he is senior electrical/instrument engineer with BP West Java.


From the Editors
In 2004, Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community (KMI Journal) was born as a result of hard-working and
scientific activities among KMI members in Europe. The first volume so-called “invited volume” consists of one
introduction and eight technical & scientific papers written by contributors from KMI Europe and Indonesia. In the
nature of accommodating members’ contributions, KMI Journal is presented in Bahasa Indonesia and English. It was
planned that the subsequent volume would be published the year after, which was 2005. However, due to a minimum
response, second journal could not be published annually as planned.
The plan can be eventually answered this year 2006. After releasing ‘renewed’ call for paper in early 2006, we received
overwhelming responses from KMI members. Collecting, editing papers and correspondence with authors have all been
very exciting and encouraging within several months of work. Hereby, we are deeply indebted to all contributors and
KMI members, in general, for the support.
KMI Journal volume II consists of 17 (seventeen) scientific and technical papers of many different fields of oil and gas:
applied chemistry, corrosion, human resources development, maintenance, material, mechanical, oil and gas economics,
project management, reliability, technical inspection and welding. All of the papers deliver their ingenuity in terms of
idea, formulation, observation and analysis, and it is our task to wrap them up in a compact-and-nice fashion so that it
can be further studied by KMI members and other readers.
As the year 2007 is already stepping in our door, KMI Journal Editors invite all of KMI members to contribute to the
volume III. Paper can be submitted to us via, and the authors are encouraged to
write in English. Collaboration with local (Indonesian) and overseas universities is also encouraged so as to streamline
the way to clinch accreditation point from the Department of National Education. We accommodate a number of topics
(so far around 35), which contribute directly to oil and gas science-technology development. The topics are:

Alternative Energy
Applied Chemistry
Community Development
Drilling and Production
Health, Safety and Environment
Human Resources Development


Information Technology
Oil and Gas Economics


Project Management
Quality Management Systems
Supply Chain Management
Technical Inspection

In the future, we expect to receive more topics in geodetics-geology-geophysics, drilling and production, civil, safety,
information technology, law, mining, piping, pipeline, reservoir, structure and so on. So, please send your works to us!
Hopefully, the dissemination of this volume would bring a fruitful reading and shed a brighter light to the future of oil
and gas industries in Indonesia.
Happy reading and warm regards,
Muhamad Reza (Sweden)
Satio Braskoro (Malaysia)
Arief Yudhanto (Singapore)
Andri Gunari (Norway)

KMI Journal Volume I and II can be downloaded freely from our websites:
• Migas Indonesia Online (
• Migas Indonesia Network (



Tinjauan Komprehensif Perancangan Awal Pabrik Furfural Berbasis Ampas Tebu di Indonesia
Anondho Wijanarko (Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Indonesia)
Johanes Anton Witono (PT Pacific Oil and Gas Indonesia)
Made Satria Wiguna (PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia)


Manajemen Duplex Piping Welder pada Proyek Fabrikasi Platform: Masalah dan Solusi
Ediwin H. Siregar (PT Saipem Indonesia)
Sinnasamy Muniandi (Saipem Pte. Ltd., Singapore)


The Case for Reliability-Centered Maintenance for Organizations in Indonesia
Roy Korompis (PT Relogica Indonesia)


Transporting Natural Gas from East Kalimantan to Java: Why did we choose a pipeline option?
Hanan Nugroho (National Development Planning Agency, Indonesia)
Eddy Satriya (Coordinating Ministry for Economics Affairs, Indonesia)
Nafrizal Sikumbang (formerly with Regulatory Body for Oil & Gas Downstream Activities, Indonesia)


Pressure Reducer versus Back-Pressure Regulator
Arief Rahman Thanura (PT VICO Indonesia)
Nugroho Wibisono (ConocoPhillips Inc. Ltd., Indonesia)


OPPINET’s Software for Analyzing Gas Behavior under Line Packing Conditions
Harry Budiharjo S. (UPN Veteran Yogyakarta)
Septoratno Siregar (Departemen Teknik Perminyakan, Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Leksono Mucharam (Departemen Teknik Perminyakan, Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Eddy Suwono (Departemen Matematika, Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Darmadi (Research Consortium OPPINET Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Ivanky Saputra (Research Consortium OPPINET Institut Teknologi Bandung)
W. T. Udayana (ConocoPhillips Inc. Ltd., Indonesia)


Integrated Water Chemistry Study to Support Oil Field Development Scenario
Ardian Nengkoda (Shell Petroleum Development, Oman)


Prospek Pengembangan LNG Lepas Pantai
Mira Maulidiana (ConocoPhillips Inc. Ltd., Indonesia)


Buckling of Isotropic and Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression: Can composites save
Arief Yudhanto (Data Storage Institute A*STAR, Singapore)
Bambang Kismono Hadi (Departemen Teknik Penerbangan, Institut Teknologi Bandung)

11. Motor Bearing Failure on Lube Oil Pump due to Soft Foot Problem
Anas Rosyadi (PT Tiara Vibrasindo Pratama, Indonesia)
10. Orifice atau Restriction Orifice?
Nugroho Wibisono (ConocoPhillips Inc. Ltd., Indonesia)
12. Failure of Dissimilar-Metal Weld-Joint at the Tube-to-Tubesheet due to High Temperature Hydrogen
Farabirazy Albiruni (PT Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Tbk., Indonesia)
Wildan Hamdani (PT Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Tbk. Indonesia)
13. Strategic Competency-Based Human Resources Development
Pungki Purnadi (Petronas Caligari)

14. Root Cause Analysis (RCA): A Comprehensive Method to Prevent Re-Occurence of Equipment Failure and
to Improve Reliability
Ahmad Taufik (Lloyd’s Register Indonesia)
Deddy Nugraha (Indonesian Society for Reliability)
15. Management of Change: Study Case on Relief Header Design
Darmawan Ahmad Mukharror (VICO Indonesia)
16. The Importance of Pump Reliability as a Rotating Equipment in the Process Industries (A Case Study of
Centrifugal Pump)
Dani Rusiwan (Institut Teknologi Nasional, Bandung - Indonesia)
17. Systematic Reliability Improvement Identification Process
Surya Ahdi (PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia)


ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Tinjauan Komprehensif Perancangan Awal
Pabrik Furfural Berbasis Ampas Tebu di Indonesia
Anondho Wijanarko1, Johanes Anton Witono2, Made Satria Wiguna3

Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia. Email:
PT Pacific Oil and Gas Indonesia. Email:
PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia. Email:

Abstrak - Furfural merupakan senyawa kimia yang
dihasilkan dari reaksi hidrolisis dan dehidrasi pentosa
dengan bantuan katalis asam. Pentosa dari senyawa
hemiselulosa, banyak terkandung didalam biomasssa,
salah satunya ampas tebu. Furfural memiliki aplikasi
yang luas dalam berbagai industri, seperti pengolahan
minyak bumi, pembuatan nilon, pelapisan, farmasi,
dan serat sintetik. Berdasarkan analisa pasar dalam
negeri, maka didapatkan kapasitas pabrik furfural
yang akan dibangun sebesar 510 ton/tahun. Pabrik ini
direncanakan akan dibangun di Kawasan Industri
Gresik (KIG), dengan total lahan yang dibutuhkan
seluas 101x72 m2. Mode operasi proses menggunakan
kombinasi proses batch dan kontinyu. Reaksi utama
berlangsung dalam reaktor berpengaduk selama 3 jam
pada suhu 128oC dan tekanan 3 atm. Kinerja proses
pabrik furfural ini ditunjukkan melalui efisiensi energi
sebesar 93,7% dan efisiensi karbon sebesar 83,7%.
Dari hasil perhitungan ekonomi, untuk mendirikan
pabrik furfural ini, total investasi kurang lebih sebesar
US$ 4,7 juta dengan biaya manufaktur sebesar US$
1,1 juta. Nilai Net Present Value (NPV) kurang lebih
sebesar US$ 3,3 juta, tingkat pengembalian internal/
internal rate of return (IRR) sebesar 12,3%, dengan
waktu pengembalian kurang lebih selama 3 tahun 9
bulan. Perubahan yang paling sensitif terhadap
kelayakan pabrik ini adalah kapasitas terpasang
pabrik, dimana kapasitasnya tidak boleh kurang dari
463 ton/tahun.

1. Pendahuluan
Agroindustri di Indonesia merupakan sektor yang
memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam
perindustrian nasional. Namun kegiatan pasca panen
dan pengolahan hasil pertanian, termasuk pemanfaatan
produk samping dan sisa pengolahannya masih kurang.
Produk pertanian Indonesia umumnya hanya
dipasarkan dalam bentuk primer, sehingga bernilai
rendah dan rentan terhadap fluktuasi harga, sebab
harga komoditas primer umumnya cenderung
menurun, sedangkan harga produk olahan cenderung
meningkat [1].
Dalam industri pengolahan tebu menjadi gula, ampas
tebu yang dihasilkan jumlahnya dapat mencapai 90%
dari setiap tebu yang diolah, sedangkan kandungan
gula yang termanfaatkan hanya sebesar 5%. Selama

ini, pemanfaatan ampas tebu sebagai bahan baku
particle board, pulp, bahan baker, pupuk, dan pakan
ternak bersifat terbatas dan bernilai ekonomi rendah.
Dibutuhkan teknologi baru untuk mendiversifikasikan
pemanfaatan ampas tebu tersebut menjadi produk
bernilai ekonomi tinggi, salah satu alternatifnya adalah
diolah menjadi Furfural [1,2].
Ampas tebu dapat diolah menjadi furfural karena
memiliki kandungan pentosan yang merupakan
komponen utama dalam proses sintesis furfural. Bahan
baku lain yang dapat digunakan dalam produksi
furfural selain ampas tebu antara lain: tongkol jagung,
sekam padi, kayu, rami dan sumber lainnya yang
mengandung pentosan [3].
Furfural banyak digunakan sebagai pelarut dalam
industri pengolahan minyak bumi dan pembuatan
pelumas pada pembuatan nilon. Selain itu furfural juga
berfungsi sebagai senyawa intermediate untuk
pembuatan furfuril alkohol, tetrahidrofuran, industri
farmasi, herbisida, dan aplikasi pada pewangi [4,5,6,7].
Tingginya permintaan furfural dan belum adanya
produsen furfural di dalam negeri, menyebabkan
Indonesia selama ini mengimpor furfural dari luar
negeri, seperti dari Cina yang merupakan produsen
furfural terbesar di dunia [7]. Karena alasan-alasan
tersebut, maka perlu dilakukan pengkajian kelayakan
teknis/ekonomis mengenai pendirian pabrik yang akan
memproduksi furfural dengan bahan baku berupa
ampas tebu. Dengan demikian dapat diketahui peluang
pembangunan pabrik furfural di Indonesia.

2. Latar Belakang Teori
Ampas tebu merupakan limbah berserat dari batang
tebu setelah melalui proses penghancuran dan
ekstraksi. Ampas tebu, seperti halnya biomassa yang
lain, terdiri dari tiga penyusun utama, yaitu: selulosa,
hemiselulosa, lignin dan sisanya unsur penyusun
lainnya. Ampas tebu yang dihasilkan dari industri gula
di Indonesia, 30% diantaranya dipergunakan sebagai
bahan bakar untuk boiler industri gula, sedangkan 70%
sisanya diambil sebagai ampas tebu yang digunakan
sebagai bahan baku pembuatan gabus, particle board,
makanan ternak, pulp dan furfural [2].

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 1

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Furfural (C5H4O2) atau sering disebut dengan 2furankarboksaldehid, furaldehid, furanaldehid, 2Furfuraldehid, merupakan senyawa organik turunan
dari golongan furan. Furfural merupakan cairan
berwarna kuning tua hingga coklat dan memiliki aroma
yang kuat. Furfural dengan titik didih 161,7oC (1 atm),
merupakan senyawa yang kurang larut dalam air
namun larut dalam alkohol, eter, dan benzena. Furfural
dapat disintesis dari berbagai jenis biomassa yang
memiliki kandungan pentosan, dengan tahapan reaksi,
yaitu : reaksi hidrolisis dengan katalis asam yang
dilanjutkan dengan reaksi dehidrasi [5,8]. Kedua reaksi
diatas dapat dilakukan dengan siklus batch maupun
kontinyu[5,6]. Tabel 1 menunjukkan perbandingan
proses batch dan kontinyu.
Dalam bentuk baku, furfural banyak digunakan sebagai
pelarut dalam industri penyulingan minyak bumi dan
industri pembuatan minyak-minyak pelumas, serta
untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan yang digunakan
pada industri pembuatan nilon. Senyawa turunan yang
dapat disintesis dari furfural diantaranya adalah furfuril
alkohol dan furan. Furfuril alkohol umumnya
digunakan dalam industri yang memproduksi serat
sintetik dan untuk mensintesis senyawa yang
digunakan dalam industri pelapisan (coating), industri
cat, dan beberapa industri farmasi; sedangkan furan
dipakai dalam industri farmasi, industri yang
memproduksi serat sintetik, herbisida, dan untuk
mensintesis pelarut yang digunakan dalam industri
pembuatan PVC [4,5,6,7].
Tabel 1. Perbandingan proses batch dan kontinyu [8,9]
Jumlah Reaktor

Kondisi Operasi
Produk Samping
Pemurnian Furfural

Proses Batch
Ampas Tebu
Lebih Sedikit
Distilasi Azeotropik

Proses Kontinyu
+ 68 atm,
Suhu Tinggi
Ekstraksi dan Distilasi


Membuat deskripsi serta diagram alir proses
lengkap berdasarkan mode proses yang digunakan.
menggunakan piranti lunak CHEMCAD 5.2
Melakukan analisa teknis terhadap rancangan yang
dibuat berdasarkan parameter proses, desain
peralatan proses utama dan pendukung, serta
kebutuhan utilitas.
Membuat rancangan detail reaktor, kolom
ekstraksi, kolom distilasi, kolom flash, dan unit
penukar panas (heat exchanger).
Menentukan lokasi pabrik.
Membuat tata letak pabrik, manajemen proyek,
dan struktur organisasi.
Menghitung kelayakan ekonomi dari pabrik.



4. Hasil dan Diskusi
4.1 Aspek Pasar
Menurut data DEPPERINDAG, untuk memenuhi
meningkatnya permintaan Furfural di Indonesia
diperoleh melalui impor dari luar negeri. Impor
terbesar diperoleh dari Cina yang merupakan produsen
terbesar Furfural di dunia saat ini. Oleh karena itu data
permintaan yang dipergunakan hanya berdasarkan pada
impor. Faktor PDB dan populasi (P) merupakan
variabel yang mempengaruhi permintaan furfural di
Indonesia, maka kedua faktor tersebut digunakan untuk
mendapatkan persamaan prediksi permintaan furfural
(Dfurfural) di Indonesia, sebagai berikut:
Dfurfural = -3273552+(1,098xPDB)+(14691,02xP)……...….(1)

Gambar 2 menunjukkan estimasi proyeksi permintaan
furfural berdasarkan persamaan diatas.

P erm intaan (kg)

Glukosa (dextrose) merupakan produk samping yang
diperoleh pada reaksi melalui pembentukan furfural,
pada tahapan reaksi hidrolisis. Glukosa tergolong gula
monosakarida dengan rumus empiris C4H12O4.
Penggunaan glukosa banyak diterapkan sebagai bahan
baku permen, permen karet, selai, jelly, sirup dan
produk konsumen lainnya.




Most Probable



3. Metodologi








Langkah-langkah yang akan dilakukan
perancangan awal pabrik ini adalah :



Melakukan analisa pasar furfural di Indonesia
untuk menentukan kapasitas pabrik

Gambar 2. Data dan proyeksi permintaan furfural
Indonesia (Sumber Data : Dirjen IKAHH, Depperindag)

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 2

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Gambar 3. Diagram alir blok proses produksi furfural

4.2 Spesifikasi Bahan Baku dan Produk
Bahan baku yang digunakan adalah ampas tebu yang
diasumsikan berukuran 5 mm dan diperoleh dari PTPN
X dan XI di Surabaya, asam sulfat 36% sebagai katalis
yang diperoleh dari PT Liku Telaga Gresik, dan
toluena 98,5% sebagai pelarut yang diperoleh dari
Produk utama Furfural dihasilkan dengan kemurnian
98% sesuai dengan spesifikasi pasar, sementara
glukosa sebagai produk samping juga memiliki
kemurnian 98%.

4.3 Deskripsi Proses
Dalam perancangan pabrik ini digunakan kombinasi
antara proses batch dan proses kontinyu. Untuk
menghubungkan jalannya kedua mode operasi
digunakan bantuan tanki antara (holding tank). Gambar
3 menunjukkan diagram alir blok proses produksi
Proses batch digunakan pada :
- Unit penanganan awal, dimana berlangsung proses
pengenceran asam sulfat 36% menjadi 6%.
- Unit reaksi utama, dimana semua bahan baku telah
dimasukkan dalam reaktor dan siap untuk
direaksikan. Kondisi operasi reaktor adalah suhu
128oC dan tekanan 3 atm. Reaksi berlangsung
selama 180 menit (3 jam), setelah itu dilanjutkan
dengan penguapan. Yield pembentukan furfural dari
pentosan adalah 73%. Pada kondisi operasi tersebut
dihasilkan produk samping yaitu glukosa dan asam

asetat. Reaksi-reaksi yang terjadi dalam reaktor
adalah sebagai berikut [8] :
Hidrolisis selulosa menjadi glukosa:

(C6 H5O6 )n + nH2O 
→nC6 H12O6


Hidrolisis pentosan menjadi pentosa:
(C5H8O4 )n + nH2O 


Dehidrasi pentosa membentuk Furfural:
nC5H10O5 
→nC5H4O2 + 3nH2O


Pembentukan asam asetat :
Asam asetat terbentuk akibat reaksi hidrolisis
terhadap gugus asetil pada komponen hemiselulosa
di ampas tebu.
Proses kontinyu digunakan pada unit penanganan akhir
yang terdiri atas :
- Unit Pemurnian Furfural, merupakan unit dimana
furfural yang diuapkan dengan kukus tekanan rendah
kemudian dikondensasikan untuk selanjutnya
memisahkannya dari air dan asam asetat. Untuk
memisahkan Furfural dari toluena dan mendapatkan
konsentrasi Furfural sesuai spesifikasi digunakan
proses distilasi.
- Unit Pemisahan Ampas Tebu dan Glukosa,
merupakan unit dimana asam sulfat; glukosa; dan
sisa pentosa yang tidak teruapkan di reaktor,
dipisahkan dari ampas tebu yang terdapat
didalamnya dengan proses penyaringan. Setelah
penyaringan, Glukosa diambil sebagai produk

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 3

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

samping dengan bantuan kolom pemisah fasa (flash
column). Konsentrasi asam sulfat diencerkan hingga
36% agar dapat disimpan dalam tanki penyimpanan.

4.4 Perancangan Kapasitas
Kapasitas terpasang pabrik furfural yang akan
dibangun sangat bergantung pada jumlah permintaan.
Penentuan kapasitas terpasang pabrik furfural ini
dihitung dengan mempertimbangkan proyeksi nilai
permintaan most-probable furfural pada tahun pertama
produksi, yaitu tahun 2006, sebesar 564.083 kg/tahun.
Disamping itu, pabrik baru ini direncanakan hanya
akan mengambil 90% pasar domestik mengingat
posisinya sebagai produsen baru yang tidak bisa
langsung menguasai 100% pasar domestik.
Dengan basis perhitungan tersebut maka kapasitas
pabrik yang diharapkan adalah sebesar 90% x 564.083
kg/tahun = 507.674 kg/tahun (~508.000 kg/tahun).
Dalam 1 tahun, proses produksi pabrik direncanakan
akan berjalan selama 330 hari; dengan waktu
pemeliharaan sebanyak 2 kali, masing-masing selama
10 hari; melakukan antisipasi breakdown selama 5
hari; dan melakukan perawatan secara keseluruhan
(overhaul) selama 10 hari.
Dari uraian diatas, bahwa waktu operasi bagi pabrik
selama satu tahun adalah 330 hari dan terdapat 6 batch
dalam satu hari, maka kapasitas pabrik untuk setiap
batch adalah 256,56 kg/batch, sehingga diperoleh
kapasitas aktual sebesar 510.000 kg/tahun.
Dari hasil simulasi CHEMCAD 5.2, diperoleh
kapasitas produksi glukosa sebesar 600.000 kg/tahun.

4.5 Efisiensi Massa dan Energi
Efisiensi massa dan energi dibuat dengan bantuan
piranti lunak CHEMCAD 5.2 dan beberapa asumsi.
Efisiensi massa diwakilkan melalui efisiensi karbon
dalam senyawa. Hasil perhitungan efisiensi massa dan
energi dapat dilihat pada tabel 2 dan 3. Kebutuhan
utilitas per batch dalam proses produksi pabrik furfural
dapat dilihat pada tabel 4.
Tabel 2. Efisiensi karbon pabrik furfural

Asal Karbon
Ampas Tebu
Sisa Ampas Tebu
Effisiensi Karbon

Total Karbon (kmol)

Tabel 3. Efisiensi energi pabrik furfural

Total Energi Masuk (kJ/batch)
Total Energi Keluar (kJ/batch)
Total Energi Hilang/Loss (kJ/batch)
Effisiensi Energi


Tabel 4 Kebutuhan utilitas per batch

Kukus Tekanan Rendah
Air Pendingin
Gas Alam



4.6 Peralatan [10]
Pemilihan peralatan di pabrik ini disesuaikan dengan
fungsinya, berdasarkan pertimbangan kelebihan dan
kekurangan dari masing-masing alat, serta didukung
dengan pertimbangan ekonomi. Pada pembahasan
selanjutnya, peralatan proses ini akan dibagi dalam dua
kategori, yaitu : peralatan utama dan peralatan
pendukung. Peralatan utama merupakan peralatanperalatan proses yang memiliki fungsi penting seperti
tempat berlangsungnya reaksi, proses pemurnian atau
pemisahan, dll. Yang termasuk dalam kategori
peralatan utama di pabrik ini adalah : reaktor, kolom
ekstraksi dan distilasi, kolom flash, serta alat penukar
panas (heat exchanger). Peralatan pendukung
merupakan peralatan-peralatan proses yang berfungsi
mendukung kerja peralatan utama, seperti : mixer,
pompa, conveyor, dan tanki-tanki penyimpanan.
Reaktor digunakan untuk mereaksikan ampas tebu
dengan bantuan asam sulfat hingga menghasilkan
furfural. Di pabrik ini reaktor yang digunakan adalah
jenis reaktor batch. Tabel 7 menunjukkan spesifikasi
reaktor dan pengaduknya.
No. Alat
Volume (m3)
Tinggi (m)
Diameter (m)

Tabel 7. Spesifikasi reaktor

Reaktor Batch
High Alloy Steel SA 167
Grade 11 Type 37
Dinding (Shell)
Lembaran baja 5/8 in. berukuran 2,5
m sebanyak 4 buah disambung secara
double welded butt joint
Tutup (Head)
Torispherical Head, tebal 1 in.
Skirt dengan ketebalan ¼ in, dibantu
oleh dudukan baut luar (external
bolting chair) setebal 1 7/8 in, dengan
jumlah baut sebanyak 24 buah
berukuran 2½ in. Bearing plate untuk
menopang baut setebal 5/8 in.
- Flange jenis slip-on flange, dengan
ukuran sesuai pipa yang masuk dan
keluar reaktor.
- Manhole = 20 in.
Spesifikasi Pengaduk
Cakram dan Pisau
Jenis pengaduk
(disc and blades)
Jumlah bilah (buah)
Diameter pengaduk (m)
Tinggi bilah (m)
Kecepatan rotasi (rpm)
Daya pengaduk (kW)
Stainless Steel (SS-309)

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 4

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Kolom Ekstraksi
Kolom ekstraksi digunakan untuk memisahkan furfural
dari senyawa lain seperti air dan asam asetat. Kolom
ekstraksi yang digunakan di pabrik ini berjenis Pulsed
Perforated Plate Column, dengan jenis tray yaitu sieve
tray. Kolom jenis ini dipilih karena tegangan
permukaan yang terjadi pada kesetimbangan cair-cair
di dalam kolom lebih besar dari 10 dyne/cm, sehingga
tidak sesuai bila menggunakan jenis kolom yang lain.
Kolom ekstraksi ini dilengkapi dengan pulse device
berupa pompa jenis diaphragm. Tabel 8 menunjukkan
spesifikasi kolom ekstraksi dan pompa diaphragm.
Tabel 8. Spesifikasi kolom ekstraksi

No. Alat
Tekanan kolom (atm)
Jarak antar tray (m)
Jumlah tray (buah)
Jenis tray
Diameter (m)
Tinggi (m)
Dinding (Shell)
Tutup (Head)


Daya (kW)

Pulsed Perforated Plate Column
Sieve tray
Carbon Steel SA 285 Grade A
Lembaran baja ¼ in. berukuran 2,5m
sebanyak 3 buah disambung secara
double welded butt joint
Torispherical Head, tebal ¼ in.
Skirt dengan ketebalan ¼ in, dibantu
oleh dudukan baut luar (external
bolting chair) setebal 3½ in, dengan
jumlah baut sebanyak 24 buah
berukuran 2½ in. Bearing plate
untuk menopang baut setebal 1¼ in.
- Flange jenis slip-on flange, dengan
ukuran sesuai pipa yang masuk dan
keluar kolom ekstraksi.
- Manhole = 20 in.
Pulse Device
Diaphragm Pump
Cast Iron

Kolom Distilasi
Kolom distilasi di pabrik ini digunakan untuk
mendapatkan kembali (recovery) toluena dan juga
untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi furfural sesuai dengan
yang diinginkan. Kolom distilasi yang dipilih di pabrik
ini adalah tipe tray column dengan jenis tray adalah
sieve tray. Jenis ini baik dipakai pada kondisi tekanan
yang rendah (kurang dari 13kPa) dan diameter kolom
sampai dengan 2,5 meter. Selain itu, sieve tray
memiliki kapasitas dan efisiensi yang baik. Tabel 9
menunjukkan spesifikasi kolom distilasi.
Kolom Flash
Kolom flash digunakan di pabrik ini untuk
mendapatkan glukosa sebagai produk samping dengan
memisahkannya dari asam sulfat setelah keluar dari
filter. Proses pemisahan berlangsung pada suhu cukup
tinggi mengingat tingginya titik didih dari glukosa.
Penukar Panas (Heat Exchanger)
Ada dua jenis HE yang digunakan di pabrik ini, yaitu
jenis shell-tube dan double pipe. Jenis shell- tube

digunakan untuk reboiler dan kondenser di kolom
distilasi serta kondenser di aliran keluaran reaktor,
sedangkan jenis double pipe digunakan untuk
pendingin dan kondenser di aliran keluaran kolom
flash. Pertimbangan pemilihan jenis HE didasarkan
pada luas area transfer panas yang terjadi di HE
tersebut. Shell-Tube dipilih karena memiliki luas area
transfer panas lebih dari 10m2, sedangkan jenis double
pipe dipakai karena memiliki luas area transfer panas
kurang dari 10m2. Tabel 12 dan 13 menunjukkan
spesifikasi unit penukar panas pabrik furfural.
Mixer digunakan untuk mengencerkan asam sulfat.
Mixer yang digunakan dilengkapi dengan pengaduk
Pemilihan jenis pengaduk yang digunakan berdasarkan
pada pertimbangan sesuai untuk proses karena murah
dan dapat menangani cairan dari segi viskositasnya.
Tabel 14 menunjukkan spesifikasi mixer.
Tabel 9. Spesifikasi kolom distilasi

No. Alat
Tekanan kolom (atm)
Rasio refluks
Jarak antar tray (m)
Jumlah tray (buah)
Tray umpan
Jenis tray
Diameter (m)
Tinggi (m)
Dinding (Shell)
Tutup (Head)


Tray Column
Sieve tray
Carbon Steel SA 285 Grade A
Lembaran baja ¼ in. berukuran 2,5 m
sebanyak 4 buah disambung secara
double welded butt joint
Torispherical Head, tebal 3/8 in.
Skirt dengan ketebalan ¼ in, dibantu
oleh dudukan baut luar (external
bolting chair) setebal 1 1/8 in, dengan
jumlah baut sebanyak 24 buah
berukuran 1 in. Bearing plate untuk
menopang baut setebal 5/8 in.
- Flange jenis slip-on flange, dengan
ukuran sesuai pipa yang masuk dan
keluar kolom distilasi.
- Manhole = 20 in.

Tabel 10. Spesifikasi kolom flash

No. Alat
Tekanan (atm)
Tinggi/ Diameter (m)
Dinding (Shell)
Tutup (Head)


A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 5

1,2/ 0,8
High Alloy Steel SA 167
Grade 11 Type 317
Lembaran baja 3/16 in. berukuran 1,5 m
sebanyak 1 buah.
Torispherical Head, tebal 3/8 in.
Skirt dengan ketebalan ¼ in, dibantu oleh
dudukan baut luar (external bolting chair)
setebal 2 in, dengan jumlah baut sebanyak
24 buah berukuran 1 in. Bearing plate
untuk menopang baut setebal 5/8 in.
- Flange jenis slip-on flange, dengan
ukuran sesuai pipa yang masuk dan
keluar kolom distilasi.
- Manhole = 20 in.

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Tabel 12. Spesifikasi Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger
No. Alat
Q (kJ/h)
A (m2)






Fluida panas




















Laju alir
T in. (oC)
T out (oC)
Fluida dingin


Laju alir
t in. (oC)
t out (oC)
Diameter (m)
Jenis pitch
Pitch (m)
dP (psi)


ID (in.)
OD (in.)
Panjang (m)
Jumlah pipa
dP (psi)
Uc (W/m2.K)
Ud (W/m2.K)





Tabel 14. Spesifikasi mixer

No. Alat
Tekanan kolom (atm)
Volume (m3)
Diameter (m)
Tinggi (m)
Dinding (Shell)

Stainless Steel (SS – 317)
Lembaran baja berukuran 3/8 in
berukuran 2,5 m sebanyak 4 buah
Disambung secara double welded joint.
Tutup (Head)
Torispherical Head, tebal ½ in.
Spesifikasi Pengaduk
Jenis pengaduk
Cakram dan Pisau
(disc and blades)
Jumlah bilah (buah)
Diameter pengaduk (m)
Tinggi bilah (m)
Kecepatan rotasi (rpm)
Daya pengaduk (kW)
Stainless Steel (SS-309)

No. Alat
Pin / Pout (atm)
Laju Alir (gpm)
Head (m)
Daya (kW)

Asam Sulfat
SS – 309

Tabel 13. Spesifikasi Double Pipe HE

No. Alat
Q (kJ/h)
A (m2)
Fluida panas
Laju alir (kg/hr)
T in. (oC)
T out (oC)
Fluida dingin
Laju alir (kg/hr)
t in. (oC)
t out (oC)
ID (in.)
OD (in.)
Tinggi fin (in.)
Tebal fin (mm)
Jumlah fin
dP (psi)
ID (in.)
OD (in.)
Panjang (m)
Jumlah hairpin
dP (psi)

No. Alat

Kukus Jenuh
Kukus Jenuh
Carbon Steel
Carbon Steel

Tabel 15. Spesifikasi conveyor

Diameter (m)
Panjang (m)
Kecepatan rotasi (rpm)
Daya (kW)
Daya Motor (kW)

No. Alat
Luas area (m2)

No. Alat
Volume (m3)
Diameter (m)
Panjang (m)
Dinding (Shell)

Ampas Tebu
Carbon Steel

Ampas Tebu
Carbon Steel

Tabel 16. Spesifikasi filter

Vacuum Drum Filter
Stainless Steel (SS – 309)

Tabel 17. Spesifikasi drum

Tutup (Head)

Tabel 18. Spesifikasi pompa
Carbon Steel

Kukus Jenuh
Stainless Steel
Kukus Jenuh
Stainless Steel

Carbon Steel

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 4

Carbon Steel
Lembaran baja berukuran ¼ in
berukuran 2,5 m sebanyak 2 buah
Disambung secara double welded joint.
Torispherical Head, tebal 3/8 in.

Carbon Steel

1 / 1,1
Carbon Steel

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Conveyor di pabrik ini berfungsi untuk mengalirkan
ampas tebu menuju ke reaktor dan membawa residu
ampas tebu ke tempat penampungan limbah padat.
Berdasarkan pertimbangan tertentu, maka dipillih jenis
screw untuk conveyor di pabrik ini, dengan spesifikasi
seperti pada tabel 15.
Filter digunakan untuk memisahkan ampas tebu dari
senyawa lain yang tidak ikut teruapkan di reaktor.
Karena pemasukkan umpan kedalam filter ini
dilakukan secara kontinyu, maka filter yang dipilih
adalah jenis Vacuum Drum Filter. Filter ini dipilih
juga karena lebih murah dibanding dengan jenis filter
lain untuk proses kontinyu. Spesifikasi filter dapat
dilihat pada tabel 16.

4.7 Lokasi Pabrik dan Kebutuhan Lahan
Berdasarkan beberapa pertimbangan, seperti :
ketersediaan bahan baku, lokasi pasar, ketersediaan
utilitas, fasilitas, dan infrastruktur, maka dipilih
Kawasan Industri Gresik sebagai lokasi untuk
mendirikan pabrik ini. Lahan yang masih tersedia
seluas 36 ha, dengan harga tanah Rp. 300.000,-/m2.
Hasil perhitungan kebutuhan lahan untuk pendirian
pabrik ini adalah seluas 101 x 72 m2 (gambar 4),
dengan perincian luas lahan sebagai berikut : Area
proses (26 x 18 m2); Area tanki I (24 x 27 m2); Area
tanki II (26 x 8 m2); Area unit pengolahan limbah (26 x
5 m2); Area perluasan pabrik (50 x 27 m2).

Drum digunakan sebagai akumulator (reflux drum) di
kolom distilasi. Tabel 17 menunjukkan spesifikasi
Dari beberapa tipe pompa yang ada, pabrik ini
menggunakan pompa jenis sentrifugal dengan
spesifikasi seperti terdapat dilihat pada tabel 18.
Jumlah pompa digandakan untuk menghindari
rusaknya salah satu pompa yang dapat mengganggu
jalannya produktivitas pabrik.
Di pabrik ini ada dua jenis tanki, yaitu : tanki antara
(holding tank) dan tanki penyimpanan (storage tank).
Tanki antara digunakan untuk penyimpanan sementara
senyawa yang dihasilkan dari unit batch untuk
selanjutnya dialirkan ke unit kontinyu, sedangkan tanki
penyimpanan digunakan untuk menyimpan bahan baku
dan produk. Karena senyawa-senyawa yang terlibat
didalamnya tidak volatile, maka kedua jenis tanki
menggunakan tipe fixed cone roof.
No. Alat
Vol. (m3)
Dia. (m)
Tinggi (m)
Berat (kg)

No. Alat

Tabel 19. Spesifikasi tanki antara



Tabel 20. Spesifikasi tanki penyimpanan

Volume (m3)
Dia. (m)
Tinggi (m)
Berat (kg)









SS - 310




Gambar 4. Tata letak pabrik furfural

4.8 Analisa Ekonomi
Biaya Investasi
Biaya investasi total perancangan pabrik ini terdiri dari
biaya investasi peralatan dan modal kerja. Total
investasi yang dibutuhkan sebesar US$ 4.618.394,00,
dimana biaya pembelian peralatan sebesar US$
1.929.86,00 ; total biaya langsung US$ 3.228.645,00;
total biaya tidak langsung US$ 868.438,00 ; total
modal kerja US$ 111.603,00. Penentuan biaya
investasi ini didasarkan pada biaya pembelian peralatan
dan biaya-biaya lain yang dikalikan dengan faktor
Biaya Manufaktur
Biaya manufaktur merupakan biaya-biaya yang secara
langsung terkait dengan proses produksi. Biaya
manufaktur ini terdiri atas biaya variabel/tidak tetap
dan biaya tetap. Biaya manufaktur ini dihitung dengan
menggunakan faktor estimasi; kecuali untuk biaya
bahan baku, utilitas, operator, dan depresiasi.
Total biaya manufaktur sebesar US$ 1.116.028,55;
terdiri dari biaya variabel sebesar US$ 388.617,55 dan

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 5

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

biaya tetap sebesar US$ 727.411,00. Total biaya untuk
pembelian bahan baku sebesar US$ 82.650,18;
sedangkan utilitas sebesar US$ 174.096,66.
Analisa Kelayakan
Analisa kelayakan penting dilakukan untuk mengetahui
profitabilitas dari suatu proyek. Beberapa parameter
profitabilitas suatu proyek, seperti Net Present Value
(NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period
(PBP). Hasil analisa sensitivitas terhadap pendirian
pabrik ini, dapat dilihat pada tabel 21.

nilai 8,46%. Dengan menggunakan batasan parameter
kelayakan IRR>8%, didapatkan bahwa besarnya
kemungkinan proyek investasi furfural layak untuk
dilakukan sebesar 64,8% (gambar 5).

Tabel 21. Hasil analisa kelayakan
Batas Nilai
> cost of capital
< 8 tahun

US$ 3.260.421,47
3 tahun 9 bulan

Titik Impas (Break Even Point)
Untuk mencapai BEP maka besar volume produksi
ialah 170 ton/tahun atau sekitar 33% dari kapasitas
produksi maksimum. Jadi jika ingin meraih
keuntungan, maka volume produksi harus lebih besar
dari kapasitas BEP.
Analisa Sensitivitas
Analisa sensitivitas yaitu analisa dengan mengubah
nilai parameter-parameter biaya pabrik untuk
mengetahui akibatnya terhadap parameter kelayakan
pabrik. Hasil analisa sensitivitas yang dilakukan
terhadap pendirian pabrik ini, dapat dilihat pada tabel
Tabel 22. Hasil analisa kelayakan
Harga Bahan

Nilai Kasus

Gambar 5. Kurva Distribusi IRR
2. Hasil simulasi IRR dengan asumsi distribusi
triangular (US$ 1.740,00)
Simulasi yang dilakukan terhadap parameter kelayakan
IRR dengan asumsi distribusi triangular (US$
1.740,00) menghasilkan kurva distribusi dengan
kemungkinan nilai IRR terkecil sebesar 0%, terbesar
20% dan nilai IRR yang sering muncul 10%. Dengan
menggunakan batasan parameter kelayakan IRR>8%,
didapatkan bahwa besarnya kemungkinan proyek
investasi furfural layak untuk dilakukan sebsar 70,2%
(gambar 6). Nilai ini lebih besar dibandingkan dengan
simulasi dengan harga uniform. Hal ini disebabkan
karena kemungkinan harga furfural banyak terjadi pada
harga US$ 1.740,00 sedangkan kemungkinan pada
distribusi uniform sama besarnya .

Batas Kelayakan

US$ 0,01

US$ 0,06


US$ 1.740,00

US$ 1.350,00

- 22

US$ 2.100,00

US$ 1.750,00

- 26

510 ton/thn

463 ton/thn


435 ton/thn

Analisa Resiko
Analisa resiko merupakan suatu metode analisa untuk
mengetahui tingkat kemungkinan (probabilitas) resiko
suatu investasi. Dalam perancangan ini, analisa resiko
dilakukan dengan menggunakan simulasi Monte Carlo
dengan bantuan perangkat lunak Crystal Ball.
1. Hasil simulasi IRR dengan asumsi distribusi uniform
Simulasi yang dilakukan terhadap parameter kelayakan
IRR dengan asumsi distribusi uniform menghasilkan
kurva distribusi dengan kemungkinan nilai IRR terkecil
sebesar 2,04% dan nilai IRR yang sering muncul pada

Gambar 6. Kurva Distribusi IRR, skenario triangular
harga furfural US$ 1.740,00
3. Hasil simulasi IRR dengan asumsi distribusi
triangular (US$ 1.200,00)
Simulasi yang dilakukan terhadap parameter kelayakan
IRR dengan asumsi distribusi triangular (US$
1.200,00) menghasilkan kurva distribusi dengan
kemungkinan nilai IRR terkecil 2%, terbesar 19% dan
nilai IRR yang sering muncul 8%. Dengan
menggunakan batasan parameter kelayakan IRR>8%,

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 6

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

didapatkan bahwa besarnya kemungkinan proyek
investasi furfural layak untuk dilakukan sebsar 52,7%
(gambar 7). Nilai hasil simulasi dengan asumsi
distribusi triangular dengan harga yang sering muncul
pada harga US$ 1.200,00 lebih kecil dibandingkan
dengan hasil simulasi dengan asumsi jenis
kemungkinan yang lain. Hal ini disebabkan harga yang
sering muncul pada US$ 1.200,00 yang sudah berada
pada nilai batas bawah kelayakan pabrik US$


Pabrik furfural ini akan dibangun di Kawasan
Industri Gresik (KIG) pada lahan seluas 101 x 72
m2, dengan total investasi sebesar US$


Analisa kelayakan untuk pabrik furfural ini :
: US$ 3.260.421,47
: 12,26%
: 3 tahun 9 bulan


Parameter yang paling sensitif terhadap kelayakan
investasi pabrik ini adalah kapasitas terpasang
pabrik dimana produksi furfural harus lebih besar
dari 463 ton/tahun.


Peluang pembangunan pabrik furfural dengan
harga dasar furfural US$ 1.740,00/ton adalah
sebesar 70,2%. Apabila harga furfural turun
hingga mencapai harga US$ 1.200,00 peluang
pembangunan pabrik turun hingga mencapai

6. Pustaka

Gambar 7. Kurva Distribusi IRR, skenario triangular
harga furfural US$ 1.200,00


5. Kesimpulan







Proses pembuatan furfural dengan bahan baku
ampas tebu dilakukan dengan kombinasi sistem
batch-kontinyu, dengan reaksi utama adalah
hidrolisis yang diikuti dengan reaksi dehidrasi
menggunakan katalis asam sulfat.


Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar pada tahun
pertama produksi (2006), maka kapasitas
terpasang pabrik adalah :
- Produk Utama, Furfural : 510 kg/tahun.
- Produk Samping, Glukosa : 600 kg/tahun.


Reaktor yang digunakan adalah reaktor batch
berpengaduk yang dioperasikan pada tekanan 3
atm dan suhu 128oC selama 180 menit. Reaktor ini
berdimensi 10 x 6 m, yang terdiri dari 4 buah
lembaran baja 2,5 m dengan tebal 5/8 in. Reaktor
ini menggunakan torispherical head dengan tebal
1 in. dan didukung oleh skirt setebal ¼ in.
Kinerja proses pabrik ditunjukkan dengan efisiensi
karbon sebesar 83,7% sedangkan efisiensi energi
sebesar 93,7%. Kebutuhan listrik untuk setiap
kilogram produk adalah 3,1 kWh.
Bahan baku yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan
1 kilogram furfural adalah:
- Ampas tebu
= 7,4 kg
- Asam Sulfat 36% = 122,74 kg
- Toluena 98,5%
= 372,1 kg



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Kirk-Othmer, 1995, Furan Derivatives :
Technology, John Wiley & Sons.
Katkeviés, Juris., Ilma Ruduš,sc. oec, 1998, PreFeasibility Study For Furfural Production,
Latvian Development Agency.
, 1999, Volume dan Nilai Ekspor Bahan
Kimia Indonesia, Dirjen IKAH Depperindag RI.
Ramirez, J.A., dkk., 2002, Kinetic Study of The
Acid hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse, Journal
Of Food Engineering 55 page 309-318.
US. Pat. 4,553,743 (10 April 1990) Madeiros,et
Walas, S. M. Chemical Process Equipment :
Selection and Design, Buther Worths.
Garret, D. E, 1989, Chemical Engineering
Economics, Van Nostrand. Reinhold.
Peters, M. S., Klaus D. Timmerhaus, 1991,
Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineers 4th ed, McGraw Hill, Inc.
Turton, R., et al, 1998, Analysis, Synthesis, and
Design of Chemical Processes, Prentice-Hall.

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 7

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

7. Biografi
Anondho Wijanarko menyelesaikan S2
bidang Bio Engineering dari Tokyo
Institute of Technology (2000) dan S1
dari Jurusan Teknik Gas dan Petrokimia,
Universitas Indonesia (1984). Wijanarko
adalah dosen di Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas
Indonesia, dengan bidang keahlian rekayasa reaksi
Johanes Anton Witono menyelesaikan
S1 dari Jurusan Teknik Gas dan
Petrokimia, Universitas Indonesia (2004),
engineering. Witono kini bekerja sebagai
Process Engineer di PT Pacific Oil and
Gas Indonesia.


Made Satria Wiguna menyelesaikan S1
dari Jurusan Teknik Gas dan Petrokimia,
Universitas Indonesia (2003), dengan
bidang keahlian heat management.
Wiguna kini bekerja sebagai Petroleum
Engineer di PT Chevron Pacific

A. Wijanarko, J. A. Witono & M. S. Wiguna - 8

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Manajemen Duplex Piping Welder pada Proyek
Fabrikasi Platform: Masalah dan Solusi
Ediwin H. Siregar1, Sinnasamy Muniandi2

Project Control Group - PT Saipem Indonesia, Jl. HR Rasuna Said, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Senior Welding Inspector - Saipem, 73, Science park drive, Cintech 1, Singapore Science Park 1, 118254, Singapore.
Abstrak - Fabrikasi suatu unit instalasi untuk minyak
dan gas sangat spesifik dan customized, di mana
sebagian besar material untuk konstruksi instalasi
tersebut terbuat dari baja, sehingga kebutuhan akan
tenaga kerja pengelasan sangat dominan. Peranan
tenaga kerja pengelasan sangatlah penting mengingat
pekerjaan ini bersifat time-limited, ketat dalam quality
control, dan mempunyai ketergantungan yang tinggi
terhadap disiplin/unit kerja yang lain. Pengelolaan
tenaga kerja yang baik akan memperbesar peluang
suatu proyek agar selesai tepat waktu dan sesuai
rencana biaya (budget).

tertentu menjadi suatu kesatuan platform. Welder dalam
unit fabrikasi merupakan komponen utama mengingat
hampir 50% personil adalah personil welder dengan
berbagai tingkat kecakapan.
Karena rangkaian jalur pipa utama, rangkaian pipa
proses terbuat dari bahan duplex stainless steel sesuai
dengan persyaratan klien maka seluruh process piping
pada platform Vorwata A/B menggunakan kriteria
2500# Topsides Production Piping.
Platform didesain sebagai wellhead platform, di mana
fluida yang berasal dari sumur mendapat sedikit
adjustment kemudian langsung dikirim melalui linepipe
ke LNG plant. Process piping di atas wellhead platform
juga terbuat dari bahan duplex stainless steel agar tahan
korosi. Pig launcher dan manifold juga terbuat dari
duplex stainless steel.

1. Pendahuluan
Tangguh GPF Platform terdiri dari dua platform yang
identik, yang berfungsi untuk menyalurkan gas ke LNG
plant di Papua – Indonesia; keduanya, baik platform dan
LNG plant, dibangun secara bersamaan. Kapasitas
platform Tangguh GPF untuk mendukung dua train
fasilitas LNG adalah 1,326 MMSCFD (million standard
cubic feet per day).

2. Duplex Piping Fabrication
Pipa duplex berdiameter 1” hingga 24”. Pekerjaan
fabrikasi untuk duplex di pipe shop dimulai dari
pengerjaan pipa ukuran 8” dan 10” hingga pengerjaan
manifold. Gambar 1 adalah grafik duplex pipe
fabrication di pipe shop dari tanggal 7 Juli 2006 hingga
30 Juli 2006.

Pembangunan suatu platform tidak lepas kaitannya
dengan tenaga kerja pengelasan (welder – selanjutnya
istilah “welder” akan dipakai dalam artikel ini) yang
bertugas merangkai seluruh pipa struktur dan juga
termasuk merangkai pipa-pipa untuk aliran fluida (atau
disebut dengan process piping) dengan equipment

Daily Progress Rate (Full Weld) V.S. Man Power






























































10/7 11/7 12/7 13/7 14/7 15/7 16/7 17/7 18/7 19/7 20/7 21/7 22/7 23/7 24/7 25/7 26/7 27/7 28/7 29/7 30/7














DB Weld-Out (Rate)










DB Fit-Up (Rate)

Gambar 1. Grafik duplex pipe fabrication di pipe shop dari tanggal 7 Juli 2006 hingga 30 Juli 2006.
Sumber: dikutip dari statistik fabrikasi piping Duplex, project control group, Cilegon Yard

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Grafik produktivitas welder di pipe shop diberikan di
Gambar 2. Berdasarkan hasil monitoring, ramalan
(forecast) dari penyelesaian piping duplex fabrication
diperkirakan berakhir pada 20 September 2006, di mana
target produksi di pipe shop adalah 6.645DB. Padahal
sesuai dengan project schedule yang digunakan [1]
piping installation on deck direncanakan selesai pada 14
September 2006, dan load out dari topside dilakukan
pada 30 Oktober 2006.

Milestones yang tidak tercapai sehubungan dengan
keterlambatan piping duplex fabrication adalah:
ƒ Load out dari Topside pada 30 Oktober 2006 tidak
dapat dilaksanakan
ƒ Jadwal pemakaian barge DLB (derrick lay barge)
yang akan digunakan pada beberapa proyek lainnya
di kawasan regional Asia Pacific terganggu.
Akhirnya, keputusan diambil pada bulan Agustus 2006
untuk merevisi fabrication schedule berikut platform
installation schedule.

Daily Productivity by DB v.s. Total Welder
(50% 1/3 Weld + 50% Full Weld)






























































Welder in Training











Welder in Production


















Gambar 2. Grafik produktivitas welder di pipe shop.
Sumber: dikutip dari statistik fabrikasi piping Duplex, project control group, Cilegon Yard







'1/3 w eld

f ull w eld


Gambar 3. Grafik repair rate di pipe shop.
Sumber: dikutip dari statistik fabrikasi piping Duplex, project control group, Cilegon Yard

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

3. Masalah-Masalah pada Duplex Piping
3.1 Welder

Gambar 2 memperlihatkan bahwa jumlah welder
yang dapat disediakan manajemen hanya 80% dari
total welder yang dibutuhkan. Dalam hal ini, pihak
manajemen terlihat kurang responsive terhadap
penyediaan welder dengan jumlah yang
Repair rate (perbaikan) yang tinggi. Hal ini
disebabkan oleh welder yang tidak qualified.
Gambar 3 menggambarkan repair rate di pipe shop.
Pengerjaan partial weld (1/3 weld) meliputi
minimum 5 pass of weld ( yaitu root pass, hot pass
and 3 filler pass ). Sedangkan full weld meliputi
keseluruhan welding mulai capping (pengisian awal
dengan material las) hingga RT (radiographic test)
Tingginya repair rate juga disebabkan kurangnya
peran aktif supervisor, dan untuk mengatasinya,
training ulang diberikan kepada welder.
Pada gambar 3 menunjukkan penurunan repair rate
pada tanggal 14 – 26 Juli, perbaikan ini disebabkan
karena welder yang mengalami repair diharuskan
untuk mengikuti training kembali.

lapangan. Seringkali target mingguan dibuat tidak dapat
dipenuhi, contohnya : manajemen menetapkan target
sebesar 5 DB (dia bore) per welder per hari untuk di
shop, akan tetapi target yang bisa dipenuhi oleh welder
adalah sekitar 3.99 DB per welder per hari. Hal ini
disebabkan oleh tingginya repair rate dan tidak
konsistennya kinerja para welder.

3.5 Repair rate

Pengerjaan duplex sangatlah spesifik dibandingkan
stainless steel, menyangkut metode pengelasan dan
juga heat treatment.
Apabila welder minim
pengalaman dalam pengelasan duplex, yang
mengerjakan dapat menyebabkan tingginya repair

Thickness, ketebalan pipa yang variatif, turut
mempengaruhi cara pengelasannya, antara lain
meliputi criteria: welding position and direction,
diameter range, heat input, dll. Oleh sebab itu,
apabila seorang welder selesai bekerja pada
material tertentu dan berpindah ke material yang
lain, otomatis performance welder tersebut akan
terpengaruh untuk sementara waktu dan kemudian
kembali ke kinerja terbaiknya.

3.2 Working layout

Layout tempat tidak sesuai dengan tahapan
pekerjaan, yaitu mulai dari cut and bevel, fit up, dan
full weld.
Kurangnya peralatan pendukung, seperti grinding
machine, chain block, tripod, level, pipe clamp,
siku, dan lainnya

3.6 Problem Eksternal
Banyaknya proyek-proyek Migas di Indonesia yang
dilakukan pada waktu yang bersamaan, menyebabkan
demand welder sangat tinggi, sehingga menyebabkan
persaingan mendapatkan welder semakin sulit.

3.3 Welding Procedures
Dimaksudkan agar WPS (weld procedure specification)
tersebut sudah disetujui dan dapat digunakan, untuk
menjadi pedoman pelaksanaan pekerjaan. WPS harus
memuat informasi rinci mengenai base material
specification, thickness, welding process, filler metal,
shielding, heat input, dan lain – lain.
Apa yang terjadi adalah : WPS yang diperlukan pada
waktunya, tidak tersedia dikarenakan proses approval
yang terlalu lama dari sebuah WPS, sejak dari welding
engineer subkontraktor, contractor, hingga welding
engineer dari Owner.

4. Usaha Mitigasi yang Dilakukan
Adapun beberapa usaha yang dilakukan oleh pihak
manajemen, untuk meningkatkan performance welder
dalam menunjang kegiatan fabrikasi adalah sebagai
berikut; hal ini berguna untuk menghindari biaya yang
lebih besar yang diakibatkan dari tidak tercapai target
konstruksi proyek

Salah satu requirement WPS disini adalah harus sejalan
dengan requirement ASME B31.3/ASME IX.

3.4 Komunikasi
Seringkali keputusan yang dibuat waktu rapat tidak
selaras dan tidak sesuai dengan apa yang di terjadi di

Men-supervisi pekerjaan dengan lebih teliti, dengan
menambah jumlah tenaga supervisi.
Memonitor aspek kualitas secara ketat., dengan
menambah jumlah tenaga QC.
Memberikan insentif yang memadai, cara ini dapat
digunakan dalam hubungannya meningkatkan
produktivitas personil, misalnya dalam rangka
memenuhi target tertentu.
Menambah jam kerja (shift malam), dimana bila
sudah ada terdapat leibh dari 2 group pekerja
sedangkan peralatan dan runang kerja terbatas,
dapat digunakan cara dua shift, shift pagi dan shift

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Langkah terakhir adalah memindahkan sebagian
pekerjaan kepada subkontraktor. Hal ini dilakukan
apabila sisa pekerjaan masih cukup banyak dan
target waktu sudah dekat sehingga bila hanya
mengandalakan manpower internal, dikhawatirkan
tidak ada manfaatnya, disamping itu perlu berhatihati dalam memilih subkontraktor agar tujuan kita
Tentu saja diharapkan adanya kesadaran pada setiap
orang untuk mencapai tujuan proyek yang
dicanangkan, diharapkan timbul kerjasama tim
yang lebih baik juga menghindari conflict diantara
para pekerja dan sesama anggota tim proyek.

5. Kesimpulan
Beberapa hal yang dapat diambil kesimpulan, adalah
sebagai berikut:

procedure internal, untuk membantu pekerja dapat
bekerja lebih optimal.
Walaupun pekerjaan pengelasan dapat dipindah
alihkan (out-source), perlunya mempunyai jumlah
welder internal yang qualified secara minimal,
mengingat pekerjaan piping fabrication, piping
erection and piping hydrotest merupakan aktivitas
kritis dalam project schedule.
Dengan mengelola aktivitas kritis; piping
fabrication, piping erection and piping hydrotest
dalam project schedule, secara langsung ikut
menekan melambungnya biaya fabrikasi dan biaya
Supervisory role, supervisor sangat berperan dalam
memantau pelaksanaan di lapangan, termasuk
memonitor aspek kualitas.
Secara kontinyu, memantapkan komunikasi
terhadap karyawan, sehingga karyawan selalu terupdated dengan keputusan / kebijakan manajemen
yang ada.
HRIS, human resource information system,
mengingat permintaan untuk welder sangat tinggi
perlu diadakan suatu system informasi, agar
kebutuhan untuk welder dapat direspons dengan

6. Pustaka
[1] Harold Kerzner, “Project Management – A Systems
Controlling” John Wiley, Sixth Edition.
[2] Lioyd L. Byars, Ph.D, Leslie W Rue, Ph. D,
“Human Resource Management” Richard D. Irwin,
Inc, Third Edition.
[3] Project Management Institute, “A Guide to Project
Management Body of Knowledge” PMI, Third

[4] Process Design Criteria, BP Tangguh GPF Project.
[5] Welding Specification – FEED documentation, BP
Tangguh GPF Project.
[6] Kumpulan Materi Las Duplex - Milis Migas

7. Biografi
Ediwin H. Siregar bekerja sebagai
Senior Planning Engineer di PT
Saipem Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan
pengalaman lebih dari 10 tahun
menangani proyek-proyek offshore
migas. Siregar memperoleh gelar MT
dari Universitas Indonesia dan BS dari
Universitas Trisakti, keduanya dalam bidang Project
Management. Ediwin Siregar merupakan salah seorang
Moderator KBK Manajemen Proyek di Komunitas
Migas Indonesia (KMI).
Sinnasamy Muniandi bekerja sebagai Senior Welding
Inspector - Saipem Asia, dengan pengalaman lebih dari
15 tahun menangani proyek-proyek offshore
pipeline/platform untuk industri migas di regional Asia

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

The Case for Reliability-centered Maintenance for
Organizations in Indonesia
Roy Korompis
PT Relogica Indonesia. S. Widjojo Center 2nd Floor Jl. Jendral Sudirman Kav 71 Jakarta 12190
Abstract - Along with the advancement of technology
and its application in physical assets, more and more
performance of companies in Indonesia is dependent
on the reliability of their physical assets. The
performance of physical assets affects the business in
terms of operational costs, product quality, safety
operation and compliance with environmental
standards. As results, many companies are jumping on
to the bandwagon to adopt reliability-based
management techniques in their drive to search for an
answer to improve reliability. One of the techniques
that is gaining popularity in maintenance
organizations in Indonesia is RCM. Sadly, many
organizations that were hastily implementing RCM
found that the program did not deliver the expected
benefit. Or even worse: some programs were cancelled
in the midst of implementation due to their difficulties.
Most often, this happened because the organizations
did not fully understand their needs and priority areas,
or they were not ready, or they had improper
understanding of what RCM is.
This paper tries to examine this issue by re-visiting
three important factors for successful RCM
implementation program. These factors are (1)
organization’s understanding of its needs and its
readiness for RCM, (2) understanding of what RCM is
and is not, and (3) implementation approach and its
critical success factors

1. The Drive Towards Better Reliability
Along with the advancement of technology and its
application in physical assets used by organizations to
convert input into output, so is the increase in
dependability of operations towards the performance of
their physical assets. For example; back in the 1960s,
when mining companies used 50-Ton hauling trucks to
move earth mineral, an unplanned breakdown of the
truck with a downtime of 1 hour to fix / replace the
truck may represent a loss of 50 ton output that day.
Consider present situation where the 50-Ton truck is no
longer considered economical due to advancement in
technology, and has now been replaced by a 250-Ton
truck. An unplanned breakdown of the truck with a
downtime of 1 hour to fix / replace may now represent
a greater loss of 250 ton production of output that day.

Furthermore, many organizations are also discovering
that with the installation of increasingly more complex
physical assets, they are playing catch up to understand
fully how their equipment fails. There have been many
un-foreseen physical asset failures that had dire
consequences such as industrial accident which affects
the environmental/ecosystem integrity or even cost
human lives. Hence, many organizations are realizing
that in addition to availability, they now need
reliability more than ever1. Many have realized that in
most cases, they could not prevent the failures of the
assets but they could have eliminated or reduced the
consequences of the failures. As a result, the pressure
is on for maintenance organizations everywhere to
ensure their physical assets can continue to deliver its
required functions or if not, at least understand the
behavior and consequences of these failures and have a
proper failure management policy in place. To achieve
this many organizations are now turning to reliability
based maintenance management methods to get better
asset maintenance strategies with a sound Failure
Management Policy. One such method that is
increasingly gaining popularity is a methodology called
Reliability-centered Maintenance (RCM).
This is also true for many maintenance organizations in
Indonesia. More and more Indonesian companies
across various industries are jumping onto the
reliability management bandwagon and starting the
initiatives to implement RCM. Unfortunately, some of
these initiatives have failed, are perceived as failing or
do not deliver the benefit expected. As a result, some
claim that RCM either does not work, or is too difficult
to implement. These claims are simply incorrect as
there are a substantial number of organizations that
have succeeded in implementing RCM Failures in
implementing RCM are normally caused by inappropriate implementation approaches, whereas
failures to achieve the benefit of RCM to the fullest are
normally caused by preparedness organization (or lack
thereof), or implementation of the wrong variant of
To ensure that maintenance organizations in Indonesia
can fully benefit from this breakthrough thinking that
has benefited maintenance organizations worldwide,

Explanation on the availability and reliability can be
found in Appendix - A

Roy Korompis - 1

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

this paper attempts to re-examine the need for RCM, its
‘TRUE’ / Core concept, and its implementation
approach in the context of maintenance organizations
in Indonesia.

2. Defining Your Requirements –
Building the Case for RCM
2.1 Maintenance organizations in Indonesia –
a common background
Industrial developments in Indonesia were, in large
part, fueled by foreign investments made by major
world business players. This development had its
beginning in the late 60’s when the new order
government came to power. The new government
supervised a period of rapid industrialization the
Indonesian Economy. Industrial production, as a share
of total GDP, grew from 13 percent in 1965 to 37
percent in 1989. The protective trade policies of the
1970s also contributed to the changing composition of
industry, away from light manufacturing such as food
processing and toward heavy industries such as
petroleum refining, steel, and cement where physical
asset management is a critical success factor. Hence, a
typical Indonesian maintenance organization for
physical asset intensive industry has an age of no more
than 35 years with an average of lower than 25 years.
This implies that the mainstream of maintenance
discipline in Indonesia is relatively young compared to
other develop countries.
As there were many new plants being built and
shortages of experienced work force in the technical /
maintenance field, over the past 30 years the
maintenance organizations had to recruit maintenance
personnel with only little / or no experience in the
technical / maintenance field. As a result, many
maintenance programs (or also called asset
maintenance strategy) for these new plants were
developed based on some templating of similar assets
from other parts of the world, global OEM
recommendations, or by expatriates’ recommendation
which are based on his experience on SIMILAR asset
but often in other parts of the World. In almost all of
the cases, this approach did not produce an effective
asset maintenance strategy as operating contexts are
different from plant to plant2. Recommendations of
OEM and other experts are useful, but only when they
are used in conjunction with proper analyses to
determine the assets maintenance requirements. At that
time, very few organizations (if any) properly analyzed
their asset’s maintenance requirements. To cope with
this in-effective asset maintenance program, many
maintenance organizations simply over maintained

For discussions on the importance of operating
context and reasons why a generic policy is not
effective, please refer to Appendix-B.

their assets (for some failure type which they could
deal with), or learnt to live with the breakdowns (for
the ones they could not deal with). Furthermore,
although experiences had been gained over the years in
operating & maintaining the assets, most maintenance
organizations in Indonesia still lack the systems /
mechanisms to facilitate improvements of the asset
maintenance program. As a result, although many
operating context had changed significantly, (new asset
addition or modification to the system) majority of the
maintenance program stays unchanged. This condition
compounded the deterioration of the maintenance
program effectiveness.
During the early 90’s, as with other functions within a
business, many maintenance organizations in Indonesia
were busy implementing computerized maintenance
management system (CMMS). However, in many
cases, these investments were made without proper
assessment of the real needs and priorities as will be
discussed later in section 1.3 of this paper. The general
perception at the time was that CMMS as a new
revolution in Information Technology will help solve
most problems in maintenance management. However,
as many organizations are finding out, this assumption
is simply not true.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the main functions of a
CMMS are:

To assist the maintenance organization in
managing the maintenance work required. (Boxes
1, 2, 3)
To record the history of the work carried out such
that this information can then be used for
improvement (Box 4)

Figure 2. The main functions of a CMMS
Thereby, CMMS is merely a tool which if used
properly can greatly help maintenance organizations
but if not, will only become a burden and the center of
non value added activities. That is to say; if an
organization does not have effective asset maintenance
strategy then no matter how good the CMMS is, there
would still remain a lot of unplanned breakdowns. This
would make the planning & scheduling of work ineffective and since scheduled planned maintenance
work does not get done because the emergency works

Roy Korompis - 2

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

caused by breakdowns would take priority. In turn,
this would increase the number of breakdowns even
more and the efficiency of the whole cycle will
deteriorate further in a more and more problematic fire
fighting cycle.
In addition to the above vicious cycle, many
organizations in Indonesia also failed to understand the
importance of capturing history when completing work
orders (usually because of the already large
administrative burden of dealing with redundant work
orders). As a result one of the key objectives in
improving / developing an effective asset maintenance
strategy, the ability to analyze asset history was not
available as failure history was inconsistent or at the
wrong level so as to render the information useless for
the purpose of maintenance requirements analyses.
So unless a step back is taken to properly identify the
true requirements of the physical assets, the
maintenance work would stay in-effective, which
indicated by the fire fighting (reactive) mode of
maintenance and high number of emergency work
orders. This condition is still quite prevalent (in
varying degrees) in maintenance organizations in
Indonesia even though they have implemented CMMS.
Hence given the current pressure on reliability, there is
a real need for maintenance organizations in Indonesia,
still suffering from the symptoms described above, to
immediately determine the true maintenance
requirements of their physical assets based on the
current operating contexts in order to increase the
effectiveness of their maintenance programs.
Throughout the past 30 years, the Indonesian
maintenance workforce’s skills3 were slowly built up
through hands-on experience on the job. However, as
the demand rate for skillful workforce was greater than
the supply of technically competent workforce in the
70s, 80s, and some part of the 90s (some would argue
that even today there is a shortage of appropriately
skilled maintenance management and staff), there has
been very little succession planning of the maintenance
work force in most Indonesian’s plants. Many
maintenance organizations now find themselves with a
retiring generation of work force which is very soon
due for replacement. (some already in the process)
Hence as very little of this knowledge has been
documented or institutionalized within the organization
(most of it is still captured within the experiences of
the individuals), if knowledge transfer is not managed
properly, maintenance organizations in Indonesia are
currently facing the risk of losing (through attrition) the
body of knowledge gained through the years of

However, this skill development tended to be focused
mainly on technical skills on how to execute
maintenance tasks with very little or no training aimed
at understanding the operating context and functions of
the assets

experience If this experience is lost, the maintenance
organization would actually be moving backward again
as the workforce would need to re-learn the experience
the hard-way.
Therefore, in addition to the need to identify the true
requirement of the physical asset, there is also an
immediate need to capture, document and formally
institutionalize the knowledge of the current
maintenance work force, both of which are key to
generating an effective asset maintenance strategy.

2.2 A maintenance excellence model [1, 3]
Despite the common background of Indonesian
maintenance organizations described above, the
condition of each individual organization varies
depending on how advanced the organization’s
awareness of maintenance excellence, i.e. how well the
organization understand their needs & requirements
and have developed a strategic plan to improve.
However, many maintenance organizations in
Indonesia still have a poor understanding of what
exactly maintenance excellence is. Maintenance
excellence is many things done well. It is plant
performance, product quality, safe asset operation,
optimum maintenance cost, high spares turnover, and
many others. In order to achieve maintenance
excellence, an organization must first understand all
the elements required to achieve it. John Campbell
elaborated in his book “Uptime” that Maintenance
Excellence is achieved by establishing the fundamental
building blocks of Leadership, Control, Continuous
Improvement, and Quantum Leaps. This excellence
model has been refined to become what is known as
the Maintenance Excellence Pyramid (depicted below
in Figure 2).

Figure 2. Maintenance Excellence Pyramid
Brief descriptions of each element within the pyramid
are as follow:
A. The Leadership Elements

The Maintenance Management Strategy

The maintenance management strategy is the road map
to which the maintenance organization chooses to
undertake in order to fulfill its required functions in

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maintaining the organization’s assets to support the
business strategies and objectives within the given
constraints of the business.
For example, the
maintenance strategies should have an explicit short,
medium, and long term objectives defined (availability,
reliability, OEE, costs, safety factors etc) and what the
organization is going to do to achieve them given its
present condition (with budget, resources, skills, &
technology constraints). Developed properly, this
strategy will provide the map on how the organization
is going to improve the other elements within the
triangle to support the achievement of its overall
function. The maintenance strategy should also be
clearly communicated and understood by all personnel
who are going to be involved in achieving the

Maintenance Organization and Human Resources

This element looks at the effectiveness and efficiency
of the organizational structure and skills & knowledge
of the maintenance work force. Indicators for this
element are things such as: number of organizational
layers, span of control, work efficiency and overtime,
job accountabilities, knowledge management, skills
competencies and development program, and
individual performance monitoring mechanism.
B. The Control Elements

Asset (or equipment) Maintenance Strategies/
Maintenance Tactics

How well the organization understands its assets
(functions and failures) and principles of effective
failure management policy determine the effectiveness
of the asset maintenance strategy. A maintenance
organization should look at the applications of
predictive and preventive maintenance technique
versus reactive maintenance in the organization. A
good Asset maintenance strategy should balance
between the benefit and the cost of doing the
maintenance job. Hence, not under maintaining it, not
over maintaining it but maintaining it at the right level

Planning & Scheduling

Bridging the asset maintenance strategies into actual
work is the planning and scheduling function. This
element is about how well & effectively the
organization identifies, plans, schedules, manages, and
controls the works required.

Materials Management

Without the availability of the required spare parts and
some other resources (Contractors), it is difficult, if not
impossible, for the maintenance function to accomplish
its objectives. Hence achieving maintenance excellence
also requires this element to be managed effectively

and efficiently. This includes not only the spare parts
inventory management but also the management of
their procurement and the management of contractors
required to deliver the services.

Performance Measurements / Management

Performance measures are one of the basic
requirements of an effective management approach.
This is simply because “people respond to the
measures used to evaluate them and will do the most
unusual things to ensure that they meet their goal”4.
Coming up with a good measurement system that
balances the resources and constraints which drives the
expected behavior however is sometimes difficult.
Overall, the set of performance measures implemented
for maintenance function should be in line with the
organization overall strategy.

Information Management

In executing the work to meet the objectives, the
maintenance function also manages and makes use of a
lot of information. In planning and scheduling work for
example, the maintenance function requires
information on job requirements, resources & skills
availability, current workload and material availability.
In turn, it may also generate a lot of information on the
result of the work which if used properly may be very
useful in improving the equipment strategies. Hence,
how well an organization manages its information is
also a critical factor that determines the organization’s
C. The Continuous Improvement Elements:

Reliability management

This element looks at how well the organization uses
its knowledge and resources to capture data and
manage the process of turning this data into useful
information to improve the maintenance tactics. As
mentioned above, the reliability management method is
a tool which should guide the organization in achieving
the right level of maintenance based on the true
requirement of the asset. The RCM methodology falls
into this element category.

Employee Empowerment

Much has been said about the importance of
empowering employees to boost morale, improve work
quality and increase job satisfaction. It has even been
suggested that employee empowerment programs can
improve the safety record of a plant. Historically, the
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is regarded as
the tool used for empowering employees in the

Kathleen Leibfried, Benchmarking – a tool for
continuous improvement

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maintenance function. However, depending on how an
RCM process is applied, it can also be regarded, to
some degree as empowering the employees as they are
invited to use their experience and wisdom to
determine the jobs they are going to carry. In any case,
employee empowerment is a critical factor to achieve
maintenance excellence.
D. Quantum Leaps Element
10. Process Re-engineering
The goal in process re-engineering is to achieve
dramatic performance advances instead of incremental
improvement changes. For the maintenance function,
this mean re-examining the core processes of what
maintenance is trying to do and integrate these
processes with other required processes (such as
inventory management processes and procurement
processes) to deliver optimum value to the organization
& customer as a whole. As organization advances in its
progress toward maintenance excellence, it should
shun the old ways of silo thinking and focus on value
delivery process.


Assessing your maintenance
organizations needs and priorities

Upon understanding on what comprises maintenance
excellence and the elements required to achieve it, a
maintenance organization can now assess its
performance in each element to determine the areas for
improvements (the Gap). Most of these elements are
already present to some degree in most all maintenance
organizations. The level of maturity within each of the
element however, varies greatly from one organization
to another. Some organizations are weak in one
elements while other organizations in other elements.
This indicates different priority areas for these
organizations. In order to make efficient and effective
use of the, “always”, limited resources (time and
money) for any improvement programs, an
organization should always understand its priorities by
firstly establishing the baseline of its current
performance through a complete assessment as
illustrated in Figure 3 below.


By establishing this baseline and identifying the gaps, a
maintenance organization can then make an effective
judgment on whether the expected benefit of a
proposed improvement program matches against its
area of needs and priorities. For example, in the
context of adopting a reliability management approach
/ RCM for an organization, although an RCM
implementation program would no doubt be beneficial
to the organization adopting it in the long run, the
expected payback of its benefits5 varies greatly (from
several weeks to several months) depending on the
organizations current performance on the control
element. Hence, if an organization decided to adopt
RCM methodology, it should also have a realistic
expectation on the payback. In this context, when the
RCM program has produced the best equipment
strategies, the organization should have the capabilities
to carry out these strategies to realize the benefit to the
fullest. This means adequate maturity level for the
other control elements (Planning & Scheduling,
Materials Management, Performance Management, and
Information Management). That is to say that there is
little use of producing a good maintenance program if
they don’t get accomplished or executed due to poor
planning, scheduling or other factors.
Given the common background of maintenance
organizations in Indonesia, and discussions on the road
map to achieve maintenance excellence, there is a need
for any maintenance organizations in Indonesia looking
to implement any improvement program (including
RCM) to firstly assess their improvement needs,
priorities and strategies to address their shortcomings
in becoming an excellent maintenance organization.

3. Understanding Reliability-centered
This paper does not aim to explain in detail the concept
of RCM. A complete understanding of RCM can only
be achieved by proper training and applications of the
concept. However, this paper does try to summarize for
the reader what RCM is (and is not), how to implement
it and what can be achieved. Before we examine this
process, its applications, and benefits, perhaps it is
useful to the reader to know how it originated and

3.1 A very brief history of the development of
RCM [9]
The RCM concept originated from the airline industry
when the United States Department of Defense
commissioned United Airlines to prepare a report on
the processes used by the civil aviation industry to

Figure 3. Maintenance Effectiveness Assessment

See benefit of RCM in section 3.4

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develop aircraft maintenance programs6. The resulting
report entitled “Reliability-centered Maintenance” was
produced by F. Stanley Nowlan and Howard F. Heap
(then, United Airlines Maintenance Analysis Director
and Manager of maintenance program planning,
respectively). The report was publicized in 1978 by the
National Technical Information Service, US
Department of Commerce. This was the first time the
term was coined. Since then, in the early 1980’s, the
concept has been adapted by various industries other
than aviation. As observed by Moubray:
“It was soon apparent that no other comparable
technique exists for identifying the true, safe minimum
of asset’s requirement. As a result, RCM is now being
adapted by thousands of organizations across the
globe and is becoming as fundamental to the practice
of physical asset management as double entry
bookkeeping to financial asset management” [6]

3.2 Variants of RCM & Streamlined RCM [6]
The growing popularity of RCM has also led to the
development of numerous derivatives. Some of these
derivatives are refinements and enhancements of
Nowlan & Heap’s original RCM process. However,
less rigorous derivatives have also emerged, most of
which are attempts to ‘streamline’ the maintenance
strategy formulation process. In all cases of
streamlined RCM, the proponents of these techniques
argue that their principal advantage is that they achieve
similar results as classical RCM but in much less time
at much less costs. However, not only that this claim is
questionable, but all of the streamlined techniques have
other drawbacks. These drawbacks are highlighted in
Moubray’s paper entitled “The Case against
Streamlined RCM” an excerpt of which is included in
appendix –B of this paper should the reader wish to
investigate deeper.

3.3 The development of the RCM Standard
for “TRUE” RCM
Due to this situation, there was an increasing need by
the industries for a standard that set out the definition
of RCM process. Although the work for creating a
standard sponsored by the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) had its beginning in 1996, it was not
completed and published until 1999. Development of
the standard itself involved members from the US
Navy Aviation and ship communities, as well as
commercial industry. Dana Netherton, chairman of the
SAE RCM committee concluded in his article that:
“The standard now approved by the SAE does not
present a standard process. Its title is, “Evaluation

For more information on the background, please refer
to the Reliability-centered maintenance report by
Nowlan & Heap

Criteria for Reliability –Centered Maintenance (RCM)
Processes (SAE JA 1011).” This standard presents
criteria against which a process may be compared. If
the process meets the criteria, it may confidently be
called an “RCM pro-cess.” If it does not, it should not.
(This does not necessarily mean that processes that do
not comply with the SAE RCM standard are not valid
processes for maintenance strategy formulation. It
simply means that the term “RCM” should not be
applied to them.)” [8]
These criteria, as detailed in section 5 of the standard
defines a TRUE RCM as:
“Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) - Any
RCM process shall ensure that all of the following
seven questions are answered satisfactorily and are
answered in the sequence shown as follows:
a) What are the functions and associated desired
standards of performance of the asset in its
present operating context (functions)?
b) In what ways can it fail to fulfill its functions
(functional failures)?
c) What causes each functional failure (failure
d) What happens when each failure occurs (failure
e) In what way does each failure matter (failure
f) What should be done to predict or prevent each
failure (proactive tasks and tasks intervals)?
g) What should be done if a suitable proactive task
cannot be found (default actions)?
To answer each of the previous questions
“satisfactorily” the following information shall be
gathered, and the following decisions shall be made.
All information and decisions shall be documented in a
way which makes the information and the decisions
fully available and acceptable to the owner or user of
the asset.” [4]
Then the subsequent sections of the standard list
further criteria which the process must address
satisfactorily as mentioned in the last quoted paragraph
above. None of the streamlined RCM processes
comply fully with these requirements. So strong was
the conviction of the SAE chairman on this definition
of “TRUE” RCM that after his post as chairman in this
committee, he is now promoting an RCM version
which complies fully with this standard.
One RCM version which complies fully with the
standard is RCM II which was authored and refined by
the late John Moubray and his network of associates.
Moubray himself, used to work under the mentorship
of the late Stanley Nowlan, the originator of RCM,
from 1981-1995. Reliability-centered Maintenance
(RCM) as defined by Moubray is:

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“A process used to determine what must be done to
ensure that any physical asset continues to do what its
users want it to do in its present operating context.”
In short, this process is used to develop an effective
asset maintenance strategy. It does so by structurally
and sequentially going through the seven basic
questions framework stated in the standard described
above (questions a – g). Although the questions sound
simple, the framework actually takes us to new
maintenance paradigms7 which would change the way
we look at asset management. As a matter of fact, one
of the strengths and benefits of applying the TRUE
RCM process is the education of these new paradigms
to the ones involved in the process which in turn would
increase that person’s effectiveness and value to the
organization. Shortcutting this process, as suggested by
some Streamlined RCM methods, would deny the
organizations of this benefit.
The RCM process it self can be separated into two
main exercises:
1. Collecting the information of the asset and
structuring them in a functional paradigm
concept of functions (and not assets),
functional failure, failure mode, and failure
effects, and then;
2. Analyzing each failure mode using a very
structured RCM decision diagram to arrive at
a proper failure management policy for each
failure mode.
In doing the exercises above, the RCM process
involves all sources that have valid information
regarding the asset /system. This includes personnel
from, maintenance (mechanical, electrical, etc.),
operations, engineering, contractors & suppliers (where
applicable), or other available experts that have
something valid to say about the asset. This is
important since there is no one single source of
information that knows everything about a physical
asset system8. People from operations may know some,

For more information on these paradigms please refer
Management – A new Paradigm”. An excerpt from
paradigm 11 is attached in appendix A for discussion
on the importance of Operating Context.
Contrary to what some vendors / suppliers might say,
there is no external source of information available in
the world that is capable of knowing all of the
information of YOUR asset behavior within YOUR
operating context. The only way to get this information
is by extracting the experience of YOUR people who
have dealt with the asset intimately for the past 5, 10,
or even 30 years. RCM is a most efficient method to
extract and facilitate this information to produce an
effective asset maintenance strategy.

the maintainers most certainly have valid information
about the asset they maintain, some of this information
is also known by the engineer, but they may also have
other information that others don’t. This is illustrated

Figure 4. Asset information sources in most Indonesian
Figure 4 also illustrates that in collecting this valid
information there will always be grey areas which none
of the sources know (such as failure modes that have
not happened or not yet thought of, or reliability data
of some components of the asset). This means that the
resulting asset maintenance strategy is not going to be
absolutely perfect. However, it would be the best /
optimal under the existing constraints / conditions. As
experience grows, most definitely the knowledge of
these sources also grows and the organization can then
reduce the grey area by re-visiting and improving the
analyses on periodic basis (normally every year). This
suggests that the organization should embed the
knowledge within the workforce and adopt this
methodology to enable a culture of continuous
improvement of the asset maintenance strategy (as
illustrated in figure 1 also by continuous improvement
There is no shortcut to Maintenance
Figure 4 also shows that in spite of the existence of
historical data within the CMMS system in
maintenance organizations in Indonesia, due to the
reason explained in section 1 of this paper, most of this
data is not valid information for the purpose of
formulating an effective maintenance strategy. As this
is the case, maintenance organizations in Indonesia
should not consider formulating their asset
maintenance strategies based on the historical data in
their CMMS alone.
When implementing RCM, the process described
above is normally conducted by dividing the plant into
several asset systems. These systems are then analyzed
one by one within the period of 1-3 weeks, usually
starting with the most critical (in terms of reliability &

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consequences) assets / systems. This is done to ensure
prompt achievement of benefits and to avoid “analysis
paralysis”. Hence, the team members involved in RCM
analyses described in Figure 4 above are normally
different from one asset to the others as no one person
is an expert in all of the assets in the plant. (However,
depending on the structure of the organization, it is
likely that most staff will be involved in more than just
one team / analysis)


Benefit of RCM for maintenance
organizations in Indonesia

The objective of RCM process is to analyze the true
maintenance requirements of any physical asset
systems and produce an effective failure management
management program). Achievement of this objective
would mean several things for our plants9 including:

Greater safety and environmental integrity
Improved operating performance (output,
product quality, and customer service)
Greater maintenance cost-effectiveness
Longer useful life of expensive items

As asset maintenance strategy determines the
effectiveness of maintenance work, if your
organization is still suffering from the general
condition of maintenance organizations in Indonesia
described in section 1.1 statement (i) of this paper,
implementing RCM can help you in overcoming this
issue. However, RCM is not a panacea for all of
maintenance problems; it is only a method that is best
suited to address that critical step needed to improve
your asset maintenance strategy. It provides an
effective map for your maintenance work but the
organization still has to do the work. If the organization
has trouble executing this strategy then the end result /
benefit would still not be achieved.
As explained in the previous section, the RCM process
involves key people from all aspects of operating the
assets (Operation, maintenance, engineering, safety
etc) to work together in producing the result. Capturing
the experience of these people, an RCM review ends
with a comprehensive and fully documented record of
the maintenance requirements of the assets. Thus, in
addition to the benefits mentioned above, True RCM
process is an excellent knowledge transfer vehicle that
addresses the issue of risk of “Lost experience” due to
staff re-generation as identified in section 1.1 statement
(ii). And often many organizations implementing
RCM reflect back and feel strongly that the learning
experience for their staff produced by undergoing the
process was one of the greatest benefits from the
program. To many of the maintenance staff involved, it

For details please see John Moubray’s book “RCM”

was the first time they had actually taken time to
understand and learn about the operating context and
functions of the assets they maintain. Usually the
efforts have previously been focused on technical skills
development and how to firefight more efficiently! Not
only have they now understood what maintenance
tasks should be undertaken but also why these tasks are
necessary and the consequences if not executed well.
Furthermore, as a result of working together to
formulate their own work, they have greater ownership
of the result and work better as a team.
Some streamlined RCM methods attempt to shortcut
the process to save time and costs. As a result, the
benefits of knowledge transfer and result ownership are
not realized to the fullest. Furthermore, unlike
conditions in developed countries where labor costs are
significantly higher than Indonesia, the costs savings
proposed for using streamlined RCM by reducing man
power requirements are sometimes trivial when
compared to the benefits produced.
However, implementing RCM does have its pitfalls,
and Indonesian organizations implementing it should
pay special attention to critical issues discussed in the
next section

4. Implementations of RCM Program
for Maintenance Organizations in
RCM is not just a fad or a once off improvement
exercise. In understanding RCM, many organizations
have come to the realization that the thinking process
should be embodied within their organizations to
enable continuous improvement and the organization’s
ability to cope with the change in asset management
requirements cause by the ever-changing business
requirements. Hence, adaptation of RCM concept as
the main drive to produce effective asset maintenance
requirements can be seen as a cultural change for that

4.1 Approaches to implement RCM
There are numerous approaches to implement the RCM
program successfully. To determine the approach that
best suits a particular maintenance organization, the
organization must first fully understand ALL of its
constraints with respect to the program. However, a
common approach is as follow:

Determine the organization’s readiness

As explained in section 1.3, depending on the
organization’s current situation, it may be ready to
adopt a full blown RCM implementation or it may
need an incremental improvement, or it may require to
shift its priorities first to other elements requiring

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immediate attention before it can sustain the RCM

Pilot analysis

A pilot analysis enables the organization to get “hands
on” experience of the process to see explicitly how the
benefit can be achieved. To demonstrate best the
impact, normally this pilot is conducted on the most
critical asset or the asset that is currently causing a lot
of headaches.

Criticality Assessment

To maximize the return on investment and gain
sustainable support from the whole organization, the
RCM process should be applied first to the most
critical assets / most needed areas of the plant. . This
criticality assessment is not a production process
criticality study. The assessment looks at criticality
from downtime, safety, environmental impact of a
failure, cost, and reliability of each asset system /
subsystem. The result of this assessment serves only as
guidelines / implementation strategy for the program

Development of the core team and infrastructure

Since RCM should be seen as a long term culture
change program it should be self sustaining within the
organization. Thus the organization should develop its
own motor and mechanism that can continually
produce high quality result. This means developing
highly motivated and good quality RCM team leaders /
facilitators and developing the appropriate mechanism
to monitor their performance. (Either through a
steering committee or absorbed into the maintenance
organization structure depending on the organization


To ensure sustainability of the program in the long run,
the organizations should also implement a proper
project management measures and control.

4.2 Critical Success Factors
Regardless of the approach chosen to implement RCM,
there are a number of common critical success factors
which all maintenance organization in Indonesia
should pay special attention to. These are:

Full Management commitment from the highest
level including operation and maintenance

As assets do not belong to just maintenance, RCM
process involves more than just maintenance, and as
the result produced is for the benefit of the whole
business; this program requires the support of the
whole organization. As the RCM processes require the

involvement of the best people from all over the
organization to produce the best result, the
management from different functions (maintenance,
engineering, operations, etc.) should be committed in
ensuring availability of these resources during
analyses. Without the involvement of the best people,
the grey area mentioned in figure 4 will be larger.
Given the wrong people, the resulting asset
maintenance strategy would only be mediocre or even
dangerous. Thus, the RCM program would be seen as a
failure. Hence a sure way to kill an RCM program is to
make the resources unavailable. This normally happens
if the management does not have a solid case /
understanding on why the RCM program is needed.

Effective knowledge transfer (RCM) to all level
including grass roots

To be able to participate in RCM analyses, the team
members (and of course the team leader / facilitator)
should fully understand the underlying concepts and
methodology. The better the understanding, the better
the analyses are (more efficient and produce high
quality result). And the better the analyses are, the
greater the benefits for the organizations. In order to
ensure achievement of these qualities, maintenance
organization in Indonesia should ensure effective
knowledge transfer to all level including grass roots
(the grass roots are among the best source of
information for the asset and hence the best candidate
for team members). If knowledge transfer is not
effective, then the organization would be risking the
success of the RCM implementation program. In
Indonesian organizations, effective knowledge transfer
of key concepts and paradigm changes (especially to
grassroots) are sometimes hindered by language
barrier. Therefore it is crucial to ensure that the RCM
trainings and intensive mentorship’s are conducted in
Bahasa Indonesia.

Dedicated and able project leader and team
leaders / facilitators

As mentioned earlier a RCM program is a long term
program which should be internally self sustaining, the
success of this program depended on performance of
the designated team leaders / facilitator and project
leader. As the RCM processes are sometimes intensive
and require a lot of extra work for the facilitators, these
key personnel must be totally dedicated to the role. The
facilitators must “Want” to be facilitator, without this
the program risks loosing its drive after a period of
time. However, being involved with RCM is also
highly rewarding for the individuals as their knowledge
will be increased rapidly. Additionally, the program
would also need a project leader capable of sustaining
the drive & momentum of the program.

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A feasible Implementation Plan and Monitoring
Mechanism for results achieved

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A feasible plan with clearly defined objectives and
milestones is needed to keep track the progress and
ensure that the program is moving to the right
direction. Additionally, the program also needs a
feedback mechanism to keep track on the achievement
of the benefits. Some RCM programs are suspended
after a brief roll out because management does not see
the benefits expected. Therefore it is crucial for
organization to be able to show management exactly
the results achieved from the program. This means
developing a mechanism that will be capable of
monitoring the performance of the assets before and
after RCM implementation.

Proper Change Management Program & clear
communications to the rest of organization

As the RCM program requires the support of the whole
organization (not just maintenance) to succeed, clear
and constant communications to those that are not
involved directly are required.

5. Conclusion
Contrary to a widely held belief of many maintenance
personnel in maintenance organizations throughout
Indonesia, RCM is NOT a software design to solve all
maintenance problems. It is a methodology applied in a
(thinking) process used to generate the TRUE and
effective maintenance requirements of your physical
asset. Due to the macro economical background of
industrial revolution in Indonesia, there is a valid case
for maintenance organization in Indonesia to consider
implementing RCM. However, before an organization
jumps to this conclusion and hastily looks for vendors
to implement RCM, it must first determine its real
needs and priorities and understand what RCM is, (or
what RCM is not). For the reasons provided in this
paper, it would be difficult for maintenance
organizations in Indonesia to shortcut the approach of
RCM (by applying the streamlined version of RCM)
and arrive at the same benefits as True RCM offers.
(As in almost all cases, the current maintenance
programs are not well documented and historical data
is patchy -if it exists at all- and the general level of
understanding of operating context and functions of the
assets is still low). Therefore organizations should
understand that to apply RCM correctly, is to build on
the knowledge within the capability of the organization
itself, such that the organization will benefit from it in
the long run.



Maintenance) Journal – Volume 23. Issue 6,
Clifford / Elliot Publication
Campbell J D; Jardine A. K.S. (editors) (2001):
“Maintenance Excellence – Optimizing Equipment
Life-Cycle Decisions” Marcell-Dekker
International Society of Automotive Engineers
(1999): “JA1011 – Evaluation Criteria for
Reliability Centered Maintenance Processes”
Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA:SAE Publications
Moubray J. M. (1991): “Reliability-centered
Maintenance” Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford
Moubray J M (2000): “The Case against
Streamlined RCM” Aladon, UK
Moubray J M (1995): paper “Maintenance
Management – A new paradigm” Aladon, UK
Netherton D (2000): “SAE’s New Standard for
RCM”. Maintenance(UK) 15(1) 3 – 7, 2000
Nowlan F S; Heap H (1978): “Reliability-centered
Maintenance” Springfield, Virginia. National
Technical Information Service, United States
Department of Commerce.

7. Biography
Roy Korompis is a co-founder and Director of PT
Relogica Indonesia, a young and dynamic management
consulting firm specializing in helping organizations
achieving measurable bottom line improvements. He is
responsible for developing the physical asset
management practice in PT Relogica. Prior to PT
Relogica he worked for PricewaterhouseCoopers
Management Consulting Services where he was part of
the Physical Asset Management global team. He was
also certified by John Moubray, author of RCM II, as
RCM trainer and RCM consultant. With over 11 years
of experience as management consultant specializing
in operation/process/physical asset management
improvements, Roy has been involved with
organizations in industries ranging from upstream oil
& gas, mining, cement; to telecommunications,
automotive, and consumer goods. He has successfully
completed numerous projects including RCM
implementations projects in Indonesia and abroad. An
engineer by background, Roy holds a Bachelor of
Science in Industrial Engineering and Master of
Engineering in engineering management, both from the
State University of New York at Buffalo.

6. References
[1] Campbell J D (1995): “Uptime – Strategies for
Excellence in Maintenance Management”.
Productivity Press.
[2] Campbell J D (editor) (1999):”The Reliability
Handbook” PEM (Plant Engineering &

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Appendix A.

Functions: the narrative accompanying Figure 1
on page 2 explains how a pump can have one
performance expectation in one location and a
different expectation in another location. Different
performance standards of this type inevitably call
for different standards of maintenance. (This is
especially true where otherwise identical machines
are used to produce products which have widely
differing quality standards)

Failure modes: when otherwise identical
equipment is used in even slightly different
locations (an area of high humidity, an unusually
dusty environment) or to perform slightly different
tasks (cutting a harder than usual metal, operating
at a higher temperature, pumping a more abrasive
or a more acidic liquid), the possible failure modes
vary drastically. This in turn means that failure
management strategies need to vary accordingly.

consequences also demand different maintenance
strategies. This is illustrated by three otherwise
identical pumps in Figure 9. Pump A stands alone,
so if it fails, operations will be affected sooner or
later. As a result the users and/or maintainers of
Pump A are likely to make some effort to
anticipate or prevent its failure. (How hard they
try will be governed both by the effect on
operations and by the severity and frequency of
the failures of the pump.)

Availability & Reliability
Excerpts from the Reliability Handbook. Reliability:
Past – Present & Future [2]
Reliability is very specific - it is the process of
managing the interval between failures. If availability
is a measure of the equipment uptime, or conversely
the duration of downtime, reliability can be thought of
as a measure of the frequency of downtime. Let’s look
at an example.
Case 1
Your injection molding machine is down for a 24-hour
repair job in the middle of what was supposed to be a
solid five-day run. Its availability is therefore 80
percent (120hr-24hr/120hr). The reliability of the
machine is 96 hours (96hr/1 failure).
Case 2
Your machine is down 24 times for one hour each
time. Its availability is still 80 percent (120hr24x1hr/120hr), but its reliability is only four hours
(96/24 failures)!
The two measures are, however, closely related:
Availability =





where maintainability is the mean time to repair.

Appendix B.
The Importance of Operating Context

However, if pump B fails, the operators simply
switch to pump C, so the only consequence of the
failure of pump B is that it must be repaired. As a
result, it is probable that the operators of B would
at least consider letting it run to failure (especially
if the failure of B does not cause significant
secondary damage.)

An excerpt from John Moubray’s Paper: Maintenance
Management – A new Paradigm [7]
The belief that generic maintenance policies can and
should be applied to most types of assets lies at the
heart of nearly all traditional maintenance programs.
For instance, how often does one hear people say
things like "the maintenance policy which we apply to
all our pumps is X" or "we have a type Y calibration
policy for all our instruments"?
However, the correct use of techniques like RCM2 to
develop maintenance programs quickly shows why the
in-appropriate use of generic maintenance is one of the
main reasons why so many traditional programs do not
achieve their full potential. The main reasons are as

Roy Korompis - 11

On the other hand, if pump C fails while pump B
is still working (for instance if someone
cannibalises a part from C), it is likely that the
operators will not even know that C has failed
unless or until B also fails. To guard against this
possibility, a sensible maintenance strategy might

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

be to run C from time to time to find out whether it
has failed.
This example shows how three identical assets can
have three totally different maintenance policies,
because the failure consequences are different in each

Maintenance tasks: different organizations - or
even different parts of the same organization seldom employ people with identical skill sets.
This means that people working on one asset may
prefer to use one type of pro-active technology
(say high-tech condition monitoring) to anticipate
failure, while another group working on an
identical asset may be more comfortable using
another (say a combination of performance
monitoring and the human senses). It is surprising
how often this does not matter, as long as the
techniques chosen are cost-effective. In fact, many
maintenance organizations are starting to realize
that there is often more to be gained from ensuring
that the people doing the work are comfortable
with what they are doing than it is to compel
everyone to do the same thing. (The validity of
different tasks is also affected by the operating
context of each asset. For instance, think how
background noise levels affect checks for noise.)

All of this means that special care must be taken to
ensure that the operating context, functions and desired
standards of performance are all virtually identical
before applying a maintenance policy designed for one
asset to another.

Appendix C
Discussions on Streamlined RCM

This section of this paper outlines the main features of
some of the most widely touted ‘streamlined’
approaches to RCM. In all cases, the proponents of
these techniques claim that their principal advantage is
that they achieve similar results to something which
they call ‘classical’ RCM, but that they do so in much
less time and at much lower cost. However, not only is
this claim questionable, but all of the streamlined
techniques have other drawbacks, some quite serious.
These drawbacks are also highlighted in the following
C-2 Retroactive approaches
The most popular method of ‘streamlining’ the RCM
process starts not by defining the functions of the asset
(as specified in the SAE Standard), but starts with the
existing maintenance tasks. Users of this approach try
to identify the failure mode that each task is supposed
to be preventing, and then work forward again through
the last three steps of the RCM decision process to reexamine the consequences of, each failure and
(hopefully) to identify a more cost-effective failure
management policy. (This approach is what is most
often meant when the term ‘streamlined RCM’10 is
used. It is also known as “backfit” RCM11 or “RCM in
Retroactive approaches are superficially very
appealing, so much so that the author tried them
himself on numerous occasions when he was new to
RCM. However, in reality they are also among the
most dangerous of the streamlined methodologies, for
the following reasons:

They assume that existing maintenance programs
cover all the failure modes that are reasonably
likely to affect the assets under consideration. In
the case of every maintenance program
encountered by the author to date, this is
assumption is simply not valid, because the tasks
in traditionally-derived maintenance programs
usually address fewer than half of the failure
modes that are documented during an FMEA that
complies with the requirements of the SAE
Standard. Furthermore, it is often very difficult to
identify exactly what failure cause motivated the
selection of a, particular task, so much so that
either inordinate amounts of time are wasted trying
to establish the real connection, or sweeping
assumptions are made that very often prove to be
wrong. These two problems alone make this
approach an extremely shaky foundation upon
which to build a maintenance program.

In re-assessing the consequences of each failure
mode, it is still necessary to ask whether “the loss
of function caused by the failure mode will
become evident to the operating crew under
normal circumstances”. This question can only be

Excerpts from John Moubray’s Paper: The Case
against streamlined RCM [6]
C-1 Streamlined RCM
The author and his associates have helped companies
to apply true RCM on more than 1 200 sites spanning
41 countries and nearly every form of organized human
endeavour. We have found that when true RCM has
been correctly applied by well-trained individuals
working on clearly defined and properly managed
projects, the analyses have usually paid for themselves
in between two weeks and two months. This is a very
rapid payback indeed.
However, despite this rapid payback, some individuals
and organizations have expended a great deal of
energy, on attempts to reduce the time and resources
needed to apply the RCM process, The results of these
attempts are generally known as ‘streamlined’ RCM

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answered by establishing what function is actually
lost when the failure occurs. This in turn means
that the people doing the analysis have to start
identifying functions anyway, but they try to do so
on an ad hoc basis halfway through the analysis
(and they are not usually trained in how to identify
functions correctly in the first place because this
approach considers the function identification step
to be unnecessary). If they do not, they start
making even more sweeping −and hence often
incorrect assumptions that add to the shakiness of
the results.

Retroactive approaches are particularly weak on
specifying appropriate maintenance for protective
devices. As stated by the author in his book12: "at
the time of writing, many existing maintenance
programs provide for fewer than one third of
protective devices to receive any attention at all
(and then usually at inappropriate intervals).The
people who operate and maintain the plant
covered by these programs are aware that another
third of these devices exist but pay them no
attention, while it is not unusual to find that noone even knows that the final third exist. This lack
of awareness and attention means that most of the
protective devices in industry - our last line of
protection when things go wrong are maintained
poorly or not at all.” So if one uses a retroactive
approach to RCM, in most cases a great many
protective devices will continue to receive no
attention in the future because no tasks were
specified for them in the past. Given the enormity
of the risks associated with unmaintained
protective devices, this weakness of retroactive
RCM alone makes it completely indefensible.
(Some variants of this approach try to get around
this problem by specifying that protective systems
should be analyzed separately, often outside the
RCM framework. This gives rise to the absurd
situation that two analytical processes have to be
applied in order to compensate for the deficiencies
created by attempts to streamline one of them.)

C-3 Use of Generic Analyses
A fairly widely-used shortcut in the application of
RCM entails applying an analysis performed on one
system to technically identical systems. In fact, one or
two organizations even sell such generic analyses, on
the grounds that it is cheaper to buy an analysis that
has already been performed by someone else than it is
to perform your own. The following paragraphs
explain why generic analyses should be treated with
great caution:

More so than any of the other streamlined versions
of RCM, retroactive approaches focus on
maintenance workload reduction rather than plant
performance improvement (which is the primary
goal of function -oriented true RCM). Since the
returns generated by using RCM purely as a tool to
reduce maintenance costs are usually lower sometimes one or two orders of magnitude lower
−than the returns generated by using it to improve
reliability, the use of the ostensibly cheaper
retroactive approach becomes self defeating on
economic grounds, in that it virtually guarantees
much lower returns than true RCM.

Roy Korompis - 13

Operating context: In reality, technically identical
systems often require completely different
maintenance programs if the operating context is
different. For example, consider three pumps A, B
and C that are technically identical (same make,
model, drives, pipework, valvegear, switch gear
and pumping the same liquid against the same
head). The generic mindset suggests that a
maintenance program developed for one pump
should apply to the other two.
However, Pump A stands alone, so if it fails,
operations will be affected sooner or later. As a
result the users and/or maintainers of Pump A are
likely to make some effort to anticipate or prevent
its failure. (How hard they try will be governed
both by the effect on operations and by the
severity and frequency of the failures of the
However, if pump B fails, the operators simply
switch to pump C, so the only consequence of the
failure of pump B is that it must be repaired. As a
result, it is likely that the operators of B would at
least consider letting it run to failure (especially if
the failure of B does not cause significant
secondary damage.) On the other hand, if pump C
fails while pump B is still working (for instance if
someone cannibalizes a part from C), it is likely
that the operators will not even know that C has
failed unless or until B also fails. To guard against
this possibility, a sensible maintenance strategy
might be to run C from time to time to find out
whether it has failed. This example shows how
three identical assets can have three totally
different maintenance policies because the
operating context is different in each case. In the
case of the pumps, a generic program would only
have specified one policy for all three pumps.
Apart from redundancy, a great many other factors
affect the operating context and hence affect the
maintenance programs that could be applied to
technically identical assets. These include whether
the asset is part of a peak load or base load
operation, cyclic fluctuations in market demand
and/or raw material supplies, the availability of
spares, quality and other performance standards

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

that apply to the asset, the skills of the operators
and maintainers, and so on.

Maintenance tasks: different organizations even
different parts of the same organization seldom
employ people with identical skill sets. This means
that people working on one asset may prefer to use
one type of proactive technology (say high-tech
condition monitoring), while another group
working on an identical asset may be more
comfortable using another (say a combination of
performance monitoring and the human senses). It
is surprising how often this difference does not
matter, as long as the techniques chosen are costeffective. In fact, many maintenance organizations
are starting to realize that there is often more to be
gained from ensuring that the people doing the
work are comfortable with what they are doing
than it is to compel everyone to do the same thing.
(The validity of different tasks is also affected by
the operating context of each asset. For instance,
think how background noise levels affect checks
for noise.) Because generic analyses necessarily
incorporate a “one size fits all” approach to
maintenance tasks, they do not cater for these
differences and hence have a significantly reduced
chance of acceptance by the people who have to
do the tasks.

These two points mean that special care must be taken
to ensure that the operating context, functions and
desired standards of performance, failure modes,
failure consequences and the skills of the operators and
maintainers are all effectively identical before applying
a maintenance policy designed for one asset to another.
They also mean at an RCM analysis performed on one
system should never be applied to another without any
further thought just because the two systems happen to
be technically identical.

The operating context may be different: The
operating context of your asset may have features
which make it susceptible to failure modes that do
not appear in the generic list. Conversely, some of
the modes in the generic list might be extremely
improbable (if not impossible) in your context.

performance standards may differ: your asset may
operate to standards of performance which mean
that your whole definition of failure may be
completely different from that used to develop the
generic FMEA.

These three points mean that if a generic list of failure
modes is used at all. It should only ever be used to
supplement a context-specific FMEA, and never used
on its own as a definitive list.
C-5 Skipping Elements of the Process

C-4 Use of Generic Lists of Failure Modes
‘Generic’ lists of failure modes are lists of failure
modes or sometimes entire FMEA’s prepared by third
parties. They may cover entire systems, but more often
cover individual assets or even single components.
These generic lists are touted as another method of
speeding up or ‘streamlining’ this part of the
maintenance program development process. In fact,
they should also be approached with great caution, for
all the reasons discussed in the previous section of this
paper, and for the following additional reasons:

again on the operating context of the system. In
other words, when establishing causes of failure
for technically identical assets, it may be
appropriate in one context to ask ‘why’ it fails
once, and in another it may be necessary to ask
‘why’ seven or eight times. However, if a generic
list is used, this decision will already have been
made in advance of the RCM analysis. For
instance, all the failure modes in the generic list
may have been identified as a result of asking
‘why’ four or five times, when all that may be
needed is level 1. This means that far from
streamlining the process, the generic list would
condemn the user to analyzing far more failure
modes than necessary. Conversely, the generic list
may focus on level 3 or 4 in a situation where
some of the failure modes really ought to be
analyzed at level 5 or 6. This would result in an
analysis that is too superficial and possibly

The level of analysis may be inappropriate: It is
possible to ‘drill down’ almost any number of
levels when seeking to identify failure modes (or
causes of failure). The point at which this process
should stop is the level at which it is possible to
identify an appropriate failure management policy,
and this can vary enormously depending once

Another common way in which the RCM process is
“streamlined” is by skipping various elements of the
process altogether. The step most often omitted is the
definition of functions. Proponents of this methodology
start immediately by listing the failure modes that
might affect each asset, rather than by defining the
functions of the asset under consideration. They do so
either because they claim that, especially in the case of
“non-safety-critical” plant, identifying functions does
not contribute enough relative to the amount of time it
takesl3, or because they simply appear not to be aware
that defining all the functions and the associated
desired standards of performance of the assets under
review is an integral part of the RCM processl4.
In fact, it is generally accepted by all the proponents of
true RCM that in terms of improved plant performance,
by far the greatest benefits of true RCM flow from the
extent to which the function definition step transforms

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general levels of understanding of how the equipment
is supposed to work. So cutting out this step costs far
more in terms of benefits foregone than it saves in
reduced analysis time.
From a purely technical point of view, the
identification of functions and associated desired of
performance also makes it far easier to identify the
surprisingly common situations (failure modes) where
the asset is simply incapable of doing what the user
wants it to do, and therefore fails too soon or too often.
For this reason, eliminating the function definition step
further reduces the power of the process.
The comments in the second sub-paragraph in section
4.1 above also apply here.

within the ambit of the SAE Standard, because the
Standard does not deal with the selection of equipment
for analysis. It defines RCM as a process that can be
applied to any asset, and it assumes that decisions
about what equipment is to be analyzed and about
system boundaries have already been made when the
time comes to apply the RCM process defined in the
Standard. There were two reasons why the equipment
selection process was omitted from the Standard:

Different industries use widely differing criteria to
judge what is ‘critical’. For instance, the ability of
assets to produce products within given quality
limits is a major issue in manufacturing
operations, and hence features prominently in
assessments of criticality. However, this issue
barely figures at all with respect to equipment used
by military undertakings. This means that there is
an equally wide range of techniques used to assess
criticality - so wide that it is impossible to
encompass this issue in one universal standard.

there is a growing school of thought (with which
the author of this paper has some sympathy) that
there is no such thing as an item of plant at least in
an industrial context -that is ‘non-critical’ or ‘nonsignificant’ to the extent that it does not justify
analysis using RCM. Two of the main reasons
believing that systems or items of plant should not
be dismissed as ‘non-critical’ prior to rigorous
analysis are exactly the same as the reasons given
in section 4.5 above for not dismissing functions
and failure modes in the same way. (In fact, many
organizations that choose to start with a formal,
across-the-board equipment criticality assessment
seems to spend as much time deciding what
assessment methodology they will use and then
applying it as they would have spent using true
RCM to analyze all the equipment in their

C-6 Analyze only "critical" functions or "critical"
The SAE Standard stipulates inter alia that a true RCM
analysis should define all functions, and that all
reason-ably likely failure modes should be subjected to
the formal consequence evaluation and task selection
steps. The shortcuts embodied in some of the
streamlined RCM processes try to analyze ‘critical’
functions only, or to subject only ‘critical’ failure
modes to detailed analysis. These approaches have two
main flaws, as follows:

The process of dismissing functions and/or failure
modes as being ‘non-critical’ necessarily entails
making assumptions about what a more detailed
analysis might reveal. In the personal experience
of the author, such assumptions are frequently
wrong. It is surprising how often apparently
innocuous functions or failure modes are found on
closer examination to embody elements that are
highly critical in terms of safety and/or
environmental integrity. As a result, the practice of
prematurely dismissing functions or failure modes
results in much riskier analyses, but because the
analysis is incomplete, no-one knows where or
what these risks are.
Many of the streamlined processes that adopt this
approach incorporate elaborate additional steps
designed to ‘help’ identify what functions and/or
failure modes are critical or non-critical. In a great
many cases, applying these additional steps takes
longer and costs more than it would take to
conduct a rigorous analysis of every function and
every reasonably likely failure mode using true
RCM, yet the output is considerably less robust.

There is a great deal more that could be said both in
favor of and against the idea of using equipment
criticality assessments as a means of deciding whether
to perform rigorous analyses using techniques such as
RCM. However, since criticality assessment techniques
are not an integral part of the RCM process, such a
discussion is beyond the scope of this paper. Suffice it
to say that it is incorrect to present such techniques as
streamlined forms of RCM because they do not form
part of the RCM process as defined by SAE standard.

C-7 Analyze only "critical" equipment
An approach to maintenance strategy formulation that
is often presented as a ‘streamlined’ form of RCM
suggests that the RCM process should be applied to
‘critical’ equipment only. This issue does not fall

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Transporting Natural Gas from East Kalimantan to Java:
Why did we choose a pipeline option?
Hanan Nugroho1, Eddy Satriya2, Nafrizal Sikumbang3

National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Indonesia. Email:
Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, Indonesia. Email:
(former) Regulatory Body for Oil & Gas Downstream Activities, Indonesia

Abstract - Java’s huge demand for natural gas, esp. in
the power sector has to be met by importing gas from
other sources. Sumatra, East Kalimantan, Papua and
Sulawesi were considered as sources for supply.
Transporting gas from East Kalimantan to Central Java
using pipeline is the least costs option to be selected as
the first priority, but over the longer term this option
must be complemented by LNG chain option.

by options for transporting the gas that basically
consists of pipeline and LNG chain. The analyses part
shows that pipeline is the least cost option to be selected
first. It also has some others advantages. However,
over the longer period, the pipeline option is not the
only choice.

1. Introduction

Java’s huge demand for natural gas, mainly driven by
the needs of power generation sector, is the main driver
for importing gas from other sources in Indonesia.

Indonesia has proved successful in developing LNG
industry in the Asia-Pacific market and becoming the
world largest exporter for LNG, but she has not yet
succeeded in meeting its large domestic demand for
natural gas, particularly experienced by Java, the most
populous island where about 2/3 of Indonesian reside
and industrial activities take place.
The Indonesia Law No. 22 Year 2001 concerning Oil
and Gas states explicitly the priority for using the
country’s natural gas for domestic usages. Given the
existing poor natural gas infrastructure for domestic
market, these will require that a national gas
transmission system be put in place from Sumatra,
Kalimantan, and possibly other sources.
On June 17, 2006, the Downstream Regulatory Body
(BPH MIGAS) announced that Bakrie & Brothers won
the “Special Right” bidding for a US$ 1.2 Billion, 1,120
km East Kalimantan - Central Java pipeline. Previously
(March 1st), the Body awarded the similar Right to
develop the Trans Java gas transmission pipelines:
Cirebon-Semarang (230 km) to state-owned EPC
company, PT Rekayasa Industri and Semarang-Gresik
(250 km) to state-owned oil and gas company, PT
The choice of a pipeline option for transporting natural
gas from East Kalimantan to Java has attracted debates,
mainly because the Badak LNG Liquefaction Plant -the
largest one in the world- has already been there in East
Kalimantan. Is a pipeline option still necessary? Why
not directly to build LNG receiving terminals in Java?
This paper discusses the issues on — mainly — gas
transportation from East Kalimantan to Java. It begins
by presenting Java’s demand for natural gas, followed

2. Why Transporting Natural Gas to

There is a significant suppressed demand in Java where
would-be consumers are lining up to get gas,
particularly for power generation but also for small and
medium industry. Shortages of gas have already
happened for many applications in Java.
In the power generation system about 2,700 MW of the
current combined cycle plants are “forced” to burn the
costly diesel oil due the lack of local gas
supply/resources, and this represents a suppressed
demand of about 400 MMCFD. Potential gas demand in
the power sector is particularly high as natural gas
competitive position vis a vis coal is quite favorable
even if Indonesian high quality coal is relatively cheap
A market survey conducted by the state gas company
PGN estimated the potential for non power gas markets
at 1.28 BCFD, about four times the current level of
PGN sales. West Java retains the lion’s share with about
two-thirds of the demand, while East Java (25% of total
demand) and Central Java (12%) make up for the
On the supply side the limited reserve base in Java area
and the current gas pricing policy do not allow
producers to boost exploration and develop additional
gas supply for the domestic market. In addition, the
liberalization of the current subsidized oil prices tends
to increase energy supply costs, hence the demand for
cheaper fuels, such as natural gas.
Consequently, future supply /demand balance in Java
area shows an impressive deficit growing progressively

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from 2005 to 2025 a range of 1,000 to 2,000 BCFY
(2,700 to 5,400 MMCFD). The estimated cumulated gas
deficit over the next 20 years is in the range of 9.5 to
19.2 TCF, representing a volume of gas to be imported
in 2015 in the range of 1,100 - 2,300 MMCFD.
In a context of better energy mix, natural gas in
Indonesia has potential role to substitute the costly
petroleum products and to limit the increasing budget
for subsidies given to oil based fuels. Based on 2005
estimated energy consumption, economic subsidies to
oil based fuels amount to 15 billion US$ while natural
gas consumed allows to save 2.4 billion US$ of

3. Sources for Meeting Java’s Gas
Over the long term, gas demand in Java is projected to
grow at 6 to 8 % per annum, reaching 6.5 BCFD by
2025 (high scenario), compared to current figure of

about 1.0 BCFD. The main drivers for this rapid growth
will still be gas for power generation, and for small and
medium industry uses which will capture 57% and 35%
of total Java gas demand by the end of 2025,
respectively. In the highest scenario, total cumulative
gas demand up to 2025 will reach 27.4 TCF and 21.5
TCF in the lowest demand scenario.
Java's own gas reserves (8-12 TCF) are far from
sufficient to meet the long-term demand, but have been
adequate to develop the market, leaving however an
increasing volume of suppressed demand. In order to
meet this growing potential market, the gas has to be
imported from other islands, where uncommitted
reserves are available, although not considerable.
As indicated, the gas deficit to be imported in Java is
particularly high and has to be compared with surplus
gas made available in other source regions. The main
sources of supply considered within Indonesia are
Sumatra, East Kalimantan, Papua, and Central Sulawesi.

Figure 1. Gas demand forecast in Java and Indonesia (MMCFD)

Gas demand forecast - JAVA- MMCFD
LOW Gas scenario

Gas demand forecast - JAVA- MMCFD
HIGH Gas scenario

6 500

6 500

5 500

5 500

4 500

4 500

3 500

3 500




2 500

2 500

Large Industry

Large Industry
1 500

Power plants

1 500

Power plants New
Power plants










Power plants













Figure 2. Gas demand forecast in Java (MMCFD)

Hanan et al - 2








ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

It is noted that South and Central Sumatra reserve base
has been recently increased, leaving a potential for
rising export capacity. The Government (PT PGN) has
started recently to invest in a natural gas transmission
system from Sumatra, involving two offshore pipelines
able to deliver 920 MMCFD to Jakarta area starting in
2007. The Sumatra I and Sumatra II gas pipelines will
relief total Java gas demand by up to 6 TCF over the
period 2007-2025.
East Kalimantan reserves are quite large with a total of
47 TCF (unrisked), involving 25 TCF of proved
reserves. However part of this gas will be committed to
LNG exports and current production difficulties in
major fields cast a doubt on the possibility of increasing
current production level after 2010. East Kalimantan is
however the major potential supplier for Java gas
market, either by pipeline or LNG.
Papua would be a source to supply gas to Java in LNG
form, as far as the two trains LNG project in Tangguh
(7.2 million tons) would leave some gas available from
the 14.5 TCF of proved reserves. Delivered cost to Java
would however be higher than from Kalimantan.
The next sources of domestic gas available for Java is
Central Sulawesi, where total gas reserves amount to 4
TCF but have been reviewed.
Natural gas can be transported from these regions in
Indonesia either by pipeline (for East Kalimantan gas
only), either as LNG through an existing Badak or new
LNG chain (Tangguh, Donggi). In any case, the LNG
solution will compel the construction of LNG receiving
terminals on the island of Java.

4. Pipeline or LNG?
The “Pipeline or LNG” rule of thumb suggest that, for a
green field gas transportation project shorter than 2,500
km, using pipeline would be the best option. However,
one has to take into account that Badak Liquefaction
Plant (22.4 MMTPA capacity) has already been there,
by comparing pipeline option to the LNG chain.
Our analysis confirms that even with a marginal
liquefaction cost (US$ 0.28//MMBTU) LNG chain cost
is higher than pipeline chain cost. Therefore, the option
for transporting natural gas from East Kalimantan to
Central Java using pipeline was considered as high
priority. The East Kalimantan to Java pipeline involves
619 km onshore from Bontang to Banjarmasin/Takisung
and only 600 km offshore from Banjarmasin to
Semarang/Tambak Lorok. The LNG receiving terminal
would receive gas from not only Bontang, but also
Tangguh and Donggi.
Unit cost difference is however small with 0.72
US$/MMBtu for the pipeline option and 0.77
US$/MMBtu for the LNG option. Liquefaction and
shipping costs (0.53 US$/MMBTU) account for 68% of
total LNG option cost, but the LNG option is less
capital intensive than the pipeline option even if LNG
tankers are taken as investment.
Main characteristics and key economic parameters of
the East Kalimantan – Central Java gas pipeline and the
LNG terminals using in the analysis are summarized in
the following tables.

Table 1. Main Economic Assumptions on Pipeline and LNG Terminal


Kalimantan Gas
419 bcf/y

4 Mt/y (206 bcf/y)
8 Mt/y (412 bcf/y)


1590 million US$

456 million US$ (1st train)

Additional cost for 2nd train is 65
million US$

Operating Cost

31.8 million US$/yr

9.4 million US$

15.4 million US$ for 8 MT/y
0.81 $/MMBtu for Bontang
0.86 $/MMBtu Tangguh
1.03 $/MMBtu for Donggi

Liquefaction cost

0.81 to 1.03 US$/MMBtu


0.20 to 0.40 US$/MMBtu

Hanan et al - 3


Depending on location of LNG
liquefaction terminal and LNG
receiving terminal

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Table 2. Comparison between Pipeline and LNG Chain Options

Capital Cost
LNG Terminal
Annual Costs
Pipeline Operation
LNG Liquefaction
LNG Shipping
Regasification and Terminal Operation
Unit Costs at 10% discount rate
Pipeline CAPEX
Pipeline OPEX
LNG Terminal CAPEX
Liquefaction cost
Shipping cost
LNG Terminal Operation

Million US$

Million US$/y






LNG chain


Compared to LNG chain, the pipeline option has
addition advantages, i.e.:

Pipeline chain

Possible development of gas market outlets along
Banjarmasin, etc.)
Possible contribution to construction of a regional
natural gas pipeline grid (ASEAN Pipeline). The
ASEAN Pipeline concept and some other proposals
has for a quite along put the East Kalimantan-Java
pipeline as a part of the ASEAN grid to be
Faster to implement in terms of contractual
arrangements than the LNG option.
Creating jobs in Kalimantan regions, esp. during
construction period.
Promoting domestic capacity/capability in pipe
manufacturing, etc.

This complex problem has been addressed using a
dedicated simulation model able to compare different
scenarios of time-staged gas transport options and to
evaluate their economic cost over a 20 year period
In order to formulate an optimum gas transportation
plan, the sequencing of three different gas transportation
options for bringing gas to Java from neighboring
islands have been studied and economically compared
based on the net present value of total cost of each
option (capital plus operating and running costs).
The three options were:

5. The Least Cost Option to Meet Java
Gas Market
Building a transmission pipeline from East Kalimantan
to Central Java, however, is not the only economic
solution to meet Java’s fast growing demand for gas.
Under a long term perspective until 2025, it is clear that
several transport infrastructure projects will have to be
implemented. A question raised is the time sequence of
projects able to meet Java gas demand with due
consideration of regional imbalances: West Java
currently draining the largest share of gas consumption
and potential demand, but East Java progressively
increasing its market share.

Option 1: LNG Terminal in East Java, East
Kalimantan pipeline, LNG Terminal in West Java.
Option 2: East Kalimantan pipeline, LNG
Terminal in West Java, LNG Terminal in East Java.
Option 3: LNG Terminal in East Java, LNG
Terminal in West Java, East Kalimantan pipeline.

The following assumptions have been considered:



Hanan et al - 4

The Sumatra to Java pipeline system would start
operation in 2007 with a maximum capacity of 920
Two inland pipelines will be required in Java to
direct gas to West and East Java: a 32" Central
Java–West Java branch and a 30" Central Java-East
Java branch.
The East Kalimantan to Java pipeline would
involve a 48" onshore branch to Banjarmasin and a
42" offshore branch to Semarang with a maximum
capacity of 1,150 MMCFD.

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Capital investment is estimated as follows:

East Kalimantan to Java pipeline: US$ 1,590
Java inland pipelines: US$ 540 Million
One LNG Terminal of 8 Million tons: US$ 521
Total capital investment for a full sequence: US$
3,172 Million (including two LNG Terminals)

Based on assumptions for pipeline and compression
station investment costs, operating costs, LNG
liquefaction and shipping costs and the implementation
schedule of the different options as presented above, it
is possible to calculate an equivalent supply cost in
order to rank the different solutions to supply natural
gas to Java.
To conclude, our study has identified that Option 2 is
the lowest cost solution to meet Java’s gas supply needs,
with gas delivered by pipeline from East Kalimantan to
Central Java as the first priority project.

operated with a marginal cost of US$ 0.28
US$/MMBTU to deliver gas to a Terminal in Java,
this LNG option and the Pipeline option would
provide approximately the same economic cost.
Finally, it needs to reemphasize that the removal of
subsidies on oil based fuels is essential as it would make
Indonesian gas sector more competitive, encourage gas
exploration and development. An improvement in gas
pricing policy toward a market based pricing system
would automatically lead producers to fulfill both local
and export demand.

7. References
[1] Beicip-Franlab, “Gas Transportation Project
Through Public Private Partnership”, Final Report,
[2] Nugroho, H., “East Kalimantan – Java Gas
Transmission Pipelines as an Alternative to Supply
Java’s Energy Demand” (in Indonesian),
Planning) X/02, March, 2006.

6. Critical Issues and Conclusions
The option of "East Kalimantan pipeline project first"
has been found as the least cost solution, and shows
some attractive characteristics in terms of regional
coordination within Indonesia and also as an important
piece of a future ASEAN gas grid. It has however some

A major upfront capital investment is required with
the pipeline project, while in the other side, capital
investment phasing is technically possible with a
progressive installation of LNG Terminals.


Securing gas supply to the pipeline will be a central
issue. Although East Kalimantan gas reserves are
sufficient to support 15-20 years of gas delivery to
Java, recent gas production performance in this
region may affect the renewal of all LNG contracts
and lead to operate Badak LNG plant at a lower
capacity factor. Expectedly, this question could find
an answer in the long term, compensating reduced
gas production with the huge potential of coal bed
methane (CBM) resources identified in Kalimantan,
particularly the Barito basin with reserves of about
100 TCF. Furthermore, using a dynamic approach
for the size of the reserve base, considering that the
market actually drives the reserve, East Kalimantan
production capability after 2010 could be higher
than expected.


In the case of persistent limitation of East
Kalimantan gas production (maximum of 3,500
MMCFD), the Pipeline to Java option would lead to
leave idle a liquefaction capacity of about 8 million
Tons (3 LNG trains). If these LNG trains can be

8. Biography
Hanan Nugroho is Senior Energy
Planner/Economist with Indonesia’s
National Development Planning Agency
(BAPPENAS), who lead several studies
particularly on energy infrastructure
development. Dr. Nugroho is a graduate of ITB
(Institut Teknologi Bandung) and pursued graduates
studies in energy economics at Michigan Tech, Institut
Francais du Petrole, Colorado School of Mines and
Kyoto Daigaku. Hanan Nugroho is one of Oil & Gas
Economic moderators for Komunitas Migas Indonesia
Eddy Satriya is a Deputy Assistant for Infrastructure &
Regional Development of the Coordinating Minister for
Economic, Republic of Indonesia. He obtained Master
of Arts in Economics from University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT, USA in 1993. His Bachelor degree in
Telecommunication was obtained from Bandung
Institute of Technology in 1989.
Nafrizal Sikumbang was Director of Gas
of the Regulatory Body for Oil & Gas
Previously he served as Head of OPEC
Secretariat Office in Vienna. Dr. Sikumbang is a
geologist (Ph.D) by training.
All of the authors were members of Working Group on
East Kalimantan – Java Gas Transmission Development
of the Government of Indonesia.

Hanan et al - 5

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Pressure Reducer versus Back-Pressure Regulator
Arief Rahman Thanura1, Nugroho Wibisono2

VICO Indonesia. Plaza Kuningan, South Tower, Jl. HR Rasuna Said Kav. C 11-14, PO BOX 2828, Jakarta 12940.
ConocoPhillips Inc., Indonesia. Menara Mulia Tower Jl Jend. Gatot Subroto Kav. 9 – 11, Jakarta 12930

Abstrak – Paper ini membahas mengenai perbedaan
antara pressure reducer dan back-pressure regulator.
Penerapan pressure reducer dan back pressure
regulator akan diberikan secara singkat.

1. Pendahuluan

Tekanan adalah variabel proses yang sering kita jumpai
untuk dimonitor dan dikendalikan di dalam industri
minyak dan gas. Pengendalian tekanan dari suatu fluida
proses pada beberapa tempat malah menjadi fokus
utama dan dengan berbagai tujuan tentunya.
Dalam suatu lup pengendalian, juga lup pengendalian
tekanan, selalu terdiri dari 3 elemen dasar:
• Elemen pengukuran. Besaran variabel proses
diukur dan ditransmisikan ke elemen pengontrol
• Elemen Pengontrol. Perbedaan antara variabel
proses yang terukur (Process Variable/PV) dan
variabel proses yang diinginkan (Setpoint/SP)
(umumnya kontrol PID). Hasilnya akan diteruskan
berupa perintah aksi terhadap elemen pengendali
• Elemen pengendali akhir. Perintah aksi dari elemen
pengontrol akan dilakukan oleh elemen pengendali
akhir. Control valve adalah elemen pengendali
akhir yang paling banyak digunakan.
Meskipun terdapat tiga elemen dasar dalam melakukan
pengendalian proses, belum tentu secara fisik juga
terdapat tiga perangkat.

Untuk kasus tekanan tinggi dan laju alir yang
tinggi, biasanya implementasi dari pengontrolnya
terdiri dari (1) elemen pengukuran adalah pressure
transmitter (PT), (2) elemen pengontrol adalah
pressure controller (PC), (3) dan untuk elemen
pengendali akhir adalah pressure control valve
(PCV atau PV).
Untuk kasus tekanan rendah dan laju alir rendah,
impelementasi pengontrolnya terintegrasi dalam
satu perangkat yang biasa disebut pressure

2. Perbedaan Pressure Reducer dan
Back-Pressure Regulator
Secara umum, konfigurasi suatu lup tunggal kontrol
tekanan diberikan di Gambar 1. Gambar 1 menunjukkan
konfigurasi pengendali tekanan berupa pressure reducer
dan backpressure regulator. Sepintas keduanya mirip,
sama-sama lup kontrol tekanan. Apakah keduanya
mempunyai perbedaan? Ya, gambar sebelah kiri
menunjukkan pemasangan pressure transmitter di
sebelah hilir dari control valve, sedangkan gambar
sebelah kanan menunjukkan pemasangan pressure
transmitter di sebelah hulu dari control valve.
Apakah penempatan pressure transmitter tersebut
mempunyai maksud yang berbeda? Tentu saja, karena
menunjukkan bagian mana yang ingin dikendalikan
tekanannya seperti Gambar 2.

Gambar 1. Pressure Reducer dan Backpressure Regulator

Thanura & Wibisono - 1

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Secara logika, jika kita ingin mengendalikan tekanan
dibagian hilir, tentunya harus ada yang mengatakan
(baca: mengukur) bahwa tekanan dihilir benar-benar
berubah – tentunya dengan meletakkan pressure
transmitter dibagian hilir – setelah adanya aksi kontrol
dari control valve, inilah yang dinamakan pressure
reducer. Demikian juga halnya untuk kasus
backpressure regulator, jika kita hendak mengendalikan
tekanan dibagian hulu tentunya harus ada yang
mengatakan (baca: mengukur) bahwa tekanan di hulu
benar-benar berubah, yaitu dengan cara meletakkan
pressure transmitter dibagian hulu setelah adanya aksi
kontrol dari control valve.
Pressure reducer bekerja dengan prinsip mengatur dan
mereduksi pressure yang lebih tinggi dari bagian hulu
supaya tekanan di hilir lebih rendah dan stabil.
Sedangkan backpressure regulator bekerja dengan
prinsip memonitor tekanan dibagian hulu dan
melakukan aksi pada control valve untuk menstabilkan
tekanan pada bagian hulu.
Apakah keduanya merupakan kontrol umpan balik?
Mari kita sedikit menyegarkan ingatan mengenai

pengertian pengendali umpan balik (feedback control)
itu sendiri (Gambar 3).
Hasil pengukuran dari blok Sensor/Transmitter akan
dibandingkan dengan Set Point. Galat atau error adalah
perbedaan antara variabel proses yang diinginkan (set
point) dengan variabel proses yang terjadi. Galat
tersebut kemudian akan dikalkulasi oleh blok Control
Law dan hasilnya akan dimanifestasikan dengan
perintah terhadap blok Final Control Element (contoh:
control valve, elemen pemanas, dll). Perubahan Final
Control Element ini akan mengubah blok Process dan
Sensor/Transmitter, begitu seterusnya sampai galat
menjadi sekecil mungkin. Jika alur pengendaliannya
seperti itu, maka kurang lebih pengendalinya adalah
pengendali umpan balik.
Kita perhatikan, bahwa baik pressure reducer maupun
backpressure regulator mempunyai alur pengontrolan
seperti dijelaskan diatas sehingga baik pressure reducer
maupun backpressure regulator sama-sama terkategori
sebagai pengontrolan umpan balik (feedback control).

Gambar 2. Tekanan yang ingin dikendalikan

Gambar 3. Blok diagram kontrol umpan balik (feedback control)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

3. Penerapan Pressure Reducer
Berikut adalah contoh-contoh aplikasi pressure reducer
pada suatu pabrik.

3.1 Pengendali Tekanan Distribusi
Suatu hal yang lumrah dalam suatu perjanjian jual beli
gas, pihak pembeli gas menginginkan tekanan gas yang
masuk kedalam jaringan pipa gasnya dalam suatu
besaran/angka yang relatif konstan. Pada jaringan gas
suplai (Main Gas Line), tekanan gas sangat tinggi untuk
mengatasi penurunan tekanan yang cukup besar karena
biasanya gas tersebut menempuh perjalanan yang cukup
panjang dari sumber gas sampai dengan kepada pihak
pembeli gas. Dalam aplikasi ini, tekanan yang
diinginkan konstan adalah tekanan gas pada arah hilir
dari control valve, sehingga kita menerapkan pressure
reducer dalam hal ini.

3.2 Penjaga




Aplikasi pada kompresor gas, terutama pada kompresor
bolak-balik (reciprocating compressor) memerlukan
umpan gas yang relatif stabil untuk menghindari variasi
kecepatan yang terlalu besar di kompresor. Untuk

menjaga kestabilan tekanan umpan gas, maka
dipasanglah recycle line dari discharge kompresor gas
yang berfungsi untuk menambah umpan gas pada
kompresor apabila tekanan gas umpan yang berasal dari
gas separator mengalami penurunan karena suatu sebab.
Ketika umpan gas berada pada tekanan yang normal,
maka tambahan gas dari recycle line tidak diperlukan
sehingga control valve diharapkan menutup.
Tekanan gas dari compressor discharge biasanya cukup
tinggi dibandingkan tekanan gas dari gas separator, oleh
sebab tambahan umpan yang berasal compressor
discharge harus dijaga tekanannya supaya tidak
berlebih. Oleh sebab itu pressure reducer diterapkan; di
mana pressure transmitter pada dasarnya diletakkan
pada sisi hilir dari control valve seperti yang
ditunjukkan pada Gambar 7.

3.3 Penjaga Tekanan Pada Aplikasi Tank
Aplikasi tank blanketing (Gambar 6) digunakan untuk
memproteksi cairan organik yang mudah menguap yang
disimpan didalam tangki dengan cara menciptakan suatu
lapisan gas (gas blanket) yang mana sifat gas tersebut
tidak mudah bereaksi dan bertekanan rendah.

Gambar 4. Penerapan pressure reducer dalam distribusi gas

Gambar 5. Penerapan pressure reducer untuk penambahan umpan gas compressor.

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Aplikasi tank blanketing menggunakan suatu “selimut
gas”, seperti nitrogen, untuk menjaga lingkungan
berfase gas diatas cairan yang disimpan didalam tangki
sehingga lapisan berfase gas membentuk semacam
selimut (gas blanket). Selimut gas yang bertekanan
rendah ini akan mengisi ruang yang kosong yang
terdapat diatas permukaan cairan tersebut. Aplikasi ini
untuk memproteksi tangki yang berisikan cairan organik
yang mudah menguap.
Tekanan yang positif ini akan mencegah udara luar, uap
air dan kontaminan lainnya memasuki tangki
penyimpan. Keuntungan lainnya adalah dengan adanya
tekanan positif ini akan ikut membantu menciptakan
tekanan head diatas cairan sehingga mengurangi rugirugi karena penguapan yang mana akan memproteksi
tangki dari korosi.
Dengan tujuan seperti diatas, maka tekanan yang ingin
kita kendalikan adalah tekanan pada tangki, sehingga
penempatan pressure transmitter ada pada sisi hilir dari
control valve.
Jika kita perhatikan konfigurasi kontrol umpan balik
pada gambar diatas (kotak dengan dengan garis putusputus) bahwa penerapannya bisa dalam satu perangkat
saja atau menggunakan pressure regulator, bukan
merupakan integrasi dari pressure transmitter, pressure
controller dan pressure control valve.

4. Penerapan Backpressure Regulator
Berikut adalah contoh-contoh aplikasi backpressure
regulator pada suatu pabrik.

4.1 Pengendali Tekanan
Excess Gas To Flare



Tekanan masukan dari suatu suction scrubber (dan juga
ke compressor) ingin dijaga tidak lebih dari 150 psig
karena jika tekanan berlebih pada daerah scrubber akan
mengakibatkan back pressure pada sumur gas yang
terletak jauh disebelah hulu. Apabila tekanan gas umpan
yang berasal dari gas separator melebihi 150 psig, maka
kelebihan tekanan tersebut akan dilepaskan kesistem
pembuangan yang dalam hal ini menuju flare system.
Karena tekanan yang ingin dijaga adalah diarah hulu
dari control valve tersebut, maka kita menerapkan
backpressure regulator disini seperti pada gambar
dibawah. Pada keadaan operasi normal, katakan 75 psig,
control valve dalam keadaan menutup. Ketika tekanan
gas sudah mencapai 150 psig, control valve akan
membuka dan melepaskan tekanan di arah hulu sampai
mencapai dibawah 150 psig dan control valve akan
kembali menutup.

Gambar 7. Penerapan backpressure regulator pengendali
tekanan pada aplikasi excess gas to flare.

4.2 Pengendali Tekanan Pada Air Supply

Gambar 6. Penerapan pressure reducer untuk
penambahan penjaga tekanan pada aplikasi tank

Pada kondisi normal dimana tekanan udara dari sumber
cukup besar, control valve akan membuka lebar dan
pendistribusian udara terjadi secara merata pada semua
sistem, baik pada priority system (instrument air)
maupun ke non-priority system (plant air). Ketika
tekanan dari sumber suplai menurun dan dibawah dari
setpoint backpressure regulator, maka backpressure
regulator akan menutup aliran udara ke non-priority
system sehingga sisa udara akan mengalir sepenuhnya
ke priority system. Disini boleh dikatakan bahwa

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

backpressure regulator dipergunakan sebagai pemonitor
dari keadaan sumber udara.

Gambar 8. Penerapan backpressure regulator pada
pengendali tekanan air supply system.

5. Biografi
Arief Rahman Thanura sekarang
Construction Department, VICO
Indonesia. Berpengalaman dalam
bidang instrumentasi dan kontrol
sejak tahun 1991 di berbagai proyek
industri minyak dan gas. Thanura
mendapatkan gelar Insinyur (Ir) dari Jurusan Teknik
Fisika, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS)
tahun 1990.
Nugroho Wibisono sekarang bekerja di
Pipeline Control Center, ConocoPhillips
pernah bekerja di proyek-proyek VICO
Indonesia di Kalimantan Timur dalam
bidang instrumentasi tahun 2003.
Wibisono mendapatkan gelar Sarjana
Teknik (ST) dari Departemen Teknik Fisika, Institut
Teknologi Bandung tahun 2003. Wibisono juga aktif
sebagai Moderator KBK Instrumentasi, Komunitas
Migas Indonesia.

Thanura & Wibisono - 5

ISSN: 1829−9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

OPPINET’s Software for Analyzing Gas Behavior
Under Line Packing Conditions
Harry Budiharjo S.1,4, Septoratno Siregar1,2, Leksono Mucharam1,2,
Edy Soewono3,Darmadi1, Ivanky Saputra1, W.T. Udayana5

Research Consortium OPPINET Institut Teknologi Bandung
Department of Petroleum Engineering Institut Teknologi Bandung
Department of Mathematics Institut Teknologi Bandung
Department of Petroleum Engineering UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta
ConocoPhillips Indonesia Inc. Ltd.

Abstract – Line packing is a method used for providing
short-term gas storage in which natural gas is
compressed in transmission pipeline. The objective of
line packing is to provide additional amounts of gas to
meet limited peak demand or to anticipate operational
problems. Line packing technique is done by increasing
inlet gas pressure while outlet gas flow rate is kept as
consumers demand. The increasing of the inlet gas
pressure causes changes of gas and flow properties
along pipeline, included gas pressure, gas flow rate,
gas density, and gas velocity. In this situation, gas flow
in pipeline is unsteady-state (transient), so steady flow
model is not compatible to simulate line packing
In this study, we simulate gas flow behavior in pipe
under line packing conditions using transient flow
model. This model is solved using software developed
by RC-OPPINET (Research Consortium Optimization
on Gas and Oil Transmission and Distribution Pipeline
Network) ITB. The scenario of line packing and line
drafting is simulated simultaneously to show gas flow
behavior in pipe. It is showed that OPPINET’s
software can be used to simulate the problem
accurately. The gas and flow properties along pipeline
can be predicted using this software. Furthermore, gas
inventory in pipeline can be managed effectively to
meet consumer requirement under any real case

1. Introduction
A pipeline, besides can be used to transport natural gas
from production well to consumers can also be used to
store that gas before and during transportation to
consumers. Storing gas in pipe may be performed
because of compressibility of the gas. This technique is
called Line Packing, id est. a method used for providing
short-term gas storage in which natural gas is
compressed in transmission line, providing additional
amounts of gas to meet limited peak demand. Therefore,
by using line packing technique, the sustainability of
gas supply to consumers can be ensured if there is an
increasing of gas demand or operational problem. In this

study, we simulate the packing and the drafting
condition simultaneously, id est. the condition in which
gas is packed into pipeline while the gas consumption in
consumers point is kept as consumers demand. In this
condition, we can not use steady-state flow model. This
thing is happened because the equations, in steady-state
flow model do not have any variable which is respect to
time. For that reason, we use unsteady-state flow model
or transient flow model that is more compatible than
any other model in case of line packing condition.
The transient flow model includes continuity and
momentum equations, together with equation of state of
real gas which uses some assumptions in order to
simplify problem. Isothermal flow and the constant
friction factor of steady-state condition have become
our assumptions combined with horizontal and
unbending pipe. Those equations, especially continuity
and momentum equations are nonlinear conservative
hyperbolic partial differential equations, and if we
combined both of them together with equation of state
of real gas, it will be a nonlinear hyperbolic partial
differential system. This equation is hard to solve
analytically because of the property of that system such
as nonlinear and hyperbolic. As an alternative, we could
use a numerical method to determine its solution. A
numerical code i.e. Godunov is used in this study to
compute the distributions of the pressure, gas rate and
any other gas and flow properties. We also present some
numerical examples which are ones of field cases.
The objective of this study is to determine the
distributions of gas and flow properties under the
scenario of line packing and line drafting
simultaneously. After those kinds of objectives, we can
manage the gas inventory in the pipeline to meet the
consumer requirements under any real case conditions.

2. Transient Flow Model
The mathematical descriptions of the transient flow
model in the gas pipeline that we used are derived from
continuity and momentum equations together with an
equation of state. The one dimension form of the

Budiharjo et al - 1

ISSN: 1829−9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

continuity equation for natural gas flow in horizontal
pipeline is[11],
∂ρ ∂ (ρv )


The one dimension form of the momentum equation for
natural gas flow in horizontal pipeline is[11],

( )

∂p fρv v
∂(ρv ) ∂ ρv 2

∂x 2 g c D


An equation of state of real gas that is used here is the
compressibility equation of state, as follow[4],



For isothermal flow conditions in the pipeline, the sound
speed equation is given by[11],




Setting m = ρv and substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (1) and
(2) we get the set of first order, nonlinear hyperbolic
partial differential equations, as follow[11],
p = c2ρ


∂ρ ∂m
∂t ∂x


∂m ∂(m 2 / ρ ) ∂(c 2 ρ ) f g (m / ρ )


where x denotes position in a pipe, t denotes time, ρ(x,t)
denotes the density of gas at position x and time t, and
m(x,t) denotes the gas mass flux at position x and time t.
While fg denotes the steady-state friction factor of pipe,
and can be calculated with Chen’s equation[6].
Compressibility factor of the gas, z using an average
value and it is calculated with Dranchuk, Purvis, and
Robinson [4].
In the different form, the set of first order, nonlinear
hyperbolic partial differential equations can be stated in
the matrix form as follow [12],

( ) ( )

r r
r r
∂U ∂F U



r ⎛ ρ ⎞ r v ⎛⎜ 2 m

U = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ , F (U ) = ⎜ m
2 ⎟,

⎝ ⎠

⎝ ρ

r r ⎜ f mm
and r U = ⎜
⎜ − 2 Dρ

( )


In order to keep consistency, avoid unit conversion, and
simplify numerical process, we normalize every
measurement in the governing equation above (9). The
position (x) is normalized with the respect to the
diameter of the pipe (D) while the velocity of the gas
flow is normalized with the respect to the sound speed
(c). The time variable is normalized with respect to D/c
while the density of the gas is normalized with respect
to the density of the gas at the inlet ( ρ 0 ). From the
definition of the normalization process above, we will
get the new governing equation, which all variables
included in it are dimensionless.
⎛ m ⎞

⎛ ρ ⎞ ∂⎜ m 2

⎟ ⎛ 0 ⎞
∂⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎜ ρ

⎝ m⎠

⎠ ⎜ − fm m ⎟

⎜ 2ρ ⎟


3. Numerical Method

Initial Condition

We can divide the initial condition for the problem in
Eq. (10) into two scenarios. The first scenario happens if
at the beginning there was no flow in a pipe. It means
that the gas rate at that time has no value, in other word
is zero. And because the rate of the gas is zero, the
distribution of the pressure of the gas is uniform.
Therefore, we have had all the initial values of this
problem. The second scenario that would happen is a
steady-state flow. We could derive the equation for
steady-state flow because of the definition of the steadystate flow. The definition of it is the fact that there is no
variation of the gas property with respect to time, or we
can write the followings,

= 0 and
This implies the equation (10) will become,
⎛ m ⎞
⎜ 2

∂⎜ m
⎟ ⎛ 0 ⎞
⎜ ρ

⎠ = ⎜ − fm m ⎟

⎜ 2ρ ⎟

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Because the above equation is an ordinary partial
different equation, we can easily find the general
solution of that problem, as a following [10],

ln ρ −
(ρ − 1) = L
f g m02


where, m0 = ρ 0 c .



ρ Ln +1 = ρ Ln +



Boundary Condition

m 0n +1


m 0n

fm 0n m 0n
2 ρ 0n

( )

( )

n 2
⎞ ⎛ n 2
Δt ⎢⎛⎜ m1
n ⎟ ⎜ m0
n ⎟⎥


⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ρ n
Δx ⎢⎜⎜ ρ 1n
⎠ ⎝ 0


ρ 0n+1 = ρ 0n +


Δt n
m0 − m1n



The same as case one where the gas density or
the pressure being known as a function of time,
but it has different location, which is at the outlet.
We can write the finite difference as following:

m Ln +1 = m Ln −

fm Ln m Ln
2 ρ njn

( )




⎞ ⎛ n 2
Δt ⎢⎛⎜ m Ln
n ⎟ ⎜ m L −1

L⎟ ⎜
nj −1 ⎟
Δx ⎢⎜⎜ ρ Ln
⎟ ⎜ ρ Ln−1
⎠ ⎝





) ( )

r r
1 r
Δt r n
U n +11 = U in+1 + U in −
Fi +1 − Fi n + r U in Δt

Δt ⎛⎜ n +1
U in +1 = U in −
F 1 − F n +11 ⎟ + r U in Δt
i− ⎟
Δx ⎜⎝ i + 2
2 ⎠

( )


4. Calculation of Gas Volume
To calculate the gas volume that is stored in the
pipeline, we use the average pressure method. There are
two steps to calculate the gas volume, which are [7],

If the gas rate or the gas mass flux at the inlet
being known as a function of time or remaining
constant, then the finite difference equation for the
gas density in the beginning of the pipe is:

Godunov’s Scheme

After we have already the initial and the boundary value
of this problem, we can easily find all the solutions at
every position and every time. We use Godunov’s
scheme to simulate the problem because this scheme is
an explicit scheme which is suitable for nonhomogenous hyperbolic systems. The scheme is written
as following [11],




Δt n
m L −1 − m Ln

The superscript and subscript of all variables above
denote the time level and the position.

The boundary condition of the transient flow model is
derived from the observation in practice. As a
consequence, we can model the physical condition of
the boundary of the pipe into a numerical code that we
can use in the numerical process. We know that for
some condition we can control the rate or the pressure at
both the inlet and the outlet. There are many
combinations we can make, but all of the boundary
conditions we choose depend on the situation at the case
which happens [12],
If the gas density or gas pressure at the inlet
remains constant or the function of time, then we
can write the finite difference equation for the
mass flux following:


If the gas rate at the outlet remains constant or a
function of time or mass flux of the gas, then the
finite difference for the density in the outlet is:

⎛ PP
2 ⎛⎜
P1 + P2 − ⎜⎜ 1 2

⎝ P1 + P2

⎟⎟ ⎟ and,


V = 0.00193D 2 LP


where, P1 and P2 are the pressure at both ends of the
pipe, D is inside diameter of the pipe in inches, L
denotes a length of the pipe in feet and V is the gas
volume that is stored in the pipe.

5. Case Study
5.1 Hypothetical Case
In this case, we simulate the scenario of line packing
and line drafting simultaneously using hypothetical field
example. The example provides good understanding of
gas inventory in the natural gas transmission pipelines.
The system is a single, horizontal pipeline with length of
471 km and inside diameter of 28 in., and absolute
roughness of 0.0243 in. Initially, there is steady-state
flow of gas in the pipeline with flow rate of 320
MMscf/D. The gas pressure at the inlet of pipe is 1500
psia. The gas has specific gravity (SG) of 0.64. At t > 0,

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the inlet pressure is increased abruptly up to 3000 psia
(Maximum Allowable Working Pressure) and kept
constant at this value while the outlet gas rate is kept
constant at 320 MMscf/D level. This boundary
condition at the inlet and the outlet of pipe is showed in
Figure 1. When the outlet pressure reaches to 2800 psia,
the upstream valve is closed and the simulations are
finished. The results of the simulation are showed in
Figure 2 to Figure 6.

Figure 3. Gas Rate Performance

Figure 1. Boundary Condition at Inlet and Outlet of Pipe

Figure 2. Gas Pressure Performance
Figure 2 shows the gas pressure performance at three
points of inlet, midpoint, and outlet of the pipeline. At
inlet of the pipeline, the gas pressure is increased
abruptly up to 3000 psia and then it is kept constant at
this value during the simulation. As a result, the gas
pressure at midpoint and at outlet will also increase. At
midpoint, gas pressure begin to increase at about 1 hour
later, while at outlet, gas pressure begin to increase after
3 hours.

Figure 3 shows the gas rate performance at three points
of inlet, midpoint, and outlet of the pipeline. At the
beginning of simulation, the gas rate at inlet jumps to
about 4200 MMscf/D, then decrease abruptly at about 3
hours, and then decrease monotonically with time to
initial value of 320 MMscf/D. It happens because, at the
beginning of simulation the pressure drop is very large,
that is the pressure at inlet of pipe has been reached
3000 psia while at midpoint still bellow 1500 psia. In
the next period of time, the pressure at midpoint
increase large enough so that the pressure drop
decreases, so does the gas rate. At the remaining time,
the pressure drop decrease smoothly until approximately
initial pressure drop, so does the gas rate. It is noticeable
that, at about t = 60 hours the pipeline is already packed
to a new equilibrium with steady-state flow of 320
MMscf/D throughout pipeline.
At midpoint, the gas rate is 320 MMscf/D at about 1
hour because during this time pressure drop between
midpoint and outlet as same as initial pressure drop, and
then it begins to increase until reach to a peak value at
about t = 10 hours. It happens because at that time the
pressure drop is the largest one. After that the midpoint
gas rate decreases monotonically and reaches to 320
MMscf/D at about t = 60 hours because the pressure
drop between midpoint and outlet also decreases. The
outlet gas rate is kept constant at 320 MMscf/D level.

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At midpoint, the gas velocity curve is approximately the
gas flow rate trend. The gas velocity at outlet decreases
gradually and monotonically with time. This is because
the gas flow rate at outlet maintains a constant value of
320 MMscf/D, while the pressure increase gradually and
monotonically with time (see Figure 2), so does the gas

Figure 4. Gas Density Performance
Figure 4 shows the gas density performance at three
points of inlet, midpoint, and outlet of the pipeline. It is
showed that the gas density trend is identical with the
gas pressure trend. The gas density at inlet of the
pipeline initially is 5.73 lbm/cuft. Because of pressure
increasing, the gas density is also increasing abruptly up
to 11.4 lbm/cuft, and then constant at this value during
the simulation. The gas density at midpoint and at outlet
will also increase. At midpoint, the gas density begin to
increase at about 1 hour later, while at the outlet, gas
density begin to increase after 3 hours as well as gas
pressure trends.

Figure 5. Gas Velocity Performance
Figure 5 shows the gas velocity performance at three
points of inlet, midpoint, and outlet of the pipeline. At
the beginning of simulation, the gas velocity at inlet
jumps to a maximum value of about 54 ft/s, then
decrease abruptly at about 3 hours, and then decrease
monotonically with time to 4 ft/s. This is because the
gas flow rate at inlet shows the same trend (see Figure
3), while the pressure at inlet is kept constant during the
simulation, so does the gas density.

Figure 6. Gas Volume Performance
Figure 6 shows the performance of the gas volume.
Initially, the gas volume is about 560 MMscf. At
beginning of simulation, this gas volume increases
abruptly because of the pressure drop, and then the gas
volume increases tightly because of the pressure drop at
that range of time. After that, it will increase gradually
with time until the end of the simulation. The gas
volume which is stored in the pipeline at the end of
simulation is 1280 MMscf.
Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the distribution of gas
pressure and gas flow rate along pipeline at some certain
times. At t = 5 hours, the gas has just arrive at outlet of
pipe with pressure is 1000 psia while the inlet pressure
has reached 3000 psia. So we have a very large pressure
drop between inlet and outlet and a smaller pressure
drop between midpoint and outlet. Those things give a
large value of inlet gas flow rate and a smaller value of
midpoint gas flow rate as we see at Figure 8. At t = 30
hours, we can see that the pressure drop between inlet
and outlet is not so large as before, this results the inlet
gas flow rate in Figure 8 is smaller. The same thing
happens on the midpoint gas flow rate. The last certain
time we concern, t = 60 hours is the end of the
simulation. We see that there is a constant gas flow rate
of 320 MMscf/D as we can see at Figure 8.

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of 3.9 lbm/cuft, see Figure 4), while the inlet gas density
has reached 11.4 lbm/cuft. At t = 30 hours, we can see
that the gradient gas density is smaller. The last certain
time we concern, t = 60 hours is the end of the
simulation. We see that there is a linear of gradient gas
density with a lowest slope than before.

Figure 7. Gas Pressure Distribution

Figure 10. Gas Velocity Distribution
Figure 10 shows the gas velocity distribution along
pipeline at three time steps of 5, 30, and 60 hours. It is
showed that gas velocity distribution changes
dynamically any time. At t = 5 hours, the gas velocity
distribution is very disperse along pipeline. This is
because at beginning of line packing process, gas
packed into pipeline still few less, so the gas in pipeline
can move dynamically. At t = 30 hours, the gas velocity
distribution is smoothly along pipeline. This is because
at this time, the gas packed into pipeline is more than
before, so gas in pipeline more tightly. At t = 60 hours,
the gas velocity distribution is even because this time is
end of line packing process.

Figure 8. Gas Rate Distribution

5.2 Validation With Field Data
This OPPINET’s software has been validated with field
data from one of Indonesia’s oil and gas field in which
have packing case. The pipeline has length of 471 km
and inside diameter of 28 in., Specific Gravity 0.64 and
absolute roughness of 0.0007 in. The results are
showed in Figure 11 and Figure 12.

Figure 9. Gas Density Distribution
Figure 9 shows the gas density distribution along
pipeline at three time steps of 5, 30, and 60 hours. It is
showed that the gas density distributions are similar
with the gas pressure distributions (see Figure 7). At t =
5 hours, the gas has just arrive at outlet of pipe with
density is about 4 lbm/cuft (increased from initial value

Figure 11 shows comparison between the gas pressure
performances at outlet of the pipe predicted by
OPPINET’s software (solid line) and the measured data
(triangle marker). It is showed that the predicted results
using OPPINET’s software are in fairly good match
with the measured data.
Figure 12 shows comparison between the gas rate
performances at inlet of the pipe predicted by
OPPINET’s software (solid line) and the measured data
(triangle marker). Again, the predicted results using

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OPPINET’s software are very good compared with the
measured field data.


Gas Rate (MMscf/D)


Gas Pressure (psia)






Field Data


Field Data














Time (hours)







Figure 12 : Gas Rate Performance at Inlet of Pipe


Time (hours)

We also simulated four different cases with four
different pipes to show line packing and line drafting
parameters, i.e. packing time, volume stored in pipe
after line packing process, drafting time, and remaining
volume after line drafting process. The results of this
simulation have published at Simposium Nasional dan
Kongres VIII IATMI 2004, Jakarta, 29 November – 1
December 2004[9] (see Table 1)

Figure 11. Gas Pressure Performance at Outlet of Pipe

Table 1. Simulation Result of Line Packing and Line Drafting Process





Inside diameter (in.)
Length of pipe (km)
MAWP (psia)
Temperature (°F)
Specific Gravity (SG)
Initial condition :
- Initial pressure (psia)
- Initial flow rate (MMscf/D)
Boundary condition :
- Inlet pressure (psia)
- Outlet flow rate (MMscf/D)
Outlet pressure (psia)
Required time to packing
Gas volume (MMscf)
Initial condition :
- Initial pressure (psia)
- Initial flow rate (MMscf/D)
Boundary condition :
- Inlet flow rate ( MMscf/D )
- Outlet flow rate ( MMscf/D )
Outlet pressure (psia)
Required time to drafting
Remaining gas volume (MMscf)











99,5 minutes

14,5 minutes

5,45 hours

34 hours





16.5 hours

72 minutes

43,4 hours

91 hours

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6. Conclusions
In this study, by using OPPINET’s Software :
We can predict the distribution of gas and flow
properties of natural gas, id est. gas pressure, gas
flow rate, gas density, and gas velocity, in the line
packing and line drafting conditions every time
along pipeline.
We can determine gas inventory in the pipeline
any time.
We can determine required time to pack the
natural gas into pipeline until the pressure
throughout pipeline reach to MAWP.

7. Nomenclature






sound speed, L/T
numerical number, Courant Friedrich Levy
inside diameter, L
gas friction factor
pipe length, L
mass flux, M/L2T
inlet mass flux, M/L2T
gas pressure, M/LT2
time, T
position, L
gas density, M/L3
inlet gas density, M/L3

Conservation Laws, Academic Press, Inc., New
York, 1978.
[6] Sukarno, P., Mucharam, L., Aliran Multifasa dalam
Pipa, Penerbit ITB, Bandung, 2000.
[7] Sulistyarso, H.B., Pemodelan Aliran Gas Transient
Untuk Kondisi Line Packing Pada Jaringan
Transmisi Pipa, Usulan Penelitian Disertasi
Program Doktor, Program Pascasarjana, ITB,
Bandung, 2003.
[8] Sulistyarso, H.B., Mucharam, L., Siregar, S.,
Soewono, E., Darmadi, Saputra, I., Sinatra, C.,
Analisa Perilaku Tekanan dan Laju Alir Gas Pada
Pipa Transmisi Untuk Kasaus Line Packing,
Conference Proceeding, p. 20:1-16, Presented at
Indonesian Pipeline Technology Conference and
Exhibition, Bandung, January 27-28, 2004.
[9] Sulistyarso, H.B., Mucharam, L., Siregar, S.,
Soewono, E., Darmadi, Saputra, I., Sinatra, C.,
Udayana W.T., Modeling Transient Gas Flow
Under Line Packing Conditions, Simposium
Nasional dan Kongres VIII IATMI 2004, Jakarta,
29 November – 1 December 2004.
[10] Zhou, Junyang and Adewumi, M.A., The
Development and Testing of a New Flow Equation,
Proceedings of PSIG Meeting, Houston, TX, 1995.
[11] Zhou, J., Adewumi, M. A., Simulation of
Transients in Natural Gas Pipeline, Paper
SPE#31024, Presented at Offshore Technology
Conference, Held in Houston, May 1-4, 1995.
[12] Zhou, J., Adewumi, M. A., Simulation of Transient
Flow in Natural Gas Pipeline, Paper PSIG #9508,
Published in, 1995.

absolut roughness of pipe, L
Uniform grid size, L
Uniform time step size, T

9. Biography

i-1, i, i +1 level of position (i-1), i, and (i +1) in pipe
inlet, upstream, or initial condition
n, n+1 level of time at n, n+1

8. References
[1] Hoffman, Joe. D., Numerical Methods For
Engineers and Scientists, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,1993.
[2] Ikoku, Chi. U., Natural Gas Production
Engineering, John Willey & Sons Inc., Canada,
[3] LeVeque, Randall. J, Numerical Methods For
Conservation Laws, Birkhäuser, 1992.
[4] McCain, William D., Jr., The Properties of
Petroleum Fluids, Second Edition, PennWell
Publishing Company, Tulso, Oklahoma, 1990.
[5] Sod, G. A., A Survey of Several Finite Difference
Methods for System of Nonlinear Hyperbolic

Harry Budiharjo Sulistyarso is a
lecturer at the Department of Petroleum
Yogyakarta. At the moment, he is
researcher in RC-OPPINET ITB and
about to complete his doctorate degree
(S3) in Petroleum Engineering ITB. He
obtained Bachelor degree (S1) in Petroleum
Engineering from UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta in 1990,
and Master’s degree (S2) in Petroleum Engineering
from ITB in 1997.
Septoratono Siregar is a lecturer in
Teknologi Bandung. At the moment, he
is chairman of RC-OPPINET. He
obtained S-1 degree in Petroleum
Engineering from Institut Teknologi
Bandung, in 1975, S-2 degree in
Mechanism in Porous Media from Paul Sabatier
University, in 1978, and PhD degree in Physical
Mechanics applied to Enhanced Oil Recovery from
University of Bordeaux I, in 1980.

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Leksono Mucharam is a lecturer in
Teknologi Bandung. At the moment,
he is a researcher of RC-OPPINET. He
obtained S-1 degree in Petroleum
Engineering from Institut Teknologi
Bandung, in 1979, M.Sc degree in
Petroleum Engineering from University of Southern
California Los Angeles, in 1983, and PhD degree in
Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering from The
Pennsylvania State University, in 1989.
Edy Soewono is a lecturer in
Mathematics Department of Institut
Teknologi Bandung. At the moment, he
is researcher of RC-OPPINET. He
obtained S-1 degree in Mathematics
from Institut Teknologi Bandung, in
1979, S-2 degree in Mathematics from
ITB, in 1982, and S-3 degree in Mathematics from Ohio
University, in 1988.
Darmadi is researcher of RCOPPINET ITB. He obtained S-1 degree
in Mechanical Engineering from
Universitas Brawijaya Malang, in 1996,
and S-2 degree in Petroleum
Engineering from Institut Teknologi
Bandung, in 2004.

Contact Addresses:


Research Consortium OPPINET (Optimization in
Pipeline Network) Institut Teknologi Bandung.
Jl. Ganesha, 10 Bandung. Telp/Fax : (022) 2508126


Department of Petroleum Engineering, UPN
“Veteran” Yogyakarta. Jl. Lingkar Utara, Condong
Catur, Yogyakarta 55281. Telpon/Fax : (0274)

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Integrated Water Chemistry Study to Support Oil Field
Development Scenario
Ardian Nengkoda
Shell Petroleum Development Oman, PO Box 81, Muscat 113, Sultanate of Oman

Abstract – Early water injection for X Field offers an
opportunity for high initial oil rates due to lower gas
production in a gas-constrained system. This study
covers “Produced Water Supply” and “Produced Water
Injection”: the chemistry study of fluid characteristics,
scaling prediction, souring, corrosion, solid prediction,
chemical inhibitor selection included chemical
consumption prediction and material selection.
Basically, the possibility to have the water supply in X
Field is conducted following the scenario of two
sources: 1). Aquifer or produced water in X Field or
nearest water supply and 2). Y Field produced water
(after separation from Bulk Separator). After reviewing
the possibility of scaling precipitation, water
compatibility, souring and continuity of supply and risk
of deliverability the best economic decision resulted to
take the water from Y Field and to control the quality of
produced water and to avoid process problems,
consumption of oilfield type of chemicals will require
around 0.092 USD/barrel oil production.

1. Introduction
X Field field is one of a number of fields and
discoveries in the A Giant Field area in Oman, which
has hydrocarbons in the formation. The X Field field
discovered in 1979 is located approximately 45 km
WSW of the Y Field field and 35 km NW of the Z
Field. The field was put on production in 1981 via a 6”
flowline to Y Field.
To date, the field has seen limited production (0.6 MM
m3); among seven drilled wells, five were closed as of
early 2005 due to integrity problems and pipeline
capacity constraints from high GOR, high BSW
production. Incorrect understanding of GOC depth and
hence high GOR production impacted oil rim
production, which peaked in 1984 at 280m3/d.

2. Background and Objective
This study is as a part of water injection review for X
Field development. The work flow and scope of study
are described below (Fig. 1):

Figure 1. Scope of Study
Early water injection offers an opportunity for high
initial oil rates due to lower gas production in a gas
constrained system.
X Field Water Chemistry Study covers “Produced
Water Supply” and “Produced Water Injection”: the
chemistry study of fluid characteristics, scaling
prediction, souring, corrosion, solid prediction,
chemical inhibitor selection included chemical
consumption prediction and material selection. The
possibility to have the water supply in X Field is
conducted following the scenario of two sources:
1). Aquifer or produced water in X Field or nearest
water supply
2). Y Field produced water (after separation from Bulk

3. Data Availability
The water composition data is limited, spot analysis and
spread around the laboratory, water management
sources and data base from the year of 1998 until now.
While the X Field produced water composition
available since year 2003. The softwares to be used for
modelling are ScaleChem, Scalesoft Pitzer and Socrates.
The water analysis follows the oil and gas applicable
standard and practices.

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electric contact with other metal parts in the system
whereby an electric current will remove iron from the
bare tubing parts resulting in pitting corrosion.

4. Water Chemistry
Water is an excellent solvent for many chemical species
including salts. The concentration, at which the salts are
present in the water, varies significantly from place to
place. These salts are dissolved in the water in the form
of ions. The positive charged ions are called “cations”
while the negatively charged ions are called “anions”.
Some examples are:
Cations: Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Fe3+, etc.
Anions: Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, CO32-, PO43The combination of cations with anions results in the
formation of salts. Some salts such as Sodium Chloride
(NaCl) have a high solubility that means that large
quantities can be dissolved in water before saturation is
reached and NaCl precipitation takes place. Other salts
such as Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) have a very low
solubility of a few milligram per litre only.
In an aquifer the salt content of the water is in
equilibrium with the salts present in the reservoir rock at
reservoir pressure and temperature. In a carbonate
reservoir, the Calcium and the Carbonate concentration
in the water phase are at their saturation point.
By changing pressure, temperature, or another variable,
the solubility of a certain salt in the water can be
exceeded resulting in precipitation (often in the form of
salt crystals) of a certain amount of that salt until
saturation is reached for this new situation.

Range of Water Quality Parameters
P a ra m e te rs
D is s o lv e d S o lid s m g /l
T o ta l D is s o lv e d S o lid s
S o d iu m
P o ta s s iu m
C a lc iu m
M a g n e s iu m
B a riu m
S tr o n tiu m
Ir o n
C h lo rid e
S u lp h a te
C a r b o n a te
B ic a r b o n a te
A c e ta te
P ro p io n a te
B u ty ra te
S p e c ific G r a v ity
D is s o lv e d O x y g e n
C a r b o n D io x id e
H y d r o g e n S u lp h id e
T e m p e ra tu re
T o ta l S u s p e n d e d S o lid s

S e a w a te r
3 0 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 0 0
0 ,1

1 7 ,0 0 0 - 2
2 ,4 0 0 -3
1 2 0 -1

1 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
,5 0 0

4 ,0 0 0
,2 0 0

1 ,0 2 0 -1 ,0 3 2
6 -1 1
8 ,0 -8 ,4
0 -3 0
0 ,1 -2 0

F o r m a tio n W a te r
1 0 0 -3 3 6 ,0 0 0
4 0 -1 3 5 ,0 0 0
0 -1 ,0 0 0
0 -5 0 ,0 0 0
0 -5 ,0 0 0
0 -2 ,0 0 0
0 -2 ,0 0 0
0 -1 0 0
6 0 -2 0 0 ,0 0 0
0 -5 0 ,0 0 0
0 -1 ,0 0 0
1 0 0 - 3 ,0 0 0
0 -1 ,5 0 0
0 -3 0 0
0 -5 0

Apart from loss of production and damage to
equipment, in some cases it can also result in an HSE
problem. This is the case if together with for instance
Barium or Strontium scale also minute amounts of
radioactive material are co-precipitated. As result the
radioactive material builds up in the production
facilities and cause an environmental and/or safety

Impact of Scale Crystallisation
• Reservoir
• Reduces Near Wellbore Permeability; Resulting in High Skin and Lower Inflow.

• Wells

Flow Restriction Resulting in Higher Pressure Losses or Lower Throughput.
Loss of Equipment Functionality (Esp. Pumps and SSSV’s).
‘Galvanic Cell’ Corrosion.
Restricted Well Entry.

• Flowlines and Surface Facilities
• Flow Restriction Resulting in Higher Pressures or Lower Throughput.
• Loss of Equipment Functionality (Esp. Pumps and Pressure Relief Valves).
• ‘Galvanic Cell’ Corrosion.

• Sulphate Scales Often Contain ‘NORM’ (Naturally Occurring Radioactive
Materials) - ‘LSA’ (Low Specific Activity) Elements.
• Usually Uranium and Thorium Decay Series Products.

Carbonate scales are the most common scales
encountered in oilfield operations. Calcium is most
often the Cation, but also Barium and Strontium
Carbonates are possible.
The figure below demonstrates the complexity of the
equilibrium of the different ions playing a role. From
the figure, formation of a carbonate scale can only occur
above pH 4, as at this pH the first carbonate ions are
formed. It is also clear that apart from the pH, also the
CO2 concentration plays an important role. The CO2
content in the water is very pressure and temperature

Carbonate Scale
• Carbonate Deposition is Complex and Dependent on the
Equilibrium between Bicarbonate, Carbonate, and CO 2.
Total Carbonate = [CO 2] + [H 2CO 3] + [HCO 3-] + [CO 32-]

1 ,0 0 0 -1 ,2 5 0
0 -2 ,0 0 0
0 -1 ,0 0 0
4 -1 0
2 0 -1 5 0
1 -1 0 0

Concentration Variation of Depressured Sample

CO 2
HCO 3 pH

This precipitation of excess salt from a solution is called
scaling. The importance of this for the oil industry is
that when scaling occurs in the production system, it
may restrict flow through injection and flow lines,
impair the formation around the well bore, etc. Galvanic
Cell corrosion can result from scaling, when for
instance the tubing is covered with scale but at some
places the scale came off. The result is that the bare
parts of the tubing are (via the conductive water) in




Because of the Equilibrium Complexity and the
Loss of Gaseous CO 2, it is Not Recommended
to Use Corrections of Surface Samples to
Downhole Concentrations Without Calibrating
Using an Actual Downhole Pressure Sample.

• Carboxylic Acids May Affect HCO 3- Determination.
• Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) May Be Reactants when Titrating for Bicarbonate .
• Gives a False Value Indicating a Higher than Actual Scaling Potential.

It is very important when taking samples for analysis,
that the exact CO2 content at reservoir conditions is
known as well as the pH. To allow calibration for CO2,

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a downhole sample has to be taken and analysed. These
data are of importance in the prediction of scaling.
Apart from the CO2 content (influenced by pressure and
temperature), an increase in pH will significantly affect
the solubility of calcium carbonate by shifting the
equilibrium to the right hand side. Carbonate scale
deposits are acid soluble and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is
often used for stimulating wells that are scaled up with
calcium carbonate.
Presence of large quantities of NaCl (or other dissolved
solids), however, will increase the solubility of Calcium
Carbonate. This is called the “No common ion effect”
and is the result of increasing the ionic strength of the
water solution.
The Stiff and Davis formula can be used for predicting
the likelihood of carbonate scale deposition. Scaling
may occur when the Scaling Index is positive. The
accuracy of this formula is not very high and its use
should be as a first indication only.

C a rb o n a te S c a le D e p o s itio n
• C a rb o n a te D e p o s itio n is A ffe c te d b y :

P re s s u re D e c re a s e (d e c re a s e s p a rtia l p re s s u re o f C O 2 ).
T e m p e ra tu re In c re a s e (d e c re a s e s s o lu b ility o f C O 2 ).
p H In c re a s e (C a 2 + + C O 2 + 2 O H - = = > C a C O 3 + H 2 O ).
N a C l u p to 2 0 ,0 0 0 p p m In c re a s e s C a rb o n a te S o lu b ility b y ~ 2 .5 tim e s .

Sulphate Scale
• Sulphate Scales are Generally a result of Chemical Interaction
between Formation and Injection Fluids.
Such as: Ca++ + SO4-- => CaSO4
• Solubility Decreases with Decreasing Pressure.
• But not as markedly as for the Carbonate system.

• Solubility is Virtually pH Independent.
• Solubility is Mildly Temperature Dependent
• Gypsum Solubility Increases with Temperature to about 40ºC & then

• Dissolved Na+, up to 160,000 ppm, Increases R-SO4 Solubility.
• Can be Predicted with Skillman’s Method
• Solubility = 1000 [(X2 + 4K)0.5 - X]
• K = Solubility product constant (a function of ionic strength and temperature)
• X = Excess common ion concentration (difference between Ca2+.and SO42-)

Apart from calcium, other sulphate scales include
barium and strontium. These scales have a very low
solubility compared to calcium sulphate. Barium
sulphate solubility at ambient temperatures and pressure
is only +/- 2 mg/l. In comparison the solubility of
calcium sulphate under similar conditions is +/- 2000
mg/l, while the solubility of strontium sulphate is +/250 mg/l.
The solubility of these salts increase with increased
temperatures (up to 100 oC) and pressure. Solubility is
unaffected by changes in pH while increased salt
content again increases solubility.
B a r iu m /S tr o n t iu m S u lp h a te S c a le

• C a n b e P re d ic te d w ith th e S tiff a n d D a v is S ta b ility In d e x
• S c a lin g In d e x (S .I) = p H - (K + p C a + p A lk ).
• pH
• pC a
• p A lk


• M o s t ly C a u s e d b y M ix in g o f In c o m p a t ib le W a t e r s .
• C o m p o u n d s H a v e V e r y L o w S o lu b ilit y ( B a le s s t h a n S r ) .
• S o lu b ilit y In c r e a s e s w it h In c r e a s e d T e m p e r a t u r e .

a c tu a l w a te r p H .
a c o n s ta n t d e p e n d e n t u p o n te m p e ra tu re a n d io n ic s tre n g th .
n e g a tiv e lo g a rith m o f c a lc iu m c o n c e n tra tio n .
n e g a tiv e lo g a rith m o f to ta l a lk a lin ity .

• E v e n s o B a S O 4 s o lu b ilit y a t 9 0 º C is s till o n ly 4 m g /l.

• S o lu b ilit y In c r e a s e s w it h In c r e a s e d S a lt C o n t e n t.
• S o lu b ilit y is U n a f f e c t e d b y C h a n g e s in p H .
• C h e m ic a lly S im ila r t o R a d iu m , m a y C o - p r e c ip it a t e w it h
R a d io a c t iv e S c a le s .
• N o t A c id S o lu b le .

Calcium Sulphate deposition is mainly the result of
mixing of incompatible fluids. Typical is the injection
of seawater with a Sulphate content of some 2000 3000 ppm into a Calcium containing reservoir. The
calcium from the reservoir reacts with the sulphate to
form calcium sulphate.
There are different forms of calcium sulphate that
include CaSO4.2H20 (Gypsum), the most common
oilfield form at lower temperatures and CaSO4
(Anhydrite). The solubility of calcium sulphate
increases to a temperature of 38oC, after which the
solubility decreases. Above this temperature the
anhydrite form is becoming the more dominant form
and is less soluble compared to gypsum. Like all other
scales, also calcium sulphate solubility increases at
increased pressure. Also, the presence of large
quantities of dissolved salts other than calcium or
sulphate, i.e. sodium chloride etc., positively affects the
solubility of calcium sulphate. In contrary to carbonate
scales, the solubility of sulphate scales is virtually pH
independent. These types of scale can therefore also not
be dissolved with acid.

These radioactive materials with a low specific activity,
can be present in the producing formation, and leach out
via the produced water. Together with normal scale it
can become deposited in the well bore, tubing or surface
production facilities. The importance is that as the scale
layers building up in the system the radioactivity level
will increase and could pose health or environmental
Formation waters normally contain only a few mg/l of
iron and values as high as 100 mg/l are rare.
Precipitated iron compounds are a common cause of
deposit formation and injection well plugging, and can
also be a sign of a serious corrosion problem.
Carbon dioxide (CO2), a corrosive gas, reacts with iron
to form ferrous carbonate (FeCO3).
Presence of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the produced
water or gas together with iron will result in the
formation of iron sulphides (FeS). SRB bacteria in the

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presence of sulphate can, apart from natural reason, also
cause the presence of H2S in the production system.

K = solubility product constant (a function of the ionic
strength of the water and temperature)

Oxygen combines with iron to various (corrosion)
compounds. Ferric (Fe2O3) and Ferrous Oxide (FeO) are
common forms resulting from contact with air or
oxygen containing water.
Other forms are the
hydroxide forms of iron Fe(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3. Iron
deposits/scales can normally be removed with acids like
HCl. Care has to be taken by back production that
depleted acid with iron can again deposit as iron
hydroxide. For this reason, complex forming chemicals
like citric acid or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid
(EDTA) are frequently used to avoid this reprecipitation of iron. In case the iron deposit is the result
of corrosion, a detailed investigation into the cause(s)
and possible remedial actions is required.

These calculations are a rather coarse method of
predicting the likeliness of scale formation and cannot
be applied in more complex situations.
Over the past decade, more sophisticated computer
models have been developed, amongst others, the
KSEPL (RTS) developed Waters program. This
software tool was rather complex to run and did not
have sufficient flexibility to predict a wide range of
scaling conditions.
Scalechem is a software from OLI Systems Inc., that
utilize a capability of correlating high temperatures and
pressures, accounts for flow rates and many other

Ir o n C o m p o u n d s
• Ir o n B a s e d D e p o s it s M a y E x i s t a s :

F e rro u s C a rb o n a te
F e r r o u s S u lp h id e
F e r r o u s O x id e
F e r r ic O x id e
F e r r o u s H y d r o x id e
F e r r ic H y d r o x id e

FeCO 3
F e 2 O 3 .F e 3 O 4
F e (O H )2
F e (O H )3

S id e r it e .
P y r it e .
H e m a t it e
M a g n e t it e .

• A ll D e p o s i t s a r e In s o lu b le in W a t e r .
• H y d r o x id e s a r e d if f ic u lt t o t r e a t w it h A c id .

Another scaling prediction software is Scalesoft Pitzer
developed by Brine Chemistry Consortium Rice
University, an excel based software program to predict
scale formation for eleven different minerals, calcite,
barite, three calcium sulphates, iron and zinc sulphide,
calcium fluoride, iron carbonate, strontium sulphate,
and sodium chloride. This program is based upon the
Pitzer theory of electrolytes, which is generally believed
to be the best approach to calculate the effect of high T,
P, TDS, compositions on activity coefficients. The
program can be used to predict the effect of methanol on
calcite, barite, and halite scale tendency.

6. Bacteria and Souring

5. Scale Prediction
The simplest form of prediction is by simple
calculations such as the Stiff and Davis (CaCO3) and the
Skillman, McDonald and Stiff (CaSO4) indices.
The equation for the saturation index (SI) of calcium
carbonate according to Stiff and Davis is:
SI = pH - (K + pCa + pAlk)
pH = actual pH of the water
K = A constant which is a function of salinity,
temperature and water composition
= The negative logarithm of the calcium
pAlk = The negative logarithm of the total alkalinity
(CO32- + HCO3-)
The Skillman, McDonald and Stiff equation is:
S = 1000 [(X2 + 4K)0.5 -X]
S = gypsum solubility (milliequivalent/liter)
X = excess common ion concentration/liter. This is the
difference between the calcium and the sulphate

Micro-organisms are currently divided into three major
domains: the Bacteria, the Archea and the Eucarya.
Each group has unique characteristics that can have an
impact on various oilfield operations.
The domain of bacteria can be subdivided into four
main types: the aerobic-, anaerobic-, the mesophilicand the thermophilic bacteria. These types indicate the
conditions under which different categories of bacteria
live and can multiply themselves. A combination of
these types is often used to describe the living
environment of bacteria (e.g. aerobic, mesophilic).
Aerobic Bacteria
Aerobic bacteria live only in the presence of oxygen,
predominantly in well aerated low salinity water. For
this reason aerobic bacteria are mostly encountered in
injection water systems where use is made of surface
water. Removal of all oxygen sources will result in the
death of bacteria, the reason for the use of oxygen
scavengers which remove the oxygen from the water.
Examples of aerobic bacteria are iron bacteria, slime
formers, sulphur oxidising- and hydrogen oxidising

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Iron Oxidising Bacteria

Anaerobic Bacteria

• Deposit Iron Oxide and Hydroxide.

The word anaerobic means “without air”. Indeed these
bacteria can only live in environments without oxygen,
which is common for production streams and facilities.
An example of anaerobic bacteria is Sulphate Reducing
Bacteria (SRB) that is further discussed below.

• Corrosion Occurs Under the Deposits.
• Detection is Very Difficult.

Mesophilic Bacteria
Mesophilic Bacteria means that type of bacteria that
only live and multiply in moderate temperature
environments (20-40oC). At lower temperatures these
bacteria can remain dormant which means that they can
stay alive but not multiply, but at temperatures well
above 40 oC, they will die.
Thermophilic Bacteria
In contrary to the mesophilic type, thermophilic bacteria
can live at (much) higher temperatures. Some SRB, the
so-called t-SRB have been found to survive
temperatures of at least 120 oC and pressures of 500 bar.

Types of Bacteria
• Aerobic Bacteria
• Live in the presence of oxygen

• Anaerobic Bacteria
• Capable of living in the absence of oxygen

• Mesophilic Bacteria
• Thriving at moderate temperatures, usually between 20-40oC

• Their Activity Results in the Plugging of Filters with Iron
Oxide or Hydroxide Slime.




SRB consist of diverse types of strictly anaerobic
bacteria, which can only grow in the absence of oxygen,
but can often survive aerobic conditions. They have in
common the ability to reduce sulphate, sulphite or
thiosulphate to hydrogen sulphide to support their
metabolism. The sulphate is not a nutrient, rather is it
similar to other organisms using oxygen for their
metabolic processes, and producing CO2.
SRB can tolerate temperatures from -5 to at least 90 oC
and are found in fluids with pH ranges from 5 to 9.5 as
well as pressures up to 500 bar. Reservoir souring (and
subsequent corrosion of well completions and
production systems) following the injection of sulphate
and dormant SRB containing saline water is one of the
main challenges related to these bacteria.
H2S formed during the sulphate reduction process can
cause metal failure in two ways. Firstly the H2S can
react with steel to form FeS thereby corroding the metal
parts. Secondly the hydrogen resulting from the reaction
with iron can penetrate the metal thereby making the
material more brittle and susceptible to stress cracking.



Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB)


• Thermophilic Bacteria
• Thriving at relatively high temperatures, above 45oC

Iron Oxidising Bacteria
Iron oxidising bacteria are aerobic bacteria forming iron
oxide containing slime colonies in water containing
large quantities of ferrous oxide. They are commonly
observed in water injection systems where these slimes
block filtration systems. As these colonies grow denser,
their base may become deprived of oxygen under which
SRB (with resulting corrosion) can develop. Most of
these bacteria either use organic matter or sometimes
CO2 as a carbon source.

SRB sometimes are enclosed by slimes or debris
(=sessile bacteria) under which they can concentrate and
cause the so-called “pitting” corrosion. The use of
biocides in water injection systems is generally
ineffective as a 100% kill is required to prevent live
SRB to enter the reservoir.
In the reservoir the few remaining live bacteria have
sufficient time to multiply until they reach the
producing wells. In production systems a 100% kill is
not always necessary and reducing their numbers to
control their growth is often sufficient. However, if SRB
are buried under protective layers as mentioned above,
penetration by the chemical is not always achieved.
SRB, like many other bacteria, use as food supply the
fatty acids normally present in oil/gas reservoirs.
Removing this food supply from the bacteria is the
preferred method but is in practice not easily achieved.

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Only where other bacteria provide this feed stock a
control may be practicable by killing these food

Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB’s)
• SRB’s are Strictly Anaerobic - the Presence of Oxygen
Usually Prevents their Growth.
SO42- + 2H2O + Organic Material + SRB => H2S + 2CO2 + 2OH -

• The Main Characteristic of SRB’s is that they Reduce
Sulphate to H2S and CO2.
• H2S Can Cause Metal Failure (Stress Cracking).
• H2S May Lead to Formation Plugging by Iron Sulphide.
H2S + Fe => FeS + H2

• Biocides are Generally Ineffective as they Have to Kill 100%
of the Population.
• Oxygen Will Often Kill SRB But May Cause Other Corrosion
• Removing the Food Supply is the Preffered Method.

Sulphide Oxidising Bacteria (SOB)
In contrary to SRB, SOB only can thrive in oxygen rich
environments. They grow in well aerated systems
utilising reduced sulphur compounds such as sulphur,
sulphite and sulphide, which are converted to sulphuric
acid. These bacteria can generate a pH in the range of
1-2 that is highly acidic and result in severe localised
corrosion of steel and concrete structures. SOB
classically grow in close association with SRB, where
cycling sulphur compounds and variations in oxygen
levels, can lead to sustained corrosion problems.

Sulphide Oxidising Bacteria (SOB’s)

2. Mixing water X Field and F Water Aquifer
Scenario: X-6 saturated mix with F Water Aquifer – L
Field WSW-5
• Result from simulation:
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite,
Anhydrite and Halite.
• Total solid precipitated prediction: 2891.81
• Souring: Low
3. Mixing water X Field and Fahud U Water Aquifer
Scenario: X-6 mixes with U Water Aquifer – Fahud
• Result from simulation:
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite,
Barite and Halite.
• Total solid precipitated prediction: 4490.00
• Souring: Low
4. Mixing water X Field and Y Field
Scenario: X-6 mixes with Y Field – Outlet Separator
• Result from simulation:
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite,
Barite and Halite.
• Total solid precipitated prediction: 4280.73
• Souring: Low
Reservoir souring model above are low due to the
combination of high temperature and high water

• SOB’s are Strictly Aerobic - The Lack of Oxygen Will Inhibit
Their Growth.

8. Scale Prevention and Mitigation

O 2 + S 2- + 2H 2 O Organic Material + SOB = CO 2 + H 2SO 4

• The Sulphuric Acid Causes Pitting Corrosion.
• Biocide are Generally Ineffective as they Have to Kill 100% of
the Population.
• Removing the Oxygen Supply is the Preffered Method.

When inhibitors are being applied, they always need to
be introduced before the scale has been formed as most
products do not or only slowly dissolve already
precipitated scale.

Scale Prevention and Control
Process Design

Summary of Method
Operate Under Less-Scaling

Ion Removal or Exchange

Remove Ions to Prevent Them


Leave Ions in Solution
Apply Chemical Treatment to
Disperse Precipitates.
Modify Crystal Growth Pattern.


Allow Deposits to Accumulate
and Remove Periodically by
Chemical / Mechanical Means.

7. Scenario – Summary of the Result
Based on the water analysis, here is the summary:
1. Water supply from produced Water X Field
Scenario: X-6 produces water analysis
• Self-scaling
An analysis of produced water from X-6 Well.
• Result from simulation:
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite.
• Total solid precipitated prediction: 40.23
• Souring: Low

For water injection systems, where the water is selfscaling under system- or reservoir conditions, the

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inhibitor must be applied continually from the start of
the injection at dose rates which are dependent on
chemical type and scaling potential but are typically in
the range 1-50 mg/l.
If the scaling is the result of incompatibility between
injection and formation water, then the selected
inhibitor may initially be injected at a higher dosage rate
(in the injection water) until a buffer zone of inhibited
water is created in the injector wellbore area. Dosage
can thereafter be reduced or even be discontinued until
the injection water is close to breaking through in the
producers whereby mixing with the formation water
will cause scaling in producers and/or facilities.
Based on the scenario above:

9. Bacterial and Mitigation
As we have seen above, bacteria are able to live under
extreme conditions and are found in environments such
as hot geysers, sulphur springs, and ice. Whether they
could also originate in oil reservoirs is still unproved, as
it would require survival, in dormant conditions, over
periods of millions of years at high pressures and
Limits on conditions for bacterial survival are ill
defined. Under certain environmental conditions
however, they may be expected to proliferate. These

1. Water supply from produced Water X Field
Scenario: X-6 produces water analysis
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite.
• Type of Scaling Inhibitor: NTMP Nitrilo Tri
(Methylene Phosphonic) Acid
• Optimum Dosage: 50 PPM (continuous)
• Estimated treatment cost per barrel of oil:
0.028 USD


2. Mixing water X Field and F Water Aquifer
Scenario: X-6 saturated mix with F Water Aquifer – L
Field WSW-5
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite,
Anhydrite and Halite.
• Type of Scaling Inhibitor: BHPMP (BisHexamethylene Triamine-Penta (Methylene
Phosphonic) Acid
• Optimum Dosage: 50 PPM (continuous)
• Estimated treatment cost per barrel of oil:
0.056 USD

During growth, bacteria may substantially modify the
nearby environment by creating:
1. Inorganic by-products (e.g. H2S, CO2, H2SO4)
2. Soluble organic by-products (e.g. fatty acids)
3. Insoluble organic by-products (e.g. slimes,
4. Oxygen depletion, pH and Eh change.

3. Mixing water X Field and Fahud U Water Aquifer
Scenario: X-6 mixes with U Water Aquifer – Fahud
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite, Barite
and Halite.
• Type of Scaling Inhibitor: DTPMP
Diethylene Triamine-Penta (Methylene
Phosphonic) Acid
• Optimum Dosage: 50 PPM (continuous)
• Estimated treatment cost per barrel of oil:
0.056 USD
4. Mixing water X Field and Y Field
Scenario: X-6 mixes with Y Field – Outlet Separator
Scaling will be precipitated mainly as Calcite, Barite
and Halite.
• Type of Scaling Inhibitor: DTPMP
Diethylene Triamine-Penta (Methylene
Phosphonic) Acid
• Optimum Dosage: 50 PPM (continuous)
• Estimated treatment cost per barrel of oil:
0.056 USD

Presence of water
Carbon source
Nitrogen source
Inorganic salts - phosphate, iron
Electron acceptor (O2 or SO42-)
Temperature range
Maximum pressure
pH range
Reduction - oxidation potential (Eh) range
Salinity range
Upper limit on toxic agents (e.g. high H2S inhibits

Growth of bacteria can be restricted by a lack of any
one of their nutritional requirements or unfavourable
conditions with restrict their growth. Their growth may
be limited by a single factor; small changes in this
limiting factor may significantly affect bacterial growth
whilst changes on other parameters have no effect. By
using these conditions, the growth of bacteria can be
Where no control options are available to the continued
growth of bacteria, bactericides or biocides can be
applied. As most of these products have a potential
negative impact on the environment or could cause
health or safety problems, extra care should be taken by
their selection and application in the field. Before
applying any of these chemicals, all relevant HSE data
have to be requested from the chemical supplier and
approval from environmental legislative bodies is often

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Different products are available for the different types
of bacteria.

Optimum Dosage: 100 PPM (batch)
Estimated Biocide treatment cost per barrel of
oil: 0.01 USD

Inorganic Bactericides
Chlorine is widely used to control the growth of aerobic
bacteria in surface water injection systems and no
evidence of bacteria becoming immune have been
reported. It is a cheap product and generally effective at
low dosage rates (e.g. 0.2 - 1 mg/l). Chlorine, however,
is a corrosive chemical and attacks carbon steel. In
addition, when applied in produced water, it could react
with the dissolved oil and create persistent toxic
chlorinated products. Oxygen free water often contains
soluble iron and the use of Chlorine would result in the
iron to become oxidised by it and become insoluble.
Based on the scenario:


Water Sample: X Field Produced Water
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (28 day indicating
ampule): 1 col/mL
Iron Bacteria (Biological Activity Reaction Test/
BART): 1 col/mL
Optimum Dosage: 100 PPM (batch)
Estimated Biocide treatment cost per barrel of
oil: 0.01 USD
Water sample: Mixing X Field Produced Water and
F Water Aquifer
Produced Water mix with F Water Aquifer – L
Field WSW-5
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (28 day indicating
ampule): 100 col/mL
Iron Bacteria (Biological Activity Reaction Test/
BART): 100 col/mL
Optimum Dosage: 100 PPM (batch)
Estimated Biocide treatment cost per barrel of
oil: 0.01 USD


Water sample: Mixing X Field Produced Water and
Fahud U Water Aquifer
Produced Water mix with U Water Aquifer –
Fahud WSW-2
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (28 day indicating
ampule): 100 col/mL
Iron Bacteria (Biological Activity Reaction Test/
BART): 10 col/mL
Optimum Dosage: 100 PPM (batch)
Estimated Biocide treatment cost per barrel of
oil: 0.01 USD


Water sample: Mixing X Field Produced Water and
Y Field
Produced Water mix with Y Field outlet bulk
Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (28 day indicating
ampule): 10 col/mL
Iron Bacteria (Biological Activity Reaction Test/
BART): 10 col/mL

10. Conclusions and Recommendation
Base on the scaling perspective, no doubt, that all 4
scenarios show the indication of scaling. The ideal
scenarios off course to have a direct water supply from
X Field produced water, and the other option is to have
a water supply from F Water Aquifer, such as L Field
WSW-5 but there will be an uncertainty and risk of
continuity supply.
Based on the economic justification hence the best
option for water make-up (continuous supply) is to take
the water from Y Field produced water that came from
bulk separator. By this option, the scaling will be
precipitated mainly as Calcite, Barite and Halite while
the total solid precipitated prediction: 4280.73 mg/L in
the surface. Meanwhile by the trending of H2S
contribution from M Field, we should also control the
water quality from Y Field bulk separator.
Scale can be removed either chemically or
mechanically. Generally, all scaling materials quantity
can be effectively suppressed by adding acid base scale
inhibitor. The type of DTPMP Diethylene TriaminePenta (Methylene Phosphonic) Acid as scaling inhibitor
will be suitable when the water supply come from Y
Field produced water, the dosage will be around 50
PPM continuous and the estimated treatment cost per
barrel of oil is 0.056 USD.
If oxygen and water are both present, corrosion will
normally occur on iron and steel. Rapid corrosion may
take place in water, the rate of corrosion being
accelerated by several factors such as: (a) the velocity or
the acidity of the water, (b) the motion of the metal, (c)
an increase in temperature or aeration, and (d) the
presence of certain bacteria. Meanwhile, protective
layers or films consisting of corrosion product or
adsorbed oxygen can retard corrosion. High alkalinity of
the water also retards the rate of corrosion on steel
surfaces. Water and oxygen remain the essential factors,
however, and one or the other generally controls the
amount of corrosion. By the modeling the environment
of fluid services, the proposed materials are Medium
Carbon Steel for sub surface and surface facility, and
GRP/GRE pipeline (expected lifetime: 20 years).
Meanwhile, to extend the life of material more than 20
years of service, Low alloy steel (10%Cr) will be a good
option for subsurface facilities.

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H2S and SRB in routine basis and the Biocide or H2S
scavenger chemical injection can help us to mitigate the
SRB growth and H2S level. Refer to the internal report
and result of study in PDO there was no trace of the
dreaded ‘schmoo’ has as yet been noticed in the M Field
or Y Field produced water.
A water quality specification for produced water
injection should include specifications on:

Figure 2. Nature of corrosion products formed on four
So far, base on the modelling, the tendency of souring is
low and the presence of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from
SRB type of bacteria categorized as low, meanwhile we
should be aware and mitigate this attack because this
hydrogen sulphide while in the produced water or gas
together with iron, will result in the formation of iron
sulphides (FeS). Souring is not expected in this field,
and to monitor the level, it is expected to measure the
Type of Chemical
Scaling Inhibitor
Corrosion Inhibitor
Biocide (TSS Control)
H2S Scavenger
Total Cost

Dosage (ppm)
100 (batch)

oil droplet size distribution
total oil in water concentration
suspended solids size distribution
total suspended matter
chemical treatments
dissolved gases
scale and corrosion control

By the option of supplying the water make up from Y
Field produced water, hence the estimated chemical
treatments for X Field will cover:

Cost/drum (USD)

Some of the various process packages that may be
included in a produced water treatment system are listed


Cost/barrel oil production (USD)
0.092 USD/barrel oil production

water. More data needs to be collected on the Iong term
operation of the process packages in terms of
maintaining a consistent water quality with respect to
absolute maximum particle/droplet sizes.

Plate separators
Induced Gas Flotation
Media Filters
Static Hydrocychmes
Rotary Hydrocyclone
Cartridge Filters
Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclone

The selection of the process packages will depend on
the injection water quality specification; the
characteristics of the untreated produced water, the
amount of produced fine solid, surface discharge
regulation, supplemental water resources required, and
other restriction.
In the case of produced water injection the performance
of the process packages in terms of their absolute
particle/oil droplet removal will be vital in terms of
process selection. At present most data has been
selected in terms of performance in reducing total oil-in-

Figure 3. Water Treatment Guidance
Relatively short term upsets in that respect could cause
significant injectivity decline such as in M Field and A
Giant Field. The installation of on-line monitoring
systems will be useful in this respect, while the

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ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

centrifuge/hydrocyclone type of facilities can be
installed to control oil in water for the produced water
re-injection if the profile of the oil particle is 10

11. References
[1] Arnold, Ken; Stewart, Maurice, Surface Production
Operations (2nd Edition) Volume 1 - Design of
Oil-Handling Systems and Facilities, Elsevier, 1999
[2] Davis, J.R, Surface Engineering for Corrosion and
Wear Resistance, Woodhead Publishing, 2001
[3] Fink, Johannes Karl, Oil Field Chemicals, Elsevier,
[4] Flick, Ernest W., Corrosion Inhibitors - An
Industrial Guide (2nd Edition), William Andrew
Publishing/Noyes, 1993
[5] Kemmer, F.N., NALCO Water Handbook (2nd
Edition), McGraw-Hill, 1988
[6] Kutz, Myer, Handbook of Materials Selection, John
Wiley & Sons, 2002
[7] R.C. Evans, Serck Baker Fluid Systems
Consultants, Developments in Environmental
Protection Related to Produced Water Treatments
and Disposal (Produced Water Re-injection), SPE
27179, 1994
[8] Revie, R. Winston, Uhlig's, Corrosion Handbook
(2nd Edition), John Wiley & Sons, 2000
[9] Russell Hollamby & Guus Nuis, Process
Chemistry, Shell International EP B.V., Research
and Technical Services, Rijswijk, 2000
[10] Shell International BV., Production Handbook, The
[11] Shreir, L.L.; Jarman, R.A.; Burstein, G.T,
Corrosion (3rd Edition) Volumes 1-2, Elsevier
[12] Soares, Claire Process Engineering Equipment
Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 2002

12. Biography
Ardian Nengkoda is a Senior
Production Chemist for Shell,
secondee to Petroleum Development
Oman; having 15 years of experience
in Oil and Gas Industry, he is
Moderator of Indonesian Oil and Gas
Applied Chemistry discussion. He is
also a member of worldwide
professional organization such as SPE, AIChE, ACS,
ASME, NACE and IChemE; interested in Oilfield
Chemistry, Corrosion, Flow Assurance, including
Laboratory and Quality, and Waste/Water Treatment

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Prospek Pengembangan LNG Lepas Pantai
Mira Maulidiana
Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Indonesia. Email:
Abstrak – Pengembangan teknologi LNG lepas pantai
pada dasarnya merupakan penggabungan dari
teknologi pencairan, transportasi, penyimpanan, dan
regasifikasi LNG yang telah berkembang hingga saat
ini dengan teknologi substruktur lepas pantai yang
digunakan di industri minyak dan gas. Pengembangan
terminal produksi dan ekspor LNG lepas pantai dapat
meningkatkan peluang untuk pemanfaatan gas
terasosiasi serta stranded gas di lepas pantai yang
ini tidak termanfaatkan. Sedangkan
pengembangan terminal penerimaan LNG lepas pantai
dapat menjadi solusi alternatif di tengah semakin
semakin sulitnya mendapatkan lahan yang memenuhi
berbagai kriteria untuk terminal penerimaan LNG.
Hingga saat ini sudah terdapat banyak konsep
terminal LNG lepas pantai baik untuk terminal
produksi dan ekspor maupun terminal penerimaan.
Beberapa wilayah lepas pantai di dunia bahkan telah
diidentifikasikan berpotensi untuk penempatan
terminal LNG lepas pantai. Hal ini menunjukkan
bahwa teknologi fasilitas LNG lepas pantai telah
mencapai titik di mana realisasinya sudah
Dalam makalah ini akan dipaparkan mengenai konsepkonsep terminal LNG lepas pantai yang sudah
dikembangkan di dunia hingga saat ini, beserta
prospeknya di waktu-waktu mendatang

Gas terasosiasi, yaitu gas yang terproduksi bersamaan
dengan produksi minyak, yang umumnya tidak bisa,
secara ekonomis, untuk diproses serta disalurkan
melalui pipa ke darat. Gas tersebut sebelumnya sering
dibakar. Namun dari segi lingkungan, pengurangan
CO2, serta pemanfaatan energi secara efektif membuat
pilihan untuk membakar gas lepas pantai bukan
merupakan suatu pilihan yang tepat. Pilihan lain adalah
dengan menginjeksikan kembali gas tersebut ke
reservoir. Hal tersebut dapat menguntungkan dalam
jangka pendek dalam hal meningkatkan produksi
minyak. Namun injeksi gas dalam jangka panjang
justru akan menaikkan rasio gas/minyak.
Stranded gas, yaitu gas yang umumnya berasal dari
daerah terisolasi atau lapangan gas yang jauh dari darat
atau infrastruktur yang ada, sehingga menjadi tidak
ekonomis untuk memasang pipa untuk menyalurkan
gas ke darat. Gas jenis tersebut umumnya ditemukan
seperti di laut dalam (lebih dalam daripada 1000 m)
atau pada lapangan yang sangat terisolasi dari
pembangunan lapangan lainnya yaitu lebih dari 250
km. Gas tersebut umumnya sulit dieksploitasi karena
kondisi yang ada menyebabkannya menjadi tidak
ekonomis untuk dikembangkan.

1. Pendahuluan
Sekitar sepertiga atau 60 tcm cadangan gas alam di
dunia berada di lepas pantai (Sheffield, LNG Review).
Sebagian cadangan gas merupakan cadangan gas yang
tak terasosiasi dengan produksi minyak (non
associated gas), sedangkan sisanya merupakan gas
terasosiasi (associated gas).
Penyaluran gas dari fasilitas produksi lepas pantai
melalui pipa ke darat biasanya merupakan opsi pertama
dalam pemanfaatan produksi gas lepas pantai.
Meskipun demikian, seperti yang dapat terlihat pada
peta konsep transportasi gas alam di bawah ini,
penyaluran gas melalui pipa baru dapat secara
ekonomis dilakukan apabila produksi gas tersebut
memadai dengan jarak yang relatif dekat. Hal tersebut
juga menjadi alasan mengapa jenis-jenis gas berikut
sulit untuk dibawa ke darat untuk dimanfaatkan.

Gambar 1. Peta Konsep Transportasi Gas Alam
(Sumber: Hetland)
Salah satu alternatif lain untuk pemanfaatan gas lepas
pantai adalah dengan LNG terapung (floating LNG).
Opsi LNG terapung ini dapat digunakan untuk
pemanfaatan gas dengan ukuran cadangan menengah
yaitu sekitar 8 - 10 MMsm3/d jarak ke pasar antara
3000 – 4800 km. Alternatif pemanfaatan gas lepas
pantai dengan LNG terapung ini diharapkan dapat
semakin membuka peluang untuk pemanfaatan gas di
lepas pantai khususnya untuk gas terasosiasi serta

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

stranded gas seperti yang tersebut di atas. Pemanfaatan
produksi gas lepas pantai menjadi LNG dapat
penggabungan eksplorasi dan produksi gas alam
dengan fasilitas pencairan LNG.
keselamatan, dan keamanan juga mendorong adanya
terminal penerimaan LNG di lepas pantai. Berbagai
konsep terminal LNG lepas pantai dapat dilihat pada
Gambar 2.
Meskipun sebagian besar terminal LNG lepas pantai
pada Gambar 2 masih berupa konsep, pada tahun 2005
Bureau Veritas telah menerbitkan buku pedoman
klasifikasi dan sertifikasi LNG lepas pantai. Klasifikasi
terminal LNG lepas pantai yang dilakukan oleh Bureau
Veritas adalah sebagai berikut:
Jenis terminal LNG:
- GB: Gravity Based terminal
- F: Floating terminal
Konfigurasi penggunaan terminal LNG lepas
- LNG – GPE: LNG Global Production and
Exporting terminal
LNG – PE: LNG Production and Exporting


LNG – R: LNG Receiving terminal
LNG – S: LNG Storage terminal

Material yang digunakan:
- baja
- beton
- komposit
Konfigurasi fasilitas-fasilitas LNG yang berada pada
terminal terapung mempengaruhi penggolongan
terminal LNG lepas pantai sebagai berikut:

Fasilitas produksi gas (hulu)
Inlet dan fasilitas pengolahan gas
Fasilitas pencairan dan fraksinasi
Instalasi penyimpanan LNG
Terminal ekspor LNG
Kemampuan transportasi
Sistem bongkar muat LNG
Tangki penyimpanan LNG
Unit regasifikasi LNG
Pompa LNG
Sistem penanganan uap




Utilitas pendukung, perpipaan, katup, sistem kontrol,
dan sistem keselamatan yang dibutuhkan untuk
pengoperasian ekspor dan impor secara aman.

Gambar 2. Terminal-terminal LNG Lepas Pantai (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

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Dalam makalah ini akan dipaparkan mengenai
pengembangan konsep terminal-terminal LNG lepas
pantai yang sudah dilakukan di dunia hingga saat ini.
Prospek penggunaan terminal-terminal LNG lepas
pantai pada waktu-waktu mendatang juga akan
dikemukakan pada makalah ini.

pemilihan teknologi yang berbeda dibandingkan jika
untuk digunakan di kilang darat, untuk mencapai
proses yang optimal. Beberapa kriteria proses
pencairan LNG Lepas Pantai adalah sebagai berikut:

2. Terminal Produksi dan Ekspor LNG
Lepas Pantai
Berbagai studi mengenai terminal produksi dan ekspor
LNG lepas pantai telah dilakukan dalam berbagai
tingkatan sejak awal 1970-an. Barulah pada
perkembangan teknologi Floating Production, Storage,
and Offloading (FPSO) untuk produksi minyak yang
semakin mapan dan banyak digunakan, studi terminal
produksi LNG lepas pantai didukung dengan konsep
yang lebih matang.
FPSO untuk produksi minyak secara umum adalah
integrasi dari teknologi fasilitas produksi minyak
dengan kapal. Fasilitas pengolahan minyak tersebut
umumnya terdiri dari fasilitas penerimaan, pemisahan
gas / minyak serta reinjeksi gas. Minyak kemudian
disimpan pada tangki yang terletak pada lambung
kapal untuk kemudian ditransferkan ke kapal tanker
melalui fasilitas offloading yang biasanya berupa
selang fleksibel (flexible hose).
Berbeda dengan FPSO untuk produksi minyak,
terminal untuk produksi LNG lepas pantai adalah lebih
kompleks di mana di dalamnya diperlukan fasilitas
pengolahan gas dan pencairan gas pada suhu kriogenik.
Selain itu, sifat proses LNG yang sedemikian sehingga
dibutuhkan daya listrik yang cukup besar (sekitar 50
MW untuk 1 MMTPA) dan kondisi pengolahan
kriogenik menimbulkan adanya kebutuhan perpipaan
yang lebih kompleks di tengah tata letak fasilitas
produksi pada area yang sangat terbatas. Penyimpanan
LNG yang membutuhkan sistem penanganan khusus
serta sifat produksi lepas pantai di mana tangki selalu
diisi sebagian juga menjadi isu tersendiri. Transfer
LNG dari terminal produksi LNG lepas pantai ke
tanker LNG juga membutuhkan penanganan khusus.
Proses pencairan umumnya memiliki porsi biaya 30 40% dari keseluruhan biaya kapital kilang LNG, serta
memiliki pengaruh yang besar padaa biaya operasi
serta utilitas yang digunakan. Pemilihan proses yang
tepat untuk digunakan di lepas pantai adalah hal yang
sangat penting untuk mengefektifkan biaya dalam
suatu proyek LNG.
Foster Wheeler Energy Limited telah melakukan studi
untuk memilih proses pencairan LNG yang tepat untuk
digunakan di lepas pantai. Fasilitas pencairan LNG
yang digunakan di lepas pantai memiliki kriteria

Mira Maulidiana - 3

Fasilitasnya harus kompak dan ringan
Hal ini berkaitan dengan area yang sangat terbatas
pada terminal lepas pantai. Selain itu, berbeda
dengan fasilitas produksi di darat yang berada di
atas tanah, fasilitas produksi di lepas pantai
diletakkan pada suatu substruktur yang terpasang
di laut, di mana bebannya menjadi faktor yang
perlu diperhitungkan.
Memiliki keamanan proses yang tinggi
Kebutuhan akan adanya keamanan proses yang
tinggi untuk fasilitas produksi lepas pantai
disebabkan karena area yang terbatas di mana pada
satu lokasi tersebut juga terdapat fasilitas
akomodasi bagi orang-orang yang mengoperasikan
fasilitas tersebut.
Dapat bertahan pada lingkungan laut
Lingkungan laut merupakan lingkungan yang
dinamis di mana terdapat pergerakan laut yang
bisa mempengaruhi terminal. Faktor cuaca juga
berpengaruh terhadap operasi di lepas pantai.
Untuk itu, adalah penting untuk memilih proses
yang dapat bertahan serta sesuai dengan kondisi
lingkungan laut.
Mudah dioperasikan
Pengoperasian yang mudah juga hal yang penting
dalam pemilihan proses di lepas pantai, mengingat
lebih banyaknya keterbatasan di laut dibanding
dengan pengoperasian di darat.
Jumlah peralatan relatif sedikit
Jumlah peralatan yang digunakan berkaitan
dengan keterbatasan area pada terminal lepas
pantai. Semakin sedikit peralatan yang digunakan,
semakin sedikit pula area yang dibutuhkan, yang
juga berpengaruh pada struktur penyangga yang
Availabilitas tinggi
Hal ini terkait dengan ketersediaan peralatan di
mana diharapkan downtime proses seminimal
mungkin, untuk menjamin kehandalan pasokan
produksinya terlebih lagi pengoperasian produksi
di lepas pantai yang cukup mahal dibandingkan
dengan di darat.

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

kondisi proses termasuk dari gas umpan yang

Modularitas tinggi
membutuhkan lapangan fabrikasi. Keterbatasan
lapangan fabrikasi yang dapat melakukan
membangun terminal LNG keseluruhan secara
modularitas tinggi pada proses yang digunakan.
Selain itu, adanya modularitas yang tinggi bisa
mengurangi ketergantungan antara satu sistem
dengan sistem lainnya, khususnya apabila terjadi
permasalahan pada suatu sistem.
Memiliki efisiensi yang memadai
Dibutuhkan efisiensi yang memadai untuk
pengoperasian produksi LNG di lepas pantai
karena efisiensi juga berkaitan dengan semakin
besarnya kapasitas peralatan yang harus digunakan
beserta utilitas pendukungnya, yang berarti juga
berkaitan dengan besarnya area yang akan
digunakan serta biaya kapital yang harus
Lebih toleran dengan variasi kondisi proses
Penggunaan FPSO untuk mengolah gas dari
lapangan marginal menimbulkan kebutuhan
adanya toleransi yang lebih terhadap variasi

Proses handal serta kokoh
Dengan adanya kondisi lingkungan laut yang
menimbulkan banyak keterbatasan, adalah penting
untuk memilih proses yang handal dan kokoh,
terlebih lagi produksi LNG membutuhkan
spesifikasi gas hasil pengolahan yang lebih ketat
dibandingkan dengan gas pipa.
Salah satu proses yang direkomendasikan untuk
digunakan untuk proses pencairan LNG lepas pantai
menggunakan turboekspander gas. Siklus pendinginan
ekspander dengan siklus Brayton secara sederhana
dapat dilihat pada Gambar 3.
Sekalipun siklus ekspander memiliki efisiensi yang
lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan proses pendingin
campuran dan proses bertingkat dengan pendingin
murni yang biasa digunakan di darat, proses ini
memenuhi banyak kriteria yang disebutkan di atas
untuk pencairan LNG lepas pantai. Perbandingan
antara proses ekspander dengan proses pencairan LNG
dengan menggunakan pendingin campuran serta proses
bertingkat dapat dilihat pada Tabel 1.

Gambar 3. Proses Ekspander untuk LNG (Sumber: Foster Wheeler)

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Tabel 1. Perbandingan Proses LNG
(Sumber: Foster Wheeler)

yang berbeda pada masing-masing proyek serta juga
potensi pengembangan proses yang lebih inovatif.
Selain itu, hal yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam
terminal LNG lepas pantai adalah penyimpanan LNG.
Jenis penyimpanan LNG yang digunakan adalah jenis
yang digunakan ada tanker LNG, seperti dapat dilihat
pada Gambar 4.
Masing-masing jenis penyimpanan LNG memiliki
keunggulan dan kelemahan sendiri-sendiri seperti
dipaparkan di bawah ini.
Self-Supporting Prismatic Type-B (SPB) - IHI:

Dibandingkan dengan proses pendingin campuran,
proses ekspander membutuhkan lebih sedikit area
dibanding proses pendingin campuran. Siklus
ekspander ini banyak memiliki keuntungan untuk
penggunaan di lepas pantai karena menggunakan N2
sebagai pendinginnya. Penggunaan N2 tidak
membutuhkan penyimpanan pendingin yang besar.
Sifat N2 yang inert yang berarti tidak mudah terbakar
juga dapat mengurangi keterbatasan tata letak
peralatan. Selain itu penggunaan N2 yang inert, dari
segi keselamatan, memiliki risiko yang lebih rendah
hidrokarbon. Proses turboekspander juga lebih mudah
dioperasikan serta dikendalikan. Proses ekspander yang
lebih sederhana juga mengakibatkan lebih sedikitnya
jumlah peralatan yang dibutuhkan serta start-up yang
lebih cepat.
Meskipun proses ekspander memiliki banyak
keuntungan khususnya untuk produksi LNG skala kecil
dari lapangan marginal di lepas pantai dengan belanja
kapital yang lebih rendah, biaya pengoperasian yang
lebih mahal serta biaya lainnya harus diperhatikan juga
untuk umur lapangan yang lebih panjang serta
cadangan gas yang lebih besar. Pada dasarnya,
penentuan proses akhirnya akan bergantung pada hal

Tidak ada keterbatasan pengisian
Adanya penguat struktur internal
Memungkinkan tempat yang lapang untuk fasilitas
produksi di atasnya
Kemungkinan adanya sloshing
Tidak ada keterbatasan pengisian
Tidak ada penguat struktur internal
Tidak memungkinkan tempat yang lapang untuk
fasilitas produksi di atasnya
Tidak terpengaruh oleh sloshing
Ada keterbatasan pengisian
Ada penguat struktur internal
Memungkinkan tempat yang lapang untuk fasilitas
produksi di atasnya
Terpengaruh oleh sloshing
Pada akhirnya keputusan pemilihan jenis tangki
penyimpanan yang digunakan juga tergantung dari
kondisi yang ada serta dipengaruhi juga oleh struktur
lepas pantai yang akan digunakan.

Gambar 4. Tipe Penyimpanan LNG Terapung (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Telah banyak studi yang dilakukan untuk
pengembangan terminal produksi dan ekspor LNG
lepas pantai ini. Salah satunya yang dilakukan oleh
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries di Jepang
(Gambar 5). Perusahaan rekayasa dan konstruksi yang
pembangunan tanker serta terminal penerimaan LNG
ini mengembangkan konsep terminal produksi LNG
dengan menggunakan tangki LNG jenis SelfSupporting Prismatic Type-B (SPB) yang ditempatkan
pada lambung kapal. Di atas lambung kapal,

diletakkanlah peralatan-peralatan untuk pemrosesan
gas menjadi LNG yang menggunakan proses
pendinginan Pendingin Campuran Ganda (Dual Mixed
Refrigerant) Shell.
Diagram blok proses produksi pada FPSO LNG ini
bisa dilihat pada Gambar 6, di mana secara garis besar
proses dapat dibagi menjadi sistem produksi LNG dan
sistem penyimpanan dan bongkar muat LNG. Sistem
tersebut didukung oleh sistem utilitas yang mendukung

Gambar 5. FPSO LNG SPB IHI (Sumber: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI))

Gambar 6. Diagram Blok Proses LNG Lepas Pantai (Sumber: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Sementara itu Shell mengembangkan konsep Floating
Oil and Natural Gas (FONG) serta Floating LNG
(FLNG) dari penggabungan konsep FPSO, kilang
LNG, serta pengiriman LNG. FONG merupakan
konsep pengembangan gas terasosiasi dari suatu
lapangan minyak dan gas, di mana dipasang fasilitas
pencairan, penyimpanan, serta ekspor LNG.
mengembangkan lapangan gas tak terasosiasi.
Faktor kunci dalam pengembangan FONG ini adalah
membuat fasilitas pengolahan, penyimpanan, serta
ekspor LNG sesederhana dan seinovatif mungkin.
Teknologi pencairan yang digunakan untuk FONG
adalah dengan menggunakan pendingin nitrogen.
Sedangan untuk FLNG digunakan teknologi Pendingin
Campuran Ganda Shell (Dual Mixed Refrigerant). Baik
FONG maupun FLNG menggunakan struktur kapal

dari baja dengan jenis tangki membran digunakan
untuk FONG dan prismatik digunakan untuk FLNG.
Pada FONG, aliran fluida dari sumur diproses menjadi
minyak mentah serta LNG sesuai dengan spesifikasi
penjualan, tanpa perlu membakar LPG atau
penyimpanan dan offloading LPG (propana dan
butana) terpisah. Hal ini memungkinkan melalui
ekstraksi fraksi ringan (C1 - C4) dari aliran minyak
mentah serta ekstraksi dan stabilisasi LPG dan
kondensat (C3 – C5) dari aliran gas dengan
menggunakan deetaniser. Bagian atas deetaniser (C1 –
C2) dialirkan ke sistem pencairan, kondensat yang
distabilkan dialirkan menuju minyak, sedangkan LPG
didistribusikan ke aliran minyak dan LNG yang
digunakan sebagai bahan bakar turbin pembangkit
tenaga, untuk menjaga aliran minyak dan LNG sesuai
dengan spesifikasi penjualan.

Gambar 7. Floating LNG (FLNG) dan Floating Oil and Natural Gas (FONG) (Sumber: Shell)

Gambar 8. Diagram Alir Proses di FONG (Sumber: Shell)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Untuk FLNG, awalnya Shell melakukan studi untuk
kapasitas produksi LNG sebesar 2 MMTPA, setara
dengan skala menengah kapasitas kilang LNG darat.
produksinya ditingkatkan hingga 4 MMTPA. Studi
juga dilakukan untuk kapasitas kilang hingga 5
MMTPA. Sementara itu untuk FONG, studi yang
dilakukan oleh Shell menunjukkan bahwa unit FONG
dengan produksi 85.000 BOPD minyak dan 85
MMSCFD gas (skenario dasar 85/85) bisa dijadikan
melipatgandakan volume minyak atau gas (skenario
ekspansi 170/170) serta meningkatkan derajat
fleksibilitas produksi. Konsep FLNG yang dirancang,
direncanakan untuk dipasang di Namibia dan Australia,
sedangkan FONG direncanakan untuk dapat dipasang
di Teluk Meksiko, Afrika Barat, serta Brazil.

Konsep terminal produksi LNG lainnya dikembangkan
pada proyek AZURE yang didukung program Thermie
Uni Eropa serta beberapa perusahaan minyak dan gas.
Pada konsep AZURE ini digunakan sistem
penyimpanan membran. Untuk tongkang pencairan,
dipersiapkan dua skenario. Untuk Asia Tenggara,
dirancang pengembangan lapangan gas dengan
menggunakan kapasitas proses LNG sebesar 3
MMTPA dengan mengunakan Pendingin Campuran
Ganda (Dual Mixed Refrigerant). Sedangkan untuk di
Afrika Barat, dirancang 1 train tunggal dengan
kapasitas 1 MMTPA dengan menggunakan siklus
ekspander nitrogen untuk mencairkan gas terasosiasi
untuk lapangan laut dalam. Pada proyek AZURE ini
juga dikembangkan konsep yang menggunakan
substruktur baja maupun beton.

Gambar 9. Skenario Penerapan Sistem Produksi FONG / FLNG (Sumber: Shell)

Gambar 10. Konsep AZURE yang Menggunakan Substruktur Beton
(Sumber: John Kernaghan, Noble Denton Europe Ltd.)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Pengembangan konsep fasilitas LNG lepas pantai
lainnya adalah dengan menggunakan substruktur beton
untuk produksi, penyimpanan, dan bongkat muat LNG,
yang studinya dilakukan oleh Arup dan Foster
Wheeler. Terdapat dua konsep yang diajukan yaitu
Gravity Based Substructure (GBS) yang dirancang
untuk laut dangkal dengan kisaran 15-30 m dengan
beton yang terpancang hingga dasar laut, serta
Concrete FPSO (FPSO) yang dirancang untuk laut
yang lebih dalam hingga lebih dari 200 m. Keduanya
dirancang untuk digunakan di perairan Nigeria. Karena
struktur beton lebih stabil dibanding baja, baik GBS
maupun CFPSO menggunakan tangki penyimpanan
jenis membran.
Jenis substruktur beton ini memiliki berbagai kelebihan
beton cocok untuk konstruksi lokal,
substruktur beton dikonstruksikan pada dok yang
tidak terkendala masalah ukuran,
substruktur beton lebih tahan terhadap pergerakan
laut dibandingkan lambung kapal yang terbuat dari

substruktur beton cocok untuk penyimpanan LNG,
substruktur beton tahan terhadap kondisi
tumpahnya LNG,
beton adalah material yang awet, dan biaya operasi
beton adalah relatif kecil.
Meskipun demikian, masih terdapat beberapa
tantangan dalam konstruksi, transportasi, dan instalasi
terminal dengan substruktur beton, yang salah satunya
adalah relatif kurangnya pengalaman pada penggunaan
substruktur beton yang sekaligus digunakan sebagai
tempat penyimpanan LNG di tengah laut. Di samping
itu, hingga saat ini masih sedikit tersedia kode
perancangan dan aturan yang khusus mengatur
terminal LNG lepas pantai yang menggunakan beton.
Jika akhirnya beton akhirnya menjadi pilihan dalam
membangun suatu terminal LNG lepas pantai,
rancangan beton yang digunakan haruslah beton yang
berkualitas tinggi. Pada akhirnya keputusan untuk
menggunakan substruktur beton atau baja dipengaruhi
oleh kondisi yang ada.

Gambar 11. Terminal Produksi, Penyimpanan, dan Offloading LNG dengan Konsep Gravity Based Substructure (GBS)
(Sumber: Brian Raine, LNG Journal)

Gambar 12. Terminal Concrete FPSO (FPSO) LNG (Sumber: Brian Raine, LNG Journal)

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1. Terminal Penerimaan LNG Lepas
Terminal penerimaan LNG merupakan suatu
keberhasilan dalam mengintegrasikan substruktur lepas
pantai yang biasa digunakan pada industri minyak dan
gas, transportasi LNG dan sistem pengisian/bongkar
muat LNG serta rancangan regasifikasi di darat.
Terminal penerimaan adalah bagian yang penting
dalam suatu rantai nilai LNG. Lokasi terminal
penerimaan harus memenuhi berbagai kriteria
termasuk di dalamnya dari segi keselamatan,
keamanan, adanya akses terhadap laut, kedekatan
dengan jaringan distribusi gas, serta luas area yang
memadai untuk menjamin jarak yang aman dari
aktivitas manusia di sekitarnya. Terminal penerimaan
juga harus memenuhi persyaratan lingkungan. Dengan
berbagai kriteria di atas, dibutuhkan area lahan yang
cukup luas untuk membangun terminal penerimaan
LNG. Di tengah semakin sulitnya lahan yang dapat
memenuhi kriteria tersebut, konsep terminal
penerimaan LNG di lepas pantai bisa menjadi suatu
alternatif solusi.
Secara garis besar, selain hal-hal di atas, hal lain yang
melatarbelakangi diperlukannya suatu terminal
penerimaan LNG yang terletak di lepas pantai di
antaranya adalah adanya laut dangkal dekat pantai.
Seperti yang dijelaskan di atas, tidaklah mudah
menemukan lokasi di daratan sekitar pantai yang
memenuhi kriteria-kriteria yang disebutkan di atas.
Laut dangkal di dekat pantai bisa berpotensi untuk
dijadikan terminal penerimaan LNG karena letaknya
yang bisa menjangkau baik untuk bongkar muat LNG
dari tanker dan untuk penyaluran gasnya melalui
sistem pipa distribusi. Pemasangan terminal LNG di
lepas pantai berarti juga menjauhkan aktivitas terminal
penerimaan tersebut dari aktivitas manusia di
sekitarnya, yang berarti akan bisa lebih diterima oleh
masyarakat selain juga memperkecil konsekuensi
apabila terjadi kecelakaan -- terlebih lagi didukung
oleh catatan keselamatan yang bagus pada pengiriman
LNG melalui laut. Hal ini bisa menjadikan perizinan
untuk terminal lepas pantai relatif lebih mudah

dibanding terminal penerimaan di darat. Selain itu,
pemasangan terminal LNG di lepas pantai juga
memiliki kelebihan dari segi keamanan, di mana
peluang untuk disabotase oleh pihak-pihak yang tak
bertanggung jawab menjadi lebih kecil.
Dengan kelebihan-kelebihan terminal LNG lepas
pantai seperti yang disebutkan di atas artinya terminal
penerimaan LNG lepas pantai bisa mengatasi masalah
yang biasanya kurang mendapat perhatian dari pihak
pengembang pada pembangunan terminal penerimaan
LNG di wilayah tertentu atau yang biasa disebut
dengan not in my back yard (NIMBY). Selain itu
karena pembangunan terminal penerimaan LNG lepas
pantai tidak membutuhkan lahan yang besar yang
terletak di pantai, hal ini berarti tidak menimbulkan
masalah build absolutely nothing anywhere near
anything (BANANA).
Dalam pembangunan terminal penerimaan LNG di
lepas pantai, hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam
pemilihan lokasi adalah sebagai berikut.
Kedekatan dengan lalu lintas laut
Kedalaman laut
Arus dan gelombang
Kondisi laut dan angin
Kedekatan dengan infratruktur pipa gas
Kendala fisik serta identifikasi bahaya
Hal lainnya seperti adanya es, dsb.
Hal-hal yang disebutkan di atas juga akan
mempengaruhi jenis substruktur terminal yang akan
Konsep terminal penerimaan di lepas pantai secara
garis besar dapat dibagi menjadi dua yaitu dengan
menggunakan Konsep Floating Storage and
Regasification Unit (FSRU) dan menggunakan Gravity
Based Substructure (GBS). Konsep terminal FSRU
menggunakan lambung kapal dari baja sedangkan GBS
menggunakan beton sebgai substruktur. GBS dirancang
untuk laut dangkal yang berada di dekat pantai,
sedangkan FSRU digunakan untuk kedalaman laut
yang lebih dalam.

Gambar 13. Alasan dibutuhkannya terminal Penerimaan LNG Terapung (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

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Gambar 14 memperlihatkan contoh konsep FSRU yang
menggunakan tangki penyimpanan berbentuk Moss di
mana fasilitas regasifikasi terdapat pada bagian depan
kapal, sedangkan akomodasi berada pada bagian
belakang kapal. Sistem bongkar muat LNG berada
pada bagian tengah di mana transfer LNG dari tanker
dilakukan dari sisi ke sisi (side by side). Kapal ini
dilengkapi dengan mooring di bagian depan untuk
menjaga posisi kapal. Gas hasil regasifikasi dikirimkan
melalui riser untuk kemudian dialirkan melalui pipa
dasar laut ke darat. Kapal yang digunakan untuk FSRU

dapat berupa kapal yang dibangun baru ataupun
konversi dari tanker LNG.
Gambar 15 menunjukkan penggunaan konsep GBS
untuk terminal penerimaan. GBS yang digunakan pada
dasarnya hampir sama dengan GBS yang digunakan
untuk terminal produksi, hanya saja di atasnya terdapat
fasilitas regasifikasi. Untuk bongkar muat LNG,
fasilitas bongkar muatnya hampir sama dengan yang
digunakan pada dermaga terminal penerimaan LNG
konvensional di darat.

Gambar 14. Konsep Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU) ) (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

Gambar 15. Konsep Terminal Penerimaan LNG GBS (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

Gambar 16. Terminal Penerimaan LNG Terapung Pertama di Dunia (Sumber: El Paso)

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Ketika terminal produksi LNG lepas pantai masih
dalam tataran konsep, telah terdapat terminal
penerimaan LNG lepas pantai yang mulai beroperasi.
Terminal penerimaan LNG lepas pantai yang pertama
di dunia ini mulai beroperasi pada bulan Maret 2005,
dikembangkan oleh El Paso Global LNG Company.
Terminal penerimaaan ini dipasang di lepas pantai
Teluk Meksiko. Konsep yang digunakan adalah FSRU
yang menggunakan buoy dan riser untuk menyalurkan
LNG yang sudah diuapkan menuju daratan melalui
pipa bawah laut, dengan kedalaman laut sekitar 35 m.
Kapal yang dipakai juga dapat digunakan sebagai
tanker LNG konvensional. Diagram blok proses yang
digunakan untuk sistem regasifikasinya dapat dilihat
pada Gambar 17, yang menggunakan air laut sebagai
media penguapnya.

4. Status Fasilitas LNG Lepas Pantai
Teknologi LNG lepas pantai pada dasarnya merupakan
penggabungan teknologi pencairan, transportasi,
penyimpanan, dan regasifikasi LNG yang bisa
dikatakan sudah cukup mapan dengan teknologi
substruktur lepas pantai yang digunakan di industri

minyak dan gas. Dari penjelasan pada bagian
sebelumnya, dari berbagai konsep yang telah ada,
dapat diketahui bahwa teknologi fasilitas LNG lepas
pantai telah mencapai titik di mana implementasinya
sudah memungkinkan.
Terminal produksi LNG lepas pantai berpotensi untuk
mengeksploitasi gas tak terasosiasi sehingga dapat
memproduksi LNG dapat jumlah produksi yang besar,
baik yang terletak pada laut dangkal maupun laut
dalam. Terminal produksi LNG lepas pantai juga
sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan untuk
memproduksikan gas dari lapangan gas terasosiasi
bersamaan dengan produksi minyak.
Hingga saat ini, selain sudah terdapat satu terminal
penerimaan LNG lepas pantai yang sudah terpasang di
Teluk Meksiko, terdapat beberapa terminal LNG lepas
pantai lainnya yang segera akan direalisasikan baik
yang meggunakan konsep FSRU maupun GBS. Seperti
yang dapat dilihat pada Gambar 18, terdapat beberapa
wilayah yang berpotensi untuk dipasang terminal
pernerimaan LNG lepas pantai antara lain di lepas
pantai California, Laut Mediterania,serta Laut Adriatik.

Gambar 17. Diagram Alir Proses Regasifikasi yang Digunakan di Gulf Coast (Sumber: El Paso)

Gambar 18. Peta Potensi Terminal LNG Lepas Pantai di Dunia (Sumber: Moss Maritime)

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Proyek terminal penerimaan LNG laut dalam Cabrillo
sudah berada pada tahap studi untuk segera
dikonstruksikan. Terminal Cabrillo ini direncanakan
untuk dipasang di lepas pantai California. Terminal
penerimaan LNG yang akan dibangun berupa FSRU
yang dibangun baru dengan menggunakan tiga buah
penyimpanan dirancang dapat menampung hingga
275.700 m3 LNG. Kapasitas pengiriman mencapai
hingga 11,5 MMTPA.
Sementara itu di Laut Mediterania, direncanakan untuk
dipasang terminal penerimaan LNG berbentuk FSRU
Livorno. Proyek Livorno yang saat ini berada pada
tahap perancangan, direncanakan untuk mulai
beroperasi pada tahun 2008 mendatang. Kapal yang
digunakan merupakan konversi dari tanker LNG.
Kapasitas penyimpanan LNG mencapai hingga
137.000 m3, dengan menggunakan 4 buah tangki jenis
Moss. Kapasitas pengiriman mencapai hingga 4
Proyek terminal penerimaan LNG Rovigo yang
direncanakan untuk dipasang di Laut Adriatik,
konstruksinya dimulai pada tahun 2005. Konsep yang
digunakan adalah GBS yang dirancang untuk
menyimpan 200.000 m3 LNG dengan kapasitas
mencapai hingga 5 MMTPA. Jenis tangki
penyimpanan yang digunakan adalah prismatik.
Sedangkan wilayah yang berpotensi untuk dipasang
teminal produksi LNG antara lain adalah lapangan
stranded gas di lepas pantai barat laut Australia serta
lapangan gas terasosiasi yang terletak di pantai barat
Afrika. Namun sekalipun sudah banyak terdapat
banyak konsep terminal produksi LNG lepas pantai,
sayangya belum satupun konsep tersebut yang
direalisasikan. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa alasan
keekonomian masih menjadi permasalahan tersendiri,
yang menjadikan masih tertanamnya konservatisme
preferensi terhadap fasilitas LNG di darat. Terlebih lagi
di dalam bisnis LNG, yang sebagian besar
perdagangannya masih berupa kontrak jangka panjang,
pembeli menjadi kunci utama pembangunan suatu
terminal LNG. Peran pembeli sangat berpengaruh, di
mana mereka cenderung memiliki preferensi untuk
membeli LNG dari fasilitas di darat karena terkait
masalah harga.
Industri pencairan LNG juga lebih berfokus pada
kilang dengan kapasitas besar (5 – 8 MMTPA), yang
secara konvensional bisa menurunkan biaya produksi
LNG. Hal tersebut juga menjadikan LNG lepas pantai
menjadi lebih sulit lagi untuk diwujudkan mengingat
konsep LNG lebih pantai sebagian besar memiliki
konsep produksi untuk skala kecil hingga menengah (1
– 3 MMTPA). Dan untuk meningkatkan produksi
hingga skala besar, tentunya dibutuhkan pengalaman
yang memadai di lepas pantai.

Pembangunan terminal LNG lepas pantai akhirnya
harus bersaing dengan fasilitas konvensional di darat,
kecuali dalam kondisi tertentu. Pertanyaan selanjutnya
adalah apakah pengendali dari bisnis LNG ini ada pada
sisi pasokan ataukah permintaan gas. Pasar gas yang
semakin terliberalisasi saat ini diharapkan bisa
membuka peluang adanya pembeli yang semakin
inovatif dalam mendapatkan pasokan gasnya.

5. Kesimpulan
Pengembangan teknologi LNG lepas pantai pada
pencairan, transportasi, penyimpanan, dan regasifikasi
LNG yang bisa dikatakan sudah cukup mapan, dengan
teknologi substruktur lepas pantai yang digunakan di
industri minyak dan gas. Selain dapat memperpendek
rantai nilai LNG, pengembangan LNG lepas pantai
juga memiliki banyak keuntungan baik dari segi
pengembangan terminal produksi dan ekspor maupun
terminal penerimaannya. Hal inilah yang mendorong
dikembangkannya berbagai konsep terminal LNG
lepas pantai.
Banyaknya konsep yang dikembangkan untuk berbagai
terminal LNG lepas pantai menunjukkan bahwa
teknologi fasilitas LNG lepas pantai telah mencapai
titik di mana implementasinya sudah memungkinkan.
Dengan kata lain, tidak terdapat kendala teknis yang
signifikan pada pengembangan LNG di lepas pantai.
Meskipun demikian, hingga saat ini belum satupun
konsep produksi LNG lepas pantai yang terealisasi,
walaupun di lain pihak sudah terdapat beberapa
terminal penerimaan LNG lepas pantai yang mulai
terealisasi. Faktor keekonomian menjadi salah satu
alasan mengapa pembangunan terminal produksi LNG
di lepas pantai sulit direalisasikan. Terlebih lagi hingga
saat ini pembeli masih mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat
dalam bisnis LNG. Diharapkan di masa-masa
mendatang, dengan adanya perkembangan pasar gas
yang semakin terliberalisasi, semakin membuka
peluang adanya pembeli yang semakin inovatif dalam
mendapatkan pasokan gasnya. Dengan demikian,
konservatisme akan adanya preferensi pengolahan
LNG di darat pelan-pelan dapat dihilangkan.

6. Referensi
[1] Barklay, Michael & Noel Denton, 2003, Selecting
Offshore LNG Processes, LNG Journal, October
[2] Bureau Veritas, 2006, Offshore LNG Terminals,
Singapore: LNG Terminal Summit 2006.
[3] Department of Trade and Industry UK, 2005, UK
Capability in the LNG Global Market, London.
[4] Faber, F., et al., 2002, Floating LNG Solutions
from Drawing Board to Reality, Houston:
Offshore Technology Conference 2002.

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[5] Kernaghan, John, 2004, Offshore Floating LNG
[6] Moss Maritime, 2005, LNG Mottaksterminaler av
[7] Perry, Wayne, 2003, On Board Regasification for
LNG Ships, Tokyo: 22nd World Gas Conference
[8] Poten & Partners, 2002, Floating LNG Gaining
Ground as Companies Pursue Technology
Options, LNG in World Markets.
[9] Raine, Brian dan Al Kaplan, 2003, Concrete-based
Offshore LNG Production in Nigeria, LNG
Journal September/October 2003, hal 30.
[10] Sheffield, John A., 2005, Offshore LNG
Production – How to Make it Happen, Business
Briefing: LNG Review 2005.

7. Biografi
Mira Maulidiana, lahir di Palembang,
30 Januari 1980, lulus dari Teknik
Industri Universitas Indonesia pada
tahun 2002 sebagai salah satu lulusan
terbaik. Saat ini tercatat sebagai
Manajemen Gas Alam, Teknik Kimia,
Universitas Indonesia. Karir di dunia migas dimulai
sejak bergabung dengan ConocoPhillips Indonesia Inc.
Ltd. pada Enginering Graduate Training Program pada
tahun 2002-2003. Posisi saat ini adalah sebagai Project
Planning Engineer.

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Buckling of Isotropic and Composite Cylindrical Shells
under Axial Compression: Can composite save weight?
Arief Yudhanto1, Bambang K. Hadi2

Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology & Research (A*STAR)
DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608. E-mail:
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesha 10, Indonesia 40132. E-mail:

Abstract – This paper deals with degree of weightsaving that can be achieved by composite materials
when they are used to build cylindrical shells.
Cylindrical shells are subjected to axial compressive
load, and critical buckling load is calculated using
linear theory. The linear theory for both isotropic and
composite cylindrical shells is employed, and isotropic,
i.e. steel, cylindrical shells is used as a benchmark in
this exercise. Two types of well-known composite
systems, i.e. carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy, are used
and simple optimization is made to evaluate the degree
of weight saving. Two types of stacking sequence,
namely cross-ply [0/0/90/90] s and quasi isotropic
[0/45/-45/90] s, are proposed, and weight of each
stacking sequence is evaluated.

1. Introduction
Composite material is a combination of two or more
separate materials in macroscopic state. Unlike metals,
the building constituents, namely fiber and matrix, still
can be observed without magnification devices. Fibers
in composite material act as reinforcement of matrix
because fibers are usually stiffer than matrix. Matrix
serves as a binder for fibers arrangement and also
protects fibers from environmental effect and impact
Composite materials can be divided into four categories:
Continuous fiber composites
Woven fiber composites
Chopped fiber composites
Hybrid composites
These four types of fiber-reinforced composites can be
seen in Figure 1.
For structural applications, continuous fiber composites
are usually used and they can be stacked with various
orientation angles. In the market, they are available in
the form of pre-impregnated ply or “pre-preg”. This prepreg must be cured under certain temperature and
pressure in the autoclave before composite lamina can
be formed. “Lamina” is one ply of continuous fiber

composites with certain orientation angle. “Laminates”
are composed of several lamina stacked together.





Figure 1.Types of fiber fiber-reinforced composites (a)
continuous, (b) woven, (c) chopped and (d) hybrid [1]
Composites have been widely applied, especially in
aerospace industry, for more than 40 years. Currently,
they are posing as strong candidates to replace metals in
automotive, medical, sport and offshore industries. This
is due to the fact that composites have a good fatigue
resistance, non-corrosive, high specific strength, and
composites are easy to be tailored. However, production
cost of composites are considerably high compared to
metals. This could be the reason why only several parts
of a structure are made of composites.

2. Applications of Composites in
Offshore Industry
In this section, composite in pipeworks, rigid risers,
tendons, composite patch and joining techniques are
discussed. Barrier to the use of composites, and efforts
to overcome this barrier are also discussed.

2.1 Pipeworks
Composite pipelines made of GFRP or even hybrid
composite are used for transporting aqueous fluids and
natural gases. The reason to use GFRP to replace steel is
because of its good corrosion resistance. GFRP pipeline
also performs good fire integrity when filled with

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stagnant or flowing water. GFRP can be used to build
caissons where high fatigue resistance is needed.
Steel Strip Laminates
Steel Strip Laminates (SSL) pipe is a hybrid composite
which comprises GFRP bore and outer layers and steel
strips as inner layer. GFRP is used to protect steel from
corrosive environment, whilst steel itself is a load
bearing structure with high pressure performance. SSL
is invented because if only GFRP is utilized for highpressure pipeline, the thickness tends to become larger
than steel pipeline. Overall, SSL has higher ultimate
strength than GFRP yet very cost-effective. Bonding
between steel and GFRP is ensured by the use of
adhesive developed for rocket motor casing.
Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipework
Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipework (RTP) consists of
inner thermoplastic liner, balanced composite plies in
the middle and thermoplastic for outer cover (Figure 2).
Composite of aramid fibers polymeric matrix (AFRP) is
used to wrap on the liner. The advantage of using AFRP
is that it can be used in non-impregnated state. Glass
fiber could also be used since it is less expensive, but
the damage due to fiber – fiber friction may arise.
Polyethylene is usually used for liner and cover, but for
higher temperatures polyamide-11 and polyvinylidene
flouride are used.


Balanced plies of

Outer cover


on-going saving in topside weight

Figure 3. Composite riser is prepared and design of
composite riser (inzet) [2, 3]

2.3 Tendons
Tension leg platforms TLP are one of the most favored
forms of construction when water depth exceeds 1000
m. TLP, which is anchored by taught tethers from the
sea bed, is the most sensitive of deepwater platforms,
and therefore steel tendons become less desirable
because self-weight and resonance problems associated
with tendon elasticity. Both effects favor the use of
stiffer lighter carbon fiber tendons.

2.4 Composite




Repairing damage due to impact or corrosion on steel
surface can be done by using composite layers. The
reliability of composite patch is considerably high since
it provides higher circumferential stress [4].
Thermosetting pipes are usually joined by implementing
adhesively bonded joints and composite (butt and wrap)
joints. Figure 4 shows adhesively bonded joints.

Figure 2. Construction of reinforced thermoplastic pipe
which consists of polymer liner and outer cover and
composite plies in the middle [2].

2.2 Rigid Risers
Composites are introduced to replace metals to build
rigid riser. Composite riser designs incorporate several
features like metallic or polymeric liner, carbon fiber
reinforcement (to prevent tensile and bending loads) and
S-glass reinforcement (to carry pressure loads). Figure 3
shows rigid riser specimens made of composite.
The benefits of using composite for rigid riser are
- lower cost
- additional buoyancy (it reduces riser weight)
- riser cross-section is reduced (lower drag forces and
reduce tension)
- reduction in cost of tensioning equipments

Figure 4. Some examples of adhesively-bonded joint in
pipelines [2]

2.5 Barriers to the Use of Composites
In 1980s, there were at least four barriers to the use of
composite in offshore industry:

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

(1) A reluctance to use ‘new material’ so-called
composites that will definitely involve different
design and working practices
(2) Resilience in using composites may also arise due
to one’s limited understanding on behavior of
(3) Limited methods which are capable to be scaled-up
to produce large offshore structures
(4) Limited supply of carbon fiber which leads to high
However, first barrier is now answered by presence of
design codes, such as BS-4994 (1987) and ASME (1992)
for composite pressure vessels, and API Specifications
for Composite Tubing. Designs codes for “Composite
for Load-bearing Structures” are now also available,
such as Eurocode for Composites (1994) and DNV
Design Guideline for Design with Composites (2000)
[2]. DNV Offshore Standard for Composite Components
(2003) [5] and DNV Recommended Practice for
Composite Risers (2003) [6] are comprehensive code in
designing composites. Second barrier has been
answered by the abundance of textbooks and journals on
mechanics of composite which provide designers with
useful formulation and development in composite
analysis. Third barrier is answered by the use of
SCRIMP or Seeman Composites Resin Infusion
Moulding Process. Fourth barrier is now answered by
the development of new low cost carbon fiber products.

3. Buckling of Axially-Compressed
Cylindrical Shells
Buckling of cylindrical shell may occur due to axial
compression, bending, torsion and combined loading
such as combination between internal pressure and axial
compression, etc. The corresponding buckling modes
can be divided into two, namely local buckling and
global buckling.
Cylindrical shell subjected to axial compression can be
seen in Figure 5. When shell is subjected to axial
compression, it may start to buckle at a unique critical
value. This critical value is called critical buckling load.
Evaluation of critical buckling load is extremely
important in design since shell or any structures may
fail due to buckling rather than due to static loading
(compression), which can be characterized by yield
strength of materials.

After this value has been reached, shell starts to
generate different mode of buckling, and the load tends
to decrease. This event is called post-buckling. Shell can
collapse catastrophically during this post-buckling
regime, and therefore, buckling of shells is sometimes
termed as ‘collapse behavior of shells’. Buckling and
post-buckling events are best described by bifurcation
Analytical solution to estimate critical buckling load is
normally very conservative. It means that the estimated
load is way above actual critical load. In the experiment,
this inaccuracy can be observed clearly. This is due to
the fact that initial imperfection plays its part in
determining the critical load. Effect of initial
imperfection such as small buckle of shell has to be
taken into account in the calculation. Initial
imperfection factor is used as multiplier in critical
buckling load estimation and it is commonly empirical
in nature.

4. Buckling of Isotropic Cylindrical
Based on the linear theory, critical buckling load of
cylindrical shells of intermediate length is given as

σ cr =


3(1 −ν )

where E is Young’s modulus, ν is Poisson’s ratio, t and
R are thickness and radius of cylinder, respectively.
ASME used buckling criteria for steel cylindrical shells
developed by Miller et al (1981) [7]. The criteria are
applicable to unstiffened and stiffened shells. They
suggested that for unstiffened shells, local buckling
criterion should be used. It is given as follows:

σ f = ηασ cr


where η is plasticity reduction factor and α is
knockdown factor that accounts initial imperfection of
Plasticity reduction factor η is given by

η = 1 .0

Figure 5. Shell is subjected to axial compression.



∆ < 0.55


+ 0.18

0.55 < ∆ < 1.6



1.0 + 1.15∆

∆ > 1.6

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

in which ∆ = α

expressed in terms of 2-dimensional (2D) tensor strains
as follow:

σ cr
; σy is yield stress.

Knockdown factor α is determined from the larger value
of following equations:

α = 0.207
α = 1.52 − 0.473 log10 ( R / t )
α = 300(σ y / E ) − 0.033

R / t > 600
Use smaller value for

α = 0.826 /( M ) 0.6
α = 0.207

1.73 < M < 10
M > 10

Q11 Q12
σ 2 = Q21 Q22
0 2Q66 γ 12 / 2

where the Qij are the components of the lamina stiffness
matrix which are expressed as follow:

R / t < 600
Q11 =

Q22 =

where M = L / Rt

5. Classical Laminate Theory
Critical buckling load is function of geometry of
structure, e.g. length, thickness, radius, and stiffness of
material. While only two elastic material properties that
should be defined for isotropic material, i.e. Young’s
modulus and Poission’s ratio, laminated composite need
a rather complex calculation to obtain its laminate
stiffnesses. Stress-strain in local coordinate and global
coordinate systems are given, and laminate stiffnesses
(well-known as matrix [ABBD]) are described [1], [8]
and [9].

5.1 Stress-Strain in Local Coordinate
Laminate is made of several unidirectional laminae
which can be stacked together in any fiber direction.
Lamina has three mutually orthogonal planes of
material property symmetry (12, 13 and 23 planes). The
123 coordinate axes of lamina in Figure 4 are referred to
principal material coordinates or local coordinate. Axis1 is parallel with fiber direction, whilst axis-2 and axis-3
are transverse directions. Axes xyz is called global
coordinate system.


υ E
; Q12 = 12 22 = Q 21
1 − υ12υ 21
1 − υ12υ 21

1 − υ12υ21

; Q66 = G12 ; ν 21 = ν12



where E11 is Young’s modulus in longitudinal direction,
E22 is Young’s modulus in transverse direction, G12 is
shear modulus in 12 plane, and ν12 and ν21 are Poisson’s
ratio in 12 plane. These material elastic properties can
be obtained experimentally, and usually they are
available in many composite textbooks.

5.2 Stress-strain in Global Coordinate
Now, lamina stiffness in local coordinate system has to
be transformed into global coordinate system. Stressstrain relationship in global coordinate system are given
in following matrix:

Q11 Q12 Q16 ε x
σ y = Q12 Q22 Q26 ε y
τ xy
Q16 Q26 Q66 γ xy



Q11 = Q11 c 4θ + Q 22 s 4θ + 2(Q12 + 2Q66 )s 2θ c 2θ


Q12 = (Q11 + Q22 − 4Q66 )s 2θ c 2θ + Q12 c 4θ + s 4θ
Q22 = Q11s θ + Q22c θ + 2(Q12 + 2Q66 )s θ c θ





Q16 = (Q11 − Q12 − 2Q66 )c3θ sθ − (Q22 − Q12 + 2Q66 )cθ s 3θ

Q26 = (Q11 − Q12 + 2Q66 )cθ s 3θ − (Q22 − Q12 − 2Q66 )c3θ sθ


Q66 = (Q11 + Q22 − 2Q12 − 2Q66 )s 2θ c 2θ + Q66 s 4θ + c 4θ


Notation c and s stand for cosine and sine, respectively.
θ is fiber orientation angle with respect to material axis1 (see again Figure 6). Following right-hand-rule,
positive angle (θ+) is counterclockwise, vice versa.
Figure 6. Unidirectional composite lamina with
principal and global coordinate system.
If we assume that properties in transverse direction are
the same, stress-strain relationship of lamina can be

5.3 Laminate Stiffnesses
Several laminae, which are individually oriented with
different θ, are combined to produce laminate.
Examples of laminate stacking sequence can be seen in

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Figure 7. Recall that positive angle (+θ) is
counterclockwise. Notation 90º means that the fiber
orientation is rotated 90 degree counterclockwise with
respect to 1-axis, 45º means rotation of 45 degree, and
so on. For the sake of simplicity, six laminae of
[0º/90º/45º/45º/90º/0º] can be rewrite as [0º/90º/45º]s or
simply [0/90/45]s. Subscript s is defined as symmetry.

substituting each term in Eq. (xx) into Nx, Ny, Nxy, Mx,
My and Mxy, we can obtain following matrix:















N xy


M xy




















ε x0
ε 0y
γ xy
κ xy

Figure 7. Examples of laminate stacking sequence of
[0/90/45]s and [90/45/30]s
Classical laminate theory (CLT) is based on plate
analysis where two-dimensional stresses σx, σy and τxy
are produced due to bending and twisting curvatures and
to the mid-plane biaxial extension and shear. It is
important to note that CLT assumes that each ply is in
plane stress condition and the inter-laminar stresses are
neglected. Lamina or ply numbering system for CLT
can be seen in Figure 8.

Where laminate extensional stiffnesses are given by

Aij =
−t / 2


(Qij )k dz = (Qij )k (z k − z k −1 )


k =1

Laminate coupling stiffnesses are given by

Bij =
−t / 2

(Qij )k z dz = 12

k =1

(Qij )k (zk2 − zk2−1 )


Laminate bending stiffnesses are given by

Dij =
−t / 2

(Qij )k z 2dz = 13 (Qij )k (zk3 − zk3−1 )


k =1

where the subscripts i, j = 1, 2, or 6.
Stiffness terms need to be calculated before analysis for
composites is performed. In subsequent section, we will
see how are we going to make use of these terms. As
mentioned, these terms are sometimes called “matrix

Figure 8. Laminate geometry and ply numbering
system. z is calculated with respect to the middle
It is convenient to use forces and moment per unit
length. Force per unit length in x-direction is given by

Nx =

σ x dz =
−t / 2


k =1

(σ x )k dz


z k −1

Moment per unit length with respect to x-axis is given

Mx =

σ x z dz =
−t / 2



k =1

z k −1

(σ x )k z dz


6. Buckling of Composite Cylindrical
Linear theory to calculate buckling of composite
cylindrical shells due to axial compression was
developed by NASA [9]. The theory is valid for:
Special orthotropy material where ( )16 = ( ) 26 = 0
No imperfection
Ends of cylindrical shell are supported by rings
rigid in their planes but no resistance to rotation and
bending out of their plane
Critical buckling load is given below:

where t is laminate thickness, (σx)k is stress in the kth
lamina, zk-1 is distance from mid-surface to inner surface
of the kth lamina, and zk is distance from midsurface to
outer surface of kth lamina (see Figure 8). By

σ cr =

Yudhanto & Hadi - 5

m 2 π 2 D11
L2 t c

ξ +

γ 2 L2
π 2 m 2 R 2t c




ξ = 1+ 2

D12 2 D 22 4
β +


A11 A22 − A12

ψ =

A11 A22 −

A11 +



− 2 A12 β 2 + A22 β 4

Critical Buckling Stress (MPa)

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

with kno ckdo wn facto r


witho ut kno ckdo wn facto r





γ = 1 − 0.901 1 − e −φ





Figure 9. Critical buckling load of steel cylindrical
shells with and without knockdown factor


8. Composite Cylindrical Shells
8.1 Methodology
The methodology developed in this exercise is
described as follow:




1/ 2

where, φ =



To incorporate the effect of imperfection,
knockdown factor γ is introduced to the Eq. (10):


D11 D 22
A11 A22

A11 , A12 , A22 and A66 can be obtained from Eq. (7),
D11 , D12 and D 22 can be obtained from Eq. (8), m is
number of half-waves in axial direction, n is number of
half-waves in circumferential direction, R is radius of
cylindrical shell, tc is total thickness of composite and L
is length of cylindrical shell.

7. Steel Cylindrical Shell
The geometry of isotropic cylindrical shell used in
present has length L = 500 mm and thickness t = 2 mm.
Shell is considered intermediate cylinder. Critical load
is calculated for radius-thickness ratio R/t of 100, 200,
300, 400 and 500. Shell is simply supported along
circumference at the two ends. Elastic properties for
steel is Young’s modulus E = 200 GPa, Poisson’s ratio
ν = 0.3 and ρ = 8 x 10-6 kg/mm3.
Critical buckling load estimated by Eq. (1) for five
different R/t can be seen in Figure 8. It shows that by
increasing the radius of shell the critical buckling load
will be reduced. It is valid for formulae both with and
without knockdown factor. If let us assume that the
yield strength σy of steel is 500 MPa, for R/t
critical buckling load without knockdown factor can be
used as compression failure criterion which is
characterized by instability mode.

(1) After critical buckling load for isotropic cylindrical
shells has been obtained for particular R/t, L, E and
ν (as seen in Figure 9), it is then used as benchmark
to calculate thickness required to build a laminate.
Only critical stress with knockdown factor is
employed as a benchmark.
(2) Selecting laminate stacking sequence. In present
paper, we choose cross-ply laminates of
[0/0/90/90]s and quasi-isotropic of [0/45/-45/90]s.
There are eight plies of composite laminae in each
(3) Selecting composite system. Two well-known
composite systems, namely carbon/epoxy and
glass/epoxy composites, are used. Elastic material
properties for these systems are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Elastic properties of unidirectional
composite (Source: Gibson [1] and Herakovich [8])
E11 (GPa)
E22 (GPa)
G12 (GPa)

ρ (kg/mm3)

1.54 x 10-6

2 x 10-6

(4) Thickness of composite required to sustain critical
buckling load of steel cylindrical shells is then
calculated using “linear theory”. Readers may use
DNV Code formulae in their exercise.
(5) Degree of weight saving (in %) is then estimated
for two composite stacking sequences, and two
composite systems.

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

8.2 Thickness Required for Composites

8.3 Can Composite Save Weight?

Thickness required for composite is described in
normalized fashion. tc/t is composite thickness/steel
thickness. R/t used in this chart is referred to that of
steel. From Figures 10 and 11, it shows that composite
cylindrical shells require thicker structure to be able to
sustain same critical buckling load of steel. It is valid
for both carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composite
systems. Comparing two composite systems, it is found
that carbon/epoxy requires thinner structure compared
to glass/epoxy.

Carbon/Epoxy Composites
The degree of weight-saving of carbon/epoxy system
can be seen in Figure 12. At least, for the lowest R/t,
designers can save weight of up to 45.8% when they use
cross-ply and quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy composites
for axially-compressed cylindrical shells. As R/t
increases, weight-saving degree is also increased. It may
be concluded that the use of carbon/epoxy is suggested
for higher R/t.


Weight saving (%)
























The chosen stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]s is found
to be more superior compared to cross-ply [0/0/90/90]s
as indicated by thinner structure for all specified ranges
of R/t.



Figure 12. Degree of weight-saving of carbon/epoxy
composites compared to steel cylindrical shells
Glass/Epoxy Composites
The degree of weight-saving of glass/epoxy system is
not as outstanding as carbon/epoxy. As can be seen in
Figure 13, for cross-ply laminate weight-saving can be
achieved, in general, for R/t 200. Whilst for quasiisotropic laminate, weight-saving can be achieved for
R/t 400. It means that for R/t below 400, it may not be
effective to use glass/epoxy, as the degree of weightsaving is less than 9%.













Weight saving (%)






Figure 10. Thickness required for two stacking
sequences to sustain similar load with steel cylindrical
shells. Composite is carbon/epoxy system.


Figure 11. Thickness required for two stacking
sequences to sustain similar load with steel cylindrical
shells. Composite is glass/epoxy system.
However, it may not be an advantage to have thicker
structure since it requires higher production cost. To
justify this issue, designers are suggested to estimate the
composite utilizations in terms of reliability in long
duration, e.g. fatigue performance, corrosion resistance,
fire resistance etc.











Figure 13. Degree of weight-saving of glass/epoxy
composites compared to steel cylindrical shells
The reason behind this fact is that the specific stiffness
(stiffness/density or E/ρ) of glass/epoxy is much lower
than that of carbon/epoxy. Normalization of specific
stiffness of composite with that of steel can be seen in

Yudhanto & Hadi - 7

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Table 2. Since the critical buckling load is also
dependent on stiffness, when selecting type of
composite system, designers are suggested to evaluate
specific stiffness of composite compared to its metal
counterpart as well.
Table 2. Specific stiffness ratio between composite and
(E11/ρ )/(E/ρ )steel

8. Conclusions and Recommendations
Composite materials have been applied in offshore
industry to build pipeworks, rigid risers, tendons and so
on. Composite is also employed as patch materials for
damaged pipeline.
In the application, composites may be used to build
cylindrical shells. During service, shells can be
inevitably subjected to axial compression. It is
important to investigate the degree of weight saving that
can be achieved by composites compared to their
counterpart, i.e. steel. This paper deals with critical
buckling calculation of cylindrical shells subjected to
axial compression. Linear equation is employed to
determine the critical buckling load. Two well-known
composite systems was investigated (carbon/epoxy and
glass/epoxy), and two composite lay-ups were proposed
to estimate the degree of weight-saving. It can be
concluded that:
Critical buckling load of steel cylindrical shells
tends to decrease with the increase of R/t for both
with and without knock-down factor.
When using critical buckling load of steel as
reference, thickness required by carbon/epoxy
composite to achieve similar critical load is more
than 1.5 times of steel thickness for R/t = 100 to
500; while using glass/epoxy, thickness required is
more than 3 times of steel for R/t = 100 to 500. It is
important to recall that the lay-up selected in
present exercise is cross-ply [0/0/90/90]s and quasiisotropic [0/45/-45/90]s.
Carbon/epoxy can save weight of up to 71%, while
glass/epoxy can only save weight of up to 27%. In
fact, while carbon/epoxy can save weight for R/t =
100 to 500, glass/epoxy can save weight for only
R/t = 200 and above for quasi-isotropic and R/t =
400 and above for cross-ply. Glass/epoxy is
somewhat inferior compared to carbon/epoxy in
terms of weight saving.
This paper can be extended by further investigating the
Effect of other composite lay-ups with respect to
critical buckling load.
Degree of weight saving of other composite lay-ups
and composite systems.
Effect of knock-down factor with respect to critical
buckling load.

Post buckling behavior of cylindrical shells

9. References



Gibson R. F. “Principles of Composite Materials
Mechanics”, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Gibson A. G. “Composite Materials in the
Offshore Industry”, Comprehensive Composite
Materials, Vol. 6, pp. 459 – 478, Elsevier Ltd.,
Salama, M. M. “Introduction of New Technology
– Titanium and Composites”, presentation slides,
ConocoPhillips, Inc.
Toutanji H. and Dempsey S. “Stress Modeling of
Composite Materials”, Thin-Walled Structures,
Vol. 39, pp. 153 – 165, 2001.
Det Norske Veritas, “Composite Components”,
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C501, January
Det Norske Veritas, “Composite Risers”,
Recommended Practice, DNV-RP-F202, May
Narayanan R. (Ed.) “Shell Structures – Stability
and Strength”, Elsevier Applied Science
Publisher, 1985.
Herakovich C. T. “Mechanics of Fibrous
Composites”, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Vinson J. R. “The Behavior of Shells Composed
of Isotropic and Composite Materials”, Kluwer
Academic Publisher, 1993.

10. Biography
Arief Yudhanto is a Researcher at the
Singapore. Prior joining DSI, his works
include failure of composite structures,
buckling of sandwich structures and
composite aircraft design. Currently, his
works include shock, vibration and electromagnetism of
HDD. He received B.Eng degree in Aeronautics &
Astronautics from Bandung Institute of Technology
(ITB), and M.Eng degree in Mechanical Engineering
from National University of Singapore (NUS).
Bambang Kismono Hadi is an
Associate Professor at the Department of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Institut
Teknologi Bandung. He has been
teaching mechanics of composite
structures for 10 years. His works
include ballistic impact and buckling of sandwich
structures. He obtained B.Eng degree in Mechanical
Engineering from ITB, and MSc and PhD in Composite
Materials from Imperial College London, UK.

Yudhanto & Hadi - 8

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Motor Bearing Failure on Lube Oil Pump due to Soft
Foot Problem
Anas Rosyadi
PT Tiara Vibrasindo Pratama. Email:

Abstract – There are two lube oil pumps at Ammonia
Plant, one is driven by turbine and another is by electric
motor. Turbine driven lube oil pump is the main unit;
motor driven lube oil pump is stand by unit. The motor
driven unit is only running when the turbine driven unit
out of service. Plant Maintenance person reported that
frequent bearing failure occurred on motor. Motor
vibration on both bearing was very directional at
horizontal direction. It was found that frequent bearing
failure is caused by soft foot problem.




Figure 2. Machine Diagram and Measurement Point

1. Introduction
Ammonia Plant operates two lube oil pumps, one is
driven by turbine and another is by electric motor.
Turbine driven lube oil pump is the main unit; motor
driven lube oil pump is stand by unit. The motor driven
unit is only running when the turbine driven unit out of
service. Tiara Engineer was requested to assess
condition of lube oil pump (motor driven).

2. Machine Configuration

3. “As Is” Condition
Plant personnel request to do vibration analysis on this
motor to assess bearing motor condition. A set of
vibration reading was acquired using CSI 2120 Dual
Channel Machinery Analyzer and RBMware software.
Sensor type is accelerometer. FFT Spectrum, time
waveform, PeakVue data were recorded on each bearing
to find out problems. Vibration alarm limit use predetermined alarm generated by the vibration software
and ISO 1018-1:1995. Table 1 showed overall vibration
levels of Lube Oil Pump. Notice that motor had high
vibration level and very directional. High vibration only
occurred at horizontal direction at motor inboard and
outboard bearing.
Table 1. Overall vibration level of “as is” condition


Figure 1. Lube Oil Pump
The pump was driven by electric motor, 55 kW,
operating speed 2960 RPM. Both motor bearings are
SKF 6314-C3 with grease lubrication. Pump type is
centrifugal type with 5 blades. Measurement point’s
designations and its location are illustrated at Figure 2.

Rosyadi - 1


Overall Vibration Level
(mm/s RMS)
(“As is” Condition)

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Multiple spectrum of motor vibration is shown in
Figure 3. Very directional vibration occurred at both
motor bearings. Figure 4 is spectrum motor inboard
(DE) bearing at horizontal direction. There is two
vibration peaks around 99 Hz and its level already
above predetermined alarm.


Figure 5 is expanded view of MOH as shown in Figure
4. The spectrum was acquired with high resolution,
Fmax = 200 Hz, 3200 line of resolution. Two peaks are
easily separated, 98.48 Hz is 2XRPM (mechanical
induced vibration) and 99.72 Hz is 2XFL (electrical
induced vibration).

KPA - Lube Oil Pump












Max Amp







Frequency in Hz



Figure 3. Multiple spectrum of motor vibration. High horizontal vibration detected on inboard and outboard bearings.


RMS Velo city in mm /Sec

Route Spectrum
12-OCT-04 08:25:54



KPA - Lube Oil Pump

RMS = 5.33
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2955.
RPS = 49.25
Fault Limit








Frequency in Hz


Figure 4. High vibration at 99.72 Hz. It is electrical induced vibration.

Rosyadi - 2




ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

KPA - Lube Oil Pump




Analyze Spectrum
12-OCT-04 08:26:16

RMS Velo city in mm/Sec


RMS = 5.30
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2955.
RPS = 49.25









Frequency in Hz





Figure 5. Expanded view of MOH, acquired with high resolution, Fmax = 200 Hz, 3200 line of resolution. Two peaks
are easily separated, 98.48 Hz is 2XRPM (mechanical induced vibration) and 99.72 Hz is 2XFL (electrical induced

4. Motor Bearing Condition
Figure 6 and 7 are PeakVue spectrum of motor outboard
and inboard bearing respectively. Motor inboard and
outboard bearings used the same bearing type SKF
6314-3. PeakVue analysis is actually a measure of
"stress wave" activity in a metallic component. Such
stress waves are associated with impact, friction, fatigue
cracking, lubrication, etc., that generate faults in various

KPA - Lube Oil Pump



components such as rolling element bearings and gears.
For example, when a rolling element impacts a defect
on a bearing raceway, it will generate a series of stress
waves that propagate away from the location of the
defect in numerous directions. The wave propagation
introduces a ripple on the machine surface that will
introduce a response output in a sensor detecting
absolute motion such as an accelerometer or a strain






RMS Accelerat ion in G-s


Route Spectrum
12-OCT-04 08:21:51
(PkVue-HP 1000 Hz)
OVRALL= .6404 A-DG
RMS = .6379
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2960.
RPS = 49.33

>SKF 6314






Frequency in Hz



Freq: 151.85
Ordr: 3.078
Spec: .219

Figure 6. PeakVue spectrum acquired from NDE motor bearing. Outer race bearing defect detected.

Rosyadi - 3

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Some common defects which generate stress waves are
pitting in antifriction bearing races causing the rollers to
impact, fatigue cracking in bearing raceways or gear
teeth (generally at the root), scuffing or scoring on gear
teeth, cracked or broken gear teeth and others. The
challenge becomes one of detecting and quantifying the
stress wave activity relative to energy and repetition
rate. This leads to the identification of certain faults and,
with experience, allows evaluating severity of those
faults detected [1].

KPA - Lube Oil Pump

RMS Acc in G- s




Fundamental BPFO (ball pass frequency outer race) and
its harmonics of bearing SKF 6314-C3 were present at
PeakVue spectrum both motor bearings. Meanwhile,
PeakVue time waveform as shown in Figure 7, bearing
fault had emerge impacting level up to 14.01 G’s. Its
level is very high. Normal bearing condition without
bearing defect will have impacting level less than 3 G’s
in PeakVue time waveform. Based on PeakVue data,
outer race bearing defect has occurred at both motor
bearings. It was recommended to replace both motor
bearings with the new ones.





12-OCT-04 08:26:46
(PkVue-HP 1000 Hz)
RMS = 3.90
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2960.
RPS = 49.33



>SKF 6314


Accelerat ion in G-s




Frequency in Hz



12-OCT-04 08:26:46
(PkVue-HP 1000 Hz)
RMS = 3.93
PK(+) = 10.26
PK(-) = 3.75
CRESTF= 2.61





Time in mSecs





Freq: 152.35
Ordr: 3.088
Spec: 3.105

Figure 7. PeakVue spectrum along with time waveform acquired from DE motor bearing. Outer race bearing defect
caused very high impact up to 14.01 G’s as detected in PeakVue timewaveform.


KPA - Lube Oil Pump
Route Spectrum
12-OCT-04 08:28:40


RMS = 3.45
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2954.
RPS = 49.24
Fault Limit










RMS Velo city in mm/Sec





Frequency in Hz





Figure 8. High vibration at 5XRPM exceed predetermined fault alarm, it may be from blade pass frequency (number of
pump blade is unknown). Acquired at pump NDE bearing, vertical direction.

Rosyadi - 4

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Figure 8 is velocity spectrum of pump inboard and
outboard bearings. High blade pass frequency (BPF)
vibration detected at 5XRPM. Blade pass frequency
equals to the number of blades (or vanes) X RPM.
Blade pass vibration forces are generated by a pressure
variation or pulse each time a blade / vane loads or
unloads as it passes nearby stationary components (such
as diffuser vanes or discharges volutes). Significant
vibration both at BPF and its harmonics will be
generated if an impeller is not centrally located within
its housing and properly aligned with diffuser. High
BPF amplitude can also be generated if an impeller
wear ring seizes on the shaft or if welds fastening
diffusers fail. It can also be caused by variation in blade
pitch from one blade to the other; by abrupt bends in
pipe (or duct); obstruction which disturb flow; or if the
pump rotor is positioned eccentrically within its

In a motor with the rotor perfectly centered in the stator,
the forces on the rotor are balanced. Notice that there
are two areas of high magnetic flux. Both magnetic
poles are trying to pull the rotor into the stator. In the air
gap is equal, the magnetic forces on the rotor are equal
and opposite and balanced. The only force that remains
on the rotor is torque.

5. The Findings

When the magnetic field of the stator has rotated 90o
further, (figure 10c) the air gaps in the areas of high
flux destiny are again equal. The magnetic forces are
again balanced.

Horizontal high vibration was detected at both motor
bearings. Highest vibration is 6.084 mm/s RMS at motor
NDE bearing horizontal direction. Accordind to to ISO
10816-1 : 1995, the machine is running in
“UNSATISFACTORY” or Zone C condition. It means
that the machines with vibration within this zone are
normally considered unsatisfactory for long-term
continuous operation. Generally, this machine may be
operated for limited period in this operation until a
suitable opportunity arises for remedial action.

In Figure 10, a round rotor is offset in the air gap. In
Figure 10 (a), the high flux zones of the rotating
magnetic field of the stator are positioned as shown. In
this position, the air gaps are even and radial forces on
the rotor are balanced.
When the magnetic field of the stator has rotated 90o,
(figure 10b) the magnetic forces are unbalanced. The
narrow air gap on the right side of the rotor tends to pull
the rotor to the right.

When the magnetic field of the stator has rotated 90o
further, (figure 10d) the magnetic forces are again
unbalanced. The narrow air gap on the right side of the
rotor tends to pull the rotor to the right. Thus, the
unbalance tug on the rotor occurs twice in one
revolution of the rotating magnetic field. In fact, the
frequency is at twice line frequency (100 hertz) for all
motors regardless of the number of poles.

Amplitude at 2 x Line Frequency (2XFL = 2X 50 Hz =
100 Hz) is predominant level. Actual speed is 2955
RPM = 49.24 Hz, 2XRPM = 98.48 Hz. Amplitude at
99.72 Hz (2XFL) amount 4.899 mm/s that already
exceed fault alarm is from soft foot problem. This
phenomenon caused directional vibration at horizontal
direction. Soft foot creates motor frame distorted when
all motor hold down bolts tightened. It can also cause
uneven air gap between motor stator and rotor. Figure 9
and 10 are illustration of soft foot and uneven air gap.

Figure 9. Distorted motor frame cause uneven air gap
between motor stator and rotor

Figure 10. Illustration of uneven force due to uneven
airgap [2]
Uneven air gap is characterized by vibration at twice
line frequency (100 hertz) regardless of the number of

Rosyadi - 5

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

poles. When the power is cut, the vibration at twice line
frequency disappears immediately. Since the stator is
attracted to the stationary motor frame as well as to the
rotor, twice line frequency vibration may also indicate a
loose stator.
Air gap eccentricities should be kept to less than 5% of
the nominal radial clearance. A motor with a soft foot
may exhibit the above symptoms, this occurs when a
motor is improperly shimmed and tightening of the hold
down bolts distorts the stator, so the air gap is no longer
symmetric. This may be checked by loosening the
motor hold down bolts and observing the vibration
level. [2]

6. Correction Actions
It was concluded that both motor bearings have defect at
outer race and strongly recommend replacing the
damage bearings. Very directional motor vibration at
horizontal direction is caused by soft foot that produce
uneven air gap between motor rotor and stator. Plant
maintenance person then replaced the defective bearing
and soft foot correction.

7. After Corrective Action
Based on our recommendation, maintenance team then
replace the defective motor bearings and put it back in

service. team also did re-alignment job before coupled
to the pump. Alignment data is good. Then motor was
coupled with the pump. Surprisingly, 100 Hz (2XFL)
vibration is still present although alignment is good. It
clearly shows that motor frame is still twisted, causing
uneven air gap and then produce very directional
vibration at 2XFL at horizontal vibration. In order to
reduce vibration at 2XFL, motor hold down bolts then
was re-adjusted and its vibration was monitored lively
using CSI 2120. Table 2 showed overall vibration
values comparison before and after corrective action.
Motor horizontal vibration has decreased significantly.
Figure 11 and 12 showed vibration comparison of motor
horizontal vibration before and after corrective action
taken. Vibration at 2XFL is still present, however its
level is already within predetermined alarm. It indicates
that uneven airgap due to soft foot or pipe strain is not
solved totally.

8. Motor Bearing Condition after
BPFO and its harmonics disappeared after replacing the
defective motor bearings, Figure 13. Also, there is no
impacting level anymore in PeakVue time waveform as
shown in Figure 14. Its level has dropped significantly.

Table 2. Overall vibration level of Lube Oil Pump, before and after Corrective Action.

Overall Vibration Level, mm/s RMS
BEFORE (“As is” Condition)































Rosyadi - 6

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


KPA - Lube Oil Pump

Max Amp
14-OCT-04 16:15




12-OCT-04 08:19



Frequency in Hz



Figure 11. Vibration comparison before and after adjusting motor hold down bolts. Amplitude of 2XFL comes down.



KPA - Lube Oil Pump
Route Spectrum
14-OCT-04 16:16:47

RMS = 2.19
LOAD = 100.0
RPM = 2945.
RPS = 49.09
Fault Limit

RMS Velo city in mm/Sec




Frequency in Hz



Figure 12. Amplitude of 2XFL (electrical induced vibration) still present, however its level is within limit.

Rosyadi - 7

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


KPA - Lube Oil Pump
14-OCT-04 16:17

Max Amp

After bearing replacement


Before bearing replacement

12-OCT-04 08:26



Frequency in Hz



Figure 13. PeakVue spectrum before and after bearing replacement. Bearing defect frequency (BPFO) disappeared.


KPA - Lube Oil Pump

After bearing replacement

14-OCT-04 16:17:03

Before bearing replacement

12-OCT-04 08:26:46





Time in mSecs





Figure 14. PeakVue time waveform comparison before and after bearing replacement. Impacting level decreased

Rosyadi - 8

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

9. Conclusions

11. Biography

Bearing defect was solved by replacing the damage
bearing. Outer race and ball defect were found. Also,
clear mark occurred at inner race. This mark is caused
by bearing preload due to soft foot problem.

Anas Rosyadi was born in Pati –
Central Java, June 8th, 1976. He
obtained Bachelor’s degree in
Mechanical Engineering from
(ITB). He started his carrier as
technical specialist in vibration at
PT Indorama Synthetics Tbk,
Purwakarta. In 1999, he joined PT
Jakarta, as application engineer. From 2003 - present, he
is an engineering team leader in the same company. His
experiences as instructor include predictive maintenance
program (vibration, tribology, IR thermography, motor
diagnostic, ultrasonic and alignment & balancing), and
machinery vibration analysis.



Figure 15. (a) Outer race and ball bearing defect, since
the machine is not running for long time, (b) inner race
mark due to bearing preload.
Horizontal motor vibration came down significantly
after adjusting motor hold down bold. Overall vibration
level of MOH (NDE side) dropped from 6.084 mm/s to
2.263 mm/s, meanwhile for MIH (DE side) decreased
from 5.354 mm/s to 2.192. Now, the machine is running
in “SATISFACTORY” (Zone B) in according to ISO
Effect soft foot is still present. It was indicated by
existence of 2XFL amplitude. However its level is
within limit. In order to avoid frequent motor bearing
defect, it is strongly recommended to run the machine at
least once a month.

10. References
[1] Robinson, James and Berry, James, Description of
PeakVue and Illustration of Its Wide Array of
Applications in Fault Detection and Problem
Severity Assessment, Computational Systems Inc.
Application Paper.
[2] James E. Berry, Detection of Multiple Cracked
Rotor Bars on Induction Motors Using Both
Vibration and Motor Current Analysis, Technical
Associates of Charlotte, Inc., 1992.
[3] A.R. Crawford and S. Crawford, The Simplified
Handbook of Vibration Analysis, Volume II, CSI,
Knoxville, TN.

Rosyadi - 9

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Failure of Dissimilar-Metal Weld-Joint at the Tube-toTubesheet due to High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack
Farabirazy Albiruni, Wildan Hamdani
Technical Bureau of Inspection. PT Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Tbk.
Jl. Ir. James Simanjuntak. Bontang 75313. East Kalimantan. Indonesia

Abstract - One of heat exchangers operating at PT.
Pupuk Kalimantan Timur is methanator effluent / boiler
feed water exchanger. It is used to heat up boiler feed
water (BFW) from 180 to 304 oC. This heat exchanger
utilizes the heat from outlet methanator gas (consists 73
% mole of H2 gas) and decreasing its temperature from
319 to 171 oC. After operating for 17 years, this
equipment suffered failure at the tube to tubesheet
which is the dissimilar metal weld joints. The tubesheets
are made from A 182 F1 overlaid by inconel 600 and
tubes from A 209 T1A (C-0.5 Mo Steel). Investigation
found that the tube to tubesheet weld joint was cracked
on the interface of weld deposit and tube wall (fusion
zone). This failure pattern is known as disbonding,
which is one of high temperature hydrogen attack
(HTHA) failure forms. Inconel 600 has high Cr and Ni
content that allow the diffusion of both elements to
occur during welding process into the fusion zone of
inconel and low alloy steel. An increase of Cr and Ni
content raises the tendency of the martensite formation
in this zone. Martensite structure is very prone to
hydrogen attack. The repair procedure performed was
intended for short term solution and based on the
removal of this existing martensitic structure. One year
after repair time, there was replacement of this heat
exchanger with the new one. The design of the new heat
exchanger uses the material with better resistance to
high temperature hydrogen attack. i.e. 1 ¼ Cr-0.5 Mo
Steel for both tubesheets and tubes without overlaid
with Inconel.

Leak test performed after repair of the six tubes in first
failure. Re-leak test must be conducted for 11 times
because other leaky cracks were found in other locations
of the inlet tubesheet. Leak test used both pneumatic
with pressure 34 kg/cm2 and hydrostatic with pressure
100 kg/cm2. Table 3 shows the summary of the leak test.

Keywords: Dissimilar Metal Weld Joints, High
Temperature Hydrogen Attack Failure, Disbonding,
C-0.5Mo Steel.

In second failure, the same pressure both in pneumatic
and hydrostatic had applied and no re-leak tests
conducted like in first failure.

same characteristic. The tube to tubesheet weld joints
are the dissimilar weld metals that consists of inconel
600 overlay weld and low alloy steel tubes (C-0.5 Mo).
Table 1 gives the technical specification of this heat

2. Investigation Results
Failure only occurred on the inlet side of this exchanger
where this side has direct contact with the output gas
from methanator. Table 2 gives the failure of this
equipment chronologically.

2.1 Visual Test
The visual test performed to this exchanger showed
there were tubes had broken on inlet tubeends
meanwhile on outlet side there were no failure
indications. Figure 1 shows the broken tube at its tubeend.

2. 2. Leak Test

2. 3. Penetrant Test

1. Introduction
Methanator effluent / boiler feed water exchanger is one
of heat exchangers operating at Ammonia Plant of PT.
Pupuk Kalimantan Timur. It utilizes heat of outlet
methanator gas by passing it through tubes to heat up
boiler feed water inside shell from 180 to 304 oC while
decreasing the gas temperature from 319 to 171 o C. The
first failure of this heat exchanger was a failure at tube
to tubesheet weld joints of inlet side which occurred in
March 2002 since its initial operation in 1985. Six
months later there was second failure occurred with

The result of the penetrant test through all tube to
tubesheet weld joints both inlet and outlet side found
crack indications particularly at the inlet side tubesheet.
Figure 2 shows the crack location.

2. 4. Mini-microscope Examination
For knowing more about the cracks characteristic minimicroscope examination was performed. The result
shows that the cracks initiated on outer surface and was

Farabirazy & Wildan - 1

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

propagating circumferentially at the interface between
weld deposit and tube wall. Figure 3 shows
schematically the characteristic of the cracks found by
mini-microscope examination.

2. 6. Hardness Testing
Macro-hardness testing performed on overlay inconel,
weld deposit, and tube cross section of inlet side. For
overlay inconel the average hardness value is 200 BHN.
The average hardness value for weld deposit is 250
BHN, and for tube cross section is 160 BHN. This result
shows that weld deposit has higher hardness than base
metal (inconel and C-0.5Mo)

2. 5. Metallography
Microstructure of the tube consists of ferrite and pearlite
phases without any grain boundary fissures and methane
structures. This is the normal structure of low alloy steel
and indicated that the tube base metal did not suffer
hydrogen attack. Figure 4 shows the microstructure of
the tube.

2. 7. Scanning Electron Microscope
The SEM revealed the fracture pattern of tube. This
pattern had brittle characteristic fracture. Figure 5 show
the SEM result of the tube fractured surface.

Table 1. Technical Specification of Heat Exchanger

Design Pressure
Operating Pressure
Design Temperature
Operating Temperature
- Shell
- Tubesheet
- Tube
- Shell
- Tubesheet
- Tube
Start of Operation
Gas Composition of Tube Side
(% Mole)
Chemical Composition of
Material (% wt.)

Boiler Feed Water (BFW)
132 kg/cm2G
107 kg/cm2G

Methanator Effluent
31.6 kg/cm2G
28.5 kg/cm2G

A 516 Gr 70
A 182 F1 + Inconel 600 Overlay
A 209 T1A (C – 0.5 Mo)
1190 mm (ID) x 73 mm (THK)
120 + 8 mm (THK)
19 mm (OD) x 3.8 mm (THK) x 13200 mm (L) x 2037 tubes
H2 : 73.04
N2 : 25.84



A 209 T1 A









Inconel 600






14.0 -17.0

≥ 72.0


Filler Metal (ER-Inconel 82)

≤ 0.05




1.0 max

18- 22



Table 2. Chronology of Heat Exchanger Failure

March 2002 (1 Failure)
September 2002 (2nd Failure)

Chronology of Failure
6 tubes had broken at its inlet tube ends.
163 tubes had leakage on inlet side tube to tubesheet weld joints.
22 tubes had broken at its inlet tube ends.
102 tubes had leakage on inlet side tube to tubesheet weld joints.
569 tubes had crack without leakage on inlet side tube to tubesheet weld joints.

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ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Crack Location

Weld Deposit



The broken


Crack Detail

Figure 3. The Characteristic of the Crack
Figure 1. The Broken Tubeend of Inlet Tubesheet

Table 3. Summary of Leak Test
Leak Test

Fluid Used

Amount of Leakage

Figure 4. Microstructure of Tube.
Light Area: Ferrite. Dark Area: Pearlite.
Magnification 500x


Figure 2. Crack on the Inlet Side Tube to Tubesheet
Weld Joint

Farabirazy & Wildan - 3

Figure 5. SEM Result of Fractured Tube

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

3. Discussion
The high concentration of hydrogen gas that passes the
internal tubes (see Table 1) reaches 73% by mole. The
material selection for this equipment particularly for the
side that faces directly against hydrogen gas based on
the resistance to hydrogen attack curve known as
Nelson Curve. From calculation, the design and
operating of the tube material (C-0.5 Mo) is above and
below the line of this particular material on Nelson
Curve. It means that the tube is safe enough to operate.
This can be seen from metallography result that no
methane structure was detected in the matrix of the tube.
(see Figure 6).
The failed tube to tubesheet weld joints are the weld
joint between two dissimilar metals, i.e. inconel 600 and
A 209 T1A (C-0.5 Mo). The welding filler metal used is
inconnel 82. Table 1 also lists the composition (% wt.)
of these materials.
Since the composition of Ni and Cr in inconel higher
than in low alloy steel (A 209 T1A), during welding
process particularly in fusion zone, the diffusion of Cr
and Ni occur from inconel 600 into low alloy steel at the
fusion zone and form the thin film which has high Ni
and Cr content. An increase of the Cr and Ni content at
fusion zone would raise the tendency for the martensite
formation as shown by Schaffler diagram in Figure 7

From Schaffler diagram, the microstructure of high
alloyed steel (inconel) on base metal, fusion boundary
and bulk weld deposit are such that a stable austenite
structure is produced. The situation is, however, very
different for the fusion boundary adjacent to the low
alloy steel such as C-0.5 Mo.
If we plot both the inconel and C-0.5 Mo steel on the
Schaeffler Diagram based on their Chrome and Nickel
equivalent and draw a straight line connected these two
points, we see that across fusion boundary, the
compositional gradient between these two points occurs.
We see that a local region of martensite will form in the
fusion boundary adjacent to C-0.5 Mo steel.
Martensite structure has hard and brittle characteristic. It
is prone to suffer crack. In high hydrogen partial
pressure and high temperature environment, martensite
will suffer the crack known as hydrogen cracking. The
cracking along dissimilar weld metal interface is most
commonly encountered as disbonding.
Disbonding is a long term failure occurred in welding of
Cr-Mo steel with inconel electrode caused by hydrogen
migration even with an applied PWHT. The austenite
structure of inconel absorbs 10 to 15 times more
hydrogen than Cr-Mo base metal. During shutdown, a
large quantity of hydrogen migrates to the interface
between the inconel overlay and base metal. This
phenomenon is also valid for welding C-0.5 Mo steel
with inconel. This high temperature hydrogen attack
caused the failure of the tube to tubesheet weld joints.

Figure 6. Design and Operating Condition of Tube Material on Nelson Curve
Dashed Red Line: Design Condition; Solid Blue Line: Operating Condition

Farabirazy & Wildan - 4

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Figure 7. The Schaeffler Diagram

4. Repair Procedure



This repair procedure was intended for short term
solution. The short life of first repair to second one is
mainly because: (1) only 8 % from 2037 tubes being
repaired and (2) the difficulty to assess the condition of
other tubes. The second repair is quite successful
because no similar failure found until the next
replacement of the heat exchanger (six months in
service). This is because more tubes were being


For the broken tubeends repaired by plugging the tube
using inconel 600 in both sides (inlet and outlet side).
This means to convert an active tube becomes inactive
tube during operation. The detail of the plugged tube is
shown in Figure 9.




Based on the analysis above, the repair was to remove
the hydrogen trapped in fusion zone followed by
removing the thin layer of martensite that formed in
failed fusion zone by made the new groove for tube to
tubesheet weld joints. Hydrogen removal performed by
heating the inlet side up to 300 o C and holding at this
temperature for 2 hours. During weld repair, the
temperature of inlet side was maintaining in 100 oC.
The new groove for weld repair is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8. Detail of New Groove


For long term solution, it is recommended to use
material with better resistance to hydrogen attack
without overlaid with inconel. The new heat exchanger
uses 1¼ Cr – 0.5 Mo steel for tubes and tubesheet
without inconel overlay.


30 mm

Figure 9. Plug Attachment

Farabirazy & Wildan - 5

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

5. Conclusions




The failure of the tube to tubesheet weld joint
caused by high temperature hydrogen attack. This
phenomenon known as disbonding.
The use of the dissimilar weld metals of inconel
600 and low alloy steel in high hydrogen
environment can be harmful due to the formation of
martensite thin film during welding process at
fusion zone which increases the sensitivity to
hydrogen attack.
The repair procedure was intended for short term
solution. This repair is based on hydrogen and
martensitic structure removal.
For long term solution, it is recommended to use
1¼ Cr – 0.5 Mo steel for tubes and tubesheet
without inconel overlay.

Wildan Hamdani is a senior
inspection engineer at PT. Pupuk
Kalimantan Timur, Tbk., Indonesia,
one of the largest ammonia and urea
producers in the world. He holds
University. He also one of the Pupuk
Kalimantan Timur’s authorized inspectors for plant
equipments fabrication in Japan and South Korea. He is
currently pursuing his Master Degree at Gadjah Mada
University in Maintenance Engineering field.

6. References



Keen, D. J., “Hydrogen Assisted Cracking and
Disbonding of Hydrocarbon Processing Pressure
Vessels. Waste Heat Boiler and Heat Exchanger”,
Plant Reliability Solutions, Queensland-Australia,
Gooch, T. G., “Environmental Cracking of
Dissimilar Steel Welded Joints”., TWI, UK,
Timmins, P. F., “Solution to Hydrogen Attack in
Steels”, ASM International, USA, 1997.
Prescott, G. R., Shannon, Brian., “Process
Equipment Problems Caused by Interaction with
Hydrogen”., Ammonia Technical Manual, p-p 237252, 2001.
Masubuchi, K., “Analysis of Welded Structures”.
1st Ed., Pergamon Press, UK, 1980.
Witherell, C. E., “Mechanical Failure Avoidance.
Strategies And Techniques”., 1st Ed., McGrawHill.Inc, USA, 1994.

7. Biography
Farabirazy Albiruni obtained his
B.Eng. degree from University of
Indonesia in Metallurgy and Material
Engineering. He is currently working
as a Metallurgist and NDT Engineer in
PT. Pupuk Kalimantan Timur, Tbk.,
Indonesia, one of the largest ammonia
and urea producers in the world. His
job mainly focuses on failure analysis, corrosion and
corrosion control, remaining life assessment of
components, RBI, and NDT non radiations such as
Eddy Current, Remote Field EC, Magnetic Flux
Leakage, Ultrasonic Test, and TOFD.

Farabirazy & Wildan - 6

ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Orifice atau Restriction Orifice?
Nugroho Wibisono
ConocoPhillips Inc., Indonesia. Menara Mulia Tower Jl Jend. Gatot Subroto Kav. 9 – 11, Jakarta 12930
Abstract. Paper ini membahas perbedaan antara
Orifice Flowmeter dan Restriction Orifice, serta
aplikasi Restriction Orifice pada suatu pabrik.

Secara umum, orifice mempunyai bentuk sebagai suatu
plat yang mempunyai lubang lingkaran di tengahnya.
Contoh bentuk orifice dapat dilihat pada Gambar 1.

1. Orifice dan Restriction Orifice

2. Perbedaan Orifice dan Restriction

Apakah anda ingin melakukan pengukuran aliran suatu
fluida atau apakah anda ingin mereduksi tekanan suatu
fluida secara drastis dan permanen? Kedua hal tersebut
dapat dilakukan oleh benda yang namanya sama-sama
mengandung kata ‘orifice’, yang pertama adalah Orifice
dan yang kedua adalah Restriction Orifice.

Kira-kira apa sajakah perbedaan antara Orifice untuk
flowmeter dan Restriction Orifice? Mari kita amati
Gambar 2 yang merupakan contoh gambar dari Orifice
untuk flowmeter dan Restriction Orifice.
Bentuk dari orifice flowmeter dan restriction orifice
diatas adalah bentuk yang sering dijumpai dan secara
umum perbedaannya terdapat pada profil lubang dari
kedua orifice tersebut. Orifice untuk flowmeter
umumnya mempunyai profil lubang yang awalnya
lurus, tetapi kemudian bertakik (bevel) dengan
kemiringan sekitar 45o. Sedangkan restriction orifice
mempunyai profil lubang yang lurus.

Gambar 1. Orifice

Gambar 2. Orifice Flowmeter dan Restriction Orifice

Gambar 3. Perbedaan tekanan statik antara Orifice Flowmeter dan Restriction Orifice

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Apakah dari bentuk lubang tersebut akan membuat
perbedaan diantara keduanya? Ya, umumnya begitu.
Untuk mengetahui bedanya mari kita lihat profil
tekanan suatu fluida yang melewati Orifice dan
Restriction Orifice pada kondisi desain mereka masingmasing dari Gambar 3.
Apakah anda melihat bedanya? Besarnya hilang tekan
(pressure loss) yang diakibatkan oleh adanya
penyempitan area fluida pada orifice tidaklah sebesar
seperti halnya pada restriction orifice. ketebalan plat -,
maka besarnya hilang tekan permanen ini cukup besar
sehingga perbedaan antara tekanan upstream dan
tekanan downstream cukup mencolok. Dalam kasus ini,
aliran fluida dalam keadaan dicekik (choked flow).
Dalam masalah desain, orifice untuk flowmeter selalu
didesain untuk flow dalam subsonic velocity dalam
rangka menjamin keakurasian pengukuran aliran,
sedangkan restriction orifice selalu didesain untuk flow
dalam sonic velocity untuk menjamin adanya choked
Sejatinya fungsi utama RO adalah membatasi aliran
(limiting flow). Fungsi pembatasan tekanan (limiting
pressure) dari RO pada hakekatnya merupakan
konsekuensi dari relasi antara pressure drop dan
flowrate. Fenomena choked flow sendiri adalah
terjadinya mass flowrate yang konstan meskipun
downstream pressure-nya menurun akibat sonic
velocity. Dalam aplikasi riilnya di plant, fungsi
pembatasan aliran dan pembatasan tekanan sama-sama
dapat diterapkan dengan menggunakan RO.

Sejatinya fungsi utama RO adalah membatasi aliran
(limiting flow). Fungsi pembatasan tekanan (limiting
pressure) dari RO pada hakekatnya merupakan
konsekuensi dari relasi antara pressure drop dan
flowrate. Fenomena choked flow sendiri adalah
terjadinya mass flowrate yang konstan meskipun
downstream pressure-nya menurun akibat sonic
velocity. Dalam aplikasi riilnya di plant, fungsi
pembatasan aliran dan pembatasan tekanan sama-sama
dapat diterapkan dengan menggunakan RO.

3. Aplikasi Restriction Orifice di Pabrik
3.1 Pembatasan aliran antara sistem
pressure vessel dengan flare system
Terdapat suatu pressure vessel baru yang hendak
diinstalasi dan existing flare system yang mempunyai
kapasitas tertentu. Kapasitas dari flare system yang
existing sebetulnya telah didesain dengan tidak
memperhitungkan kehadiran pressure vessel baru
tersebut, sedangkan untuk membuat tambahan flare
system yang baru untuk memperbesar kapasitas flare
system yang ada tidaklah ekonomis. Disatu sisi,
kapasitas dari flare ini tentunya tidak boleh terlewati
dan salah satu solusinya adalah memasang RO yang
mempunyai fungsi sebagai pembatas aliran.
Pemasangan RO di downstream BDV pada umumnya
dilakukan atas nasehat studi overpressure protection
serta blowdown study, agar kapasitas flare-nya tidak

Pada orifice flowmeter, karena bentuk lubangnya yang
mempunyai takik – yang berarti mengurangi jarak
tempuh dari flow tersebut mengalami perbedaan
penampang melintang – , maka profil tekanan yang
terjadi setelah melewati orifice akan menurun, tetapi
kemudian mencoba kembali ke tekanan semula dan
terdapat sedikit hilang tekan permanen (permanent
pressure loss) sehingga perbedaan antara tekanan
upstream dan tekanan downstream tidak terlalu besar.
Sedangkan pada Restriction Orifice, karena bentuk
lubangnya yang lurus dan cukup panjang - tergantung
ketebalan plat -, maka besarnya hilang tekan permanen
ini cukup besar sehingga perbedaan antara tekanan
upstream dan tekanan downstream cukup mencolok.
Dalam kasus ini, aliran fluida dalam keadaan dicekik
(choked flow).
Dalam masalah desain, orifice untuk flowmeter selalu
didesain untuk flow dalam subsonic velocity dalam
rangka menjamin keakurasian pengukuran aliran,
sedangkan restriction orifice selalu didesain untuk flow
dalam sonic velocity untuk menjamin adanya choked

Gambar 4. Sketsa sederhana pressure vessel dan flare

3.2 Pembagian beda tekan pada control
Terdapat recycle line dari suatu sistem yang bertekanan
tinggi (discharge dari reciprocating compressor) dan
masuk ke dalam sistem bertekanan rendah (vessel
separator). Diinginkan untuk meregulasi tekanan dari
fluida yang hendak di recycle dengan menggunakan
control valve yang bukan special design. Control valve
pada hakekatnya mempunyai fungsi melakukan regulasi

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ISSN: 1829-9466 2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

suatu aliran fluida dengan membuat perbedaan tekanan
antara upstream dan downstream. Dengan begitu
terdapat fakta bahwa akan terjadi pressure drop yang
cukup tinggi pada control valve tersebut.
Dengan begitu tingginya perbedaan pressure antara
upstream dan downstream, control valve punya beban
cukup besar untuk mereduksi tekanan fluida tersebut.
Sedikit menyimpang dari topik utama, ada beberapa
pertimbangan ketika mendesain control valve yang
mempunyai hilang tekan yang tinggi:



Pada pressure drop yang tinggi berarti dapat
terjadi erosi, abrasi atau cavitation pada trim
dari control valve.
Pada pressure drop yang tinggi hydrate/liquid
droplets/material solid memungkinkan untuk
terbentuk didalam valve (tergantung dari fluida
dan material lain yg terikut).
Pressure drop yang tinggi akan menyebabkan
terjadinya outlet temperature dari control valve
sangat rendah (penurunan pressure biasanya
diikuti oleh penurunan temperature = JouleThomson effect), sehingga pada beberapa
material valve dapat menjadi brittle/getas yang
bisa mengakibatkan pecahnya valve
Kecepatan tinggi akibat pressure drop yang
tinggi dapat mengerosi downstream piping.
Pressure drop yang tinggi berarti jumlah energi
yang didisipasikan dalam turbulensi adalah
cukup besar dan menyebabkan noise (bising).

Alternatif aplikasi control valve untuk hilang tekan yang
tinggi adalah menggunakan special desain dari control
valve atau pembagian beda tekan antara control valve
dengan device lain, yaitu Restriction Orifice.
Untuk mengurangi beban tersebut dapat dipasang
Restriction Orifice setelah control valve tersebut.
Pemasangan restriction orifice seperti pada gambar

Untuk aplikasi RO di downstream control valve, pada
dasarnya digunakan prinsip/korelasi bahwa untuk flow
rate tertentu dan Bore size tertentu terdapat perbedaan
tekan (differential pressure) tertentu. Secara umum,
Differential Pressure yang dibutuhkan oleh control
valve tersebut di bagi antara control valve dan
Restriction Orifice. Dengan pembagian Differential
Pressure (share DP) diharapkan efek vibrasi yang akan
terjadi pada pipa tidak begitu besar akibat perubahan
differential pressure yang terlalu besar di satu device.
Perlu diperhatikan dengan cermat bahwa sebenarnya
control valve adalah alat utama yang menanggung beda
tekan, sehingga porsi pembagian differential pressure
yang terbesar adalah di control valve bukan di RO.
Aplikasi pembagian DP seperti dijelaskan diatas dapat
menggunakan special design control valve yang mampu
bekerja dalam high differential pressure, tentunya
dengan mempertimbangkan bahwa aliran yang diatur
disana adalah line yang kritikal karena dengan special
design dari control valve tentunya akan mempunyai
harga yang spesial juga.

4. Pustaka
[1] API MPMS 14 Section 3 Part 1, Natural Gas Fluids
Measurement – Concentric, Square Edged Orifice
Meters – General Equations and Uncertainty
Guidelines, American Petroleum Institute, Third
Edition, Reaffirmed 2003
[2] API MPMS 14 Section 3 Part 2, Natural Gas Fluids
Measurement – Concentric, Square Edged Orifice

Requirements, American Petroleum Institute,
Fourth Edition, 2000
[3] Instrument Engineers’ Handbook - Process
Measurement and Analysis, Bela G. Liptak, Chilton
Book Company, Third Edition, 1995
[4] Control Valve Primer, Hans D. Baumann, ISA,
Second Edition, 1994
[5] Nilam Very Low Pressure Gas Compression
Project, VICO Indonesia – East Kalimantan, 2003

5. Biografi

Gambar 5. Sketsa sederhana control valve dan
pressure vessel

Nugroho Wibisono sekarang bekerja di Pipeline
Control Center, ConocoPhillips Indonesia.
Sebelumnya, Wibisono pernah bekerja di
proyek-proyek VICO Indonesia di
instrumentasi tahun 2003. Wibisono
mendapatkan gelar Sarjana Teknik (ST)
dari Departemen Teknik Fisika, Institut Teknologi
Bandung tahun 2003. Wibisono juga aktif sebagai
Moderator KBK Instrumentasi, Komunitas Migas

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ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Strategic Competency-Based Human Resources
Pungki Purnadi
Human Resources Planning and Development, Petronas Carigali. Email:

1. Introduction

2. How were Employees Dealt With in
the Past?

Lloyd Amey defined Strategic Planning as “the process
of determining the major objectives of an organization
and the policies and strategies that will govern the
acquisition, use and disposition of resources to achieve
those objectives.” Strategic planning is therefore a key
for helping companies to achieve their corporate vision.
Since vision exists before strategy and strategy is the
means through which company goals are achieved, what
is the greatest deterrent to achieving corporate
excellence – the lack of proper execution of these
strategies by company employee.
Larry Bossidy is his best selling book – Execution,
observed that few corporate failures are the direct result
of strategic planning, rather most corporate failures
result from a lack of corporate strategies being
implemented in a systematic, effective and timely
manner. Recent work in the area of human resources has
placed a greater emphasis upon performance
measurement as a key driver of employee performance
which, in turn, is the foundation of corporate
performance. If your employees are unable to perform
at the level required to implement your company’s
strategies, all the planning in the world will not save
your company.
The challenge is not to over-emphasize the importance
of strategic planning, rather the challenge is how to best
deliver on the strategic plans which have been
developed. For this to occur people development must
be at the heart of any large scale corporate change
initiative. Corporate leaders and line managers,
however, have given people development a second class
status in most companies. What does occur is the overemphasis of such projects as corporate restructuring,
organizational redesign, the use of information
technology, and other systems based approaches.
The single greatest impediment to organizational
excellence is an under-developed employee. The single
greatest barrier to corporate change is the failure of
companies to change the attitudes of their leaders,
managers and employees to embrace the process of
change. The starting point for any organizational
improvement process must therefore be company

Past approaches to people development overemphasized the control of managers over their
Managers were trained in performance
review techniques in which the use of proper
questioning skills was the primary focus. Less emphasis
was given to increasing the quality of interaction
between managers and their employees to better
facilitate two-way communication and an open sharing
of ideas. Through improved manager-employee
interaction, ongoing performance monitoring and
review, and the guidance which should be part of this
process improve.
Past techniques had also over-emphasized detailing the
tasks and activities of the work to be performed while
disregarding the knowledge and skill necessary to
perform these activities well. Enhanced levels of control
do not lead to corporate excellence; they instead create
average performance and moderate levels of
compliance. Despite this fact, many managers still use
this approach today.
Chris Argyris, the noted Harvard educator and
psychologist, highlighted the difference between
“theories in concept” and “theories in practice” which
helps to address this problem. At the company-wide
level, we talk about creating a bold vision, of increasing
the quality of strategic planning and benchmarking
ourselves and our companies against “world class
standards”. This is “theory in concept.” Yet, when we
ask “what quality standards are applied by our line
managers in their field operations on a daily basis?” we
often find that the concept of “world class” becomes a
reality of “good enough” – get the job done, worry
about tomorrow later. Concept versus reality is often
dramatically different. Short-term measures often fail to
lay the foundation for long term success. Yet, many
companies follow this approach while professing to do
something different—to be long-term oriented.
With Indonesian companies facing increased
competition through the implementation of the Asian
Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) and the GATT (General
Agreement for Tariffs and Trade), it is neither practical
nor acceptable to follow the ways of the past. Rather
than repeat the steps which will led to performance
meltdown where Indonesian companies were unable to

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ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

compete with their neighbors, steps must be taken to reexamine what these companies are doing and move
towards a path of growth and opportunity.
cannot come without a serious effort to improve the
quality of employees’ performance. Employee
performance is company performance! The question is
how to improve employee performance sufficiently to
allow companies to achieve their strategic targets and
sustain this performance over time. This cannot be done
without addressing the issue of employee competencies.

3. Laying the Foundation for Paradigm
Many change management specialists have found that
the greatest obstacle to successful corporate change is
the failure to change the mentality (attitude) of company
leaders, managers and employees. Barker called this
“the problem of paradigm shift.” According to Barker,
“a paradigm shift is a change to a new game, a new set
of rules…. While you can manage within an old
paradigm, leadership is most critical in the movement
from an old paradigm to a new paradigm.” This is
exactly what companies in Indonesia are facing today-being caught between paradigms. Without recognizing
this reality and acting to overcome it, no progress can be
made. Awareness is the first step towards
understanding. Understanding is a precondition for
acceptance of the need for change. Without acceptance
of the need for change, no change occurs.
We need to be careful about “corporate easy-speak.”
This is what happens when companies do what is
popular rather than what is required. We can all cite the
names of companies which have written a new mission
statement, developed a new vision, crafted new
corporate shared values or conducted the latest training
program. The question is whether the writing on the
wall is, in turn, practiced in the field. Often, this is not
the case.
Indonesian companies have talked about developing
their companies to be learning organizations. Yet, many
employees complain that the same lack of transparency
exists today as it did ten years ago. How can you be a
learning organization when employees do not have a
clear, detailed understanding of where the company is
headed, how their work aligns with the future direction
of the company and precisely what they are expected to
do in what period of time? If this cannot be done, how
can we expect our employees to have the necessary
tools and skills to achieve their performance targets?
Again, we see the difference between theory in concept
and theory in practice.

The failure of many companies during the merger or
acquisition process was not due to a failure of vision; it
was the direct result of a failure of execution. Feldman
and Spratt (1999) in their role as consultants at
PriceWaterhouseCoopers found that most mergers and
acquisitions failed because the big idea got handed over
to ill-prepared managers who had to implement the
integration of disparate systems and processes in the
new, larger company. While systems and processes are
easy to change, Feldman and Spratt found shifting the
paradigms of the people involved in this process was
their biggest hurdle. In most cases, corporate cultures
were not compatible, people were unwilling to change
and, in the end, the great idea which justified the merger
or acquisition failed due to resistance to change.
Transformation (large scale corporate change) is not an
easy process. It requires the commitment of key leaders,
managers and employees at all levels in a company. It
also requires a clear understanding of what is important
and what is not. What are the keys to success? Which
aspects, if they are ignored, lay the foundation for
Transformation impacts all aspects of a company to a
greater or lesser extent. Vision can change with new
leaders or a new agenda. This, in turn, impacts changes
in processes, organizational structures, systems and
corporate competencies. In turn, the human side of a
company also goes through transformation. Corporate
culture must be re-examined and aligned with the new
corporate vision. Leadership style should be compatible
with the company’s new shared values. Management
practices should be re-examined and the type and
competencies of people employed in the company may
also need to change. Unfortunately, all to often, change
happens in the corporate axis (vision, process, structure
and systems) and stops there. It is not carried through to
the human level of the organization. The result is a
disconnection between strategy and execution which
creates high frustration, lower performance and
unrealized targets.
While it is good to have a visionary leader, it is better to
have a leader who can set a vision and also assist in
laying the foundation for achieving that vision through
company employees. Collins recent book, Good to
Great, highlights the difference between good and great
companies. Good companies had visionary leaders
while great companies had leaders capable of creating
corporate visions and also building strength in their
employees to achieve the vision. Star leaders must be
both visionary and results oriented to move the
corporation towards sustainable achievement.

4. The Move towards Transformation

5. What is next after Vision?

While we can see where we must be (the corporate
vision), we must also do a better job of developing the
bridge to get there. Execution is as important as vision.

The move from vision to successful implementation is a
big jump. It is important that leaders and their
employees understand not only the future corporate

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direction but they also need to know the sequence of
steps which should be followed to achieve the vision.
Robert Miles (1997) developed a useful framework for
leading successful corporate transformation. In his work
with companies going through dramatic change, Miles
found the same mistake kept on being repeated. The
problem was that companies moved too quickly into
changing their organizational elements (structure,
infrastructure, culture and people) before they had a
clear understanding of what had to be done and what
was needed to accomplish it.
Miles recommended dividing the transformation process
into two distinct axis points —the strategic axis and the
organizational axis. The strategic axis should be the first
step after vision creation. This axis emphasizes the
development of corporate strategies which are essential
to accomplish the corporate vision and then move to
identifying the critical business competencies which are
necessary to implement these business strategies
successfully. With this in place, the transformation
process entered its second stage –the organizational
Within the organizational axis, attention is paid to
examining the processes which are essential to achieve
corporate strategies. These processes, in turn, should
become the drivers of organizational structure. Any
changes in corporate organization, reporting
relationships, or corporate size should only occur after
the “process to structure dimension” was properly
With the proper organizational structure determined, the
movement then goes to an examination of corporate
infrastructure—the policies, rules, regulations and
procedures necessary to implement the new changes.
Infrastructure does not change in a vacuum; it should be
supportive of changes occurring in corporate culture and
shared corporate values. This, in turn, should reinforce
the human side of the organization while also making
policies, rules and guidelines more realistic and
practical for field implementation.
Finally, the key to overall company success needed to
be addressed—the people working in the company.
What traits should these people have, what attitudes
were appropriate given the company’s future direction,
were the competencies possessed by employees suitable
for implementing their new roles in the company ?
Miles found that while the strategic axis is easily done,
ignoring the people aspect guarantee failure. Company
employees are therefore the foundation of corporate
success. What has your company done to improve the
quality of its employees and their performance recently?

6. Changing the Role of the Human
Resource Department
For change to occur at the employee level, change is
required at the corporate level. Companies have to rethink the role of their human resource departments and
how these departments function within their company.
Accompanying the paradigm shift to a new direction
and a more proactive stance, human resource
departments must act as strategic business partners of
top management and as consultants and facilitators for
line operations.
Human Resource Departments must create points of
contact with line managers to more actively involve
them in the redesign of employee development systems
and in their implementation throughout the company. At
the same time, human resource professionals must
consciously ask questions of themselves which they
ignored in the past. Examples of these questions are: (1)
how do our actions reinforce the achievement of the
corporate direction? (2) what is the return on investment
of our various programs and activities? (3) how can we
better assist top management in achieving their vision
and align our activities to make this happen?, (4) how
can we help line managers to be most effective in
dealing with their employees, or (5) how can we
increase employee development therefore increasing
and upgrading corporate performance?
Anderson and Peters (1997) documented this change in
the focus of corporate human resource departments by
noting that increasingly the role of human resource
consultative/developmental work and away from the
more routine administrative/clerical work. Human
resource departments must increase their focus on
strategic human resource planning and decrease their
emphasis upon less value added human resource
activities. The true role of a human resource department
should be a solution provider and capability consultant
rather than a “traffic policeman” stressing control and
This change in role should also be accompanied by a reanalysis of how to structure human resource
departments. In the past, most answers to human
resource issues came from headquarters thereby making
line managers overly dependent upon headquarters
personnel. This diminished the role of line managers
and strategic business units in human resource decisionmaking. The result has been a high level of frustration
on the part of employees and line managers and their
lack of active participation in the people development
process. Line managers have been overly concerned
with short-term results and ignored their responsibility
for implementing the processes and mechanisms
necessary to develop their employees for long-term
sustainable performance improvement.

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The new organizational structure should place greater
responsibility upon operating units and the line
managers within these units. Headquarters HR
personnel should play more of a coordinative role in the
design, evaluation and monitoring of human resource
initiatives while the implementation of human resource
activities should mainly be left to business units and the
line managers themselves. When this occurs, the results
have been dramatic. People development takes on
heightened importance; performance measurement
focuses more attention upon building sustainable
medium and long term performance improvement and
the quality and quantity of interaction between line
managers and their employees increases.

7. Competency-based HRD Leads to
People Development
If the corporate vision is the destination which a
company seeks to attain, then competencies are the
engine which drives the achievement of corporate
vision. Competencies occur at two levels in an
organization – the corporate level and the individual
employee level. At the corporate level, competencies
are often referred to as “core business competencies”, in
short, what the organization is good at – its unique
specialties. Competencies for employees have three
main levels: (1) generic competencies, (2) managerial
competencies (also called structural competencies), and
(3) technical competencies (also called functional
competencies). Within these three levels, the five main
competencies groups are applied: (1) knowledge, (2)
skill, (3) ability, (4) attitude and (5) behavior. Ability,
attitude and behavior operate at the generic
competencies level while knowledge and skill operate at
the levels of managerial and technical competencies.
Generic competencies are used to define mandatory
requirements in the early stages of reviewing applicants
for a position to determine if they are suitable to be
considered candidates on a short-list. Managerial and
technical competencies, on the other hand, are regarded
as “variable competencies” in which a candidate can
have more or less knowledge or skill in a particular
area. Managerial competencies focus upon the soft skills
which are needed to perform tasks and activities such as
communication skills, leadership skills, managerial
skills, etc. while technical competencies highlight those
unique skills which are required for doing a particular
job (i.e., inventory control, marketing, accounting or
maintenance engineering). Each level of competencies
is helpful in defining what is required in a job and in
matching the right person to perform a job.
Core business competencies are critical for
implementing corporate strategies which, in turn, help
to achieve corporate vision. Examples of such business
competencies would be commercial lending practices in
a bank, experience with fixed line telephones in a
telecommunications company or the quality of customer

service in a restaurant or hotel. When companies create
new strategies, this may require business competencies
beyond those for which they are known. The challenge
is how the business can implement this new competency
at a sufficient level of quality to help it gain competitive
advantage. For example, in the past five years,
telecommunications companies in Indonesia have
embarked upon broadening their telecommunications
operations to include wireless communications, internet
services, web access and design, and related services.
Unless these telecom companies possess the
competencies required to perform these new services
well, not only will these new services be at risk but the
companies’ reputations for other core business
competencies will also be at risk. The foundation for
sustaining corporate excellence and competitive
advantage rests upon the quality of company’s
employees and how well these employees can
implement core business competencies to support the
company’s businesses.
In past years, employees were promoted into managerial
or senior professional positions before they were fully
prepared to perform these jobs well. Companies thought
“employees can learn while on the job.”
normal times, this might be possible. During times of
dramatic change, however, this approach is a recipe for
disaster. Competition is increasing and the time
available to prepare for being competitive is decreasing.
This means employees must be prepared in advance of
being promoted, not after they already hold a new
position. People development must therefore become a
key focus for Indonesian companies.

8. Improving People Development
How can people development processes improve in
Indonesian companies? The first step is to actively
involve all the key people in this process—top
management, human resource professionals and line
managers. Employees must also take responsibility for
their own growth and development. Top management
sets the stage for people development by serving as role
models and mentors and by signaling to line operations
the importance of participating in this process. Human
resource professionals should share knowledge of the
systems, tools and techniques for people development
processes to succeed while also serving as consultants
and facilitators to line managers when they implement
these processes with their employees. Line managers,
through their daily interaction with employees, must
serve as the lead person for people development in their
The line manager must play a critical role in the people
development process since he assigns work, defines
acceptable performance, monitors ongoing progress and
evaluates performance outcomes. Line managers are
also in the best position to define the knowledge and

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skill required for satisfactory job performance.
Through their experience line managers are most able to
define what natural abilities should be considered as
pre-requisites for particular positions. Line managers
can also identify which behaviors are acceptable as part
of an employee’s job performance and which are not.
Human resource professionals complement this process
by helping to define the attitude which should be held
by all company employees as part of the translation of
shared corporate values into everyday corporate climate
and culture.

9. Determining the Short-List of
Through identifying pre-requisites for positions,
highlighting acceptable behaviors and working with
human resources to define appropriate attitude for
company employees, the first three competencies create
a decision funnel capable of separating qualified from
unqualified candidates for a position, whether the
position is an internal promotion or an external hire. The
generic competencies can therefore be met.
competencies are particularly helpful in assisting
companies and managers to match the right person with
the right job since they focus upon mandatory
requirements. But there is more to be done. Once a short
list of candidates has been identified, another process
begins—separating one candidate from another
candidate to identify the best person for the position?
The separation of candidates after a short-listing process
is determined through variable competencies which we
refer to as knowledge and skill. This occurs at the level
of managerial and technical competencies. While
ability, attitude and behavior become the drivers for
separating applicants from candidates, knowledge and
skill highlight the unique differences between one
candidate and another.
Studies of succession planning and job matching audits
have shown that ability is relatively fixed. Ability has
therefore become a primary predictor of the “fit” of an
applicant for a particular position. With the increasing
emphasis being placed upon the importance of corporate
culture and shared corporate values, the attitude of
employees and how this attitude complements or works
against corporate values and culture has also become
It is important, however, that managers not be required
to perform the role of a psychologist. Rather, managers
should focus upon defining performance targets and
enabling their employees to achieve these targets.
Attitude tests which are based upon psychometric or
socio-metric testing processes should be identified and
implemented by human resource professionals with
experience in measurement and evaluation. This helps
to identify who will fit in the company as a whole

compared to an applicant who might only fit a particular
position but is not capable of fitting into other positions
in the company in the future. Since attitude is the driver
of behavior, it is more economical to have an attitude
match with the corporate values from the beginning than
to spend an inordinate amount of time trying to
convince employees to “change their attitude”.
In past years, pre-requisites such as education, years of
experience, seniority and licenses or certificates were
over-emphasized while ability, attitude and behavior
were under-emphasized. This is particularly true for
most positions in companies today. With line managers
taking a more active role in the people development
process, the identification of the level of ability
required, defining the attitude desired and describing
acceptable behavior becomes clearer.

10. Separating “Candidates” from the
“Best Fit Candidate for the Job”
Once a candidate short list has been developed
following the application of ability, attitude and
behavior, any candidate on the short-list is capable of
performing the position more or less well. How can we
clearly separate average candidates from the most
outstanding candidate for a position? The answer is
through the proper use of a competency based process.
Through carefully defining the knowledge and skill
required to perform a job, we can highlight critical
performance differences between one candidate and
another. The challenge is how to determine the correct
listing of core and sub-competencies to be used during
this process. Who knows best about the competencies
required for job performance fulfillment—the line
managers in your company.
Line managers have an abundance of information about
competencies required to performance tasks and
activities. The problem has been that human resource
departments have not actively involved line managers in
this process and have failed to adequately train them in
how to apply competency based techniques in their
departments with their employees. Line manager
involvement is a central requirement for successful
implementation of a competency based system.

11. Too much complexity causes
confusion rather than understanding
We can all identify companies which implemented a
competency based system and no one ever used it.
Some Indonesian companies or multinational companies
operating in Indonesia have created lists of
competencies for a single position which were so
lengthy and cumbersome that line managers fall asleep
before reading the entire list of competencies required
for a single position. This is competency over-kill.

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Some companies in Indonesia and elsewhere have as
many as two hundred competencies required for a
position. When the competency list becomes this large,
no one uses it. In such cases, a competency based
process turns into an exercise in futility rather than a
tool for excellence. To overcome this problem,
competency based systems need to follow specific

Competencies and competency based systems
should be simple to understand. The solution
should never be more complicated than the problem
which it was created to address!


Competencies and competency processes should
be user-friendly. They should be easy to
understand and easy to apply. If these processes or
the competencies themselves become overly
technical and too minute, the processes become
cumbersome and the user becomes frustrated. This
alienates the user at the very time when we want to
bring them into the rather than push them away
from it.


Competency based systems should be practical.
They should fit the needs of managers and
supervisors in line operations because this is where
the most significant value is created in any


Competencies should be relevant –they should
link directly to achieving the desired performance
outcome of an activity and sustain outstanding
performance over time.


Competency processes and competencies
themselves must focus upon those competencies
which are value creators. Concentrating upon the
most important value added drivers of corporate
excellence reinforces the importance of company
performance and the knowledge and skill which
underlies such performance.


Competency processes and the competencies
they include must be growth oriented –they must
lead to sustainable performance over time and to
creating a higher minimum level of performance
on a day to day basis. Therefore, rather than
focusing upon mundane competencies which have
little value but only add to the length of a
competency list, companies should instead focus
upon those competencies (whether managerial or
technical) which serve as the greatest creators of
sustainable, competitive advantage.

12. From Competency Lists to
Achievable Performance – the Meaning
of Proficiency
Once competencies have been identified, it becomes
necessary to define the minimum acceptable level of
performance regarding each competency. Past
performance appraisal systems have made the mistake
of measuring performance against a core competency
rather than against sub-competencies. The result was
imprecise performance measurement, increased training
and development costs and problems in closing
performance gaps. Core competencies are merely broad
categories of knowledge and skill. Core competencies
must have sub-competencies supporting them to more
clearly define those aspects of the core competency
which are addressed by a particular position. For
example, communication skill is a core competency
while presentation skill is a particular type of
communication skill. Presentation skill is a subcompetency
“communication skills”. Measuring performance at the
sub-competency level is economical in terms of money,
efficient in terms of focus (since it highlights specific
areas in need of improvement) and timely since it
concentrates development efforts upon improving a
particular area in the shortest time possible.
Proficiency is the next step after sub-competencies have
been defined. Proficiency is the level of performance
required in a particular sub-competency during a
specific performance period. An employee is identified
as “proficient” if he at least meets the minimum
performance standard for a sub-competency set by his
manager. If his performance is below this level, a
performance gap exists. If he exceeds this level, he
demonstrates a certain amount of excellence. The extent
to which proficiency is exceeded on a continuous basis
lays the foundation for considering an employee for
development for higher or more responsible positions in
the future.
Proficiency is not static; it changes from one
performance period to another. The performance of an
employee the day he enters the job is not expected to
remain the same for an employee twelve or twenty-four
months after he has been in this position. Proficiency
starts by setting a minimum acceptable benchmark from
which performance expectations improve in small or
large increments.
The sub-competencies which require performance
improvement depend upon the nature and type of work,
which is assigned to an employee. Using this approach,
line managers can strategically map out the performance
requirements for any position which they oversee and,
based upon this, can apply proficiency mapping to any
employee holding a position. Rather than thinking only
of short term results, line managers can plan how they
would grow their employees to excellence over the

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average period an employee is expected to be in a
particular position. With this proficiency map in place,
it becomes easier for line managers to distinguish truly
outstanding employees from average or substandard
employees. Training and development managers can
also work with line managers to plan what is required
for average employees to grow their performance over
time compared with the knowledge and skill
improvements demonstrated by outstanding employees.
Using proficiency mapping allows managers to focus
upon growing talent through demonstrated performance
in the most critical areas of knowledge and skill
required to perform a job well. Traditional rules
regarding minimum lengths of stay in a position,
therefore, become less relevant and meaningful. This
sets the stage for a true merit based system in which
competency based performance improvement becomes
the foundation for advancement from one position to
another rather than time-in-job.

13. Competencies Impact Systems and
Systems Need Integration
As competencies continue to be used for defining job
performance, the systems which underlie human
resource management also undergo change. Just as
competencies help us to concentrate better on the people
development process, competencies also serve as the
great integrators for a variety of human resource
systems. We can demonstrate this through looking at a
model which Interface Management International has
developed for use in assessing the health or sickness of
a client’s human resource system. We will first focus
upon the people development process and then look at
larger systems integration issues.

13.1 The people development process
The basic people development process has four main
steps: (1) selection, (2) measurement, (3) performance
gap analysis (for the purpose of training and
development needs identification) and (4) the creation
of a plan to close any performance gaps.
The selection process is often referred to as
“recruitment, selection and placement.” This process
has three main elements (1) recruitment questions and
analysis, (2) testing job applicants for their potential –
also called capability, and (3) defining what is required
in a particular position. Through combining these three
elements, we are able to determine who is a good fit for
a position and who clearly is unfit for consideration on a
candidate short list.
When the short-list of candidates has been applied and
someone is selected for the position, the second process
begins—performance measurement. Again we can use
two of the basic elements of the first process (1)
estimated potential and (2) the competency based job

profile which defines what is required by the position.
To this is added the performance development appraisal
and review process. This process occurs at two levels.
First, job holders are assessed based upon their actual
performance on specific job activities in a specific time
period. Second, job holders are also assessed regarding
how well they performed on the knowledge and skill
required to accomplish these job activities. The actual
achievement in job activities is used for determining
compensation rewards and benefits. The performance
against job competencies becomes the foundation for
this employee’s future development plan.
Through analyzing performance at the sub-competency
level, we enter the third part of the people development
process –determining performance gaps. In those areas
where the job holder meets or exceeds proficiency
requirements, no training or development is needed. In
areas where the job holder is below proficiency
requirements, line managers need to carefully examine
these areas to determine how these deficiencies should
be addressed.
Training is required where the job holder lacks the
knowledge to perform the job well, what he might know
about what is required but lacks a clear understanding of
the steps necessary to implement the knowledge
correctly or where basic skill development is needed.
Development, otherwise known as on-the-job training,
is required where a job holder needs to increase his level
of skill application or where he should increase his
experience in performing a task or activity. The analysis
of performance gaps therefore determines what is most
required to close a performance gap – training alone,
development alone or a combination of training and
The final training and development plan reflects input
from both line manager and the employee and human
resource professionals. The purpose of this plan is twofold: (1) to close immediate performance gaps and (2) to
lay the foundation for future career growth and
A review of the linkages of the people development
process reveals that the competency based job profile is
the key to this entire process. The job profile defines the
tasks and activities required in the job; establishes the
mandatory requirements for consideration for the
position and identifies the competency matrix with
performance requirements all the way down to the subcompetency level. The competency based job profile
therefore is the benchmark for initial consideration of
anyone for a position and also serves as the driver for
acceptable performance as the successful candidate
moves through the position from one year to the next.
Since competencies are the underpinnings of the people
development process, they are strategic since they help
to establish the foundation for corporate performance

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improvement and, from it, the achievement of a
company’s strategic business goals and objectives.

13.2 Competencies as the
systems Integration



If competencies can serve as the basis for people
development, they can also be the foundation for
integrating other human resource systems as well. In the
people development process, competencies are the link
pins in recruitment, selection and placement; they serve
as the foundation benchmarks for performance appraisal
and performance development review; in regard to
training and development, competencies establish the
expected level of performance against which
performance gaps and training needs are defined and
based upon this they serve as the pre-and post-test
marks for determining if a job holder is growing his
performance as expected over time. Based upon this,
competencies can be seen as actively involved in career
and succession planning as well as in the process of
mentoring company employees. Integrating these people
development systems together is already a huge
accomplishment, but competencies go even further---the
can also serve as a means of integrating the people
development process with the overall human resource
management process. To illustrate this, we need to
examine three major issues faced in human resource
management: (1) organizational size, (2) adequacy and
fairness of compensation and benefits and (3) right size
for a department, division or the company as a whole.
To answer the question “How big should your company
be?” we must incorporate three elements:
organization structure, (2) human resource planning and
(3) job grading and classification. Organization
structure is determined by a strategic planning unit
working in consultation with the top management of a
company. Through the creation of a strategic plan, top
management agrees to specific corporate strategic
performance targets which, in turn, impact human
resource planning. When corporate strategic targets
have been set, the human resource planning division
must determine how many people with what type of
competencies performing at what level of proficiency
are required to get the job done. This helps human
resource planning to project corporate or departmental
manpower needs. With organization structure and
manpower needs identified, it is necessary to examine
the required positions in more detail and to set them into
a framework (which is called job grading and
classification). The grading and classification process in
the past was not benchmarked against a competency
based job profile, but rather was benchmarked against
“factor points” developed by various consulting
companies. The result was often confusion and
dissatisfaction because the “equivalent position” used
for job grading and classification was often not truly
equivalent at all. To eliminate such slippage, a
competency matrix provides a better benchmark and

also serves as a cross-check against more traditional job
grading and classification systems. The result of this
overall process is the answer to the first question “How
big should our company be?”
The second question is “Whether the compensation
system is fair?” Traditional personnel management
based systems used the “factor point system” to
determine the level and range of compensation and
benefits. The true answer to this question should,
however, involve three main elements: (1) the
classification system, (2) the competency based job
profile and (3) performance development appraisal.
The classification system defines what someone is
“classified to do” based upon limited information about
internal company job comparisons regarding levels of
responsibility, authority, leadership and financial
control. The competency based job profile, on the other
hand, defines in clear terms what a job holder “should
do” not just in terms of tasks and activities but down to
the level of core and sub-competencies and the
proficiency level performance associated with these
sub-competencies. Performance Development Appraisal
then examines the difference between what someone is
“classified to do”, what someone “should do” and what
they “actually do” in their job. The result is an
identification of performance achieved and where
performance gaps exist. Such use of competencies as
arbiters of compensation fairness answers this question
not just on the general level of a position, but also at the
specific level of an individual holding a particular
With organizational size determined and compensation
fairness better addressed, we now must turn to the
question of “How many employees do you actually
need?” rather than the general issue of how many
employees your section is authorized to have. We often
find sections in companies with a large complement of
employees yet a low level of productivity. At the same
time, other sections are under-staffed and straining
under the workload. How can we better address the
“rightsizing question”?
The answer is to use a competency based approach to
link together four basic elements: (1) human resource
planning, (2) the classification system, (3) competency
based job profiles and (4) performance development
appraisal and review. Through human resource planning
we can identify what a work unit has as its authorized
manpower. This is a “best estimate” of the type and
amount of manpower needed to perform the work
required of any section, division or department. The
classification system structures each position required
and places it in some type of hierarchy based upon
factors which impact the scope, depth and
responsibilities of each position. The ultimate objective
of any classification system is fairness and internal
equity – treating each employee as fairly as possible in

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comparison with other employees in similar levels or
positions in the company.
Competency based job profiles define specifically what
should be done in a particular position at what specific
level of performance. This both defines entry
requirements and also determines the progress which
the job holder should attain as he moves through his
position from one year to another. Finally, the
performance development appraisal and review process
measures how well a job holder has done against these
requirements and based upon that what are his future
needs for improvement.
If your employees only meet minimum requirements as
specified in their job profiles, you will need nearly all
the employees for which your section is authorized. If
your employees under-perform, however, even if you
have every position filled, you will never have enough
employees to get the work done. The selection and
development of employees in this case is critical
because it impacts not only short term performance but
long-term performance over time. The result is when
your employees can perform at expected levels,
managers are able to maintain their budgets more easily.
If their people under-perform, the chance is high that
their budgets will be insufficient to meet their needs due
to increased demands for additional training, employee
turnover or additional employees.
A competency based system helps to identify the right
person for the right job from the very beginning. It
highlights areas of unique strength as well as areas in
need of change. Competency based systems also
establish foundation benchmarks for performance and
processes which can be applied to measure the
successful attainment of performance targets. Properly
applied, competency based systems help to ensure that
the right sizing question is answered with the right
people, at the right time with the requisite knowledge
and skills required to perform the work at or above
required standards.
If your employees are developed to the maximum extent
possible, chances are very likely that they will meet
performance expectations as well as exceed these
standards. This will stabilize or potentially decrease the
total number of employees needed in some sections
while allowing un-needed employees to be redeployed
to areas in which their expertise is a better match for the
work required. The worst example of a weak human
resource system is one in which over-staffing occurs
frequently, under-utilization of existing knowledge and
skill is common and improper placement of the wrong
people in the wrong job is a the rule rather than the
exception to the rule. Competency based human
resource systems address this issue and help your
company to overcome these problems.

The final integration of the people development system
and the overall human resource system therefore comes
down to one single linkage point—the competency
based job profile.

14. Summary
management strategic? Because through the use and
application of competencies, your company can lay the
foundation for organizational change through
supporting the development of all company employees.
Competencies force companies to identify what is
important and to indicate why competencies are
mandatory requirements such as ability and attitude
which are less changeable and knowledge and skill
which can be more easily changed –given the proper
foundation of ability.
Competencies are economical since they help to avoid
duplication of work while also helping to focus effort
more effectively. Competencies are useful because they
tell us what is required to implement the tasks and
activities which drive the results in our positions and
thereby in our companies. Finally, competency based
systems foster teamwork because they require top
management to support these systems, human resource
professionals to act as facilitators and consultants of
these systems and line managers, through their active
involvement, to define the competencies upon which
these systems are based. This is the ultimate example of
integration—people integration throughout your
If learning organizations are based upon transparency,
sustainability and institution building, we can also say
that competency based systems are based upon the same
principles. Without transparency as to the competencies
required, these systems would ultimately fail. Without
the building of employee strength through a focused,
systematic manner, sustainable growth and development
of your company would not occur. If your managers,
employees and leaders do not share what they know and
define what is needed in clear, understandable terms,
your company will not improve and institution building
does not occur.
Competencies link directly to the
learning process and from it help to establish the future
strength and competitiveness of your company.

15. Biografi
Pungki Purnadi holds Master’s
degree in Petroleum Engineering from
1991 and started his career in Human
Resources. His career began as Technical Training

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Officer; then he continued his career as Training
Coordinator and after two years, he joined
TOTALFINAELF E&P Indonesie. He was promoted to
become Head of Training & Development in East
Kalimantan District up to 1997. In 1998 he was
transferred to TOTALFINAELF Jakarta head office to
take charge the corporate Manpower Planning, then
move to Corporate Career Development and his last
position was Head of Organization Development
(2001). Then he joined Lafarge as the Senior Manager
HR up to early 2002. He joined PT Exspan Nusantara as
one of MedcoEnergi subsidiary and he was in charge for
People Development program. His last position in
MedcoEnergi was Sr. Manager Human Capital. Since
May 2005 up to now, he is with Petronas Carigali as
Head of HR Planning & Development. He is also the
Chairman of Training & Develoment Organization
within Oil & Gas Industry (KKSD). As HR
practitioners, he is very active in several Human
Resources organization such as Indonesian Human
Resources Professional (IHRP) and Human Resources
Indonesia (HRI). He is also as facilitator for several HR
programs in some professional training vendors in
Indonesia. Most of the programs that he conducts are
related to all HRD practices. Pungki Purnadi is one of
HRD moderators for Komunitas Migas Indonesia

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Root Cause Analysis (RCA): A Comprehensive Method
to Prevent Re-Occurrence of Equipment Failure and to
Improve Reliability
Ahmad Taufik1 and Deddy Nugraha2

Lloyd’s Register Indonesia – Jakarta. Email:
Indonesian Society for Reliability (ISR) – Bandung. Email:


Abstract – RCA, among many other procedures, is
frequently employed when performing reliability based
inspection and maintenance on the rotating and
stationary equipments. RCA is the most comprehensive
methodology that goes beyond ordinary failure analysis
(FA) method to investigate the equipment or system
failure, as well as an accident occurrence. By using a
certain tool, for example a powerful fault tree analysis
(FTA), RCA can completely uncover subsequently; i)
direct cause(s), ii) contributing cause(s), and most
importantly, iii) the root cause(s) of the problem. The
root cause could be further identified as physical cause,
the human factors, or the latent causes (management
system) that many times become the root cause(s) of the
By using the RCA methodically, as suggested by the
previous examples, the re-occurrence of the equipment
failure either chronic or acute type of failures will be
prevented, and therefore, the overall equipment
reliability will be improved.
This papers will report two cases study investigated by
using root cause analysis (RCA), namely : i) oil pipeline
failure due to external corrosion attack, ii) failure of the
compressor coupling due to misalignment. The tow
cases will be used as examples on the application of

1. Introduction and Background
In year 2004, various plant accident and failures
happened in East Java Industrial region. Chemical
plants exploded and burned. The damage was so
extensive that the management was brought into trial.
Only shortly, a furnace in a steel foundry in the same
region exploded, followed by an ammoniac storage tank
in a petrochemical plant leaked causing environmental
disaster. Toward the end of year 2004 a series of
transportation accidents did occur. Fatal accident in Toll
Jagorawi and Lion Air slippery during landing all
refresh our memory to why did they happen ?, Early
year 2005 has also been marked with leakage and
explosion of gas and oil pipeline both onshore (South
Sumatra) and offshore pipeline (Java Sea) causing
environmental disaster. More recently in 2006 gas

pipeline, induced by extreme soil movement in Porong,
Sidoardjo Areas, exploded causing 12 people death toll.
The failure possessed not only economical impact but
also, more importantly, human, social and political
impacts. All those events can be categorized as acute
failure or acute loss event that is to say the occurrence
with very low frequency (very rarely) but contain very
high consequences.
Meanwhile, although in smaller scale, incident or failure
does happen in plants and manufactures. Despite of less
dramatic occurrences, business interruption and
unplanned shutdown keep occurring, and hence the
losses caused by production interruption increases.
These events can be categorized as chronic failure or
chronic loss event, namely an event or events sequence
with high frequency of occurrence that individually
possess small impact, but the accumulation may cause
significant consequences in terms of : i) loss of
production, b) increase of mean time between failure
(MTBF) and down time, as well as iii) increase the
inefficiency. Consequently, the reliability and, to greater
extent, the availability of the equipment decreases. The
question now is why the failure keeps occurring, what
are the root causes of those accidents or failures. Is there
any method that can be utilized to sharply but
comprehensively analyze the occurrences in order to be
able to prevent the reoccurrence in years to come? Is
there any method and analysis that can be employed to
improve the reliability of the equipments? To answer
those questions and issues, this paper is written and

2. Purposes of the Paper Writing
To propose a method that comprehensively and
systematically analyzes the failure of component, subsystem, system, sub-unit or unit of the industrial
equipment and to indicate the difference level of
analysis in identifying the root cause(s) of the failure

3. Root Cause Analysis
Reliability engineering and predictive maintenance have
two major objectives: i) to prevent a catastrophic failure
from a critical system and production plant and, ii) to

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prevent deviation from acceptable performance that
causing: accident, environmental impact, production
loss, or bad product quality. However, those always
occur no matter how effective the reliability program is.
Therefore, feasible and practicable program must
include a comprehensive understanding to correct the
root cause of the problem that causing bad impact to the
plant performance. A Methodical technical analysis
should be used to investigate and to solve various
problems related to reliability.
As we may know failure is a condition where equipment
does not functioning as intended either due to total
breakdown, or its efficiency that no longer meets
technical specification. Failure can also be stated as a
negative deviation from a normal predefined
performance. If the condition is allowed to occur, it
may lead to the financial loss or jeopardize the operator
safety, community or surrounding neighborhood.
The root cause is the cause, if it is corrected, will
prevent the reoccurrence of the similar events. There are
possibly more than one cause that identifiable, one
event lead to another subsequently. The sequence can be
analyzed until the real root cause (real causes) can be
found separating them from the symptoms (apparent

4. The Analysis Objectives
The purpose of RCA is to solve problem that affect
performance that in turn improve the reliability of the
plant. RCA is performed to omit (or at least to manage
in a better way) an unreliability performance of the
equipments. Notice here that RCA is to be done not to
blame “the guilty” responsible for the failure or
accident, but rather, to formulize why those events
occur. In order the objective is achieved, every step
require discipline and consistency. Every investigation
has to be comprehensive and every step in RCA
procedure also has to be followed. In order RCA to be
effective, the investigator must separate facts from
opinions. The investigator prior experience tend to
cause he jump to the final conclusions without
performing objective and disciplined analysis
sequences. Therefore, assumption, perception, or
hypothesis can not be verified or proven has to be
ignored or even rejected. The main reason doing an
investigation, analysis, and report of the failure event is
to be able to identify proper corrective actions to
prevent similar occurrence so that safety of the workers,
public and the environment can be protected.
Failure Analysis (FA) - A systematic investigation
used scientific method on an equipment failure and stop
to only find a physical root of the failures. The physical
root is usually visible at the component level. If it is fail,
the component is then replaced. Root Cause Failure
Analysis (RCFA) – A comprehensive analysis go to
root cause(s) of the problems uncovering, physical,

human and latent factors but co notated only to
mechanical equipment. The word "failure" has a
mechanical connotation for most people. Root cause
analysis can be applied to different situation not just
mechanical one. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) – A
systematic and comprehensive analysis including
identifying the Physical, Human and Latent Root
Causes and seeking to understand of how an undesirable
event has occurred. To widen the application, the word
"failure" is then omitted to broaden the definition
covering non-mechanical events such as accident,
product defects, client complaints, administrative
problems, etc. Diagram below shows schematically the
position of FA, RCFA and RCA specifically for the

Failure Analysis
(Technical Cause at a Component


Root Cause Failure Analysis
(Technical + Non Technical

Root Cause Analysis
(Technical + Non Technical Causes
for Any System / Items, More

Figure 1. Relation and inter-correlation among FA,
As shown in the diagram, for a specific equipment
failure, a good RCA will be preceded by a proper failure
analysis. Hence, basically, FA becomes “a pincer” of an
RCA activity (in the case of equipment failure). In this
paper, RCA is applied to the mechanical equipment
either stationary or rotating equipments, as outlined in
the various case studies. Direct Cause - A cause that
directly results an event to occur. For example, in case
of leaking a direct cause may be problem related to
component or equipment leak. In a misalignment case,
the direct cause may be an operator failure in alignment
work. Contributing Cause – A cause that contributing
an event to occur but when standing by itself, it will not
cause the event to happen. For instance in the case of
leak, the contributing factors may be insufficient
operator training in detecting leak and in giving a
response that resulting in a worse event that otherwise
will not occur that badly. In the case of system
misalignment, the contributing factor may be an
excessive disturbance accepted by the operators in shift
change resulting in lesser attention given to the
important detail during system alignment. Root Cause a cause, if corrected, will prevent the similar failure
from re-occurrence. The root cause not only applied to
the current event but also have a generic implication to
the series of events that can logically be identified and
corrected. It may be a series of event (cause and effect)
that identifiable that one failure leads to another. The

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sequence, again, has to be investigated until the root
cause can be identified and corrected (see Figure 2).







method has advantageous and disadvantageous
respectively. Which one do we choose as the right
method will depends on the nature of event or accident
itself. However, for equipment failure, one of the best
methods which are highly recommended in early
formulation and problem identification is fault tree
analysis, where this method will become the center of
discussion in this paper. .


Figure 2. Cause and effect relationship in a series of
occurrences. To stop the failure one can cut off the line
at any section, but not until the root cause is identified
and eliminated the failures will always occur along the

5. The Methodology in RCA
Generally, the root cause analysis process can be seen
in a flow diagram as follows. Surely, there are some
other similar flow charts that have been proposed in the
literatures. All can be valid as long as the proposed
hypotheses and the conclusions drawn are supported by
or validated by field test, laboratories test, or back up by
sound and established empirical or theoretical

Physical Roots – a physical cause to answer why the
component fail. From 31 RCA studied on physical root
cause, it has been found that the major failure
mechanism for the rotating machines is as follows;


Table 1. Percentage of physical root cause in the
rotating equipment






Corrosion fatigue




Report Indicating Failure or Accident



Classify the

Define the

Failure and Form

Events from

the Team

Data Analysis

Analytical Form

Note –This is the major failure mechanism, and quite
often there is more than one failure mechanism

the Failure or

Human Roots – The human failure that directly or
indirectly cause the component to physically fail
Latent Roots (or management / system root cause) –
The weakness in the management system or
management approach that allow the human failure to
frequently occur. For example, an inappropriate or in
adequate policy or procedures, regulations or unclear
rules. Inadequate marks and (insufficient mark–in & tag
– in) may lead to workers confusion or even accident.
The more detail the analysis level, the better the events
to be understood.
There are many RCA methodologies available in the
literatures, among other : 1) Events and Causal Factor
Analysis, 2) Barrier Analysis, 3) Fault Tree Analysis
(Fishbone/Ishikawa Model, 5) PRoact. One of each


Interview Do the
Review Operational
Observation Data, Document (PFD’s)
Testing in
Review the Inspection
Report, Maintenance, and
Repair, etc.Review Procedure

Check Literatures
Reference, Code
Specification, etc.

Preserve all evidents, data and



Figure 3. A Typical RCA Flow Chart

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identify the contributing causes and their interaction
will go on and on until the root cause of the problem is
eventually identified. Once the fault tree has been
completed, analysis can be done to determine what
combinations that leads to the top event. Examples of
the simplified FTA can be seen in the following real
industrial cases.

7. Case Study I - Oil Pipeline Failure
Related to External Corrosion Attack
7.1 Background
18 years old 8” x 21 KM buried pipeline for
transporting crude oil has repeatedly been reported to
leak. The pipeline was made of carbon steel API 5L
Grade B (seamless pipe), pipeline diameter is 8” with
schedule 40 (0.322” or 8.17 mm in thickness). Design
pressure was 1350 psi and design temperature was
200OF (93.330C). The leak, as reported, occurred in
some of the pipeline sections caused by aggressive
corrosion attack. The pipeline lay in an island runs from
one coast to another coast.

7.2 Field Finding

Figure 4. A Typical RCA Flow Chart (continued)

6. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
The concept of fault tree analysis (FTA) is a deductive
method by doing reasoning process from general aspect
down to more specific details. It works back ward to
investigate various consecutive events that lead one
another that ends up with accident or catastrophic
failure. FTA is used to determine potential cause of the
incident or system failure. Frequently, FTA is employed
in quantitative risk assessment to determine the
probability of failure. Detail probability of failure or
failure frequency per year is obtained from the FTA
construction and calculation.
Fault tree is a graphical model that indicates much
logical combination of events that generate total failure.
The possible combination includes equipment failure,
human error or management failure. Fault tree analysis
start from the ‘top event’, with unwanted events, down
to series of “contributory events” or basic events. The
analysis process is regulated by a specific logic rule.
There are basically two logic gates available, namely
AND and OR gates. For AND gate, an event will only
occur, if all supporting factors exist all together or
simultaneously. On the other hand, in OR gate, an
event may be occur if only one of all available factors
exist. The process of breaking down the events to

Current survey and inspection have found that, there has
been failure in cathodic protection system along the
buried pipeline. The failure, worsen by other
contributing factors, lead to external corrosion attack,
particularly in the area close to the shorelines. Various
cathodic protection deterioration was observed,
including i) already consumed or defective magnesium
anodes, ii) cable disconnection or fire damaged, iii) test
box damage due to vandalism or natural causes (third
party damage).

7.3 Fault Tree Analysis Construction
The FTA can be seen in Figure 6. Apparently, there are
many possible contributing factors that played role on
the pipeline failure. The thicker blue boxes and red lines
related to many contributing factors lead to the pipeline
leak. The boxes on the lowest row indicating the root
cause(s) of the problem. To cut off the connecting lines
in the FTA diagram means to eliminate the possible
corrosion root causes, and hence to mitigate the risk
associated with it.

7.4 Analysis, Verification, Testing and
The corrosion may be related to the soil characteristics
and intermittent zone behavior as verified by the soil
test and potential difference test. As a consequence, the
remaining life of the pipe is markedly controlled by
external localized corrosion mechanism, and the
pipeline life in this particular section is assumed to be
less than 3 years. The rest of the pipeline is estimated to

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have a remaining life of more than 40 years, since there
was no significant wall thinning process associated with

the internal corrosion attack, on the average that the
wall thickness only subjected to 2.8% reduction.

7.5 Root Cause(s), Conclusions and Follow

maintenance practice). Shortly after re-installation, the
compressor was run and monitored, the speed was about
8000 rpm, and then sudden vibration increase was
evident followed by the trip of the system. Smoke and
fire was observed came out from the coupling.

The root causes was found to be: poor wire connection,
poor back filling, less required mass (the all three result
in inadequate CP anode potential). Soil stress and water
absorption were other root cause related to coating
disbonding. While electrolytic and chlorine presence
became the contributing factors. It is recommended that
to rehabilitate the critical pipeline section, recoating
have to be employed and the whole cathodic protection
system along the line should be changed to impressed
current method (ICCP). Together with a proper
inspection and maintenance practice, this will protect
the pipeline for the next 10 years.

8.2 Field Finding
All bolt on the compressor sides were fractured, while
membrane condition on the steam turbine side has been
deformed and coupling guard fractured. However, bolt
condition in the spacer was still in good condition.
Compressor and turbine can still be rotated by hand
freely. In the event of incident, there was very fast
opening process indicating the control change from
local panel to CCR. At that very moment just prior the
trip, the turbine speed jumped up from 8000 rpm to
about 10,000 rpm.

8.3 Fault Tree Analysis Construction
The fault tree has been constructed as seen in Figure 7.

8.4 Analysis, Verification, Testing and
Two questions must be answered: did the fracture of
coupling bolts become the root cause of the coupling
failure? Because they were new at the time of
installation, or conversely, did the fracture of the
coupling bolts are affected or triggered by some other
failure mechanism operative in the coupling.
Metallurgical analysis indicated that there had not been
any difference in design, alloy and manufacture process
on the new bolt. All comply to the standard and
specifications. Further analysis on the vibration pattern,
time frame, speed, and interviews with the operators
uncovered the root cause of the problems. The coupling
bolt failure was related to the misalignment problems.
Figure 5. External Corrosion Attack on Oil Pipeline

8. Case Study II - Failure of the
Compressor Coupling due to
8.1 Background
It had been a compressor coupling failure on the
refinery plant. All coupling bolts with 12 point flange
hexagon head were fractured. Bolts were installed on
the coupling connecting the steam turbine as a prime
mover to a centrifugal compressor. All bolts were newly
purchased and installed. The incident had occurred
during a routine overhaul period (as a preventive

8.5 Root Cause(s), Conclusions and Follow
The physical root cause was found to be the overload
acting on the bolts. The human root related to the
misalignment of the coupling, while the latent root was
the procedure or inadequate tools for the alignment
work. This was a good example on how the overhaul
work (preventive maintenance practice) in fact,
increases the failure rate or decreases the MTBF of the
equipment. The solution to the problems was to improve
the alignment procedure and to use more accurate tools,
and to review the maintenance procedure whether a time
based maintenance is really necessary or not for that
particular rotating equipment, since it will affect the
equipment reliability very significantly.

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Figure 6. Fault Tree Construction and Analysis for Case Study I

Root Cause

C o m p re s s o r

C o u p lin g

Latent Root

S t e a m T u r b in e

Human Root

Figure 7. Fault Tree Construction and Analysis for Case Study II

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9. Conclusions

11. Biography

Accumulated chronic failures and inefficiency that
frequently happen causing many company to increase
the maintenance cost or to decrease the profit margin or
even to loss their production capacity. Root cause
analysis not only capable of preventing the reoccurrence of the similar failure or accident events in
the future, but also capable of seeing further than just
failure symptoms that many times mistakenly assumed
by many to be the root causes. The RCA uncover and
identify all root causes including physical aspects,
human factor aspects, and latent factor (management
system). In addition, the failure symptom either as direct
causes or contributing causes can be determined in a
more specific manner. By performing a systematic and
methodic root cause analysis, the reliability of the
equipments can be improved. As seen from two case
studies, it can be learned that how the fault tree analysis
(FTA), as one of the powerful RCA tools, can be
utilized to identify root causes so that the prevention
steps can be employed more effectively.

Ahmad Taufik is Oil and Gas
Operations Manager of Lloyd’s
Register Indonesia, Jakarta and also
founder and member of Pipeline
Integrity Research Group, Metallurgy
Program of Study, Institut Teknologi
Bandung. He holds Ph.D from Georgia
Tech., Atlanta, USA. Dr Taufik is one of reliability
moderators for Komunitas Migas Indonesia (KMI). His
primary interest and expertise are in Pipeline Risk and
Reliability Engineering.

10. References









Deddy Nugraha is a general secretary
of Indonesian Society for Reliability
(ISR). He graduated from Mechanical
Engineering Department, Institut
Teknologi Bandung. His primary
interest and expertise are in
Maintainability (RAM) Engineering
for Rotating Equipments. He is an active trainer and
provide consultancy for Power Industry.

David A,, “Root Cause Failure Analysis,
What Do I Need to Do To Improve Reliability”,
Reliability Magazine, Vol 9, Issue 3, 2002.
A D Livingston, et. al, Root Causes Analysis:
Literature Review, Prepared by WS Atkins
Consultants Ltd for the Health and Safety
Executive (HSE), 2001.
E. Forrest Pardue & Alan Mueller, “Strategic
Component Management Integrating Asset
Management, Root Cause Analysis, and
Predictive Maintenance”, Proceedings of the
Project Management Institute Annual Seminars
& Symposium, November 1–10, 2001
R.Keith Mobley, “Root Cause Failure Analysis”,
Plant Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann,
Massachusetts, USA 1999.
Robert J. Latino and Kenneth C. Latino, “Root
Cause Analysis, Improving Performance for
Bottom-Line Results”, CRC Press, Florida, USA,
2002. .
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), “Root Cause
Analysis Guidance Document”, Washington,
D.C. USA, February 1992.
Ahmad Taufik, “Introduction Root Cause
Analysis”, Training Course Materials, for
Amoco Mitsui, Ltd, Cilegon, Banten. PT. Trans
Idea Nusantara, Agustus 2004.
Ahmad Taufik, “Pipeline Reliability Assessment
and Risk Analysis”, Training Course Material,
LAPI-ITB, Bandung, June 2001.
ASM Handbook Volume 11, “Failure Analysis
and Prevention”, ASM Materials Park Ohio
44073-0002, USA.

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Management of Change: Case Study of Relief Header
Redesign during Project Construction Phase
Darmawan Ahmad Mukharror
Process Safety Engineer, VICO Indonesia Co Ltd. LLC.
Wisma Mulia Suite 4801 and 4901, Jl Gatot Subroto, Jakarta. E-mail:

Abstract - In many cases, Management of Change
(MOC) programs are overly burdensome and could be
ineffective. The application of MOC at the early stage of
process design is simpler and easier compare to at later
design stages. MOC methodology should be applied to
engineering design deviations and variances, as well as
to preplanned changes. An improper relief header
design can lead to outcomes that pose a significant
threat to the operators and the equipments in the
immediate vicinity of the failure location.
This paper highlights the application of MOC during
engineering design and construction, the use of
available technology to support MOC, and how MOC
application helps to execute the revised design. The
improper design of relief header is also presented as the
case study.

disaster to have identified MOC as a root cause was the
Flixborough accident in 1974. The UK royal
commission recommended that chemical plants to
establish MOC procedures to avoid such catastrophic
accidents. It can be said that almost every major
accidents can be correlated to a change that was not
subjected to a proper safety review as required by MOC
[2, 3]

Keywords: management of change (MOC), change,
engineering design deviation, relief header design,
revised design

There are two kinds of changes in the oil and gas
processing facilities: permanent and temporary.
Whenever a change that will become permanent is made
in plant or in a process, management systems and
procedures must be in place to assure that hazards and
risks have been identified and proper precautions have
been taken to minimize those risks. Temporary changes
should have a prescribed time limit and should be
properly documented. Renewal of temporary change
time limitations must be reviewed to assure that
adequate safeguards are being maintained.

1. Change and Management of Change

2. Engineering Design Deviation

First introduced formally by nuclear power industry,
Management of change (MOC) has been quickly spread
to the defense energy [1]. The meaning of MOC refers
to the making of changes in a planned and managed or
systematic fashion. The intention of MOC is to
implement new methods and systems more effectively
in an ongoing organization. The changes to be managed
lie within and are controlled by organization. Hence, the
second meaning of managing change is the response to
changes over which the organization exercise little or no

It is essential that such changes do not result in
deviations that lead to operation outside the established
safe operating limits. Thus, during the lifetime of a
single project, it may be normal to establish several
changes prior to the plant decommissioning.

MOC procedures have stolen attention due to the
introduction of requirements within the new OSHA
1992 and EPA 1998 process safety management
regulations in US. Recently, ISO 9000 quality initiatives
have provided future significance to the need for
process change control management. While many firms
applied MOC only to equipment and field operational
procedures changes, some big chemicals producers are
also applied MOC on personnel.
The absence of MOC has resulted in several
catastrophic failures. One of the major process safety

Figure 1. Attribute Value for MOC during Project

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However, the cost and feasibility of performing MOC
must be taken into account. At the earlier stages of
design, MOC application has lower cost and lesser
difficulty compare at the later ones, as shown in Figure
1 above.

Project Manager must be obtained as a sign of

Pre-Start-Up Safety Review
The Pre-Start-Up Safety Review is conducted in the
conclusion of the installation and prior to start-up.
Similar to project safety review, the meeting shall
be composed of participants selected from
Engineering, operations, maintenance, safety
departments and etc depending upon change types
and risk level.


Prior to start-up, the project manager will ensure
that all actions listed under the “actions to be
completed prior to start up” sections of the PreStart-Up Safety Review reports have been
completed. A copy of the completed package
drawings (P&ID, Isometric Drawing, Piping Plan,
etc), an operating instruction, or other
documentation should be transmitted to all parties
to indicate approval has been obtained and
operation may commence.

Equipments change may introduce additional hazards or
even increase risk. Some changes in equipment may
result in new process safety hazards. Therefore, a
management system that requires an assessment of
hazards and risks should be considered in hazardous
Facility or operational changes must have appropriate
review and authorization and it must be addressed prior
to start up to the equipment. There is five-stepprocedure to establish MOC during project construction
phase, as the following:

Initiating the Change Process
Who initiates changes? During construction phase
there is a project safety review which involves all
related personnel such as engineers, operators,
maintenance personnel, safety personnel, etc.). The
brainstorming or more structured methods are used
in the project safety review meeting to evaluate all
hazards and risks that may lies in the facility under
construction. Sometimes, field trip to inspect and
validate the drawings is established to enact the
changes. The changes will be reviewed and an
order request is sent to engineering department. For
working budget, the change package is initiated
when funding is approved and design is ready to


Design of the Change
Prior to design, project manager endorsement is
required. The Project manager will indicate the
acceptability of the method by which the proposed
change will be designed and which review
techniques will be applied The information of
where they will be used, formal hazards evaluation
and risk assessment techniques such as HAZOP,
QRA (Quantitative Risk Assessment) and others
are normally completed prior to or during the


Design Review
The design review is conducted at the finalization
of the design and prior to installation. The design
reviewer must be knowledgeable in the facility
and/or process technology affected by change, and
must not be the principal designer of the change.


Installation of the Change
Before the installation may begin, the Project
Manager will review the assessment of residual
hazards to determine whether the review process
specified is still appropriate. The signatures from

3. Study Case: Relief Header Design
The following section describes process condition for
the case study of MOC for relief header design.

3.1 Process Description
The simplified drawing of such process is shown in
Figure 2 below:

Figure 2. Configuration of Process System
A reciprocating compressor package completed with a
three phase separator will be installed in a field. The

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separator normal flowrate is 16 MMSCFD (Million
Standard Cubic Feet per Day) while the operating
pressure is 27 psig and 600 psig in the suction and
discharge respectively. For the overpressure protection
purpose, a relief header is installed to serve the relief
case scenario when the block valve or SDV (Shutdown
Valve) in the separator is inadvertently blocked or
spuriously trip. There is a PSV which capable of release
the 16.7 MMSCFD of 100 psig hydrocarbon gas to the
relief header.

3.1.2 Design of Change
To design the change properly, the mechanical engineer
from engineering department runs The CAEPIPE
software to evaluate the stress received by relief header.
The worst case scenario has been simulated to provide
the best design for this relief header and the result is
shown below in Figure 4.

3.1 MOC Steps
The simplified MOC step is can be describe as follow:

3.1.1 Initiating the Change Process
Normally, relief header is designed to handle the worst
case scenario which in this event is the spontaneous
release of 16.7 MMSCFD of Hydrocarbon gas with
pressure of 100 psig and temperature of 120 degF. The
relief header line must be supported with stand pipe or
concrete to prevent instability during worst case
scenario. The material of the relief header – carbon steel
– will collapse if the release force exceeds its stress
limit. From the field visit during Project Safety Review
meeting a participant found that the design obviously
may not robust, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 4. The Simulation Result of CAEPIPE for
Existing Drawing

Figure 3. Initial’s Design of Relief Header Prior to
The information was then communicated in the meeting
and changes to prevent the catastrophic event were

Figure 5. The Simulation Result of Proposed Design
Simulation results describe that relief header line will
collapse at the worst case scenario and confirm the
recommendation given by Project Safety Review which
is to take any change on such design.

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3.1.3 Design Review

for the prolonged relieving condition at worst case
scenario including chattering event of the PSVs.

Following the evaluation of the simulation results, a
drawing of a new arrangement of relief header is
proposed which then analyzed with the same software.
By entering the worst case scenario parameters, a new
design shows the proper installation can withstand
severe instantaneous releases of hydrocarbon from
PSVs and PCV. The simulation result of the proposed
design is shown in Figure 5 above.
Since the proposed design shows a better piping
movement during worst case scenario, a proposed
design can be further progressed on detail drawing and
even can be issued for construction.

4. MOC Costing
Incident that might happen if the change was not
executed could cause considerable suffering in both
direct and indirect loss costing. With no indirect cost
(loss of morale in workforce, investigation, insurance,
improvement, waste management, studies/assessments,
loss sales etc) and no injuries/fatalities (since the
location only manned by only three operators thus the
probability to avert danger is high), the loss costing of
such event can be derived as follows:
Asset Losses: 23 USD x 6m of 6” Sch. 40 Pipe = 130
USD (pipe material losses)

3.1.4 Installation of the Change
After the approval of Project Manager to proceed the
issued for construction drawing onto installation, the
establishment of the change can be furthermore real.
Figure 6 shows the erection of the proposed design
change of that relief header.

Replacement: 42 USD x 6 inch joints x 2 = 504 USD
(welding with boom truck service)
33 USD x 6 inch joints x 3 = 594 USD
(welding without boom truck)
Engineering Service: 15 USD x 6 hours = 90 USD
(engineer’s charge)
150 USD x 2 ea. = 200 USD
Production Losses: 16 MMSCFD x 0.5 day x 7000
USD/MMSCF = 56,000 USD
Total Losses

: 57,518 USD

With an addition of indirect cost factor, that loss costing
could be significantly higher than above number. The
MOC cost itself, consists of replacement + engineering
service which costs 1,388 USD. The cost of loss is
approximately 41.4 times compared to the MOC cost.

5. Conclusion

Figure 6. The Installation of Design Change of the
Relief Header

MOC is required to ensure the safety integrity of the
chemical process facility. Administration of a cost effective MOC program requires careful planning.
Since the efficacy of MOC is dependent on how soon
MOC is established in the project lifecycle, a simple
MOC procedural workflow and a document
management system are practical necessities. The
simple workflow to performs MOC during project
lifecycle is as follow: initiating the change process,
design of the change, design review, installation of the
change, pre-start-up safety review, start-up

3.1.5 Start-Up and Commissioning
During start-up and commissioning, the new design has
been experienced two relieving events (15 MMSCFD of
100 psig of Hydrocarbon Gas from well), and the new
arrangement was remain stable and only insignificant
movement was detected. However, care must be taken

A case of relief header design deviation as described in
this paper is to show how to manage change during
construction phase. The CAEPIPE simulation applied as
an engineering tool to simulate relief header under worst
case scenario, shows that a significant instability
(collapse) of the relief header occurs and could lead to

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process safety accident. The MOC is then established
following the simple workflow. During the
commissioning, there were two worst case scenarios
experienced with no negative consequence on the newly
arranged relief header. Those events show that the
change was properly designed. Performing MOC help
making the process safer as well as cheaper compare to
incident cost by a factor of 41.4 times.

6. Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank our colleagues (La
Badaruddin, Jaffee A Suardin, and Rahmad B Arman)
for many discussions, which assisted in the evolution of
the ideas and concepts presented herein.

7. References
[1] West, Harry H., and R. Danna, Course Text for the
AIChE Continuing Education Course: Management of
Change, American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
New York, 1992
[2] R. E. Sanders, Management of Change in Chemical
Plant; Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1993.
[3] T.A. Kletz, What Went Wrong? Case Histories of
Process Plant Disasters, Gulf Publishing Company,
Houston, 1988
[4] Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
Chemical; Explosives and Blasting Agents; Final Rule,
29 CFR Part 1910, Department of Labor, Occupational
Safety and Health Administration, Washington DC,
February 24, 1992, Federal Register, Volume 57, No. 36

8. Biography
Darmawan A Mukharror is a senior
Process Safety Engineer for VICO
Indonesia with 7 years experience in
Process Engineering and Process
Safety Project for several International
Oil and Gas Industry. He obtained his
B.Sc. from Institut Teknologi
Bandung (ITB), Indonesia in 1999.
Darmawan is also voted for
Indonesian Institute for Process and Safety (IIPS) – - as a President of Executive
Committee. His experiences in Process Safety
Knowledge are cited on many national and International
Journal and Seminars.

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The Importance of Pump Reliability as a Rotating
Equipment in the Process Industries
(A Case Study of Centrifugal Pump)
Dani Rusirawan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Nasional (ITENAS)
Jl. PKHH. Mustapa No. 23 Bandung 40124, West Java – INDONESIA. E-mail :
Abstract - Rotating equipments such as pumps,
compressors, turbines and accessories are the lifeline of
process industries. When these equipments fail, the
process stops and losses occur.
The centrifugal pumps is the most common type of
pumps which found in various facilities and wide spread
application partly due to their ability to operate over a
wide range of flow rates and pump heads. The
petroleum refining industry is one of the major sectors
to use centrifugal pumps as indispensable equipment to
transport liquid materials (range from crude oil to
various kinds of hydrocarbon) in plant operations. The
centrifugal pumps (and all kind of pumps) are designed
to operate near the Best Efficiency Point (BEP) on the
pump curve (pump characteristics). Flow values
significantly below or above BEP often result in poor
Basically, this paper expose a fundamental of
characteristics & reliability of centrifugal pumps
conduct to operating point, and some of the main
reasons that may cause the centrifugal pumps operating
change out of the best efficiency point (BEP), based on
tracer study.
Its hope that this paper can be used as initial
information for the pump responsibility to identify the
main symptoms of problems and can maintain the safety
and reliability of the centrifugal pump so can make
strategy to reduce operating and maintenance costs of
process plant. Nevertheless, it is not the purpose of this
paper if someone is looking for extensive and detail
explanations of all about pump & pump reliability.

1. Introduction
In today’s competitive climate, rotating equipment is
playing an increasingly critical role in plant operations.
With rising energy cost, process industries plants are
increasing their focus on the amount of energy spent on
rotating equipment. 76% of asset managers consider
rotating equipment as being their major priority.
Data shown that in period 1960-1990, pumps or
compressors included one of the several equipments that
found failed frequently in the process industries

(number five after: piping system, tanks, reactor and
In modern process industries, pumps (as a rotating
equipment) are indispensable tools for transportations of
various liquids to maintain plant function while
enhancing production efficiencies. Pumps handling
liquids other than ordinary water are, in general, called
“Process Pumps“.
Process pumps are used in refineries, petrochemical
industries, cement mils, fertilizer production, paper
mils, food processing and various chemical plants. The
majority of process pumps used in such process
industries is turbo types represented by centrifugal
pumps. In view of hydraulic characteristics, these
pumps are classified into:
1. Pumps handling homogeneous viscous liquids, and
2. Pumps for transporting solid-liquid mixtures.
Viscous liquids handled by process pumps include such
low viscosity liquids as hot water, volatile hydrocarbons
and high-density oleo chemicals.
Solids-liquid mixtures transported by pumps range from
slurries suspending fine particles to mixtures of
different sizes of solids heavier than liquids and paper
stock containing fibrous materials of various
Process pumps constitute important elements in process
industries in which utmost reliability and safety are
required in operation of equipment. In each field of
process industries, specific requirements for process
pumps have been developed based on accumulated
knowledge and experience. In selecting pumping
equipment, total life cost over a presumed return period
should be duly taken into account including degree of
energy consumption and ease of maintenance. In
selecting process pumps, major items to be taken into
consideration are as follow:
1. Reliability to meet severe requirements in
operations, which is prerequisite to ensure
uninterrupted plant operation.
2. Maintainability in case of failure ensuring ease of
restoration including replacement of parts.
3. Favorable operation efficiencies to provide energy
saving over long time continued operation, and

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


Adaptability to some changes in requirements
resulting from variation in plant operation

accurately estimated with no one questioning the results.
Maintenance and energy are, by far, the biggest costs in
the life of a pump (see figure 2)

In most application, process pumps are selected from
standardized models, which are specified for respective
operating conditions, in order to conduct with pump
reliability matter (include interchangeability parts).

2. Up to Date Maintenance and
Reliability Concept
Proper maintenance is critical to long equipment life,
reliability and efficiency. John Guydan (director of
maintenance and services at National Steel’s Great
Lakes Division) says “ We view maintenance not as a
necessary cost but as a strategic asset. Maintenance
influences the entire operation, from product quality to
on-time delivery. Poor maintenance procedures can cost
you millions of dollars in repairs, poor quality and lost
production" whereas good maintenance practices can
cut production costs immensely.
Basically, maintenance asset in the process industries
can be classification into: Fixed plant and civil, rotating
equipment, electrical equipment, instrumentation and
controls. The percentage labor cost that must be spent to
maintain good production in process industries plant
consists of: rotating equipment (33%), instrumentation
and controls (29%), electrical equipment (19%),
turnaround (15%) and fixed plant (4%).

Figure 1. The schematic of operational risk profile [2]
Based on figure 1, its clear that why rotating equipment
is an asset manager as being major consideration in
process plant.
Predicting the maintenance cost of a pump (as a rotating
equipment) is difficult, especially if you have yet to
install pump. One is asked to do just that when
performing Life Cycle Cost (LCC) calculations. When
one calculates LCC, all the cost that the owner will ever
incur is tallied up: purchase price, installation, energy
and maintenance. Of all these parameters, maintenance
costs are the most elusive. All the others can be

Figure 2. The position maintenance conduct Life Cycle
Cost [3]
Improperly sized, or poorly performing pumps are
costing companies millions of dollars unnecessarily.
Unscheduled repairs and poor reliability are causing
companies to lose production and spend money on
maintenance costs and spare pumps that sit idle for the
majority of their existence.

2.1 Maintenance Paradigm
According to major industries throughout the world, it’s
time to throw out your old ideas on machine
maintenance. The cost-saving trend is toward a
maintenance program that targets the root causes of
machine wear and failure. Predictive and preventive
methods are out: proactive maintenance is in. Why?
Because proactive maintenance methods are currently
saving industries of all sizes thousands, even millions,
of dollars on machine maintenance every year. This
concept of saving large amounts of maintenance,
however, may be tough for some to grasp. According to
DuPont, “maintenance is the largest single controllable
expenditure in a plant.” In many companies it often
exceeds annual net profit. The problem of costly
maintenance has truly reached a serious level, but as
some companies have found out, and more come to
realize every day, their maintenance costs can be cut
drastically by establishing a “proactive” line of defense.
When the problem comes to the life of any machine,
getting the root of the problem must be implemented,
whether it’s a lawn mower or a 1,000 h.p. bulldozer,
cleanliness counts. Laboratory and field tests show that
more than any other factor, fluid contamination is the
number one culprit of equipment failure - even the most
microscopic particles can eventually grind a machine to
a halt. Yet, the accepted methods currently being used
to combat machine damage are based on either detecting
the warning signs of failure once they’ve already begun

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

(predictive) or regular maintenance according to a
schedule rather than the machine’s true condition
(preventive). No discipline has previously taken a micro
view on machine damage - concentrating on the causes
instead of the symptoms of wear. Proactive maintenance
is that discipline, and it is quickly being recognized
worldwide as the single most important means of
achieving savings unsurpassed by conventional
maintenance techniques.
Imagine being able to pinpoint and eliminate a disease
long before any symptoms occur in your body. It would
save you money in doctor bills and keep you out of the
hospital in the long run. This is the advantage of
proactive maintenance over predictive maintenance.
Proactive maintenance commissions corrective actions
aimed at he sources of failure. It is designed to extend
the life of mechanical machinery as opposed to 1)
making repairs when often nothing is broken, 2)
accommodating failure as routine and normal, and 3)
preempting crisis failure maintenance - all of which are
characteristics of the predictive/preventive disciplines.
While effective to a degree, neither preventive nor
predictive maintenance is geared to detect the most
common and serious failure culprit: contamination.
Therefore, the first logical step to proactive maintenance
is the implementation of a strict contamination control
program for lubrication fluids, hydraulic fluids, gear
oils, and transmission fluids. Table 1. as follow give
illustration about analog of the maintenance strategy
with human body

2.2 Asset Operation
In today’s competitive business environment
rationalization of operational expenditure is a major
driver to success. Optimization of operational costs
requires the “operational risk profile” of a plant, unit or
system to be determined, through assessing equipment
risk, product risk and people risk. These risk
contributors interact with each other, both directly and
indirectly: “equipment” operating together in a
structured and planned manner is the basis for
“production”; “people” interact with the process through
The most effective way to reduce operational risk is by
identifying specific areas that need improvement based
on their contributions to the overall risk. This process is
part of a more comprehensive approach towards
management of physical assets. Asset Operations (AO)
is a complex process in which the reliability,
maintenance, safety and environmental issues are
addressed, and related to business objectives and
compliance requirements.

Table 1. Analog of the maintenance strategy with
human body [4]
Figure 3. The schematic of operational risk profile [5]


Human Body


Monitoring and
correction of
failing root
causes, e.g.,

Cholesterol and
blood pressure
with diet


Monitoring of
vibration, heat,
wear debris

Detection of
heart disease
using EKG or



By-pass or



Heart attack or

Equipment risk is a major factor contributing to
operational risk, and the maintenance strategy adopted
is a key element in the magnitude of equipment risk.
Structured methodologies are vital tools in determining
and optimizing operational risk. As illustrated in fig.4,
increased inspection or maintenance intervals generally
imply lower maintenance costs, but increased “failure
costs” because of higher associated probability of

Figure 4. The effect of maintenance costs& risk costs to
total costs [5]

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

The optimum interval is defined as the having the
lowest sum of maintenance and failure costs. Risk based
approaches such as: RAM (Reliability, Availability and
Maintenance) and RBI (Risk Based Inspection) are key
in optimizing of preventive maintenance activities.
Risk-based methods like RAM, RCM and RBI can be
used to rank systems and equipment and develop
strategies for maintenance and inspection. (5)

2.3 Reliability and Operational Reliability
Reliability is an engineering discipline for applying
scientific know-how to a component, assembly, plant, or
process so it will perform its intended function, without
failure, for the required time duration when installed
and operated correctly in a specified environment.
Reliability terminates with a failure - i.e. unreliability
occurs. Business enterprises observe the high cost of
unreliability. The high cost of unreliability motivates an
engineering solution to control and reduce costs.
Reliability engineering for many companies has
involved a long process, consuming valuable resources
to overhaul maintenance policies. Often these programs
produce results which claim to save 40% 0f
maintenance costs but the savings may never come. On
the face of it, these programs are based on logic and
appear to make sense. The problem is they are difficult
to implement because they are too unwieldy to keep
pace with today’s business needs.
In the implementation of maintenance-reliability
program, the companies will determine about
Operational Reliability (OR), as a long term continuous
improvement plan, that generates changes in the
organization culture turning it into a different
organization with a wide productivity sense, with a clear
business vision and fact driven. OR has four big feeder,
like shown in figure 5.

emphasis to





3. Construction of Centrifugal Pump
A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of
equipment in any process plant. Centrifugal pump
basically consists of a stationary pump casing and an
impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The pump casing
provides a pressure boundary for the pump and contains
channels to properly direct the suction and discharge
flow. The pump casing has suction and discharge
penetrations for the main flow path of the pump and
normally has small drain and vent fittings to remove
gases trapped in the pump casing or to drain the pump
casing for maintenance.
The next figure given a simplified diagram of a typical
centrifugal pump that shows the relative locations of the
pump suction, impeller, volute, and discharge. The
pump casing guides the liquid from the suction
connection to the center, or eye, of the impeller. The
vanes of the rotating impeller impart a radial and rotary
motion to the liquid, forcing it to the outer periphery of
the pump casing where it is collected in the outer part of
the pump casing called the volute. The volute is a region
that expands in cross-sectional area as it wraps around
the pump casing. The purpose of the volute is to collect
the liquid discharged from the periphery of the impeller
at high velocity and gradually, cause a reduction in fluid
velocity by increasing the flow area. This converts the
velocity head to static pressure. The fluid is then
discharged from the pump through the discharge

Figure 6. A Schematics of Centrifugal Pump [7]
Figure 5. The Four Big Feeders “Operational
Reliability” [6]
Conduct with context this paper that focus on pump
reliability in the process industries, the expose feeder

Centrifugal pumps can also be constructed in a manner
that results in two distinct volutes, each receiving the
liquid that is discharged from a 180o region of the
impeller at any given time. Pumps of this type are called
double volute pumps (they may also be referred to the

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

shaft and bearings due to imbalances in the pressure
around the impeller.

Figure 7. Different of Single & Double Volutes [7]

3.1 Diffuser
Some centrifugal pumps contain diffusers. A diffuser is
a set of stationary vanes that surround the impeller. The
purpose of the diffuser is to increase the efficiency of
the centrifugal pump by allowing a more gradual
expansion and less turbulent area for the liquid to
reduce in velocity. The diffuser vanes are designed in a
manner that the liquid exiting the impeller will
encounter an ever-increasing flow area as it passes
through the diffuser. This increase in flow area causes a
reduction in flow velocity, converting kinetic energy
into flow pressure.

Figure 9. Single & Double-Suction Impellers [7]
Impellers can be open, semi-open, or enclosed. The
open impeller consists only of blades attached to a hub.
The semi-open impeller is constructed with a circular
plate (the web) attached to one side of the blades. The
enclosed impeller has circular plates attached to both
sides of the blades. Enclosed impellers are also referred
to as shrouded impellers. The next figure illustrates
examples of open, semi-open, and enclosed impellers.

Figure 10. Open, Semi-Open and Enclosed Impellers [7]

Figure 8. Centrifugal Pump Diffuser [7]

3.2 Impeller Classification
Impellers of pumps are classified based on the number
of points that the liquid can enter the impeller and also
on the amount of webbing between the impeller blades.
Impellers can be either single-suction or doublesuctions. A single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter
the center of the blades from only one direction. A
double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the center
of the impeller blades from both sides simultaneously.
The next figure shows simplified diagrams of single and
double-suction impellers.

The impeller sometimes contains balancing holes that
connect the space around the hub to the suction side of
the impeller. The balancing holes have a total crosssectional area that is considerably greater than the crosssectional area of the annular space between the wearing
ring and the hub. The result is suction pressure on both
sides of the impeller hub, which maintains a hydraulic
balance of axial thrust.

3.3 Centrifugal Pump Classification by
Centrifugal pumps can be classified based on the
manner in which fluid flows through the pump. The
manner in which fluid flows through the pump is
determined by the design of the pump casing and the
impeller. The three types of flow through a centrifugal
pump are radial flow, axial flow, and mixed flow.

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Figure 11. Radial Flow Centrifugal Pump [7]

Figure 15. Main Components of Centrifugal Pumps (8)

4. Characteristics & Reliability of
Centrifugal Pumps
4.1. Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps
Figure 12. Axial Flow Centrifugal Pump [7]
Pumps are always defined by the basic Pump
characteristics. They show the relationship between
head, power and efficiency against flow. It is important
to see just how "peaky" the efficiency might be,
showing that running at a duty (head and/or flow) below
rated duty is likely to lead to a significant reduction in
pump efficiency. The Best Efficiency Point (BEP) of a
pump is ideally at the rated duty point. The pumps
characteristics concept show in the below figure.
Figure 13. Mixed Flow Centrifugal Pump [7]

3.4 General Components Centrifugal Pump
A centrifugal pump has two main components:
1. A rotating component comprised of an impeller and
a shaft
2. A stationary component comprised of a casing,
casing cover, and bearings.

Figure 16. Centrifugal pump characteristics [9]

The general components, both stationary and rotary, are
depicted in Figure 14. The main components are
discussed in brief below. Figure 15 shows these parts on
a photograph of a pump in the field.

Running at reduced flow, or indeed above rated flow,
will accelerate pump wear and might give operational

Figure 14. Main Components of Centrifugal Pumps [8]

Figure 17. Onset of adverse effects when operating a
pump away from its peak efficiency flow [9]

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

In practice pumps are usually founds to be over rated for
the duty, since either the demand varies, and/or the
system designer has been prudent and over-sized the
system. This problem is generally over-come by
throttling the flow with a valve. But deliberately
restricting the system flow is far inferior to better
matching of the pump to the actual system
requirements. This is because it often causes additional
wear and reduces system efficiency.

particularly useful in systems where there is a wide
variation in demanded flow.

Figure 20. Effect of speed reduction on pump
characteristics [9]

Figure 18. Illustration of the effect on efficiency of
throttling a pump [9]
Reducing the diameter of the impeller will make an
existing pump run more efficiently at a lower flow
without throttling, (figure 19). Manufacturers
commonly offer the same pump housing (volute) with a
range of impeller diameters because of this.
Manufacturers may also offer different styles of
impeller to cope with different duties.
Often a manufacturer will offer the same pump with
different motor options to allow the one pump to be
used over a much wider range of duties. For instance,
changing from the most common 4-pole motor to a
faster 2-pole motor will enable the same pump to
deliver twice as much peak flow and 4 times the head.
(The effect of running a pump with 4 and 2 pole motors
is the same as what happens when running at 50% and
100% speeds as shown in figure 20).

What this all means is that the same basic pump can
serve different duties depending on both the diameter of
impeller fitted and the speed of the motor chosen. The
power consumption will vary with these parameters and
with other factors such as viscosity. It is therefore not
useful, and indeed would be very misleading, to
characterize pump sets by power rating. The size of
motor required therefore needs to be determined for
each application.
The normal range of operation various kind of pumps
(included centrifugal pumps) show in the next figure.

Figure 21. Selection guide for various types
of pumps [10]

Figure 19. Pump characteristics showing various
impeller diameters (9)
Variable Speed Drives allow a pump to operate
efficiently over a wide range of speeds and hence duties,
and so are very good for saving energy. They are

This preliminary selection exercise gives a good
assessment of the pump type that fits the required
process condition. pump type that fits the required
process conditions. The specific pump type will also
influence what standard specifications might be
required. Some industry and national specifications for
centrifugal pumps include:

ASME/ANSI B73.1, “Specification for Horizontal
End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical
Process,” and ASME/ANSI B73.2M, “Specification
for Vertical In-Line Centrifugal Pumps for
Chemical Process” (

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


API-610, “Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy
Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services”


PIP RESP73H-97, “Application of ASME
B73.1M–1991 Specification for Horizontal End
Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process,”
and PIP RESP73V-97, “Application of ASME
B73.2M Specification for Vertical In-Line
Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process”

API-610 sets standards that create a more robust and
expensive pump. Individual company policies may have
additional centrifugal pump specification that must be
me, as well.

Recently, significant attention has been given to the life
cycle cost of owning a pump. Major components of the
cost of ownership are initial cost, installation cost,
operating cost, and maintenance cost. In process plants
it has been found that under many circumstances the
cost of unscheduled maintenance is the most significant
cost of ownership.
The two figures below a given illustration about how to
determine maintenance cost for a centrifugal pump
based on pump reliability that refers to BEP. One
depicted what the effect of distance from BEP had on
reliability (figure 23). The second figure depicted a
breakdown of all the cost associated with maintaining a
pump (figure 24). By breaking down the cost and
distributing to reflect the reliability, defendable cost can
be obtained to support maintenance-reliability program.

Every pump has a specific curve that relates head, flow,
power, NPSHR and efficiency for specific impeller
diameters for that particular unit. This enables correct
selection of the impeller diameter. During specification,
the goal is to select a pump with a rated (or design)
point as close as possible to the best efficiency point
(BEP), as determined by the pump manufacturer.

Figure 23. Reliability relative to distance from BEP [3]

Figure 22. The Sample of Typical Operating Curves For
a Centrifugal Pump [10]

4.2. Reliability of Centrifugal Pumps
Centrifugal pumps should be normally operated at or
near the manufacture’s design-rated conditions of head
and flow (BEP). This condition gives information that
pumps have reliable performance.
What are the implications of pumps operating to the left
of the BEP? Low efficiency, high radial loads, noise and
vibration become a problem that happens. Damage to
the seal, shaft, couplings and poor reliability is a real
and direct of such operation. However, this potential can
never be fully realized unless four basic steps are
followed: proper selection, correct installation,
appropriate operation, and timely maintenance and

Figure 24. Maintenance costs relative to distance from
BEP [3]
An additional means of determining relative cost for
two different pumps is the reliability index. Using
figures 25, 26 & 27 and multiplying the three factors
(Fr, Fd, Fq) together, one can better estimate the relative
maintenance cost between pumps.

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


Figure 25. Reliability factor: Fr [3]

Figure 26. Reliability factor: Fd [3]

Figure 27. Reliability factor: Fq [3]

Planning - design. Unsuitable selection of pump
specifications including performanceand materials
results in a mismatch with plant requirements.
b. Installation and piping work. Incorrect erection
work results in malfunction in operation.
Misalignment is often caused by distorsion due to
piping loads.
c. Preparation for operation. Negligence of specified
start-up procedures results in inferior operation. The
preparation includes de-aeration at suction piping,
pre-warming and pre-cooling for pumping hot and
cold liquids respectively and provision of proper
d. Commercial operation. Progressive corrosion ,
erosion and/or scaling on rotating parts bring about
unbalance resulting in vibration and deterioration in
pump performance
To identify the trouble causes, it is useful to diagnose
symptoms in terms of potential contributory causes,
which are normally detailed in operation and
maintenance manuals provided by manufacturers. In the
following commonly encountered causes are listed for
each symptom. Diagnostic symptoms:
a. Pump does not deliver liquid
b. Capacity delivered is insufficient
c. Developed head is insufficient
d. Priming is lost or capacity decreases after starting
e. Excessive shaft power is required overloading
f. Abnormal vibration or noise occurs
g. Bearing life is shortened
h. Overheating and/or internal seizure occur
i. Excessive leakage occurs at stuffing box
j. Gland packing life is shortened
k. Mechanical seal leaks
l. Mechanical seal box is overheated.
The sample of pump characteristics that wear overtime
(lost reliability) shows in figure 28, and the sample of
pump efficiency that can be maintained by
refurbishment shows in figure 29.

5. Factors Affecting Characteristics &
Reliability of Centrifugal Pump
In operation of process pump, various troubles and
failures are encountered jeopardizing plant operation.
Most of the malfunctions are classified into the
following categories:
1. Vibration and Noise
2. Sealing Failure
3. Temperature rise and seizure
4. Inferior performance
5. Corrosion and erosion
Figure 28. Effect of Wear on Pump Characteristics [9]
When causes of troubles and failures are examined in
the past references, respective causes are traced to the
following stages in the use of process pumps :

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

8. Biography

Figure 29. Average wear trends for maintained and
unmaintained pums [9]

6. Conclusions

The centrifugal pump reliability is a critical
importance to the daily operations of process
industries. When these equipments fail, the process
stops and losses occur.
2. Conduct to pump operating point, basically
centrifugal pumps has a high reliability at location –
10% to 5 % of BEP.
3. Pump efficiency can decrease significantly when
the pump is operating away from the designed Best
Efficiency Point, and therefore has meaning
increased energy costs.

7. References
[1] Short Course Material, “ Turbo pumps and turbines
“, 1998, Hatakeyama Memorial Fund Ebara
[2] Hernu, Michael “ Twenty years of process industry
benchmarking “, 2003, New York: Solomon
[3] Hodgson, Judy “ Predicting Maintenance Costs
accurately ”, 2004, DuPont Engineering
[4], “ What is pro
active maintenance “.
[5], “ Asset operation “.
[6], “ What is operational
reliability “.
[7], “ Mechanical science : pump “.
[8], Sahdev, Mukesh. “
Centrifugal Pumps: Basic Concepts of Operation,
Maintenance, and Troubleshooting (Part- I) ”.
[9], “ Efficiency
Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps ”.
[10] Fernandez, Kimberly, B. Pyzdrowski, D.W.
Schiller & M.B. Smith, “ Understand the basics of
centrifugal pump operation”, 2002,
[11] What Happens When a
Pump No Longer Operates at Optimum Conditions.

Dani Rusirawan holds a Bachelor degree
in Mechanical Engineering from Institut
Teknologi Nasional (ITENAS) in 1996
and Master’s degree in Mechanical
Engineering, majoring Energy Conversion
from Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) in
2000. Since 2000, author has been working as teaching
staff & researcher at Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
ITENAS, particularly in thermo - fluid. Prior to joining
ITENAS, author worked as mechanical engineer at
Plant Engineering Department, PT. Tosummit
Electronic Devices Indonesia (affiliate of Toshiba
Corporation), East Jakarta Industrial Park (EJIP),
Cikarang – Bekasi.

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Systematic Reliability Improvement
Identification Process
Surya Ahdi, CMRP
PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia.
E-mail:, Phone: +62-765-825471, Fax: +62-765-826845

Abstract - The biggest challenge in managing process
facilities is to ensure the major equipment’s and
systems’ availability and reliability in delivering outputs
within the expected quality boundary.
Reliability paradigm which only counts the equipment
and process system operation readiness (it is a
simplified definition of availability) broadens to also
count process’ and products’ quality boundaries.
Operable system and/or equipment are not directly
classified reliable if they do not operate in their
designed operating condition or the end output does not
meet the quality specification.
The broadened paradigm requires stable equipment and
process system operating conditions. Operating
condition degradation causes them unreliable. Effective
condition monitoring through predictive maintenance
and inspection activities for early improvement
identification becomes critical in maintaining and
sustaining the reliability.
The new reliability paradigm requires systematic
approach in identifying reliability problems, their
development process, causes, solutions and economics
impacts. The systematic effort standardization and
documentation ensure same implementation by overall
facility reliability and maintenance personnel which
stimulates proper, effective and constructive
communication, knowledge sharing and consolidation
among them.
Problem identification becomes the first factor dictating
success of the further processes. It must include not only
information and recommendation from inspection
personnel through their routine equipment condition
monitoring process but also information recorded on
CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management
System). Such combination ensures adoption of not only
maintenance and inspection personnel’s skills,
knowledge and experiences but also maintenance
history which reduces the inaccuracy and bias during
the process.

1. Introduction
Business life assurance in any industry is determined by
its ability to produce customers’ expected product
quality which may vary significantly from one industry
to another. However, whatever industry we are

operating, customers always expect low priced qualified
Cheap product may seem difficult or even impossible to
produce because some externally controlled factors such
as raw material cost may contribute to total production
cost. Optimization of process reliability can be the
clearest way to reduce the cost which in turn also
reduces the end product price, too.
Reliability engineers play major role on ensuring
optimum process and related equipment operational
readiness. Their effective identification and execution of
high cost problems contribute much to operating cost
reduction initiatives.

2. Process Description
Process flow cart is shown on Figure 1 – Reliability
Problem Identification Process Flow Chart.

2.1 Inspection Raised Problems Analysis
Equipment inspection and monitoring program is
critical in assuring integrated process system reliability.
The program can be done with visual inspection in
routine duties and checklist and more advanced
condition inspection and trending with predictive
maintenance tools. Inclusion of such equipment
condition monitoring in routine duties and checklist
ensures early identification of equipment degraded
conditions and increases possibility for early action to
fix them.
Records of the visual equipment inspection and
monitoring program in combination with analysis and
trending of equipment monitoring program using
predictive maintenance tools can provide better
understanding of equipment’s behaviors related to its
process integrated system changes.
The understanding of these behaviors provides further
description of the equipment’s criticality in contributing
to long and short term impacts to process system’s total
cost, and problems associated with them. Understanding
the tangible and intangible costs drives determination of
whether or not the problem should be managed or
After identifying such problems, the next process to
follow is dividing the problems into two categories
based on understanding of their causes.

Surya Ahdi - 1

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”

Problems which root causes and incident development
process are well understood, is validated to see whether
they can be solved through routine maintenance process
or not. Problems meeting the criteria follow the normal
work process stream where the work order is generated
and work execution is planned. While problems which
cannot be executed by maintenance team either due to
complexity or engineered modification
requirements must go to project management process.


Problems without clear root causes and incident
development process must be combined with result of
reliability engineers’ CMMS data analysis for business
opportunity discussion and decision with decision

The following CMMS data helps reliability
professionals understand the process system, equipment
and maintenance practice and behavior.

Analysis of CMMS unplanned maintenance history tells
reliability professional the right direction for reliability
initiative identification which effectively reduces
operating cost. Ignorant to analyze CMMS data, for
whatever reason, causes lost of improvement




Gather Other
Documented Data

Get Living Problem
Data Input from
Inspection team


Analyse data to
Statistical Charts
Combined Statistical Data with
Maintenance Input

Know Root
Cause &
Solution ?


Discuss Impact/Risk/



Problem information describing the
equipment observed condition, symptoms
and related process system parameters.


After maintenance execution data
components’ replacement and/or the
maintenance actions during execution,


Records of the work planned initiation
and completion.


Records of the actual work initiation and


Records of the planned allocated manhours,


Records of the actual allocated manhours,


Records of the planned estimated cost,


Records of the actual cost


Determine top rankings
for execution


Know Root
Cause &
Solution ?

CMMS Maintenance Historical Data

The CMMS data analysis tells reliability professional
various information which guides and drives
improvement opportunity.

Root Cause

Initiatives Frame


Can be


Problem and after execution information
mapping provides relation between processoperating conditions with equipment’s
behavior. Such relation guides determination
of future actual equipment problem and root
cause. Such gained knowledge stimulates more
effective maintenance planning and execution,
which not only reduce the maintenance time
and cost, but also increase availability and


Problem statistical Pareto, parameters mapping
and distribution analysis using statistical
methods such as standard distribution or
Weibull analysis show the actual operating
scheme information which provides strength
and limitations in process system operation.


Start working on
solutions potentials

Execution Plan


Decide the best
solution, design
and execute it

Execute the plan


Decide the
best solution,
design and
execute it

Monitor Results

Monitor Results







Reliability Engineer

Reliability Engineer leads effort, involving others

Expertise Engineering

Reliability Engineer, Inspection & Maintenance

Equipment damaged components data mapping
in relation to equipment age, equipment type,
function and process fluid, manufacturer, size
and model drives better future equipment and
components selection.

Figure 1. Reliability Problem Identification Process
Flow Chart

Surya Ahdi - 2

ISSN: 1829-9466 ©2006 Journal of the Indonesian Oil and Gas Community. Published by “Komunitas Migas Indonesia”


Plan and actual data mapping of cost, manhours and execution time provides description
of planning and execution effectiveness. Gaps
identified in this process determine
improvement opportunity.
CMMS data analysis provides baseline for
future work planning, determination of
determination of inspection and/or predictive
maintenance requirement. It also provides
baseline to equipment and systems’ operation
strategy; run to fail or maintained.

4. Biography
Surya Ahdi who holds accreditation of CMRP
(certified maintenance reliability professional) obtained
his B.Sc. from Universitas Sriwijaya (UNSRI),
Indonesia in December 1996 in Electrical Engineering.

CMMS Driven and Inspection Raised
Combined Data Analysis

He has been working for PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia
(was PT. Caltex Pacific Indonesia) since 1997;
• As an instrument engineer for various medium and
big projects in Duri Steam Flood in 1997 – 2002,
• As an instrument engineer for gas processing and
treating facilities’ operation and reliability team in
2002– 2004, and
• As a Lead Reliability Engineer in Sumatera Light
Oil North Reliability team in 2004 – now.

Purpose of combining CMMS driven data with
inspection raised data is to enable effective reliability
improvement initiatives selection. To ensure objective
and unbiased process, a prioritization ranking and
weighting factors set-up is required.

He is now on a Chevron Reliability Career
Development Assignment at Chevron Energy and
Technology Company (Houston – Texas, USA) after
completing the same program at Caltex Australia
Sydney Kurnell Refinery.


The critical path in this process in identifying the
problem root causes and their development process as
well as the external factors accelerating/decelerating the
process. Clearly understanding of this aspect uncovers
the solutions and future prevention of reoccurrence.


Improvement Execution Strategy

Big problems may rise up from small events or failure.
Improvement or fixing these small events or failures
may solve the whole system’s and equipment’s
problems. Some of the improvement process is actually
part of normal maintenance effort while some others
may require engineering solutions.

3. Conclusion
Systematic and well planned analysis of process system
and equipments data in combination with skill,
experiences and knowledge of inspection and
maintenance personnel provide good drive for effective
and efficient reliability improvement initiatives
identification through understanding of operating
strategy, equipment behavior, problems’ root causes and
development processes.
Combination of CMMS data and inspection personnel
data ensures adoption and documentation of not only
appropriate process but also the inspection and
maintenance personnel’s’ skill, experience and
Utilization of the well structured and systematic
approaches in standardized process stimulates
improvement not only in the reliability engineering
work process but also in lessons learned and best
practice communication.
Ignorant to use CMMS data analysis as part of the
reliability improvement process, for whatever reason,
causes lost of improvement opportunity.

Surya Ahdi - 3

About the Editors
Muhamad Reza was born in Bandung, Indonesia, on 4 November 1974. He obtained his
B.Sc. (cum laude) from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Indonesia in
1997. His M.Sc. (cum laude) and Ph.D. are both obtained from Delft University of
Technology (TU Delft), the Netherlands in 2000 and 2006, respectively. All his B.Sc.,
M.Sc. and Ph.D are in Electrical (Power) Engineering, in which his Ph.D topic is
focused on the stability impact of power system with distributed (renewable) generation.
In 1997-1998 and 2000-2002, he was a research and teaching assistant in ITB.
Currently, he is working with ABB Corporate Research in Västerås, Sweden, as Research and
Development Scientist and Technological Consultant. In 1997 he was awarded Ganesha Prize as the best
ITB graduate, and in 2000 he was awarded as the best graduate of TU Delft. He received scholarship
from Toyota ASTRA, Indonesia (1994-1997), research grant from BTHF, the Netherlands (1998), M.Sc.
scholarship from NUFFIC, the Netherlands (1998-2000) and Ph.D. scholarship from the Ministry of
Economic Affairs, the Netherlands (2002-2006). He has authored and co-authored more than 40 papers
published in national and international proceedings and journals. He is also a moderator of Electrical
Group in Migas Mailing-List. (Email:
Satio Braskoro was born in Semarang, February 6th, 1976. He obtained B.Sc degree
(third best student) in Ocean Engineering from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) in
1998. He was awarded scholarship from the Netherlands Education Center to pursue
Master’s degree in Offshore Technology, Delft University of Technology. He worked at
PT Komaritim (Stolt Offshore Indonesia) in September – December 2002. He joined
INTEC Engineering BV, the Netherlands, as a senior pipeline design engineer in January
2003. He is currently working at Shell Global Solutions Sdn Bhd, Malaysia. He has 5
years experience in international offshore pipeline projects for the oil and gas industry. His works
include static, dynamic pipeline installation analysis, fatigue, stress analysis and finite element method.
He is also a moderator of Pipeline Group in Migas Mailing-List. (Email:
Arief Yudhanto was born in Bondowoso, East Java, on 14 February 1978. He received
B.Eng degree in Aeronautics & Astronautics from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)
in July 2002, and M.Eng degree (under AUNSEED/Net scholarship) in Mechanical
Engineering from National University of Singapore (NUS) in March 2006. He was
Research Assistant at the Lightweight Structures & Aerodynamics Laboratory in 2002 –
2003. Upon returning from Singapore in September 2005, he joined aircraft design
project of BPPT – ITB (WiSE8 Craft) and contributed in designing fully-composite
fuselage. He went back to Singapore in December 2005, and joined Data Storage
Institute to work on shock and impact simulation (explicit-implicit finite element method) of hard disk
drive. His publications are focused on buckling of sandwich structures and composite failure theory
(joint-research NUS – Boeing). He has been a moderator of Material Group in Migas Mailing-List since
February 2005, and editor-in-chief for KMI Journal Vol. 2. (Email:
Andri Gunari is currently pursuing Master’s degree in Marine Structures – Marine
Technology (sponsored by Norwegian Government under Quota Programme Scholarship)
University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway. He obtained B.E. degree in
Ocean Engineering from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) in 2001. He worked at
Foundation for Research and Industrial Affiliation (LAPI – ITB) for 5 years with
involvement in various projects with BP Indonesia, PT Kaltim Prima Coal, PT Jasa
Marga, Caltex Indonesia etc. His present research area includes post-fire analysis of
offshore structures, fatigue of materials and finite element method. (Email:

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