SOCIAL SCIENCES

STUDENT NAME

:

IRFAN MUNIR

REGISTRATION #

:

2015-UET-SCET-RYK-CIVIL-19

SESSION #

:

2015 - 2019

SUBMITTED TO
ASSIGNMENT NO

:

MEM HAMNA
:

02

SWEDISH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RAHIM YAR KHAN

1

2 . the current situation indicates a stall in fertility decline and an upsurge in mortality particularly at infancy.POPULATION DYNAMICS Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems. On the basis of the KIHBS 2005/06. Kenya’s population in 2006 was projected at 35. which sharply contrasts with an urbanization rate of 18% in 1989. (Human Population Dynamics) EXAMPLE: . and by immigration and emigration).9% of the population lived in rural areas compared with 20. 79.1% in urban areas. However. In 2006.51 million.Kenya was one of the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa to experience a demographic transition in the early 1980s. and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates. 15% in1979 and 8% in 1969.

WORLD POPULATION GROWTH World population refers to the total number of living humans on Earth. at 8. World population 21. with its 4. 3 . Six of Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. when it was near 370 million. Asia is the most populous continent.3 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population. July 2015.46pm The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine and the Black Death in 1350.

or 15% of the world's population. with around 1 billion people. China and India. Africa is the second most populated continent. together constitute about 37% of the world's population.The world's two most populated countries alone. 4 .

Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 600 million (9%). Northern America (United States and Canada) has a population of around 352 million (5%).5%). based mainly in polar science stations. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government 5 . the least-populated region. Since independence in 1941. has about 35 million inhabitants (0.Europe's 733 million people make up 12% of the world's population as of 2012. fluctuating international population. the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population. Antarctica has a small. POPULATION POLICY IN PAKISTAN Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. Oceania.

political. employed mobile units to reach outlying areas. Through industrial revolution.Industrialization is a trend representing a shift from the old agricultural economics to novel non-agricultural economy. CAUSES OF URBANIZATION Industrialization: . Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. and social mileages compared to the rural areas.initiated a family planning program. and used mass media advertising. more people have been attracted to move from rural to urban areas on the account of improved employment opportunities. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful. URBANIZATION Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban area. added family planning services to existing medical centers. planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning. The distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions in the modern era has developed modern marketing institutions and exchange methods 6 . The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning. which creates a modernized society. conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives. It is highly influenced by the notion that cities and towns have achieved better economic. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program.Commerce and trade play a major role in urbanization. Commercialization: . It is too early to assess the success of the program. enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as the progressive increase of the number of people living in towns and cities.

or agricultural activities. there are ample job opportunities that continually draw people from the rural areas to seek better livelihood. Employment Opportunities: . Rural Urban Transformation: . better living standards.There are numerous social benefits attributed to life in the cities and towns. and this leads to more employment opportunities. better health care. Therefore. education. and business enterprises. industries.that have tremendously given rise to the growth of towns and cities. Social Benefits and Services: . cities start emerging as the rural areas transform to urbanism. better sanitation and housing. better recreation facilities.As localities become more fruitful and prosperous due to the discovery of minerals. Commercialization and trade comes with the general perception that the towns and cities offer better commercial opportunities and returns compared to the rural areas. resource exploitation. sports and recreation. Services and industries generate and increase higher value-added jobs. The increase in productivity leads to economic growth and higher value-added employment opportunities. the majority of people frequently migrate into urban areas to access well paying jobs as urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health.In cities and towns. On this account. 7 . transport. Examples include better educational facilities. more and more people are prompted to migrate into cities and towns to obtain the wide variety of social benefits and services which are unavailable in the rural areas. and better social life in general.

as much as income in urban areas is high. technological and infrastructural advancements. The increasing relocation of people from rural or developing areas to urban areas is the leading cause of urban unemployment. This form of congestion in urban areas is consistent because of overpopulation and it is an aspect that increases day by day as more people and immigrants move into cities and towns in search of better life. Below listed points are few of them. quality educational and medical facilities.The problem of joblessness is highest in urban areas and it is even higher among the educated people. extensive urbanization mostly results in adverse effects. and costly building materials which can only be afforded by few individuals. there is continued scarcity of houses. Unemployment: . improved transportation and communication. It is estimated that more than half of unemployed youths around the globe live in metropolitan cities. This is due to insufficient expansion space for housing and public utilities. However. 8 .Urbanization attracts people to cities and towns which lead to high population increase. And. With the increase in the number of people living in urban centers. Overcrowding: . the costs of living make the incomes to seem horribly low. poverty. Most people from rural or undeveloped areas always have the urge of migrating into the city that normally leads to congestion of people within a small area. and improved standards of living.Urbanization yields several positive effects if it happens within the appropriate limits. Some of the positive implications of urbanization therefore include creation of employment opportunities. Housing Problems: .Overcrowding is a situation whereby a huge number of people live in a small space. unemployment.EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION Positive Effects Of Urbanization: .

it is common to find there are inadequate sewage facilities. there is the spread of unlawful resident settlements represented by slums and squatters. Poor Health And Spread Of Diseases: . As a result. sanitation becomes poor and sewages flow chaotically. and they are drained into neighboring streams. Municipalities and local governments are faced with serious resource crisis in the management of sewage facilities. large influx of rural immigrants to the cities in search of better life. The environmental problems such as urban pollution also cause many health problems namely allergies.6 million and with a growth rate of 1.The social. When this is combined with random and unexpected growth as well as unemployment. economic and living conditions in congested urban areas affects access and utilization of public health care services. lack of developed land for housing. communicable diseases such as typhoid. Overcrowding also highly contributes to water scarcity as supply falls short of demand.8 million persons. POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Pakistan. and the elevated prices of land beyond the reach of the urban poor.7% per annum and an annual addition of 2. and diarrhea spread very fast leading to suffering and even deaths. or seas. plague. asthma. lakes. rivers. food poisoning. 9 . The growth of slums and squatters in urban areas is even further exacerbated by fast-paced industrialization.Because of overpopulation and rapid population increase in most urban centers. presents a challenge to address the issue of economic development and poverty reduction.Development Of Slums: . Eventually. cancer and even premature deaths.The cost of living in urban areas is very high. Water And Sanitation Problems: . currently with a population of 164. dysentery. Slum areas in particular experience poor sanitation and insufficient water supply which generally make slum populations susceptible to communicable diseases. infertility.

It is estimated that. This trend is. The other population-related problem is the degradation of environment.1% per annum) is contributing to the growth of slums. population of Pakistan will reach to 193. RESEARCH METHODS IN ANTHROPOLOGY  Action Research  Case Study Research  Ethnography 10 . traffic congestion. and varieties of human beings and their societies. the economy will not be able to sustain the growing population. not only dilutes the results of the development efforts but also creates unbearable level of demand on limited resources to meet the requirements of additional population. This problem is becoming un-manageable and it is very difficult to expand urban services and facilities adequately to cope with the growing pressure of the increasing population. therefore. Based on present growth patterns and trends. and shortage of basic infrastructure and social services. Forests are being depleted. particularly so-called primitive societies. The situation is further aggravated by fragmentation of land caused by increasing population. development. a matter of deep concern and becomes a central issue in the overall planning perspective as well as poverty reduction strategy. it is creating law and order situation.Such an annual addition to the population. in the backdrop of low socioeconomic indicators.2 hectare and even that is under stress due to erosion. Beside other factors.8 million by 2020. shanty towns. and hardly any improvement in the quality of life seems possible even under the most favorable assumptions. water logging and salinity. which are not only affecting urban centers but also the rural areas. Availability of agricultural land per person is as low as about 0. ANTHROPOLOGY The scientific study of the origin. Increase of population in the urban areas (3.

and genetic diversity.Retrieves artifacts from the past and places them in context to understand our history and its relevance for today.Ethnographic research comes purely from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology where an ethnographer is required to spend a significant amount of time in the field & conduct an in-depth research. evolutionary development.  Archaeology . 11 .g. Grounded Theory: . It can be used to describe a unit of analysis (e.Seeks to better understand factors that influence peoples' health and well being.  Linguistic Anthropology . a case study of a particular organization) or to describe a research method.Seeks to understand the internal logic of societies through ethnography. Ethnography: .  Physical Anthropology - Traces our biological origins. THERE ARE MANY AREAS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY  Sociocultural Anthropology .Grounded theory is a research method that seeks to develop theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed.Action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework.Seeks to explain the very nature of language and its use by humans.The term “Case Study" has multiple meanings.  Medical Anthropology . Case Study Research: . Grounded Theory Action Research: .

Seeks to identify skeletal.Helps businesses gain a better understanding of their activities and customers. or otherwise decomposed.  Visual Anthropology .Documents everyday life through filmmaking.  Business Anthropology . 12 . human remains.Believes that the well-being of the environment goes hand in hand with the well-being of people.  Museum Anthropology . Forensic Anthropology .  Environmental Anthropology .Interprets ethnographic and archaeological collections to the general public.