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INTRODUCTION Global Scenario The Global Wind Energy Counc (GWE) recs a! the ona wing This would represent an addivon of 146 2 GW in ive years, attrac f for around 3 per cent of global electrieity product growth during this period will be North America and Asia inue to house the largest wind energy capa 6 GW and North America with 61.3 GW will install 125 GW of new wind generating wih will be mainly led by China, which since hereby consistently exceeding even the most ¢ Jobal New mstallations will take place i Eu De will continue to be the biggest region installed in the world by the New Global Installed Capacity, 2008-2012 Camere & Aves aM Cast 2 Sew (175) ogwters) a26 Swim) Annual Capacity in 2007 Pecie Aiea East oz cw Cin} Seew teo 1%) Annual Global Installed Capacity. 2007-2012 Annual Capacity in 2012 LaAmerica & Caribbean EES INDIAN SCENARIO Power Sector in India 2009: 150 Gw 2020: 327 GW (estimated) Non Renewable (excluding large hydropower) 136.8 GW Coat 78.5 GW, Wind 10.5 GW Others 2.7 GW Large Hydropower 36.9 GW, Gas 16.4 GW | Renewable: 13.2 GW (only 9%) The Indian government envisages the addition of 2 GW/annum of Wind Power in the next five years. Source: http //werw indlanwindpower 2om/pst/GWEO AL 2008 Inia (nates pot India ranks fourth amongst the wind-cnergy-producing countries of the world after Germany, Spain and USA. Estimated potential is around 45000 MW at 50 m above ground level. Ree ee noe tro Ne OSES ke a cee ane ene The Central Ministry and several State Nodal Agencies encourage growth of Rn sae nL eR am ae Pn Re ia Cc eee ay Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency, a supporting arm of MNRE. Wind State-wise Wind Energy Potential & Meteorological Conditions in India ESTERS BY WHERE DOES WIND ENERGY COME FROM? All renewable energy (except tidal and geothermal power), and even the ene: fossil fuels. ultimately comes from the sun. In other words. the earth receives 1 10 17 watts of power About 1 to 2 per cent of the energy coming from the sun is converted into wind energy That is about 50 to 100 times more than the energy converted into biomass by all plants on earth Temperature differences drive air circulation. The regions around equator, at O° latitude are heated more by the sun than the rest of the globe Hot air is lighter than cold air and will rise into the sky until it reaches approximately 10 km (6 miles) altitude and will spread to the North and the South. If the globe did not rotate. the air would simply arrive at the North Pole and the South Pole, sink down. and return to the equator Since the globe is rotating, any movement on the Northern hemisphere is diverted to the right. if we look at it from our own position on the ground (In the southern hemisphere it is bent to the left) This apparent bending force is known as the Coriolis force (Named after the French mathematician Gustave Gaspard Coriolis 1792-1843) In the Northern hemisphere the wind tends to rotate counterclockwise as it approaches a low pressure area In the Southern hemisphere the wind rotates clockwise around low pressure areas Taken from a NASAsatellite, _NOAA-7 in July 1984. ®© 1998 wyew. © 1998 ww, WINDPOWER org RIZATION OF WIND Global wind: The wind rises from the equator and moves north and south in the higher layers of the atmosphere. Around 30° latitude in both hemispheres the Coroil's fi prevents the air from moving much farther At this latitude there is @ high pressure as the air begins sinking down again As the wind rises from the equator tnere w: low pressure area close to ground level attracting from the North and South Poles, there will be high pressure due to the cooling of the air. The Geostrophic Wind: The atmosphere around the globe is a very thin layer The globe as a diameter of 12.000 km. The troposphere, which extends to about 11 km (36.000 ft) altitude, S where all of our weather and the greennouse effect occurs. The geostrophic winds are largely driven by temperature differences, and thus pressure differences, and are not very much influenced by the surfac the earth The geostrophic wind is found at altitudes above 1000 metres (3300 ft.) above ground level 2 Surface Winds Winds are very much influenced by the ground surface at altitudes up to 100 metres The wind will be slowed down by the earth's surfece rougnne: s_ as we will learn in @ moment Wind directions near the surface will be slightly from the direction of the geostrophic wind because of the earth's rotation (cf tr Con Local wind: Land masses are heated by the sun more quickly than the sea in the daytime. The air rises. flows out to the sea. and creates a low pressure at ground level which attracts the cool air from the sea. This is called a Sea breeze. At nightfall there is often a period of calm when land and sea temperatures are equal At night the wind blows in the opposite direction The land breeze at night generally has lower wind speeds. because the temperature difference between land and sea Is Smaller at night. Mountain Winds: Mountain regions display many interesting weather patterns. One example ‘s the valley wind which originates on south-facing slopes (north-facing in the southern hemisphere). When the slopes and the neighboring air are heated the density of the air decreases and the air ascends towards the top following the surface of the slope At night the wind direction is reversed, and turns into a down slope wind DIFFERENT TYPES OF TERRAIN CONDITION Flat Sea beach. ice, snow landscape Open Low grass. empty crop land 0.03 Rough Tall row crops, low woods o1 Veryrough Forests os 10 >2 Closed villages. Town Town centre V=(V;/K). In [(Z4+Zo)/Zol, & Vz/Vz4=(Z/Z1)? Where V, mean wind speedat heightZ above GL \V, frictional velocity . K is Von Karman’s constant (0.4), Zo is roughness length characteristics . V,, 1s velocity at reference height 21, ‘a’ is assumed constant & called as power law exponent depends on surface roughness, height. range & wind speed Wind potentiality of any area is judged considering following charactenstics: A)Daily. monthly & annual wind speed B)duration of wind flow C)maximum gust speed of particular a Djenergy can be produced Necessary information for successful wind energy application A) Average wind speed B) peak wind speed C) duration of gust D) wind direction E) Terrain condition Parameters for instrumentation of a data acquisition scheme: A) distribution & persistency of hourly mean B) distribution & persistency of mean hourly C) turbulence & gust characteristics of regime D) Frequency. duration & magnitude of extreme winds E) Mean air density. annual solar radiations & hours of F) Daily. annual seasonal mean temperature . pressure & the G) vertical sheer as a function of atmospheric st STAGES OF SURVEYING x 1St stage : Installation of cup anemometer at a mast with 3° freedom with a recorder 24 stage : Installation of cup anemometer at different mast height as 10m, 20m, 30m with a recorder. Final stage : chosen for pilot plant installation & array of meteorological instruments needed to determine the details of hub height & structural consideration for proposed wind turbine WIND TURBINES: HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL AXIS » Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines All grid-connected commercial wind turbines today are built with 3 prope! horizontal exis (i.e. 2 horizontal main shaft) rotor on 3 The purpose of the rotor. of course. is to convert the linear motion of the wind into rotationa! energy that can be used to drive 4 generator The same basic pri water turbine, where the flow of water is parallel to the rotational axis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines le Ss used in 2 modern turbine biades. the Dameus machine. named after the French engineer Georges D: design in 1931. (It was manufactured by the U.S. company FloWind 1997). The Darrieus machine is characterised by its C-shaped rotor blade: bit like an eggbeater It is normally built with two or three blades. th make it look 2 Base Structure that supports the wand turbine's rotor and houses the equipment used to produce electnaiy (Including the gearbox and the alternator) Central column Vertical cyindrical part to which the blades are atached, the force of the wind on the blades causes i to rotate strut Honzontal piece that connects the blades to the central column to strengthen them Aerodynamic brake Emergency braking system: it consists of shutters attached to the blades which automaticaly deploy when the wind turbine gathers toomuch speed Guy wire Cable tnat connects the top of the verbal aus to a concrete base tohold the wind turbine in an upnight positon, Rotor Rotating part of the wind turbine that is usualy made up of two oF | three blades: ts rotation daves the altemator to produce electnaity Blade ‘Aerodynamic part that 1s attached to the central colurnn the force ofthe wind tumns it to dave the rotor ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES The basic theoretical advantages of a vertical axis machine are: 1) You may place the generator, gearbox etc. on the ground. and you may not need a tower for the machine. 2) You do not need a yaw mechanism to turn the rotoragainst the wind. The basic disadvantages are: 1) Wind speeds are very low close to ground level, so although you may save a tower. your wind speeds will be very low on the lower part of your rotor. 2) The overall efficiency of the vertical axis machines is not impressive 3) The machine is not self-starting (e.g a Darrieus machine will need a "push" before it starts. This is only a minor inconvenience for a grid connected turbine, however, since you may use the generator as a motor drawing current from the grid to to start the machine). 4) The machine may need guy wires to hold it up, but guy wires are impractical in heavily farmed areas. 5) Replacing the main bearing for the rotor necessitates removing the rotor on both a horizontal and a vertical axis machine. In the case of the latter, it means tearingthe whole machine down. WIND TURBO-GENERATOR COMPONENTS WIND TURBO-GENERATOR COMPONENTS Nacelle: It houses the generators, gear box, hydraulic system, yawing mechanism Yaw Motor & control: it ensures that rotor faces the wind direction. Drive mechanism: It includes the main shaft (low speed), gear box & generator shaft (high speed) Braking system: It consists of either a hydraulic system or a mechanical braking system or both& are activated to stop the machine when wind speed is above the cut out speed | & also activated when is any fault in m/c. Wind Vane: The wind vane sends the signal about the changes in wind direction to the controlling computer. It activates the yaw mechanism located in the nacelle to turn it until the rotor faces the wind direction. Anemometer: It feeds the information about wind seed to the microprocessor that calculates the mean speed to activate the m/c into operation or take the m/c out of operation. Towers: oo The nacelle is mounted on the tower & there are three types those are commercially available — lattice tower, tubular tower (widely used) & concrete tower. Doubling the altitude of turbine increases surface aerodynamic drag & viscosity of air & the wind speed is increased by 10% expecting the power by 34%. To avoid buckling doubling the tower height requires doubling the tower diameter & increasing tower material by eight times. Generator: These generators are mostly induction generators & its speed increases above the slip speed & then they start generating power. They take the reactive power from grid lines & feed power into the grid lines. Reactive power compensation is carried out by variable capacitor bank arrangement or field current control mechanism. Turbine blade: Are made by aluminum & composite materials having low moment of inertia & more constant tip speed ratio & can quickly spin at varying speed ® & Se 3 Q Bs 3 Wind Turbine Components Diagram Rotating Magnets. Tail Vane Slip Rings Ne Bearing ‘Stub Mast - Allaches to Tower Alternator Section Wind Power Metering Diagram Battery Back-up =z rg loc Optonst Path — — —] Rectifier we =a =e Power In From Grid > 77> | Main Circuit Breaker Panel oe Converts Converts OC toAC CT's Measure Alternate Energy Generation at 120 Volt, 60 Hz (US) | Lots Measure Net Grid Load OILER INSULATION BALL BEARING THRU BOLT G COMMUTATOR PULLEY & FAN SPRIN ARMATURE COMMUTATOR END FRAME DRIVE END: FRAING TYPICAL GENERATOR The nacelle: Where wind becomes electricity Wind Direction 5 Se... : = ees = oqo eA direction IRs “ ws Y Ss Wind vane \ Generator Highspeed shaft Swivel \ beading Nacelle = = Fe sedan voy mee GARD ence Ae Aa emtanct Spee pre pet eens vale a> Rete C= ten — the wind vetoed gi eee eS. 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