ABAL ABAL

Characterization of catalyst by XRD method aims to review the structure and
crystallinity of a catalyst. The result of XRD pattern of catalyst 5% K2O / CaOZnO with various ratio mol of CaO-ZnO shown in figure 1. Diffractogram of CaO
shows intensity and peak at angle 2θ: 17.2 °, 28.7 °, 50.5 °, and 52.7 ° (JCPDS
File No. 37-1497) (Taufiq-yap et al. 2010). Meanwhile, XRD patterns of ZnO visible
at angle 2θ: 31.84 °, 34.51 °, 36.33 °, 47.62 °, 56.66 °, 62.92 °, 66.41 °, 68 ° ,
69.13 °, 76.98 ° and 89.67 ° (JCPDS File No. 36-1451) (Software Game! 3). Then,
the impregnation result of 5%W K2O upon CaO-ZnO catalyst gives additional
peak intensity at angle 2θ: 23.88 °, 39.49 °, 46.67 °, 48.88 ° and 64.57 °.
Figure 2 shows the results in accordance with the composition of the catalyst
that has been made. Diffraction for CaO and ZnO on both catalysts showed a
similar pattern, only has a peak slightly smaller due to a decrease in the content
of CaO or ZnO in the catalyst (Mutreja et al. 2014). The XRD pattern shows that
the structure and crystallinity of the catalyst with CaO-ZnO ratio of 1: 3 provides
the highest intensity of ZnO. While the intensity of the highest CaO owned by
catalysts with CaO-ZnO ratio of 3: 1. K2O diffraction showed little intensity in the
XRD pattern. The small size of the peak intensity of K2O were detected as a
result of his K2O concentrations are evenly spread over the surface of the
catalyst.
==Catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO preparation has been done with variation mole
ratio of CaO:ZnO. The catalyst then tested to determine the basicity (Tanabe,
1964). Basicity test method using titration by benzoic acid and benzene as the
solvent, using bromotymol blue (BTB) show the result that can be viewed in table
1.
Basicity test results in Table 1 showed that the rise of CaO mole in catalyst 5%
K2O / CaO-ZnO caused the basicity increase. Conversely, an increase of ZnO
mole in catalyst 5% K2O / CaO-ZnO caused the basicity go down. That is because
ZnO is a component in the catalyst support. ZnO is support of a catalyst which is
aims to increase the surface area, porosity, mechanical properties, and also
stability of the catalyst (Istadi, 2011). Thus, the increase of ZnO contribute to the
rise of surface area, not the increase of active site.
On the other hand, the rise of catalyst’s basicity because of a high number of
CaO, could be due to the value base of CaO is greater than ZnO. Strength bases
of alkaline earth metal oxides parallel by the size of alkaline earth metal atom
(Samik, 2015). The left side of Elements Periodic System, caused the alkaline
strength will increase. Atom of Ca is in group 2A, while Zn is in group 2B shows
that the power of alkaline Ca greater than Zn.

== This study, also carried out the preparation of catalyst K2O/(3: 1)CaO-ZnO
with variation of K2O percentage. The variation of K2O promoter given to CaOZnO catalyst aims to determine whether the addition of a promoter can increase

biodiesel as the titer. methyl esther test within biodiesel was conducted by GCMS method. Whereas. time of transesterification 4 hours. 3% and 7%. thehigher quality will be obtained. Yield FAME and yield of biodiesel results can be seen in Table 3.catalyst’s basicity. This research using catalyst with mol ratio CaO:ZnO 3:1 as the basis catayst because in earlier test showed that the catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO provides the highest value of basicity on mole ratio of CaO: ZnO 3: 1. Viscosity test was performed using Ostwald viscosimeter. Acid number test was done by titration method using KOH solution as the titrane. acid number. the increase of basicity or active site of the catalyst may reduce the function of catalyst’s support. K2O promoter were added in CaO-ZnO catalyst with variation range from 1%. and yield FAME. The value of yield FAME in biodiesel indicates the presence of fatty acid methyl ester. in Table 1 shows a contrast between active component (CaO) and catalyst’s support (ZnO). Basicity test method using titration by benzoic acid and benzene as the solvent. density. and phenolphtalein as the indicator. Catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO has been used for transesterification process to produce biodiesel from soybean oil. So that. 2013). == Biodiesel production is highly depend on the presence of a catalyst to accelerate the transesterification reaction rate. Earlier. Amount of methyl esters in biodiesel (FAME yield and yield biodiesel) is the most important result in the process of transesterification. Biodiesel result based on the catalysts used can be seen in Table 2. K2O promoter is a promoter which is designed to assist active components and catalyst support (Istadi. mole ratio of soybean oil and methanol 1:15. and constant stirring. Biodiesel is the product result of transesterification process. an increase of K2O in the catalyst could support the presence of CaO as catalytically active sites and cause catalyst’s basicity rise. Basicity test results in Figure 3 shows that the higher percentage of K2O in the catalyst will increase its basicity. In CaO-ZnO catalyst. While. 2011). Yield FAME is influenced by several factors such as %FAME. This research set parameters such as. Thus. The greater content of yield FAME. yield of biodiesel is not affected by %FAME. K2O promoter supports the active catalyst component which is CaO substance. Biodiesel . The biodiesel then tested its viscosity. such as surface area of catalyst. reaction temperature 60 °C. 2011). selectivity and stability of catalyst (Istadi. biodiesel volume and mass of the oil used during the transesterification (oil mass constant at 227. using bromotymol blue (BTB) show the result that can be viewed in figure 3.7 gram). Addition of K2O promoter with different variations performed on CaO-ZnO catalyst with mole ratio CaO: ZnO 3: 1. Density test carried out using picnometer. Promoter aims to generate activity. ==Determination of the best catalyst with mole ratio CaO: ZnO can be assessed based on the value of the highest yield FAME (Puspitaningati et al. weight of catalyst 5% of weight soybean oil.

Where the SNI standard of biodiesel include kinematic viscosity (2. Characterization of catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO using XRD method showed the presence of CaO.5 mgKOH / g sample). The higher number of K2O cause a higher basicity of catalyst. Based on GCMS test. The highest basicity of catalyst obtained by the addition of 7% K2O in the ratio mol CaO:ZnO 3: 1 5. Catalysts with the lowest basicity obtained at mole ratio CaO: ZnO 1: 1. Biodiesel could be produce through transesterification reaction of soybean oil and methanol using alkaline solid catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO. == Based on research that has been done can be concluded that: 1. The catalyst with mole ratio CaO: ZnO 1:2 defined as the best catalyst because it produces the highest yield of FAME. 3. 4. density.quality requirements such as density. .Catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO with the highest basicity obtained at a mole ratio CaO: ZnO 3: 1. and K2O in catalysts with different intensities. Based on the data obtained in Table 2 and Table 3. 2. the mole ratio CaO:ZnO 1: 2 shows the highest yield FAME. and acid number also meets ISO standards. The higher moles of CaO in the catalyst will increase its basicity.3 to 6 mm2 / s). depending on the mol ratio of CaO:ZnO. ZnO. the catalyst which produces biodiesel with highest yield FAME obtained at a mole ratio CaO:ZnO 1:2. It concluded that the catalyst 5%K2O/CaO-ZnO with mole ratio of 1: 2 is the catalyst with the best results. Addition of K2O promoter in CaO-ZnO catalyst can improve the basicity. density (8500-890 kg / m3). Its viscosity. and the acid number (<0. viscosity and acid number must agree with the Indonesian National Standard (SNI).