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Literature Review


Operation Principle

3.1 Process Flow Chart
3.2 Basic Principle of Ring Spinning
3.3 Basic Principle of Rotor Spinning


Discussion on Yarn
Properties to Be

4.1 Yarn Evenness
3.1.1 Irregularity (U%, CV, Index etc)
3.1.2 Imperfection(Thick, thin places,
4.2 Hairiness
4.3 CSP


Experimental Details

5.1 Process Parameters
5.2 Machines Description


Result and Discussion







CV%. only rotor spinning and with reservations airjet spinning have established themselves successfully on the market. neps/km. From the multitude of spinning processes developed in recent decades. The project work is an important subject matter of Textile Technology. Repco. The title of our project is “Comparative study on ring & rotor yarn properties”. Aim of the project  The main object of the project is to study the yarn properties (Um%. It is very much important in this time because although ring spinning machine produces best quality yarn but some limitations specially limited productivity bounds the spinners to choose alternative spinning system. Bobtex. hairiness and strength (CSP)..g. Here one has to change or create a new idea or to modify an old thing or conception. In our project work we observed the various yarn properties like U%. Twilo.  To analyze the various yarn properties by the graphical representation. So for successful completion of our four years graduate degree in textile engineering we should give special emphasis on this topic.5 Textile education is based on Industrial ground. It is a special type of project work as it is an observing and analytical project work.  To learn how to do a project work and report. CVm%. Imperfection. . index. air-jet and wrap spinning. e. Hairiness etc) of Ring & Rotor spun yarn and compare between them. friction. thin/km. thick/km.  To observed how yarn properties are change with the change of process.


Rotor-spun yarns have therefore always been successful where they could be manufactured more cheaply than ring-spun yarns and proved suitable for the range of application in question. A revolutionary change had come in spinning when ring spinning machine was invented by an American named Thorp in 1828. The minimum strength for a textile fiber is approximately 6 cN/tex (about 6 km breaking length). Commercial rotor spinning began in 1967 in Czechoslovakia1. yet a significant process of evolution took place during this time. The fineness determines how many fibers are present in the cross-section of a yarn of given thickness. Since binding of the fibers into the yarn is achieved mainly by twisting.1 Development of Spinning Seven thousand years ago spinning was already well established as a domestic craft. It can be assumed that fibers of under 4-5 mm will be lost in processing (as waste and fly). . This can be seen from the fact that nature produces countless types of fibers. Second important property is fiber fineness.2 Raw Materials & Their Properties For ring spinning most important fiber property is staple length. This has been achieved by using smaller ring and cop formats introducing piecing in the winding department substantial improvements in rings and travelers.7 2. but the basic concept has remained the same. At that time and until the early Middle Ages spinning was an incredibly slow and tedious task. For many years any noteworthy further development hardly seemed possible. The productivity of the ring spinning machine has increased by 40% since the late nineteen-seventies. 2. most of which are not usable for textiles because of inadequate strength. and Jenk – another American – added the traveler rotating around the ring in 18301. Throughout this period the spinning of one pound of cotton into a yarn suitable for the weaving of what we would now regard as a fairly heavy apparel fabric would keep as spinner busy for several weeks. Strength is very often the predominant characteristic. In the intervening period of more than 170 years the ring spinning machine has undergone considerable modification in detail. and only those fibers above these lengths produce the other positive characteristics in the yarn. Rotor spinning has been characterized from the outset by incomparably higher production potential than ring spinning This potential has been steadily increased by the continuous rise in rotor and winding speeds. Additional fibers in the cross-section provide not only additional strength but also better evenness in the yarn. fibers up to about 12-15 mm do not contribute much to strength but only to fullness of the yarn.

??????? ??? ?? ????? = ?????? ?????? ∗ ?. 2.8 and thus can exploit only 30 . ? However the most important fiber properties for rotor spun yarn is fiber fineness. the minimum strength of a yarn. a lower borderline of about 3 cN/tex is finally obtained for the yarn strength. Because staple length is limited by rotor diameter & smaller dia of rotor is required for higher rotational speed2. Spinning limit for various processes3: Ring-spun yarn: carded Ring-spun yarn: combed Open-end rotor 75 33 90 Ring spinning is suitable for finer count yarn whereas Rotor spinning is suitable for coarser count yarn production. Usually fibers of 2.70% of the strength of the material.3 Spinning Limit & Yarn Count Range Spinning limit is determined by minimum number of fiber in yarn cross section required to produce yarn. So more fiber is required in yarn cross section. Because for core twist structure fiber strength is less exploited in rotor spun yarn than in ring spun yarn (about 20-40% less)2. .8-4. The open-end rotor-spinning system is especially suitable for short-staple fibers (≤1 inch).5 Mic are used.

5 Yarn Properties An experiment was done by Lünenschloss and Hummel4 on ring & rotor spun yarn. They showed that. but the ring-spun yarn was stronger.9 Fig 01: Count ranges for various spinning system1 2. So rotor spun yarn generally needs more turns of twist than ring spun yarn2. extensibility and reduced hairiness. abrasion resistance. . whereas rotor spun yarn has core twist(twisting in the fibers from inwards to outside).4 Yarn Twist Ring spun yarn contains envelope twist(twisting in the fibers from outside to inwards). the rotor yarn was better in most respects. The fibers in the envelop layer in the rotor spun yarn can partly escape twisting action during spinning and therefore take up fewer turns of twist. despite the need for higher twist. Their conclusions were based on comparative trials in which American cotton was spun by both ring and rotor (BD 200) systems. such as evenness. 2.

02: Comparative yarn properties found in Application Report2 of Uster Tester 5 The above test report (Fig. produced by 2 different spinning systems is found in an Application Report5 of Uster Tester 5 (Fig. * For OE.Rotor yarn neps +280% Fig. Now our experimental work will help us to verify the previous results and then we will be able to take decision about comparative yarn properties of various processes. 100% cotton yarns. o4) demonstrates the following:  Mass variation (CVm) is higher in carded ring-spun yarn than OE rotor (carded).02).  Imperfection Index (Thin places+ Thick places+ Neps) for various types of yarn: Yarn type IPI Carded ring-spun 352 OE rotor (carded) 158 It is clear in the above report that carded ring-spun yarn has higher thick places and neps whereas OE rotor yarn has more thin places.  Higher hairiness of carded ring-spun OE rotor yarn.10 Another comparison of Ne 20. .


1 Process Flowchart: Process Flow chart of Ring Spinning (Carded Yarn): Blow room Carding m/c Breaker Draw Frame Finisher Draw Frame Simplex Ring Frame Auto-coner .12 3.

13 Process Flow chart of Ring Spinning (Combed Yarn): Blow room Carding m/c Breaker draw frame Lap former Comber Finisher draw frame Simplex Ring Frame Auto-coner .

The ring traveler has no drive of its own. 01).14 Process Flow chart of Rotor Spinning: Blow room Carding m/c Draw Frame Rotor Spinning m/c 3. Ring traveler (9) is also necessary for taking up this yarn onto a tube mounted on the spindle. In the process each rotation of the traveler on the spinning ring (10) produces a twist in the yarn. . the ring spinning machine spindle operates with at higher speed than the traveler (9). where they are drawn to their final count. The yarn is wound up into a cylindrical cop form by rising and lowering of the rings. After the resulting thin ribbon of fibers (6) leaves the delivery roller. In contrast to the roving frame. This difference in speed between the spindle and the traveler results in the thread being wound onto the tube.2 Basic Principle of Ring Spinning1 The roving bobbins (1) are inserted in holders (3) on the creel (Fig. since it exerts a very considerable influence on the uniformity of the yarn in particular. the socalled ring (10). the twist necessary for imparting strength is provided by spindle (8) rotating at high speed.a remnant of the flyer on the roving frame . it is dragged with spindle (8) via the yarn attached to it. which are mounted on a continuous ring rail. This traveler .moves on a guide rail around the spindle. The drafting system is at an angle of 45-60° and is one of the most important units on the machine. The rotation of the ring traveler lags somewhat behind that of the spindle due to the relatively high friction of the ring traveler on the ring and the atmospheric resistance of the traveler and the thread balloon between yarn guide eyelet (7) and traveler (9). Guide bars (4) guide the roving’s (2) into the drafting system (5).

. machines were also built featuring shift traverse produced by lowering the spindle bearing plate rather than raising the ring rail. 03: Principle of ring spinning The layer traverse of the ring rail is also less than the full winding height of the tube. For a time. These machines are no longer available today.15 Fig. The ring rail therefore has to be raised slightly (shift traverse) after each layer has been wound.

After leaving the rotating opening roller. it receives twist from the rotation of the rotor outside the nozzle. the fibers are fed to the fiber channel. assisted by the nozzle. namely all the basic operations (Fig. 02):   Sliver feed: A card or draw frame sliver is fed through a sliver guide via a feed roller and feed table to a rapidly rotating opening roller.3 Basic Principle of Rotor Spinning1 The rotor spinning machine is unlike any other machine in the short staple spinning mill in the range of tasks it has to perform. 04: Principle of Rotor spinning    Fiber transport to the rotor: Centrifugal forces and a vacuum in the rotor housing causes the fibers to disengage at a certain point from the opening roller and to move via the fiber channel to the inside wall of the rotor. The yarn end rotates around its axis and continuously twists-in the fibers deposited in the rotor groove. Yarn formation: When a spun yarn end emerges from the draw-off nozzle into the rotor groove. Fig. . which acts as a twist retaining element. Sliver opening: The rotating teeth of the opening roller comb out the individual fibers from the sliver clamped between feed table and feed roller.16 3. Fiber collection in the rotor groove: The centrifugal forces in the rapidly rotating rotor cause the fibers to move from the conical rotor wall toward the rotor groove and be collected there to form a fiber ring. which then continues in the yarn into the interior of the rotor.

.17  Yarn take-off. Between takeoff and package. several sensors control yarn movement as well as the quality of the yarn and initiate yarn clearing if any pre-selected values are exceeded. winding: The yarn formed in the rotor is continuously taken off by the delivery shaft and the pressure roller through the nozzle and the draw-off tube and wound onto a cross-wound package.


the effects of irregularity are widespread throughout all areas of the production and use of textiles. commonly measured as the variation in mass per unit length along the yarn. may also be directly influenced by yarn evenness. Twist tends to be higher at thin places in a yarn. In such cases. Such defects are usually compounded when the fabric is dyed or finished.19 3. stripes. . or any other process where stress is applied. since the average linear density is the same. In consequence. reflectance. Such variations are inevitable. but one yarn is less regular than the other. IMPORTANCE OF YARN EVENNESS:  Irregularity can adversely affect many of the properties of textile materials. If the average mass per unit length of two yarns is equal.1 Yarn Evenness: Yarn evenness deals with the variation in yarn fineness. such as abrasion or pill-resistance.  Other fabric properties. it is clear that the more even yarn will be the stronger of the two. the thicker yarn region will tend to be deeper in shade than the thinner ones and. winding. an irregular yarn will tend to break more easily during spinning. is a basic and important one. the variation in fineness can easily be detected in the finished cloth. because they arise from the fundamental nature of textile fibers and from their resulting arrangement. Thus. absorbency. Thus. fabric construction geometry ensures that the faults will be located in a pattern that is very clearly apparent to the eye. The problem is particularly serious when a fault (i. such as crease-resistance controlled by a finish. and the topic is an important one in any areas of the industry. at such locations. the pattern will tend to be emphasized by the presence of color or by some variation in a visible property. Thus.  A second quality-related effect of uneven yarn is the presence of visible faults on the surface of fabrics. The uneven one should have more thin regions than the even one as a result of irregularity.e. since it can influence so many other properties of the yarn and of fabric made from it. soil retention. if a visual fault appears in a pattern on the fabric. the penetration of a dye or finish is likely to be lower than at the thick regions of lower twist. weaving. or other visual groupings develop in the cloth. This is the property. If a large amount of irregularity is present in the yarn. drape. a thick or thin place) appears at precisely regular intervals along the length of the yarn. or luster. The most obvious consequence of yarn evenness is the variation of strength along the yarn. and defects such as streaks. knitting. as a result of the twist variation accompanying them.

20 Characteristics 3.V. however.V. "UNEVENNESS" OR "IRREGULARITY": The mass per unit length variation due to variation in fiber assembly is generally known as "IRREGULARITY" or "UNEVENNESS". The mathematical statistics offer 2 methods: a) Irregularity U%: It is the percentage mass deviation of unit length of material and is caused by uneven fiber distribution along the length of the strand. %) is commonly used to define variability and is thus wellsuited to the problem of expressing yarn evenness. the diagram alone is not enough.1. Fig05: Mass variations (U) ?= ? ?∗? a = shaded area ?= mean value Xi = mass value at a given point in time L = test length b) Coefficient of variation C. . It is true that the diagram can represent a true reflection of the mass or weight per unit length variation in a fiber assembly. For a complete analysis of the quality.1. %: In handling large quantities of data statistically. It is currently probably the most widely accepted way of quantifying irregularity. It is also necessary to have a numerical value which represents the mass variation. the coefficient of variation (C.

? = ????? By calculating the limit irregularity and then measuring the actual irregularity.25 ??: ? 2 ?? = 1. we can judge the spinning performance. Let. CVlim = the calculated limit irregularity CV= the actual irregularity ?? Then.25 ? c) Index of Irregularity: Index of irregularity expresses the ratio between the measured irregularity and the so-called limiting irregularity of an ideal yarn. the mean corresponds to 100% . Index of Irregularity. d) Relative count: Count Deviation relating to the length of yarn tested.21 ?? = ? Fig 06: Mass variation (CV) ? s = standard deviation ?= mean value L = test length Relation between CV & U: ?? ? = = 1.

They can be subdivided into three groups a) Thick places: Thick places lie in the range of +50% with respect to the mean value of yarn cross-sectional size and their length ranges from 4-25mm.2. Imperfections: Yarns spun from staple fibers contain "IMPERFECTIONS". The reasons for these different types of faults are due to raw material or improper preparation process. c) Neps: Neps lie in the range of +200% (+280% for OE rotor yarn) with respect to the mean value of yarn cross-sectional size and their length is about 1mm.22 3. b) Thin places: Thin places lie in the range of -50% with respect to the mean value of yarn cross-sectional size and their length ranges from 4-25mm. Imperfection Index= Thick (+50%)/km + Thin (-50%)/km + Neps (ring +200% & rotor +280)/km Fig 07: Thick.1. They are also referred to as frequently occurring yarn faults. Thin & Neps .

50.P is the product of English count and strength of yarn in pound. English count is the no. 100 m 3.  Stripe formation due to different hairiness value: As protruding fiber also absorbs dyes so area of higher hairiness becomes darker. . 3.23 3. a figure without a unit. 10. Fig 08: Yarn Hairiness Measurement Impact of Hairiness on textile fabrics6:  Deteriorate physical appearance  Harsh feeling.3 CSP (Count Strength Product): C. The hairiness is. Characteristics  Sh = Standard deviation of hairiness  Sh (L) = Standard deviation of hairiness at cut lengths of 1.S. i. C.e.S.  Higher hairiness causes higher pilling tendency. of hanks in 840 yards length per 1 pound weight of yarn.P = Strength of yarn in pound x Count in English system Again. therefore.2 Hairiness: The hairiness H corresponds to the total length of protruding fibers divided by the length of the sensor of 1 cm.


Yarn Count Ring spinning 100% cotton (CIS Uzbekistan) 28 mm 4.M.7 20 Ne 5. 25.3 Mic 70 grain/yard 4. Ltd Model: FA507 Origin: China Number of Spindle: 1008 Spindle speed: 14.3 20 Ne Rotor spinning 100% cotton (CIS Uzbekistan) 21mm 4.: 1.P. Ring Spinning Machine Manufacturer: Zhangjiagang Jinqiao Light Machinery Co.25 5.1 Mic 70 grain/yard 0.1 Process Parameters Parameters Fiber type Staple length Fiber fineness Drawn Sliver Hank Roving Hank T.78 Ne 4. Rotor Spinning Machine Manufacturer: Schlafhorst Model: SE12 Origin: Germany Number of Head: 312 Rotor R.2 Machines Description The test results presented in this report were obtained with the use of the machines operating in Square Textile Mills Ltd.000 b) Machineries for yarn testing:  Uster Tester 5  Wrap reel  Wrap block  Lea strength tester  Electrical balance .M.500 II. a) Machineries for yarn production: I.


81 12.0 32.8 H 5.2 63.7 IPI 236.2 24.19 2300 1750 Hairiness Strength (CSP) .17 CVm% 13.27 6.3 Thick(+50%)/km 98.68 Imperfection Thin(-50%)/km 3.37 4.8 Neps(+200%)/km(Ring).03 10.0 6. (+280%)/km(Ring) 135.15 1.75 Sh 1.1 Test Result Properties Ring spun yarn(Carded) Rotor spun yarn Mass variation U% 11.

.2 Discussion 5.1 Comparison of mass variation: Evenness of Rotor spun yarn is higher than ring spun yarn.2.28 6. Mass variation 16 14 12 10 8 Ring Rotor 6 4 2 0 U% CVm Fig 09: Comparison of mass variation between ring of rotor spun yarn Roller drafting system is liable to produce more uneven yarn in ring spinning and less irregularity in rotor spun yarn is the result of positive influence of back doubling. Both U% and CVm% is higher in ring spun yarn.

8 6.2.3 Ring Rotor Thin/km (-50%) Thick/km (-50%) Neps/km (Ring+200% & Rotor+280%) Fig 10: Comparison of IPI between ring of rotor spun yarn .2 150 100 98 50 24. 250 200 135.2 Comparison of imperfection: Imperfection of rotor spun yarn is very much lower than ring spun yarn but rotor spun yarn contains more thin places.29 5.7 3 0 32.

2 5. In rotor spinning the wrapper fibers wound crosswise around the yarn help to “bind-in” loose fiber ends.4 Ring Rotor Fig 11: Comparison of Hairiness between ring of rotor spun yarn The higher hairiness of ring-spun yarns is caused by the uncontrolled passage of edge fibers in roller drafting and friction occurred in balloon control ring.1 5 Hairiness 4.3 Comparison of hairiness: Hairiness of rotor spun yarn is lower than ring spun yarn.3 5. 5.9 4.8 4. .6 4.7 4.5 5.2.4 5.5 4.30 5.

2.4 Comparison of strength (CSP): Strength of ring spun yarn higher than rotor spun yarn. 2500 2000 1500 CSP 1000 500 0 Ring Rotor Fig 12: Comparison of CSP between ring of rotor spun yarn Strength of rotor spun yarn is lower due to its core twist structure. .31 5.

5 Summary of the experiment:     Mass variation of Rotor spun yarn is about 8% less than Ring spun yarn. Strength of Rotor spun yarn is 24% less than Ring spun yarn.32 5. 120 100 % 80 60 Ring Rotor 40 20 0 Mass variation Imperfection Hairiness Strength Yarn Properties Fig 13: Comparison of all yarn properties of rotor spun yarn with ring yarn . IPI of Rotor spun yarn is about 73% less than Ring spun yarn.2. Hairiness of Rotor spun yarn is 12% less than Ring spun yarn.

33 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION Except strength all the properties of rotor spun yarn is better than ring spun yarn. However. though rotor spinning is more economic than ring spinning but still now it does not become an alternative of ring spinning except its vast application in short staple(≤1 inch) spinning. .

Vol. 4. www.pdf 6. 3. Short Staple Spinning Lünenschloss.5.1. 1968. and Hummel. W.34 CHAPTER EIGHT REFERENCES 1.. 5. Comparative studies on open-end and ring-spun yarns. New Spinning System W. Manual of Textile Technology. 2. U_T5_S800_The_measurement_of__the_yarn_diameter. Manual of Textile Technology. E. Vol. Klein. Klein.rieter.. Application Handbook of UT5 .