Properties of Fourier Series - GATE Study

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In the previous article, we learnt the Basics of Fourier Series, the different types and all
about the different Fourier Series spectrums. Now, let us take the discussion further and
learn about the Properties of Fourier Series. Using these Properties of Fourier Series, we
can learn to manipulate Fourier Series, which is what we will learn in these free GATE
notes.
These GATE Notes are useful for GATE EE, GATE EC, GATE ME, and GATE CE. They are
also useful for other exams like BARC, BSNL, IES, DRDO, ISRO etc. You can get these GATE
ace your paper. Before you get started though, you should ensure that you are caught up
with the basics of Engineering Mathematics.
Laplace Transforms
Limits, Continuity & Differentiability
Mean Value Theorems
Differentiation
Partial Differentiation
Maxima and Minima
Methods of Integration & Standard Integrals
Vector Calculus
Vector Integration
Time Signals & Signal Transformation
Standard Time Signals
Signal Classification
Types of Time Systems
Introduction to Linear Time Invariant Systems
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Properties of LTI Systems
Introduction to Fourier Series

Properties of Continuous Time Fourier Series (CTFS)
The various properties of Fourier series have been listed explained below. Before going
into them, let us get familiar with the representation convention.

Let x(t) = ∑ cn ejnω0 t
n=−∞

and y(t) = ∑ Dn ejnω0 t
n=−∞
CTFS

Then x(t) ↔

cn

CTFS

and
y(t) ↔ Dn
Here CTFS stands for Continuous time Fourier series and cn and Dn are Fourier series
coefficients. Now we will look into the properties of Fourier transform.
The properties we will discuss are:
1. Linearity
2. Time Shifting
3. Frequency Shifting
4. Time Scaling
5. Time Inversion
6. Differentiation in Time
7. Integration in Time
8. Convolution
9. Multiplication
10. Symmetry property
Let us look at these properties in detail now.

1) Linearity
CTFS

If x(t) ↔

CTFS

cn and y(t) ↔
CTFS

Dn

Then, ax(t) + by(t) ↔ acn + bDn
i.e. Fourier Series is a linear operation.
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2) Time Shifting
CTFS

If x(t) ↔ cn
Then according to time shifting property,
CTFS

x(t − t 0 ) ↔

e−jnω0 t0 cn

CTFS

x(t + t 0 ) ↔ ejnω0t0 cn
i.e. Magnitude of Fourier Series coefficients remains unchanged when the signal is shifted
in time.

3) Frequency Shifting
CTFS

If x(t) ↔ cn
Then according to frequency shifting property,
CTFS

ejn0 ω0 t x(t) ↔

c(n−n0 )

CTFS

e−jn0 ω0 t x(t) ↔

c(n+n0)

4) Time Scaling
If x(t) is periodic with period T then x(at) will be periodic with period T/a ; a>0
CTFS

If x(t) ↔
Then

cn

CTFS

x(at) ↔ cn
Thus, after time scaling FS coefficients are the same. But, the spacing between the
frequency components changes from ω0 to aω0 or from

5) Time Inversion
Time inversion property states that
CTFS

If x(t) ↔
Then

CTFS

x(−t) ↔

cn
c∗n

6) Differentiation in Time
CTFS

According to this property, if x(t) ↔
Then
d

CTFS

x(t) ↔
dt

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(jnω0 )cn = (

j2πn
T

) cn

cn

1
T

to

a
T

7) Integration
CTFS

If x(t) ↔

cn
CTFS

Then ∫ x(t)dt ↔

1
c
jnω0 n

+ c0

8) Convolution
CTFS

CTFS

If x(t) ↔
Then

cn and y(t) ↔

Dn

CTFS

x(t) ∗ y(t) ↔ T cn Dn
Hence, the convolution in time domain leads to multiplication of Fourier series
coefficients in Fourier series domain.

9) Multiplication in Time Domain
If signals are multiplied in the time domain, then the following phenomenon happens
CTFS

For x(t) ↔
We have

CTFS

cn and y(t) ↔

Dn

CTFS

x(t)y(t) ↔ T. cn ∗ Dn
Multiplication in time domain leads to convolution in Fourier series domain.

10) Symmetry
Symmetry properties state that

If x(t) is real then → cn = c−n

If x(t) is imaginary then → cn = −c−n

Example 1:
Find the Fourier series of following signal -

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Solution:
A

x1 (t) = ∑ T ejnω0t0
A = 5, T = 4, and ω0 =
x1 (t) =

4

=

π
2

π

5 j nt
∑∞
n=−∞ 4 e 2

Example 2:
Find the Fourier series of following signal -

Solution:
x2 = x1 (t − 1)
CTFS 5

x1 (t) ↔

4
CTFS 5

x2 (t) = x1 (t − 1) ↔
5

x2 (t) = Σn=−∞
(e
4

π

5 −jnπ⁄
2

e−jn 2 ×1 = 4 e
4

−jnπ⁄
jnπt⁄
2 )e
2

Example 3:
Find the Fourier series of following signal -

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Solution:
Recall,
EFS of periodic train of pulses →

T

sinc ( T )

Here, A = 5, τ = 4 , T = 6
x3 (t) = ∑∞
n=−∞
x3 (t) =

10

T

sinc ( T ) ejnω0t = ∑∞
n=−∞
2n

∑∞
n=−∞ sinc ( 3 ) e

3

5×4
6

sinc (

n×4
6

π
3

jn t

Example 4:

Solution:
x4 (t) = x3 (t + 1)
CTFS 10

x3 (t) ↔

3

2

sinc (3 n)
CTFS 10

x4 (t) = x3 (t + 1) ↔
=

10
3

2

sinc ( n) . e
3

x4 (t) =

10

x4 (t) =

10

3
3

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3

2

sinc (3 n) . ejn 6 ×1

π
jn
3

2

jnπ
t
3

2

jnπ(t+1)
3

∑∞
n=−∞ sinc (3 n) e
∑∞
n=−∞ sinc (3 n) e

.e

jnπ
3

[FSC]

) ejn 6 t

Note:
Amplitudes of Fourier coefficients depend on the derivatives of the signal.
1. If the 1st derivative of the signal tends to infinite (i.e. 1st derivative of the signal is an
impulse) then Fourier coefficients are proportional to 1/n.
2. If the 2nd derivative of the signal tends to infinite (i.e. 2nd derivative is an impulse) then
1
Fourier coefficients are proportional to n2
1
?. If mth derivative is a impulse then Fourier coefficient are proportional to m
n

Example 5:
Find TFS of the given periodic signals.

Solution:
2A

x(t) = {

T

.t ;0 < t <
t

2A (1 − T) ;

T
2

T
2

<t<T

Since, x(t) is an even function
Therefore, bn = 0
d2 x(t)
dt2

i. e

= f(δ(t))

d2 x(t)
dt2

→∞

{⇒ Fourier coefficients ∝
1

1

a0 = T ∫T x(t)d(t) = T ∫0
=

T⁄
2

2A t2

[ ]
T2 2

0

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+

2A
T

2A
T

1
n2

T

T

t

2

T

t2

[t − 2 ]

1

t dt + T ∫T⁄ 2A (1 − T) dt

T⁄
2

a0 =

2A

A

=4+

T2

×

T2

8

2A T

+

2A
T

T

1

[(T − 2) − 2T (T 2 −

1

3

T

A

T2
4

)]

[2 − 2T × 4 T 2 ]

T

A

a0 = 4 +

2A
T

×8 =

2

2

2

T⁄ 2A
2
t cos(nω0 t)dt
T

an = T ∫T x(t) cos(nω0 t)dt = T ∫0
=
=

4A T⁄2
∫ t cos(nω0 t)dt
T2 0
4A

1
[cos(nω0 t)
[
T2 (nω0 )2

4A

1

− T2 [(nω

0

an =

+

4A
T

)2

2

T

2

+ nω0 t sin(nω0 t)]]

+

0

(cos(nω0 t) + nω0 t. sin(nω0 t))]
)2

1
0

2

T⁄
2

1
[
{cos(nω0 T⁄2)
T2 (nω0 )2

4A

4A

T

∫T⁄ cos(nω0 t)dt − T2 ∫T⁄ t cos(nω0 t)dt

4A

− T2 [(nω

T

2

+ T ∫T⁄ 2A(1 − t⁄T) cos(nω0 t)dt

− cos 0° +

T

nω0

|

T⁄
2

2

sin(nω0 T⁄2)}]

nω0 T
2

sin(nω0 T⁄2) − nω0 T sin(nω0 T)}]

ω0 T = 2π
an =

4A

1
{cos(nπ)
[
T2 (nω0 )2

−4A

1
{cos(2nπ)
T2 (nω0 )2

=

1
(cosnπ −1)]
[
T2 (nω0 )2
4A

⇒ an = (nω

2
0 T)

− 1 + nπ sin(nπ)}

− cos(nπ) + nπ sin nπ − 2nπ sin 2nπ}

4A

4A

1

− T2 [(nω

2
0)

(1 − cos nπ)]

(2 cos nπ − 2)

ω0 T = 2π
4A

= 4π2 n2 × 2(cos nπ − 1)
an =

2A
π2 n2
1

2

2

(cos(nπ) − 1) = {− (πn) A ; for odd value of n
0 ; for even value of n
2A

x(t) = 2 + ∑∞
n=1 π2 nπ (cos(nπ) − 1)(cos nω0 t)

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T⁄
2

T

nω0 T

{cos(nω0 T) − cos(nω0 T⁄2) +

4A sin(nω0 t) T

We will continue with the Symmetry Conditions ins Fourier series in the next article. Did