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SOCIAL SCIENCES

STUDENT NAME

:

IRFAN MUNIR

REGISTRATION #

:

2015-UET-SCET-RYK-CIVIL-19

SESSION #

:

2015 - 2019

SUBMITTED TO
ASSIGNMENT NO

:

MEM HAMNA
:

02

SWEDISH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAHIM YAR KHAN

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and by immigration and emigration). which sharply contrasts with an urbanization rate of 18% in 1989. On the basis of the KIHBS 2005/06. 2 . 15% in1979 and 8% in 1969. and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates. Kenya’s population in 2006 was projected at 35.51 million.POPULATION DYNAMICS Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems. 79. In 2006. However.9% of the population lived in rural areas compared with 20.Kenya was one of the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to experience a demographic transition in the early 1980s.1% in urban areas. the current situation indicates a stall in fertility decline and an upsurge in mortality particularly at infancy. (Human Population Dynamics) EXAMPLE: .

World population 21.46pm The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine and the Black Death in 1350.3 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population. 3 . July 2015. Six of Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent. at 8.WORLD POPULATION GROWTH World population refers to the total number of living humans on Earth. when it was near 370 million. with its 4.

4 . with around 1 billion people. or 15% of the world's population. together constitute about 37% of the world's population. Africa is the second most populated continent. China and India.The world's two most populated countries alone.

fluctuating international population. Northern America (United States and Canada) has a population of around 352 million (5%). Antarctica has a small. POPULATION POLICY IN PAKISTAN Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population.5%). the least-populated region. has about 35 million inhabitants (0. Since independence in 1941. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government 5 . the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population. based mainly in polar science stations.Europe's 733 million people make up 12% of the world's population as of 2012. Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 600 million (9%). Oceania.

A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful. added family planning services to existing medical centers. enabling cities and towns to grow.initiated a family planning program. Commercialization: . The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning.Industrialization is a trend representing a shift from the old agricultural economics to novel non-agricultural economy. It is too early to assess the success of the program. CAUSES OF URBANIZATION Industrialization: . A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning.Commerce and trade play a major role in urbanization. political. URBANIZATION Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban area. The distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions in the modern era has developed modern marketing institutions and exchange methods 6 . and used mass media advertising. planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning. employed mobile units to reach outlying areas. which creates a modernized society. It is highly influenced by the notion that cities and towns have achieved better economic. Through industrial revolution. more people have been attracted to move from rural to urban areas on the account of improved employment opportunities. and social mileages compared to the rural areas. conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives. It can also be termed as the progressive increase of the number of people living in towns and cities.

cities start emerging as the rural areas transform to urbanism. transport. and better social life in general. Social Benefits and Services: . there are ample job opportunities that continually draw people from the rural areas to seek better livelihood.that have tremendously given rise to the growth of towns and cities. better health care. better living standards.There are numerous social benefits attributed to life in the cities and towns. Examples include better educational facilities.As localities become more fruitful and prosperous due to the discovery of minerals. and business enterprises. Employment Opportunities: . the majority of people frequently migrate into urban areas to access well paying jobs as urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health. industries. Commercialization and trade comes with the general perception that the towns and cities offer better commercial opportunities and returns compared to the rural areas. more and more people are prompted to migrate into cities and towns to obtain the wide variety of social benefits and services which are unavailable in the rural areas. or agricultural activities. On this account. resource exploitation. Rural Urban Transformation: . education. Services and industries generate and increase higher value-added jobs. better sanitation and housing. The increase in productivity leads to economic growth and higher value-added employment opportunities. better recreation facilities. and this leads to more employment opportunities. Therefore. 7 . sports and recreation.In cities and towns.

technological and infrastructural advancements. This form of congestion in urban areas is consistent because of overpopulation and it is an aspect that increases day by day as more people and immigrants move into cities and towns in search of better life. It is estimated that more than half of unemployed youths around the globe live in metropolitan cities.Urbanization yields several positive effects if it happens within the appropriate limits. the costs of living make the incomes to seem horribly low. improved transportation and communication. and improved standards of living. Housing Problems: . This is due to insufficient expansion space for housing and public utilities. With the increase in the number of people living in urban centers. Overcrowding: .Overcrowding is a situation whereby a huge number of people live in a small space.Urbanization attracts people to cities and towns which lead to high population increase. and costly building materials which can only be afforded by few individuals. as much as income in urban areas is high. unemployment. And. 8 . However. Some of the positive implications of urbanization therefore include creation of employment opportunities. poverty. quality educational and medical facilities. extensive urbanization mostly results in adverse effects.The problem of joblessness is highest in urban areas and it is even higher among the educated people.EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION Positive Effects Of Urbanization: . Below listed points are few of them. Unemployment: . Most people from rural or undeveloped areas always have the urge of migrating into the city that normally leads to congestion of people within a small area. there is continued scarcity of houses. The increasing relocation of people from rural or developing areas to urban areas is the leading cause of urban unemployment.

When this is combined with random and unexpected growth as well as unemployment. there is the spread of unlawful resident settlements represented by slums and squatters. infertility. Slum areas in particular experience poor sanitation and insufficient water supply which generally make slum populations susceptible to communicable diseases. Overcrowding also highly contributes to water scarcity as supply falls short of demand. economic and living conditions in congested urban areas affects access and utilization of public health care services. 9 . large influx of rural immigrants to the cities in search of better life. Water And Sanitation Problems: . The growth of slums and squatters in urban areas is even further exacerbated by fast-paced industrialization. or seas. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Pakistan. and diarrhea spread very fast leading to suffering and even deaths. presents a challenge to address the issue of economic development and poverty reduction.The social. lack of developed land for housing.7% per annum and an annual addition of 2.8 million persons. asthma. Poor Health And Spread Of Diseases: . The environmental problems such as urban pollution also cause many health problems namely allergies.Development Of Slums: . As a result.The cost of living in urban areas is very high. and the elevated prices of land beyond the reach of the urban poor. food poisoning. currently with a population of 164. Municipalities and local governments are faced with serious resource crisis in the management of sewage facilities. lakes. plague. rivers. communicable diseases such as typhoid. cancer and even premature deaths. it is common to find there are inadequate sewage facilities. and they are drained into neighboring streams. Eventually.Because of overpopulation and rapid population increase in most urban centers. sanitation becomes poor and sewages flow chaotically.6 million and with a growth rate of 1. dysentery.

not only dilutes the results of the development efforts but also creates unbearable level of demand on limited resources to meet the requirements of additional population. The situation is further aggravated by fragmentation of land caused by increasing population. and shortage of basic infrastructure and social services. Beside other factors. Increase of population in the urban areas (3.8 million by 2020. Based on present growth patterns and trends. The other population-related problem is the degradation of environment.Such an annual addition to the population. ANTHROPOLOGY The scientific study of the origin. a matter of deep concern and becomes a central issue in the overall planning perspective as well as poverty reduction strategy.2 hectare and even that is under stress due to erosion. and hardly any improvement in the quality of life seems possible even under the most favorable assumptions. RESEARCH METHODS IN ANTHROPOLOGY  Action Research  Case Study Research  Ethnography 10 . and varieties of human beings and their societies. it is creating law and order situation. population of Pakistan will reach to 193. therefore. development. which are not only affecting urban centers but also the rural areas. This trend is. Forests are being depleted. This problem is becoming un-manageable and it is very difficult to expand urban services and facilities adequately to cope with the growing pressure of the increasing population. in the backdrop of low socioeconomic indicators. the economy will not be able to sustain the growing population. shanty towns. Availability of agricultural land per person is as low as about 0. particularly so-called primitive societies. traffic congestion. It is estimated that. water logging and salinity.1% per annum) is contributing to the growth of slums.

Ethnographic research comes purely from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology where an ethnographer is required to spend a significant amount of time in the field & conduct an in-depth research.Seeks to better understand factors that influence peoples' health and well being.  Physical Anthropology - Traces our biological origins.g. Grounded Theory: . Case Study Research: .  Archaeology . and genetic diversity.Seeks to understand the internal logic of societies through ethnography.Seeks to explain the very nature of language and its use by humans. evolutionary development.  Linguistic Anthropology . a case study of a particular organization) or to describe a research method.Retrieves artifacts from the past and places them in context to understand our history and its relevance for today. Grounded Theory Action Research: .Grounded theory is a research method that seeks to develop theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed.Action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. It can be used to describe a unit of analysis (e. Ethnography: .  Medical Anthropology . THERE ARE MANY AREAS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY  Sociocultural Anthropology . 11 .The term “Case Study" has multiple meanings.

Interprets ethnographic and archaeological collections to the general public.  Visual Anthropology .Believes that the well-being of the environment goes hand in hand with the well-being of people.Seeks to identify skeletal. 12 . or otherwise decomposed. Forensic Anthropology .Helps businesses gain a better understanding of their activities and customers.  Environmental Anthropology .  Business Anthropology .Documents everyday life through filmmaking. human remains.  Museum Anthropology .