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**dependent quantum systems
**

Anjusha.C

Project supervisor: Dr.S.Shankaranarayanan

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Thiruvananthapuram

November 25, 2016

I The state vector formalism of quantum mechanics leads to the associativity of operators. ˆ B. multiplication operations among operators are associative [4]. ˆ CˆΨ = A( ˆ Bˆ Cˆ)Ψ.Introduction I One of the fundamental axioms of standard quantum mechanics is the concept of ’state vector’ which is related to the probability of finding a system in a particular state I The vectors belong to a complex vector space called ’Hilbert space’ the dimensionality of which is dictated by the problem under consideration.e. i. ˆ Cˆ are operators and Ψ is a (AˆB) state vector. where A. I Physical oberservables are associated with hermitian operators.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . I Anjusha.

Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .C I Some systems such as a charged particle in a magnetic monopole density.Anjusha. does not obey this property. I They can only be modelled using non-associative algebra. it is described by a set of expectation values assigned by a single state to all possible observables. I Instead of describing a state by its wave function ( which contains all information about a given state). I States in this setting cannot be defined as normalised vectors. I A non-associative algebra cannot be represented by operators in a Hilbert space.

pˆk ] = ie~ 3 P ~l ijk B l=1 It follows that the momentum commutators does not follow the Jacobi identity: ~ [[pˆx .C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . pˆz ].Bojowald [1] by computing the effective potential of charged particle in a uniform magnetic monopole density: The charged particle in a magnetic field with monopoles ~ = 0). pˆz ] + [[pˆy . pˆy ] = −e~2 (O · B) Anjusha. pˆx ] + [[pˆz . pˆx ]. pˆy ]. the non-canonical commutation relation for ~ ·B (O momentum operators are : [pˆj .Effective potential of a charged particle in a magnetic monopole density The first derivation of potentially testable results in non-associative quantum mechanics was given by M.

moments only upto the order of ~ is considered.C 1 2m 3 P j=1 pˆj2 + 21 mω 2 zˆ2 Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . The state is parametrised using the position and momentum expectation values(hˆ qi i and hpˆi i). z) = 1 mω 2 zˆ2 (to (B 2 ensure complete confinement). Using semi-classical approximation. their fluctuations.The non zero result implies that the usual state vector formalism does not work. The hamiltonian is: Hˆ = Anjusha. correlations and higher moments. For charged particle in a magnetic field along z.direction ~x = B ~ y = 0) and a harmonic potential V (x. y .

given by: 1 1 1 Veff (hˆ z i) = mω 2 hˆ z i2 + (∆(px2 )+∆(py2 )+∆(pz2 ))+ mω 2 ∆(z 2 ) 2 2m 2 By solving the equations of motion for fluctuations in adiabatic approximation and saturating the uncertainty relations. the value of the effective potential is obtained: 1 1 eµ~ 2 1 Veff (hˆ z i) = mω 2 (hˆ zi + ) + ~ω 2 2 2m2 ω 2 2 Anjusha.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .The effective potential the particle experiences is the classical potential plus a sum of fluctuations.

because at z = 0. I Hence. I The charged particle oscillates about this shifted centre.is a consequence of non-associativity. non associativity can lead to observable consequences and their effects can be derived even when the usual state vector formalism is not applicable. B I The shift in minima. Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .Anjusha. I In the classical case. stable circular motion is not possible ~ = 0 and the magnetic force vanishes. It allows for stable circular motion as the magnetic field at this point is non-zero.C I We can see that the minimum of the harmonic oscillator potential in shifted by δz = − 12 meµ~ 2 ω2 . I This effect cannot be mimicked by magnetic fields without monopole densities( which obeys associative quantum mechanics).

C 2 I Classically for a harmonic oscillator. the expectation values of position and momentum (hˆ x i and hpi) ˆ oscillates with angular frequency ω. Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . expectation values of position and momentum operators with respect to any energy eigenstate is zero.Time dependent harmonic oscillator I The Hamiltonian of a time independant harmonic oscillator is given by. I To obtain oscillation of expectation values as seen in classical oscillators. superposition of energy eigenstates needs to be considered. I For a quantum harmonic oscillator. 2 Hˆ = pˆ + 1 mω 2 xˆ2 2m Anjusha.

[3] ∞ −α2 P αn |α >= e 2 1 |n > 0 (n!) 2 where |n > are number operator eigenstates and α is any complex number I Action by the time-evolution operator gives the time dependence [3] ∞ −α2 P −i(n+ 12 )ωt αn |n > |(α.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .I The superposition which closely imitates the classical oscillator is the coherent state of the harmonic oscillator. given by. t) >= e 2 1 e 0 (n!) 2 Anjusha.

if there exists a hermitian invariant (I(t)).showed that for such a hermitian invariant.B. |Ψ(t) > is the Schrodinger state vector and |λ. κ.κ cλκ e iαλκ (t) |λ. if it does not involve the operation of time differentiation. where the hamiltonian is an explicit function of time (H(t)). P |Ψ(t) >= λ. t > where cλκ are time dependent coefficients.R.Reisenfeld [2] .Lewis invariance I I Anjusha. t > are the eigenstates of the invariant(I). H] H.C For a time dependant harmonic oscillator(ω = ω(t)). Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . the phases of eigenstates of I(t) can be chosen so that the these states themselves satisfy the Scrodinger equation. κ.Lewis and W. it satisfies the equation: dI ∂I 1 dt ≡ ∂t + i~ [I . ( as is the case with time dependant harmonic oscillator).

..C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . αn (t) = −(n + 12 ) Rt dt 0 1 ρ2 (t 0 ) where |n > are the normalised eigenstates of a† a which is same as the normalised eigenstates.1.I For the time dependant harmonic oscillator the invariant (Lewis invariant) is given by: I = 21 [( ρ12 x 2 + (pρ − ρx) ˙ 2] where ρ satisfies. Anjusha. hence n=0. The phase functions are then given by..2. ρ¨ + ω 2 ρ − 1 =0 ρ3 where only the real values of ρ are chosen to ensure that I(t) is Hermitian.). |λ > of I(t) (a† a is the number operator.

by applying the time evolution operator the time dependant eigenstate can be constructed. |α.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . which is given as.I Finally. t >= e − α2 2 P n αn 1 e iαn (t) |n > (n!) 2 These are the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Anjusha.

especially in the case of time dependant harmonic oscillator and to check whether it leads to any observable consequences. This was done for a time independant system( in which the magnetic field was constant in time). Anjusha. leads to interesting physical results which are testable.Future work Non-associativity of operators in [1]. One important feature is that the result is not mimicked by the standard associative quantum mechanics. The future work consists of testing non-associativiy in time dependant quantum systems.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .

References Martin Bojowald. 2011.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems . Anjusha. Addison-Wesley. 2015. 10(8):1458–1473. Eugen Merzbacher. Jun John Sakurai and Jim Napolitano. H Ralph Lewis Jr and WB Riesenfeld. Testing nonassociative quantum mechanics. 115(22):220402. 1970. An exact quantum theory of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator and of a charged particle in a time-dependent electromagnetic field. Quantum mechanics. Modern quantum mechanics. Suddhasattwa Brahma. Journal of Mathematical Physics. 1969. and Umut Büyükçam. Physical review letters.

THANK YOU! Anjusha.C Effects of non-associativity in time dependent quantum systems .

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