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J. S.

Cushing & Co.

Berwick & Smith

Norwood Mass.


PROFESSOR RODOLFO LANCIANI needs no introduction
to English readers.

This book sums up briefly the results of researches,
extending over many years, in regard to the fate of the
buildings and masterpieces of art in ancient Rome.

work upon



and upon





Professor Lanciani has searched hundreds of volumes of

municipal and ecclesiastical records, besides examining
several thousand separate documents
and he has ran;

sacked the principal libraries of Europe for prints and
drawings showing the remains of ancient Rome at different periods.


of the


material thus collected

appear in fuller form in an extensive work, comprising several volumes, which will be published in Italian
under the title Storia degli Scavi di Roma.
The present




a forerunner of the larger work.
are due to Professor

lin College, for

Walter Dennison of Ober-

kind assistance in reading the proofs, and

for the compilation of the Indexes.




W. K.












IN 410,






IN 455






















































11. repaired with mateFrom a photograph rials from earlier buildings. 2. Via del 12... 402 Bronze heads found in 1880 under the English Church. 13. . .. . 25 in process of reconstruction. From a Forum Boarium.. 10. showing changes of level Fragment of the tomb of Celer. . from the temple of From Tav.. Section of excavations in the Via di S. 19 21 30 sources.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Panoramic view of Rome by Balthasar Jenichen . Gregorio. Substructions of the palace of Septimius Severus. showing remains of buildings of different periods. 8. From a photograph . 7.. 86 . Section of the channel of the 16.. 29 44 14.. i. 15... . 9. . Babuino. .11 . of the Bullettino Comunale..I>. at Monte Arcese. 81 at the Porta Furba. From a photograph Excavation of the Via Nazionale on the Quirinal. After Tav. . of the Bullettino 12 from an early temple on the EsquiFrom Tav. ... A statue. xiii.. The remains of the Claudian aqueduct From a photograph . Another view of the upper story of the Coliseum. 2 From a photograph 6 3.. From a photograph The raising of level at the Porta Ostiensis. 1896 line. 51 54 67 Marcia... showing repairs made with architectural fragments from various Fragment of painted tile . From a photograph broken into fragments. 6. xiii. 13 of the Bullettino Aqua Comunale. Section of steps of the round temple of the showing earlier and later construction 4... photograph Torre dei Schiavi. Fragment of painted terra cotta antefix Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Comunale. A. Frontispiece FIGURE PAGE 1. showing deposits on the bottom and sides . The monument of Stilicho in the Forum.. 1896 5. From a photograph Part of the upper story of the Coliseum. 1881 .

The Sepolcro 20. pulpit in the cathedral of S... it lay after it 149 163 167 had sketch by Fontana of the obelisk of the 140 to . . . . Matte"o at Salerno.. Heemskerk (1536) from the tomb of Calpurnianus. View of the Caelian hill. From a photograph .. A typical Roman 32. graph 132 134 The Forum flooded by the Tiber. . Paul and the canopy of Arnolfo di Lapo in 24. . 34. From 210 .. Tomb .. . From 29. Paolo fuori . From a photograph 25. . after the fire of 1823. 113 S.. View 21. near Ostia.. 4 miles north of Rome. From a photograph The tomb of St. 33. The column of Phocas in the Forum. remains of the Claudian aqueduct in .... 107 .. 26. . . From a photograph . . 23.. marbles from Rome. in 1877. From a print Columbarium on the Via Severiana. From a photograph The Ponte Salario..179 fragments. Mura.. . From a photograph 195 House and tower of the Margani. . From a print derers in the vaulted ceiling. From a photograph The Pronaos of the Pantheon. two miles north of Rome blown up prevent the advance of Garibaldi in 1867.100 the distance.. 97 of the Campagna. of P.. From a print Tower of the wall of Leo IV. The an engraving obelisk of the gardens of Sallust as From a fallen. the a photograph From a sketch 209 charioteer.. showing the hole made by plun- . Reliefs ... 17. a photograph 202 del Popolo of the time of Sixtus IV. now used as an observatory... showing the difference between the ancient and the modern level.185 Fragments of cornice from the temple of Vulcan at Ostia. From a 1868. built with 35... From a photograph 200 A lane of Mediaeval Rome Via della Lungarina. From a photo- 28. partly excavated. 1898. From a sketch by Bandini 172 house of the twelfth century. . built with odd .. demolished 36. ." on the Via Clodia. From . From a photograph View of the Forum in 1821. . 94 print degli Stucchi.. 93 171 Campus Martius. 27.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 18.. looking southeast. The lower end 31. The Porta 37. so-called "Tomb of Nero. Vibius Marianus. by M. . opened in 19. 22.. le . The 30. From a photograph .

Bae-reliefs hill where Charles of S. Bourbon established of From a photograph . From an old print Rotto. Palazzo Pietro destruction del by Senatore. The Loggia 44. now in the Conservatori Palace.. One 40.. View 43. away by the inundation of 1557...215 Madonna" .... church of S. . From a photograph 249 in the 260 .. half carried From a photograph 229 . 41.. The Ponte 45. . his headquarters.. Onofrio. . The 39. restored 42.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi PACK FIG FEE 38...... From a photograph The statues of Castor and Pollux on the Capitoline hill. that of the "Vita della of the Sale Borgia From a photograph in the Vatican. Maria della Pace.. The Cesi chapel From in 1584... built with Pentelic marble from the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. 243 their sketch by Ciampini Squarcialupi.. of the Lateran buildings before Sixtus V.. from the arch of Marcus Aurelius. 223 248 .. . a photograph From a of 233 .


. : Geschichte Freiburg. Translated Vols I. Duchesne. Northcote and I. VI.. 1894-1899. Stuttgart. Roma : Armellini. from the Fourth German edition by Annie Hamilton. Grisar. 1. II. 1881. 1885. its Structures : and Monuments. S. Dyer. Pasquale 2d edit. Duchesne. 1876 and XIV. Romae Inscriptiones Christianae Urbis saeculo septimo antiquiores. Sotterranea Translated by J. 4th ed. Roma chiese di 2 vols. 1861 ... Thomas H.. introduction et commentaire par 1'abbe L. Vol. Paris.. L. Roma Roma Sotterranea Cristiana. sq. I. dal Secolo IV. 1883. Rome. 1888. al 1891. Mariano Le : nell' eta di mezzo. R. Gregorovius.. XIX. London. Giovanni Battista : pars Rome.. S.. History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Roman Catacombs. De Rossi. 1887. O. Bro\vnlow. Gilbert.. of the W. : Geschichte und Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alter- thum. 1879. A History of the City of Rome. or.. 1864. Leipzig. 1886-1896. Edward : London. Ferdinand Geschichte der Stadt : 8 vols. telalter. New ed. 1865. I. Gibbon. Corpus Inscriptionum Latiuarum : Vols. Rome. 1869. 2 vols. Some Account Pontificalis Texte. Le Liber : Vol. London. Roms und der Papste im Mit- . 1898. History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Rom im Mittelalter. Louis . 1890. Hartman. 1886-1892. 3 parts. Vol.VI.SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL WORKS Adiuolfi. Vol.

: : : Miintz. M. Rome. A Picture of the Golden of . 1889.. ii.. part Kraus. zig. 1744. Alterthum. London. 1895-1896. The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient L' Itinerario di Einsiedlen e 1' I. Leipzig. Oreste Delia storia medievale della Citta di Roma e dei : : piu recent! raccontatori di essa di Storia Patria. Rome. 3 vols. Muratori. trasportate ad uso ed ornamento delle chiese. 1893. 1880. Vol. Urlichs. 1889. 1871. Boston. Boston. : Pagan and Christian Rome. : Topographic der Stadt part i. Tommasini. Vol.SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY xiv Helbig. Les Arts a (Innocent VIIL-Pius III. 1893 sq. Berlin.) la cour des Papes. Noerdlingen. F. City. Translation by ed. 1897. Rome. Otto Topographic der Stadt Rom. of the Mediaeval Guidebook. 1898. L.. Theodore Monumenta Germaniae historica Gesta pontificum Romanorum. in the Light of Vol. 1878-1882. 2 vols. : I. J. 1888.. Muirhead. 1871. C. Leip- 1885-1888. Recent Discoveries. Ludovico Nichols. Phil. F. I. Engine IV. Mommsen.Ancient Rome Rom im 1885. Milan. Geschichte der christlicheu Kunst.. Rome or. Forma Urbis Romae. : : Rerum The Marvels An English version Italicarum Scriptores. 1898. 2 vols. di Frontino intorno le acque e gli acquedotti. Codex urbis Romae topographicus. Jaff fe.. 1896. H. 1198. Jordan. Wurzburg. Vol.) : Les Arts a la cour des Papes. Rodolfo . : Berlin. 1891. : in Archivio della Societk Romana 1877. Lanciani. (XLVI sheets. I Commentarii Rome. : Regesta Pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad 2d ami. Boston. revised by Kaltenbrunner. ordine di Benedetto Canonico. etc. "Wolfgang Antiquities in Collections of Classical : and F. I. Richter. (To Sixtus Paris. Franz Xavier Freiburg. Giovanni Delle cose gentilesche e profane. Vol. Paris. 1878. Guide to the Public Rome. . II.) Marangoni.

I. Roma. from 1895. Rome. by H. E. 1899. from 1876. B. Grisar. Marucchi. ing contributions by L. di Storia e Diritto. Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita. See Naples. Rome.-XIII. Interest- Rome. Vols. 1863-1895. from 1881. Studii e Documenti fiir I. Nuovo Bullettino di Archeologia cristiana. from 1886. Rome. Rome. . following the Annali and Bullettino. edited by Giovanui Battista de Rossi. edited by G. Civiltk Cattolica. Duchesne. Mittheilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. Rome. Roemische Quartalschrift from 1887. Interesting contributions also Grisar's Analecta Romana. Melanges de Pficole francaise de Rome. from 1880. from Bullettino della Commissione archeologica comunale di 1873. Rome. La 1829-1885. from 1877. Stevenson. de Rossi. Vol. Roemiscbe Abtheilung. Bullettino di Archeologia cristiana. Christliche Altertumskunde.XV SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY PERIODICALS Archivio della Societk Romana di Storia Patria. O.



FIG. Substructions of the palace of Septimius Severus. 1. .

Was it age. and 160 high has so completely disappeared that only a few pieces of crumbling wall are left here and there against the cliff to tell the Who broke up and removed. I in a better have been able to ascertain that a palace 490 feet long. By meas- urements on the spot. the elements. the abyss which lay open at and my was trying to fathom feet. where the remains of the palace of Sep- timius Severus tower a hundred and sixty feet above the level of the modern streets. that mountain of masonry ? Who overthrew the giant ? tale.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME CHAPTER I THE DESTROYERS OF AXCIENT ROME I WAS sitting not long ago at the southern extremity of the Palatine hill. 390 wide. and to reconstruct in I imagination the former aspect of the place. bit by bit. the hand of barbarians. or some other irresistible force the action of which has escaped observation ? 3 . compared with descriptions and drawings left by those who saw the Palatine state of preservation.

that 485.000 persons sat on which were made if stairways. Near the Pantheon of Agrippa. is an exaggeration in these figures in fact. Andrea della Valle that mass of marble that 1 : so great. 1894. the available space was increased by 5000 Perhaps there seats. the capacity of the Circus has been limited by Huelsen to 150.000 specta. when a capital of great size was discovered in the Vicolo del Melone. 1 here this reduction. But even with tors. 150. to was abandon it . 1891.000 running feet of stone and marble benches. Not a fragment has come down to us. for instance. we may suppose there spectator of an average must have been in the Maximus more than 250. indeed.000 spectators could find room up in the Circus Maximus. We meaning of the are told. and to the people his own that. p. we were obliged Bullettino Comunale. when Trajan gave imperial balcony. on the border of the pond or stagnum where Nero and Tigellinus used to feast in a floating hall. Its site was unknown to topographers until May. 322. and we are left in complete ignorance as to Circus the way in which so great a mass of solid material has disappeared. there was a colonnade known by the name of Eventus Bonus. near the church of S. space of we accessible that stone or marble benches by an elaborate system allow to each twenty inches.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 4 To answer these questions we must first try to grasp the words "destruction" and "disappearance" when applied to the monuments of ancient Rome.

the great block ? I found a clew to the answer in Flaminio Vacca's account of the excava- "In laying tions in the time of Pius IV. . Vol.088 spectators. and other marbles were found. in Tea's Miscellanea. an odeum (now the Monte Giordano) with 11.600 seats. among them a capital of enormous size.THE DESTROYERS OF ANCIENT ROME 5 on account of the danger of undermining the neighbouring houses if we should attempt to remove where it lay. I. fragments of entablatures. in the Vicolo del Melone. 43. scritte da Flaminio Vacca nel 1594. (1559-1566).510 1 Memorie seats. Whence came it. the theatre of Balbus with 11. (now the Monte de' Cenci) and the theatre of Pompey (near the di varie antichita trovate in [diversi luoghi . Gesellschaft der Wissenchaften. "columns. significance of these dimensions will best be appreci- ated by architects. 1876. Ancient documents further mention a stadium (where now is the Piazza Navona) with seats for 30. out of which the coat of arms of the Pope on the Porta Pia chiselled. two outermost belonged to a colonnade. . Latest and best edition by Richter in Berichte der Sachs. they all selves being 6 feet high The and 14 feet in circumference. the foundations of the Palazzo della Valle. the columns of which were 47 feet high. the capitals them. ." 1 A second capital was discovered under was the Ugolini house. 1881." says Vacca. p. in 1862. p. 25. and a under the Palazzo Capranica della Valle in These three capitals and the one found in 1891 were lying on a line measuring 300 feet between the third.

these marble above ground. no traces are left Campo di Fiori) Examples the with 17. fifty of pavonazzetto or .580 of this kind are area within the city is 2. among other columns. two hundred which were of cipollino or Carystian portasanta. of of a colonnade of It contained. In Emperor Gordianus the younger.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 6 seats. given of his villa on the Via Praenestina. a description Torre del Schiavi. marble. two and a half miles outside the gate of that name. fifty fifty buildings. by no means confined to walls. all the Life of the 32. chap. Of and stone buildings. FIG.

could have amused themselves by pulverizing the 250. a favourite Campagna. of disintegration and the slow but due to rain. a dei Schiavi. . hand man. could have been accomplished only by the perature . fires. One bit of ruin stands alone in the the Torre landmark for miles around. meet of the foxhounds in the wilderness. we may as Roman Empire of all contain elements of truth. rivalled the thermae of Rome itself. in their meteoric to the bar- inroads. and Rome of the barbarians articles of value as . all Colonnade. plausible outset . or the massive structure of the villa of the Gordiani ! The purpose was to carry off such could easily be removed. for example. and fifty of giallo antico or Numidian there were also three basilicas. baths. of Writers on the decline and fall of have proposed several explanations. 2).THE DESTROYERS OF ANCIENT ROME 7 Phrygian marble. earthquakes. in size and magnifiThe present cence. each a hundred feet long.000 feet of stone and marble seats in the Circus. all if which are But at the discard the current view that the dis- Roman monuments was due appearance of barians the these. have disappeared. basilicas. and baths which. We may grant that natural agencies have contributed their share to the demolition of ancient buildings. palace. an imperial palace. floods. frost. resistless processes and variations of tem- but such prodigious changes. such wholesale destruction. state of this Villa Gordianorum is shown in our illustra- tion (Fig.

quarter of a century later the historian Procopius states that many statues by Phidias and Lysippus could yet be seen in Rome. pieces of A Greek art which still adorned the mausoleum. 455 A. In brief the period of twelve days which plunder. a great deal was still left a Christian emperor too. in June. still intact. Peter's and to her misfortune. removed the gilt-bronze tiles from roof of the temple of Venus and Rome. . the temple. to was of the roof of St. when Later. was visited Constans spent in the city he removed many bronze . In 630 Pope Honorius I. still In 536 the garrison of the mole of Hadrian. time. with the consent of the Emperor Heraclius.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 8 long remained rich enough to satisfy their greed. In 663. As we shall see in the course of our narrative.. for the the adornment fore. the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline hill and the palace of the Caesars could be successfully plundered of movable objects. the humble may have catacombs of mausoleums the faithful well as as the imperial but the stanch buildings of the Republic and of the Empire were not essentially damaged. which had long ago been converted into a fortress (now the Castle Angelo).D. was able to check an assault of the Goths by throwing down upon their heads the master- of S. they of this attacked the abodes of the dead. mine had become exhausted. and the houses the living were stripped of all their valuables. .. there- when Rome for the last by an emperor.

and Renaissance periods. The barbarians. although this had long since been statues. By of the Imperial. . therefore. Byzantine. their part in the destruction of Rome being hardly worth con- sidering when compared with the guilt " others " I mean the Romans themselves. of others. laid his converted into a Christian church. Mediaeval. can be left in peace.THE DESTROYERS OF ANCIENT ROME and 9 hands also upon the bronze tiles of the Pantheon.

we may say that Rome begins with sense the history of the destruction of the reign of Augustus. and draining the old streets. the theatre Pietas of clear the space for the erection of Marcellus. to the needs of a population living under new conditions and in a certain its edifices. VII. and in carrying out a general scheme for the sanitation and embellishment of the metropolis. in opening new thorough- fares. Nat. with the milk of her breast. kept alive the father sentenced to death by starvation in the old Decem viral jail.CHAPTER II THE TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME BY THE EMPERORS THE growth of a city involves the readjustment of public and private. 36. 121. . that many . was destroyed. the so dear to the shrine of Romans on account legend of the faithful daughter who. 1 Dion of the Cassius adds that many houses and temples were de- molished to make room for this structure i Pliny. for example. Hist. in building the new quarters. who undertook to transform the capital of the Empire from In widening a city of bricks into a city of marble. many historical monuments were To sacrificed. 10 .

set Balbus. XLIII. suspected valuables and of stored of the sacred edifices.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME 11 statues of the gods. 29. but Agrippa iwuuuuwi FIG. Lucius Cornificius. of ancient workmanship. who modernised our Constantinbut there is this differian and mediaeval churches that of the . and Statilius Taurus . men with 2 all We number and splendour of may compare the work of these the in popes and cardinals of the seventeenth century. . Cornelius the of the of the theatre gold (favissae') temples were and . . carved in wood and stone. Section of steps of the round temple of the Forum Boarium. surpassed them his buildings. 1 Dion Cassius. 49.'?. 1 by Augustus was followed by his Marcius Philippus. Octav. 2 Suetonius. shared the fate builders the that having appropriated in the vaults away The example wealthy friends. showing earlier and later construction.

by the marble steps and the marble cella of the time of Augustus (Fig. or that of the Capi- tolium. we have actually picked up fragments temples of the time of the Kings. while the renovation century was without excuse and feature. in the so-called temple of the Mater Matuta in the Forum Boarium. afterwards the church of S. 4. in the Piazza Bocca della Verita. perhaps. Augustus and his friends tute masterpieces of purest type. In excavat- ing strata of rubbish of FIG.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 12 that ence. for Greco-Roman the earlier of seventeenth the had no did. such as the platform of the Gardens of MaCCC- Maximus. construction. but not entirely concealed. delle Maria del Sole. dumped from there with . -. Carozze. Here we see the stone steps the to leading stone cella of the time of Camillus. of the structures brick of or rough stone. This change may best be studied. Stefano now S. nas. Fragment of painted terra cotta antefix from the temple of Jupiter Optimus the time of Augustus. covered. . 3). at redeeming substi- least.

4). cornices.. 1895. . (see Fig. Monumenti Vol. dei Lined. 5). and conse- Bull.-xiii. Such are the antefixes of painted terra cotta from the temple of now Optimus Maxitnus. in 1886 the remains . three facts become prominent plete 1 2 8 covering over. 2 of were edifices and wood. p.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME 13 other materials to raise the level of the ground. antichi publicati per cura della reale Accad. Falerii. A polychrome structure of discovered this on kind was the site of FIG. in one of the exhibited the Porta del outside 3 In tracing the history of the destruction of the Rome of the Kings and of the Republic at the hands of the Emperors. Ibid.. for hygienic : (1) the com- reasons. 1 and the Conservator!. 5. mented with the in centuries early sacred of built Palazzo from another shrine Museo Municipale In the in orna- panels. 1896. p. tiles of terra cotta with decoration. of it are halls of the Villa di Giulio III. Fragment of painted tile from an early temple on the Esquiline. and al Celio. Popolo. Com. Civita Castellana. Jupiter de' roof-tiles on the the Rome Esquiline. xii. IV... 28 (see Fig. 1896. 187. PI.

fire make room Titus. Diocletian. proved of so great benefit to the in the Light of Recent Discoveries. ters of the City. and Constantine. uniform mass of black. after a destructive of clearing areas to large those thermae. A part of the Esquiline hill was occupied at that time by a " field of death. in 1887. about seventy-five of these pits leone were discovered. unctuous in others the bones so far retained their shape The field of death they could be identified. 64. In some of them the animal remains had been reduced to a matter . the for great Caracalla. of Nero. of large tracts of land (2) the rebuilding. and (3) the ." where the bodies of slaves and beggars and of criminals who had undergone punishment were capital thrown into common pits (puticuU*). on a totally different plan. p. together domestic of carcasses animals and beasts of with the burden. 1 This hotbed of infection was suppressed by that Augustus Maecenas. Trajan. In the excavations made in laying out the Via NapoIII. 1 The Ancient results Rome feet.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT EOME 14 quent elevation. The record that first we have of the covering over and elevation of a large area for hygienic reasons dates from the time of Augustus.. . was laid out on the newly made to depth of 24 the ground. the Decii. of one or more quar. served also as a dumping place for the daily refuse of the city. at the The of his prime minister was buried under fresh earth suggestion district and a public park. a fifth of a mile in extent.

a portion of the great imperial park on the formerly owned by the Licinian family were laid out. detested ground And once in this A common tomb the vulgar found. Gardens Esquiline. vile and base. of p. a ghastly sight! white. the cemetery . translation of Francis (Sat. vm. 284. And walk the sunny terrace fair.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME health the of to be worthy by no means 8 et seq. Where once the ground with bones was With human bones. on the 1 site Pagan and Christian Rome. I. Together rotted here in peace. removed by Trajan from the west make room for his Forum. were slope of the Quirinal to spread over the cemetery between the Via Salaria Vetus 1 The Licinian (Pinciana) and the Via Salaria Nova. In process of time recourse was had to the same expedient in the case of other cemeteries within or near the walls of Aurelian. likewise. though Horace in verse.) City sung literal. A thousand feet the front extends. of earth The twenty-four million cubic feet and rock. Three hundred deep in rear it bends. : In coffins vile the herd of slaves Were hither brought to crowd their graves. that 15 thought the work In the quaint. But now we breathe a purer air. And yonder column plainly shows No more unto its heirs it goes. Buffoons and spendthrifts.

C. 1886. . This historian describes another fire (XXIV. . of the high priest. near the Casino dei Quattro Venti. by which the region of the Forum Boarium. the same quarter was burned over. both from the aesthetic and from the hygienic point of view. and again in 192 B. 269.. 47).C. from the foot of the Aventine to the present Piazza Montanara. the lege. and the cinerary urns. Such was the fire Livy in the Book XXVI.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 16 between the Via Collatina same fate befell the and Via beautiful Labicana. the region district of the Lautumiae was rebuilt on a better and more sanitary plan. modern times has proved and the of these cemeteries to be exceptionally rich in finds. the fish-market. when the main 1 Pagan and Christian Some. now occupied by the Villa Corsini-Pamfili. burial-grounds The of the Via Aurelia. was devastated in 213 B. the residence and the buildings in The were destroyed. I saw traces of the fires last mentioned in April. by which all described by twenty-seventh chapter of the shops and houses around the Forum. p. more or left in inscriptions. The vast conflagrations which from time to time swept over the city were in reality a means of improvement. less valuable furniture of the sepulchres were The excavation undisturbed. 1 No injury was done to the tombs when the earth was heaped upon them their sacred character protected them from sacri.

had a different orientation. The fire Rome by spread in a northeasterly now called direction June the Gauls started at the east end Circus Maximus. tory We information in regard to do not possess all satisfac- the historic monu- ments that perished in the flames. and any attempt his plans of to carry less them out was lawsuits. having the city set on was clearly destined to lead to end- at fire. appraisals. altars. the newing streets were crowded with shrines. of the La Moletta . and small temples which religious superstition made inviolable . the anniversary of the burning of in 390 B. Antium when the in the year conflagration began. partially destroying seven others. When the Emperor Nero conceived the idea of reand rebuilding the capital of the Empire.C. at the place it by Nero difficulty 64 A. were remains of early a Republican structures nine feet below the level of the piazza.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME sewer on the left bank 17 the Tiber was built at of There great depth across the piazza Bocca della Verita. above the bed of ashes. the foundation of which was ascribed to Servius Tullius. on 18. improvement were opposed by the priests and by private owners of property. and swept over three out of the fourteen regions of the city. and upon them was a bed of ashes and charred materials. and disputes among the ex- So he seems to have solved the perts. The buildings of a later period.D. but we know that among them were the temple of the Moon. the Ara .

monuments encircled the Palatine we hill. citizens never ceased to lament. . Tigellinus.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 18 \ Maxima. the Arcadian of Vesta. The charge that Nero had wilfully caused the neither accepted nor rejected by Tacitus. . As these and to Hercules. from learn that. new plans were immediately accordance with the best architectural practice of the time. tradition said by Evan- and the temples of Jupiter . engineering and glancing at the in the marble plan now in the Capitoline see that Nero's projects can hardly have been fully carried out they must have left untouched the lower and more congested quarters of the city. it fire is fire certain already parts of But whether the emperor was wholly or partially responsible for the conflagration. even amidst the splen- dour of the new city which rose from the ashes. narrow and tortuous streets Museum. whom we burst out gardens of Nero's Dyer suggests that the emperor merely improved the occasion to have the more widely and which he wished to started spread efface the rebuild. again in the Praedia Aemiliana. the minion. Stator. city. the opportunity thus afforded for rebuild- ing was at once improved drawn in . may assume that the imperial residence on its summit was also gutted. the loss of which the older ing. dedicated der. together with the Regia. but evidence on this point is wantCountless masterpieces of Greek art and many ancient relics disappeared. after it had once been arrested. of the Penates. one may By and lanes of the time of Septimius Severus.

From this place. neatly paved shops. Gregorio. the main sewer which drains the Esquiline and the about the Coliseum was being built between 111 region arch of Constantine the and the site of Circus the Maximus. 1877. I myself saw a strip of land While showed traces of this fearful conflagration.20) A-t>^^yAAjo>AAAA^VsMX*J^WCXiuXxi3^ . of a street._jj- j- 10 (10. 0. Ruderi accipiendo Ostienses away pahtfles to the dfstinabat. street toward the foot of the Clivus Scauri. _. rerent. 1 carted J Ann. _ i _j j_i_j _j^i_^_j j_g 4_*^M_^ . now the Piazza di S. with flagstones and lined by sidewalks. XV. Gregorio. the debris of Xero's fire were not. onustae rudere decur- |77) . at any rate. and shrines on both sides ('3. 43: iitique naves. as might have been inferred from the statement of Tacitus.16) ( FIG.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME 1'J which May. quae frumentum Tiberi subvcctassent. thirty-five feet below the present level of the ground. Section of excavations in the Via di S. The east had apparently descended from the southcorner of the Palatine where now is the Vigna Bar- berini. the workmen came across remains of houses. showing changes of level.

which made I at the time of these excavations. shows the and buildings before and streets the altitudes are given in metres. . 7) Agnese . A fragment of the marble mausoleum of Celer exists in the Via the garden of Nomentana full of dignity l CELERI S. I. no. but were spread on the spot in this way the level of the valley was raised at once by ten or . are says them that of they were clever and daring enough to undertake. VI. 14. 721. For the names of Nero's chief advisers and we archi- the rebuilding of the city. superposition of the fire sectional plan presented above (Fig. in tects after who indebted to Tacitus. (Fig. L. Agnese. by artificial means. on epitaph was brief but : NERONIS The block containing AVGVSTI it L[iberto] A[rchitect]0 was removed from the tomb by Pope Symmachus (498-514). . p. 431 . The importance it into a of fires for the architectural history Rome in the imperial period may easily be underif we recall the changes caused by this means in the Forum from the time of Nero to that of Diocletian.647. Four times during this period the centre of Rome and of stood 1 Fabretti. who turned capital for one of the columns of S.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 20 marshes of Ostia. C. Severus and Celer. 6). The fifteen feet. cf. Inscriptiones domesticae. The fuori le still Mura. works the accomplishment of which nature would have denied.

287.D. the damages of which were repaired by Domitian. the build- III. 1 was swept by flames world. of Nero. an inscription.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME of the as it Roman is came the it fire CELEBERRIMVS VRBIS LOCVS. Fragment tomb of the First fire of of Celer. . third occurred shortly in 191 A. FIG. the reign of Titus. . was on a different plan. the called in four times 21 .. before the death of 1 The Commodus.D. just alluded to then the rebuilt . p. 7.. 1876. in 80 A. Ephemeris Epigraphica. Vol.

by rich and popu- and insulae. and simply buried. lous quarters. his son Caracalla. and the areas of both these great structures were occupied.255 square metres. those of Diocletian 130.. the Forum Julium. who empress shifted by thirty-three degrees the orientation of the edifices bor- dering on the Clivus Sacer. shrines. and Julia his by Septimius Severus. the The thermae of Caracalla cover an area of 118. The third and last of the more important factors in Rome under the transformation and destruction of Empire was the building of the great public baths. This practice explains the reason why we find in some .D. The buildings which stood on a higher level than that adopted for one of these bath- ing establishments were destroyed to the foundations . temples. and gardens.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 22 ings were restored Domna. and the temple of Venus and Rome. respectively. it must have swept from one end of cletian the Sacra Via to the other. But the buildings placed on a lower level were left the standing to a height corresponding with that of foundation of the thermae.000 square metres. with houses colonnades. the materials of construction taken from them were saved and were made use of again in the new structure. affecting the Basilica Julia. the Senate-house. 283 A. before 212 and 305/6 A. We have no detailed account of the conflagration in the reign of Carinus. but to judge from the repairs made by Dio- and Maxentius.D.

at a depth of only a few inches below the surface. . Nothing of Caracalla found under the built portion. wrongly of the and .D. the three strata can be easily recognised at the north en- trance to the cryptoporticus of the Golden House. pigliosi remains 1 A part shown gardens. of the the in workmen thermae of brought to light Constantino underneath first . of House Trajan of are built on remains of the Golden Nero. Fig. because the foundations of the massive walls were of necessity carried is down but in the open spaces. and even four different periods lying in archaeological strata one above the other. 1 buildings which Caracalla purchased and covered up. was cut 1877 across the ridge of the then occupied by the Aldobrandini and Ros- Quirinal. made accessible in 1721. The palace of the Flavian emperors on the Palatine on the remains of rests private houses end the of these. of one of these houses. are Republic The thermae of Titus termed Baths of Livia. with an outer enclosure lined with halls and rooms for bathing. by Guidi. When the Via Nazionale. are found remains of extensive houses and other to the level of the virgin soil . The Baths were composed of a central building surrounded by a garden. the main thoroughfare of modern Rome.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME 23 places structures of two. and this last was extended over the remains of houses built before the fire of 64 A. three. is . 39. excavated in 1860-1867 in Bttins and Excavations.

of a Claudia Vera. in making repairs. work (Fig. the palaces of T. In another part of the same foundations we found many fragments of statues and sculptured marbles built. number. Avidius Quietus already mentioned the palace and gardens of a C. possibly complete. list com- Flavius Claudius Claudianus and of T. of this would hold good for The excavations made within immense structure since 1870 in the Baths the limits connexion . into the rubble work. and a sacred edifice. A similar statement of Diocletian. These tiles architect made use of in laying the foun- roof of which was Constantino's dations of out. on a lower level. of a Marcus Postumius Festus . one a the by one. in 1879. so be taken Caldarium. the roof could and put together again without difficulty by observing the sequence of the figures.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 24 these were remains of the house Claudius Claudi- of anus and of another once belonging to Avidius Quietus and lastly. from which we off They were all dug them marked with that. of the public and private buildings purchased and demolished by this prises Emperor The in or about 315 A. 8). Art(orius ?) Germanianus. obtaining a of list. of a Lucius Naevius Clemens. the made of marble tiles.D. were walls of early reticulate . Subsequent excavations on the site of the same baths have given us the means of reconstructing the map of this part of the Quirinal prior to the time of Constan- and tine. . as common materials.



of a Collegium Fortunae foundations of concrete . brick and marble. . among them Felicis. and the Massimi palace. . were used over again in the foundations of the baths. the 27 Piazza dei Cinquecento. of all these buildings. and a reservoir.TRANSFORMATION OF REPUBLICAN ROME with work on the railway station. by Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus The materials walls of private houses. well as the cutting of streets and the laying out of new gardens. the Grand Hotel. have brought to light the remains of as several preexisting edifices. the and a temple offices built on a colonnade or shrine rebuilt pavements of streets.

9.CHAPTER III THE USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS. with a patchwork of stones trunks of columns. with sculptured story of ruined by the the Coliseum was likewise restored by Severus Alexander in 223. and lintels doorposts taken from the itself. entablatures. IN THE BUILDING OPERATIONS OF THE LATER EMPIRE THE of practice building with walls architectural marbles. 1873. trations (Figs. statues. of Octaviae him. blocks containing inscriptions. in the year 203. The propylaea were restored by fragments from fire of at least back as the reign of Septimius Severus (193- edifices the Porticus or damaged The upper Titus.). which had been damaged by fire. Another instance of certain date is that of a private bathing establishment discovered January 30. and other fine from previous structures. at the junction of the Via Ariosto with the Piazza Dante 28 . and by Traianus Decius in 250. goes materials as far 211 A. from other buildings several of the fragor brought ments can be recognised in the accompanying illus- amphitheatre . 10). fragments of of every description.D. PARTICULARLY MARBLES.

figures of Minerva. surface 9.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS 29 on the Esquiline. Part of the upper story of the Coliseum. as the time dating proved by hundreds of brick stamps of that period found in the walls above ground. from of Diocletian and Constantine. The walls below the FIG. repaired with materials from earlier buildings. were built of statues and miscellaneous fragThere were life-size or semi-colossal ments of marble. It was a graceful little building. besides several Indian torsos Bacchus and of and other fragments . of the Aesculapius.

DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 30 column shaped like the lictors and base and the basin of a foun- of considerable value fasces.. showing repairs architectural fragments from various sources. 1 style. so compact and perfect to the eye. p. 444. FIG. . made with really a structures striking were example pillaged of to the way new erect in ones. 10. Collections of Classical Antiquities in which old If is we a nar- 2. Tav. climb to the chamber above the arch (there 1 Bull Com. p. Vol. Public no. 1875. I. with capital tain in pure A Greek more familiar . Guide to the Home. is Another view of the upper story of the Coliseum. 1. XI. 601. illustration is the triumphal arch of Meta Sudans Constantine. erected by the in 315 A. Helbig. Fig. a . This monument.D. 70.

per I. probably the areas divi Traiani which spanned the Via Appia (or the Via Nova) The Capena. 2 or "De profane Grimaldi's Peter's." 1 2 * 4 This was built hurriedly." l sacris aedificiis or a Marangoni's ad uso trasportate "Diary of Con- " Delle the delle Destruction of 3 After the defeat of Maxentius. in 4. earlier buildings for the sake a the Arruntii. in the year 312. 50. in fol. the eight and the greater part of the entablature were removed from a triumphal arch of columns of antico. "Aesop's crow. and in Romae. 176. p. Barberin. why Milizia gave the nickname of Cornacchia di it We Esopo. the the statues of the eight medallions above the side passages. its . shall shall find that the bas- Dacian kings. XVI. 1693. XXXIV. Liber Pontificalis." e gentilesche chiese. Romae. Porta the the dismantling of of their materials this statement. Constantine. near inside of the structure also is built with a great variety of materials taken from the the Fabii and of scriptions of Under the the which are rule of still common practice . tombs of carvings and in- perfect." Old magno St. 1744. Cod.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS row see 31 we staircase in the side facing the Palatine). giallo Trajan." of the reliefs attic. startling as became it may appear. will not be considered extravagant by any one who has read Ciampini's stantino cose constructis. Jacobum Komarck. Sylvester. Constantine "erected a basilica over the tomb of the blessed Peter.

and the one details in regard to and periods. left wing of the sacred edifice was carried over the three northern which had supported the seats of the spectators on the side of the Via Cornelia. . were patched with fragments of tiles and two granite columns. These note-books are now in the Uffizi. quality. inscriptions except differed frieze not to the apse from one some names and with the Titus.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 32 construction first part of the adjoining circus of all a and Nero was of Caligula The utilised. note-books the 1 speak styles could not find intercolumniation bore Nearly the to of basilica. The columns for the basilica were brought together from all walls of the circus. Grimaldi says that he two capitals or two bases alike. at the foot of the steps. edifices. In quarters. were On each side of the first entrance. all the ancient collection. size. Trajan. quarries were represented in of Antonio of others. colour. as the 1 of these Agnese and the adjoinConstantia on the Via Nomentana. He adds that the architrave and blocks da found a memorandum of the I and other hundred and thirty-six shafts. and that another. Florence. and the The of the praises walls of arches. In the construction of the fourth century the Christian buildings of all we may well believe that there was a similar indebtedness to pagan sources. capitals showing the bust of the Emperor Hadrian framed in acanthus leaves. Gallienus. one of Sangallo the younger. church of ing mausoleum of Some S. with composite of stone.

and the church of S. fresh from the quarry. there of unused blocks. are Additional without the walls. Lawrence on the Via Tiburtina. 1173. and use of blocks of marble have A pedestal of a been changed three or four times. Paul on the some In modernisation. in the accounts Salvatoris in road still left those by Laterano. of supply have . before instances the location their standing within or proof may be found who saw the Basilica that of St. This is the more re- markable in view of the fact that on the banks of the Tiber at the marble wharves (La Marmorata) and on those of Trajan's channel (Canale di Fiumicino). statue erected in the year 193 in the town hall of some municipality in the vicinity of Rome. and to Ostia. It in Rufius 365. 1 t> still remained a vast number These two sources C. was utilised in the restoration of the Baths of of Caracalla in 285. removed the it into a seems monument finally to disappeared about 1548 in a lime-kiln of Pope Paul The great department of "Department of Marbles" have III. apparently suspended operations before the middle of the fourth any rate we have been unable to find any structure built after the time of Constantine with macentury terials at . VI. I. where the marbles belonging to the Emperor or to private importers were landed. L. prefect City block from the Baths and turned in honour of Valentinian I. 1 imperial administration called (statio marmoruni). the Volusianus.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS 33 the church of St. Clemente.

the Portions Maximae and podium of of Gratian. the market-hall of the Caelian (S. Maria in Cosarena medin.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 34 been drawn upon by means of excavations almost uninterruptedly since the time of the Cosmatis. and yet and columns of the their wealth in blocks of seems breccias Romans hardly to have rarest kinds diminished. the shops at the east of the Forum Romanum. and to transthese to their own clumsy structures. do with the compulsory closing According to Libanius he often horse just as one might give and Ammianus makes men- dog some courtiers who had received . however. and a hundred other buildings of the Decadence. Stefano Rotondo). the Grain Exchange at the church of S. than to work Empire fer of their anew the materials stored at La Marmorata. the market-place of the Esquiline near S. thought less it troublesome to rob the splendid monuments of the Republic and early ornaments already cajved. made a present of a temple. Abundant may be gained. Vito. as the evidence on this point Forum Boarium. The the fourth century. away a tion of or a II. emperors as of well as private citizens. There are on record several edicts of Constantius (350-361) having to of heathen temples. but also from secular structures. four-faced arch of the the temple of Saturn on the Clivus Capitolinus. the the Coliseum. not merely from ecclesiastical. the monumental columns on the Sacra Via. the bridges of Cestius (S. gifts of this . Bartolomeo) and of Valentinian (Ponte Sisto).

the baths. p. the temples were closed forever. ed. Eight Valentinian and Theodosius prohibited if strictly domestic and private. even These decisive measures led to open rebellion on the but who those part of after still the defeat clung to the ancient of the rebel leader beliefs. p. and years later sacrifices. L. . see also de Rossi's papers in Bull. when Gratian edifices the privileges and confiscated priests. VI. Strange to say. and pagan was sealed of art 35 the temples of their revenues.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS But the kind. of 1805. expelled of justice. this prohibition pagan worship contributed for the time being of the to the embellishment of certain parts of the City. art. cristiana. 2 . di archeologia Vol. 1 works fate of did away with all their precious in the year 383. I. 5. and Bull. Eugenius. 174. Interesting information on this subject will be found in C. which took place early in September.. liceat statuas consistere puras Artificum magnorum Ornamenta fuant opera : haec pulcherrima nostrae patriae nee decolor usus In vitium versae monumenta coinquinet 1 artis. 308. proceres. 2 of statues were This of the the courts gods. and as where the august seats. 1865. from their up and exhibited simply as works referred to in the words which set is Prudentius puts into the mouth of Theodosius. p. when addressing the Senate after the defeat of Eugenius (Contra Sym. Marmora O 501-505): tabenti vespergine tincta lavate. Part I. I. History of the City of Home. See Dyer. 394. such the forums. Com. 1874.

Maria Nuova.. prefect of the City. learn also that in later times by the barbarians citizens in civil strifes. statuam quae basilicae Juliae a se noviter ornamento Some of these masesset. 1651). I. transferred statues to the thermae of the Decii on the Aventine L L. .. and contain inscriptions with light ((7. places of however. Audax v(ir) cQarissimusy barbarica incursione sublata resti- L. older by half a As early as the year century than the decree of 394. Another. VI. speaks of a . in the genianus the Baths of Trajan in 368-370. The Basilica Julia was likewise ornamented with borrowed statues by Gabinius Vettius Probianus in 377 parts of the on which five of them stood have come to pedestals . adiecit. (1550-1555). 1663). discovered during the pontificate of Julius III. VI. in their in- A pedesdiscovered in the fifteenth century near S. the others to Polyclitus. 1658). VI. 331 Anicius Paulinus. Fabius Titianus lined the Sacra Via with other examples of the sculptor's art in 339( same way Fabius Felix Passifilus Paulinus embellished the Baths of Titus in 355. reparatae terpieces were of Greek origin . at the top of the Clivus Sacer. one was attributed to the formula. L.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 36 The of practice worship to removing statuary from edifices civil is. From inscriptions we statues were overthrown and by the cursions.. bore the in- tal scription : Castalius Innocentius praef{ectu8) urbis tuit ((7. Clodius Hermo341 . Timarchus. Praxiteles. I. and Bryaxis.

until the places of worship seemed to outnumber the houses. down set in at the up again 483 A. we do not know." Two in the converting of tian periods. one anterior to the year 609. civil edifices were transformed. was made into a church or chapel. which became churches . by by Anicius Acilius Aginatius. IV. partially or completely. After 609 almost every available building. pagan may be distinguished edifices into places of Chris- worship. and turned it into a church of Mary the Virgin ever blessed. however. the other following alone that date. VI. We of must not imagine. Cosmas and Damian. To what use the temples were put immediately after the expulsion of their gods. was only to take place two centuries later. 1664). whether secular or sacred. and the round market on the Caelian Hill. when the scruples about the propriety of worshipping the true God in heathen temples had been overcome. During the first. Boniface Pope "asked the Emperor Phocas for the temple which was called Pantheon. now S. but it is certain that they were not occupied by Christians. L.D. In the year 609. that the good-will the emperors and the guardianship of the prefects of the City saved all statues from destruction. into such were the Record Office. nor This change turned into places of Christian worship. the church of SS. Far from .USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS 37 statue of Minerva that had been thrown time of a tire caused and a riot. then. Stefano Rotondo. apparently /. ((7.

King Theoderic and his adviser Cassiodorius revived the year 500. the abandoned the other himself deric the to Domus in the statues from the order to save in it from buildings the lime-kilns caused the columns to be plundering." placed by Augustus in the compital shrines at the crossings of the main thoroughfares of the City. in the years about two The number of these shrines 10-7 B. ed. The Curator Statuarum 13). 10.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 38 Public protection was extended only to the works of art which adorned the streets. (Variar. Curator Statuarum. Variar. the marble-hunters mentioned by Cassio- lime-burners. few in number when compared with the thousands upon thousands that belonged to A special magistrate was appointed private owners. of marble statuary by the fate of the "most precious images may pretiosissima of deorum the gods.C.. bodies three of VII. hundred to in the time of two hundred 1 and had been increased Augustus sixty-five Cassiod. hands of dorius and masons. in 73 A. baths. to take charge of this under the ues " . stone-cutters. then had the help of two assessors. illegal control Pinciana one to protect and yet Theoand marbles of . " Keeper of Stat- title of but the branch of public administration. 1 The destruction illustrated simulacra. parks.D. and to . office was not long kept up. removed from Rome to well be Ravenna. it ! and public buildings. squares. III. Mommseu.

of the Miscellanea. fragments of excellent statuary. surnamed Olivarius from OPTS SCOPAE MIXORIS. we consider that only one that incomparable cannot doubt that the three hundred and twenty-four "most precious images" Greek workmanship belonging to the compital shrines shared the same fate as those from the temples. near the so-called temple of in the piazza Bocca della Verita. VI. described the four pedestals in Pagan and Christian Home. they were broken to pieces. as if lime-kilns. Foundation walls built up in part of statues and have been found by the score. "A foundation wall which runs under the hospital of 2 St. at chronological series of works of Greek plastic art to the appreciation become of all the citizens of of these " most Rome. 1 The plinth Mater Matuta was discovered (S. " II Foro I have Boario. Accad. Serie II. or built into they were the cheapest rubble. What " precious images ? If has we 1 of plinth and four pedestals series have come down to us. 261." Vacca reports. John Lateran. 35. Rome.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS three hundred and twenty-four 39 the beginning of They offered an almost complete the fourth century. 2 Edited by Fea in Vol. I add here busts a few examples from the " Memoirs " of Flaminio Vacca (1594) and of Pietro Sante Bartoli (about 1675). the location of the shrine near the Olive Market. of and the pieces thrown into the new the walls of buildings. in Maria del Sole) I " is built entirely of saw there knees and 1896. being inscribed a statue of Hercules." in Dissert. archeol. 1790. pp. See Huelsen. p. Vol. I. It belonged to a celebrated work of Scopas the younger. 34. .

Queen Christine of Finally. were found. Further. opposite Lorenzo in Panisperna. a villa of Monsignor Visconti. . eighteen or twenty Most of emperors were discovered. and other line marbles were found embedded came in the masonry. remains of ancient houses Bartoli. bas-reliefs sarcophagus bearing of the a twelve labours of Hercules. the to levelled again. 149. p. "In the walls and foundations of an old house." on the left bank of the Po ever. outside the Porta San Giovanni.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 40 elbows modelled in the style of the Laocoon of the Belve- dere" (Mem. of the busts I have forgotten what be- the front of the sarcophagus. and was pulled down to make room for fuori le a square in front of that church. for the improve- ment the of the twelve marble A plantation. Ferrata 17). "In exploring the for on the Corso. the famous See Ruins and Excavations. cellar of a house 1 p. Fig." says "along the north slope of the Cespian. how- . " 48). architect. restored by Ercole Sweden" (Mem. as complete set of busts of well as of other emperors. was cut away and sent to Nuvolara. p. 1 and fragments of an exquisite statue of The statue was afterwards Venus built into a wall. 393. Lorenzo Mura. Caesars. (ibid. 13). p. which stood near S. " to the Farnese Gallery (ibid. p. "A ground great block of masonry was the in vineyard of Hannibal Caro. When the Via Graziosa was opened in 1684. S. of portrait-busts them were removed And 11).

the end of the second or the beginning of the third century. of fragments strata as well statuary as in used as Toward I have come across rubble. which had served as building materials" for the foundations of the Torre di Nona. Laocoon known is A the in del replica of the to be buried in the substructures of the church of S. p. so few were the fragments missing" (ibid. in the those of later periods. and set came to up a studio . near the bridge of S. and a fine statue of colossal size under Were I S. Francesco de' Ficoroni saw. pieces and built into a wall. fiorito was cut into alabastro One slabs 1705. 2). archaeologist speaks in tower of the City walls on the Tiber. 42). three instances must answer for way suffice older Two or all. u a very great number of fragments of the most beautiful stat- ues. in the year 1693. 105). in Caria. to relate my personal experience in the of similar finds. In all volume would hardly sorts of places. of blocks last of p. 41 seven statues broken The in statues were restored almost perfectly. both within and without the walls of the City.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS Lorenzo discovered Bernini. alabaster The same discovered. under the bank of the left of the blocks of and used Madonna decoration of the front of the altar of the Sasso in the Pantheon (ibid. by the Monte Testaccio. Marcello. the entire for the narrative. Pudentiana. p. Angelo (Mem. a colony of Greek sculptors Rome from Aphrodisias.

chic mouths fountains. they called apxiepevs (high priest). have been Serapis. the later. and other carvings . a wall was discovered entirely built with the contents of the There were statues of Jupiter. bas-reliefs. Juno. Hercules studio. vases. the same kind was discovery of the and a half years Via Isis. and by one of the membrotherhood from Aphrodisias the works were signed artistic this seventeen signatures in all. They were Maecenas. Minerva Parthenos. I cannot tell. active artists indeed. wells. or by the fall of the by violence of men. Jupiter. figures of animals. out of which fourteen statues. in November. or spring of through in the direction of the Baths of Titus. nearly bers all of of candelabras. made on the site a of by the Via MichelVia Leopardi. 1888. Two temple of angelo. They portions represent of statues. The no essential fact that each work were missing shows that they were brought entire to the scene of destruction.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 42 on the Esquiline the of gardens between the Baths of Titus and hill. In the 1886. . Isis . now Galileo. and portions of then broken up and thrown into a foundation wall. One day their ' came to grief . Pluto. crossed Another wall was found containing three or four hundred fragments of sculpture. when the Via Buonarroti was being cut building. and other streets. or important reconstructed. and worked harmoniously under the mastership whom of a leader. bacAesculapius. workshop and their exhibition rooms whether by fire. Cybele.

while collecting specimens of rare marbles. years later. figure wearing the Egyptian head-dress. but it was given to in the future. when the con- vent of the Cluny Sisters was being built. In 1884. granite. other same object should be found. beyond doubt. the donation Two should be cancelled. hammered and broken and utilised as building materials. entirely bore marks of the chisel on one side. after the closing of the temple Apparently the sanctuary supplied marbles and stone to the whole neighbourhood for cenAt the foot of the platform on which it stood turies. amount- ing in all to twenty or twenty-five cubic feet. on the Via Merulana. and a female . those of a leopard's skin. 1888. itself. spoils trait-statue. with a crescent on her forehead are also three replicas of the same type. if. probably a porThese marbles are. another wall was found in December. what should be brought to light but the missing portions of that very work of art ! It was a beautiful and nearly per- . at a distance of six hundred feet from the Field palace. there goddess veiled. to be exhibited in the Museo Urbano in the Orto was shown a beautiful piece of purplish with oval spots resembling in shape and colour I Botanico. from the great temple close by. which had just been discov- ered under the Hickson Field palace. built with blocks of amethyst breccia (breccia ametistina).USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS crowned with poppies and ears 43 and the same of grain. As the block was not me with the pieces of the stipulation that shapeless.

A statuary. After such instances of the destruction and Isis. discovered in 1884 among the ruins of the temple of Isis in the Campus Martius. 11. ten Rome? . the torso of which was found in the Baths of Caracalla. of dispersion FIG. the head at the bottom of a well in the miles from Trastevere. the Farnese Hercules. can statue. and the legs at Bovillae. at the fate of in process of reconstruction. we wonder broken into fragments.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 44 feet replica of the sacred cow. the symbol of seemingly copied from the original. Hatlior.

. 347. which balls. Each of the two players rolls three a purely Italian is and those that stop nearest the mark gain a point. fell. and must have been used as weights for large 1 Ruins and Excavations. the Caelian. head and arms being not far away.USE OF EARLIER MATERIALS In the accompanying illustration (Fig. the body where it the head off to one side. 2 This is smaller one. These facts show that before the burial of Ancient Rome. generally lack head and arms . but those that have been used as building material in foundation walls can often be reconstructed in their entirety. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus on had been broken into 151 in the house of statue of 45 pieces. p. 1 My Rome experience in the excavations at has sug- gested the following observation in regard to the condition of marble statues in loose earth. The temptation when wooden balls were not available must to use loose heads of statues have been strong. 2 of crown. remaining rolling Most of the loose heads are rounded and smooth as if had used them to play the popular game Some of them have a hook or ring on the street-idlers bocce. game played with six larger balls and one used as a mark. of the statues of head and arms may in some cases have resulted from the overthrowing of the statue. in process of reconstruction a 11) we see Victory that It was discovered L. among when discovered : Those found the ruins of the edifices to which they belonged. many ing off their The loss had been injured by knockmost prominent and easily broken parts.

or six hundred heads discovered in except a dozen or two. The time were my The five all.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 46 scales. shows that the breaking up of statuary became early period of the of art Roman common decadence. without noses. fact that heads and arms of statues used as build- ing materials are rarely missing. at a comparatively when gardens the works had as yet . ornamenting palaces and suffered but little injury.

centuries. who Palatine visited Forum may The architectural be measured by the in it 357. yet at the beginning of the fifth century the great buildings still remained substantially and intact. accomplished in 330. A government.CHAPTER IV THE ASPECT OF THE CITY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FIFTH CENTURY ALTHOUGH Rome had recover. from which " monuments. . and behold but once in the course Then he turned 47 his attention to . and looked around in amazement at the great structures. the few additions were made produced upon the mind of Constantius it the the a : Forum Trajanum.. and which mankind can create of . and could not removal the of the imperial court to Byzantium.. he was struck entered the creation of with wonder. . to the list of existing impressiveness of effect that II. the most human genius. which no pen can describe. to twenty-seven years be of the seat after imperial graphic account of the visit is given Marcellinus in the tenth chapter of Book I quote but one passage referring to of Trajan Having now marvellous City had ceased by Ammianus XVI. from not recovered.

the City then 1 There are two editions of name of Notitia this catalogue. the Venus and of Rome. erected by III. even in its decline. injury. The other edifices mentioned as having especially astonished him are the temple of Jupiter on ness of the the Capitoline. 334 .' Constantius was indeed overwhelmed by the greatRome. must have been . Begionum Urbis Bomae. the temple theatre of There visit is the : Thothmes Flavian Amphitheatre. from the Senate-house but it must have been saved from . and set up in the Circus Maximus. for us to form a conception of Rome. provide your horse with a stable like ' this. replied. before the great temple at Thebes.D.. and to said attendants he would have one like his Constantinople to : it in which Hormisdas.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 48 the equestrian statue in the centre of the Forum. called Curiosum urbis The first. known by dates from A. presented by Augustus. the According to the regionary catalogue compiled in the time of Con" contained 2 1 circuses. Baths. It now stands in the piazza of the Lateran. ond. the the sec- Bomae regionum XIV. Constantius is said to have taken away the superb statue of Victory. the Odeum. for place It Julian the Apostate (361-363) was able to it again on is difficult magnificence of its pedestal. and the Stadium. the Pompey. 2 amphistantine. removed by Constantius to Rome. a young Persian 'You must first prince attached to the court. the Pantheon. also a monumental record of this imperial highest obelisk the of world.

A cen- tury had elapsed since the Romans had beheld such a issued in or after 357. as those of the Dioscuri on the the square of the Capitoline and of the Horse-tamers on the Quirinal . the buildings are able and works to of art so concisely summarised. 2 commemorative columns. as that of Marcus Aurelius. impressive though they statistics and . but also groups of which horses formed a part. The open places were adorned with 2 colossi (probably those Nero and horses '- of presumably counting Augustus). may be. E p. 22 not the merely equestrian statues. of the wealthy besides which there were reckoned 46. in imagination. 11 thermae. are after all of no real assistance in trying to form an idea of the aspect of the City unless we reconstruct. or palaces. at statues on every side. of marble. the last ever seen in Ancient Rome.BEGINNING OF THE FIFTH CENTURY 40 3 theatres. it mentions the obelisk raised in that year For a bibliography on these two invaluable documents see Ruins and Excavations. 6 obelisks (im- that is. because in the Circus Maximus. 36 arches theatres. ported from Egypt). 1790 domus extensive private residences. no mention being made of the countless lesser In the number of obelisks. ." any rate. the catalogue falls far short of the truth such as these. to which are added 80 gilded and 77 ivory statues of the gods. 10 basilicas. vii. 423 temples.602 tenements (insulae). 'great large now in Capitol. The year 403 is memorable for the celebration of a triumph.

52 C. "II monumento della guerra GiWonica sul Foro Roin Mttheil. Another historic monument relating to the Gothic wars stands on the edge of the Forum opposite the Senate-house. discovered in the Forum near the arch 1549 and 1565 learn that it several existing . 1187." . of Claudian and Marcian aqueducts. mano. 1 commemorating the repairing inscription.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 50 Diocletian's triumph in 303 sight . with the money confiscated from the rebels. erected in distinctly attributes directly A third In place was found the pedestal of a statue honour of Stilicho. the 1 victory being attributed to Stilicho. the army The inscription praises the gallantry of of Arcadius. VI. post con- See Huelsen. the is preserved in the palace Prince of Massimi at Arsoli. I. from which it we was erected by the Senate and the Roman people as a testimonial of their rejoicing at the crush- ing of the rebellion and the recovery of Africa. 1730. nay. The pretext for this pageant was the subjugaNumidian rebel. the inscription of which the same the in to him the reconquest of face the historical of Africa. Count Gildo. of Septimius One monuments. p. L. in that -space time they had only thrice seen the face of an em- of peror. This event tion of the is commemorated by is a pedestal of an equestrian group. 1895. and Theodosius in de- feating Rhadagaisus at the battle of Florence in 405. . between Severus bears an inscription. in the plain of Arsoli. Honorius. evidence.

12). . l . consiliis ct fortitudine . . . 1880. p. The monument FIG. . . 53. This memorial. 12. 1 Notizie degli Scavi. .um Grothicum bellum Flavii Stilichon is THE FIFTH CKNTUKY <>F .1 of Stilicho in the Forum.BEGINNING fecf. shown in our illustration (Fig. set up "by decree of the Senate and the Roman people.

" Four years later. The arch and Theodosius. taste. such honorary monuments were raised on Sacra leading the Jupiter era. the very barbarians they boasted to of the whom have annihilated. near S. knocked the off. the cracks in clamps it set up awkwardly on one being brought together with iron then the old inscription was carefully obliterit. The arch S. stormed and sacked the city. erected of Gratianus. Optimus Maximus. one of travertine. In the same year.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 52 under the care It Romulus. Valentinianus. The of base. made It is century. Via. ated. great in the temple of Christian they were built over the roads converging towards and especially at the foot of the bridges which the pilgrims had to cross on their way to the St. evidence indisputable and resources which forms the of the decline of at the beginning of the fifth two blocks. to so the now. just mentioned stood church by the Orso. a perors triumphal arch was raised to the three Em" because with spoils of other edifices they had swept from the face of the earth the nation Goths. is City. prefect of the the meanest and poorest in the whole Forum. in the year 382. and the new one cut over 405. pedestal end. Apostle's tomb. . stood in the . of Just as in classical times." Pisidius of presents pride. Peter's. and one of marble above. Giovanni de' Fiorentini. marble block had previously been used as a pedestal for an equestrian statue of bronze the statue was .

1188-1190. the municipal regulations requiring the re- moval of the City refuse to a safe distance apparently into abeyance and all sorts of material seem to have been heaped up against the walls. and towers of the Eternal City. 402.) at the approach to the Pons Vaticanus. and Theodosius (405 A. Rome on it In the . three of which. have come down to and 1 us. The Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. gates. that of Arcadius.BEGINNING OF THE FIFTH CENTURY 53 Piazza di Ponte S. Porta Portuensis. Angelo. Praenestina. and . inscriptions. which certainly diminished ful defence off 402. that of Valentinian and Valens (366-367) by the Ponte Sisto. an fearing advance of the Goths under Alaric. and celebrated by several cut on the Porta finished in January. first the outly- After the removal of the imperial court to Byzantium. chances his so he contented of of a success- himself with levelling the adjoining imperial L. undertook the general restoration of the City walls under the direction The work was of Stilicho. Honorius. at least of ing districts." This allusion to the dispoof great importance for our subject. fell . over level I. the 1 C." but also of "the removal not only of of large masses of rubbish. They speak "the restoration of the walls. land. it spreading therefore.D. Porta Tiburtina. VI. sition of rubbish is because it gives us the date and the cause of the great rise in the level of the City. Stilicho had neither time nor means to cart away the bank of debris.

applies 1 and Porta Septimiana. The best evidence of this fact Porta Ostiensis. Porta Flaminia. without of soil See the illustration in Ruins and Excavations. formed the Tiburtine gate of 272. 402. In only one part have I found traces of a lowering of the 1 walls. the walls below the p. which The Pyramid ten or twelve feet The same observation lower than the gate of 402. The Porta Appia have been rebuilt with materials taken from Portuensis. . 76. 402 13). Paolo.D.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 54 of the walls line was raised at once by ten or twelve feet. is Again. Tiburtina. FIG. close to the pyra- of The of the gate of 272. found at the to be The threshold of the gate about twelve feet higher than the base of the is pyramid and the threshold the is di S. mid of now Porta of Cestius (Fig. Augustus on the Via raising of level at the Porta Ostiensis. A. arch 13. Porta to the Porta Praenestina. of Cestius is shown at the left. seems to the beautiful temple of Mars outside the any change of level.

dismantled the Porta Tiburtina. 1869 Pius IX. destroyed the Porta Pius IV.. damaged was rebuilt Salaria. Sixtus times. in order to make use of the stones of which it was built in the " foundations of the " Colonna del Concilio at the church of S. .BEGINNING OF THE FIFTH CENTURY level of the classical period. the Portuensis and the Aurelia Gregory XVI. 55 This single exception is at the northeast corner of the Praetorian camp. in the bombardment in its present form of The Porta September in 1872.. ruthlessly treated dismantled the Porta Alexander VI. 1642 . Pietro in Montorio. The in gates of Honorius have been modern Flamiiiia in Septimiana 1478 . the Praenestina in in In 1838.. . 1870. Urban VIII. in 1-198 IV. the Nomentana in 1564 . 20.

a host of barbarians surrounding the walls. the Romans 50 . two hundred thousand strong. described The Roman before leader Rome saw. and would undoubtedly take advantage of a favourable opportunity to attack Rome itself. had hardly been put out for the first . the barbarian host. This time Alaric was induced to lead his army away by the payment of an exorbitant one of the items of which was of gold. AND ITS THE repairing of the city walls by Arcadius and The sucHonorius was accomplished none too soon. Such an opportunity came with who was banished his name monument erected in his the disgrace and death of Stilicho. in 405.. in the previous chapter. had overrun the plains of northern Italy.C. of the time since the way Gallic invasion of 390 B. cess of Stilicho in checking the advance of the Goths at the battle of Florence. five ransom. was only temporary.CHAPTER V THE SACK OF THE GOTHS IN CONSEQUENCES 410. in 407 and murdered at Ravenna in 408 was even erased from the honour in the Forum. thousand pounds In order to meet this demand.

. and set fire the to houses near imperial mansion the of doned citizens to the gate. ble statues. Peter and St. among the ruins of the palace of Annia Cornificia Faustina. but the City was aban- two sacred except as regards the plunder. suffered more than all the remains of the of Trajan . the end of the third day the barbarians withdrew. At enclosures of St. In these days of terror the Aventine with its 130 palaces. 45. were spared.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS were compelled to heavy gilding. younger sister Ummidius Quadratus where the palace of the Anselmo. the most aristocratic quarter of the city. among which was the The lives in the gardens of Sallust. Marcus Aurelius and wife of in the 1 garden of S. carrying off an amount incredible we if of articles of value. I have wit- in the Vigna Torlonia. V. in the the made nessed excavations other regions. are to believe Procopius among which were the spoils of the temple at Jerusalem which Titus had placed in the but the testimony of Procopius on temple of Peace this point may well be doubted. Two strip IN 410 57 the bronze statues 410. Zosimus. Alaric and of their 1 years in later. of . his hordes entered the City. in the dead of night by the Porta Salaria. among Thermae Decianae and of the house Vigna Maciocchi. on the twenty-fourth day of August. Paul. . speaks of the actual melting of gold and silver and also of the gold and silver ornaments of bronze or mar- statues.

and The from the same cause. under Marcus Aurelius.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 58 Pactumeii was discovered in 1892 . belonging. Jerome. Although the imperial casino lust is in the gardens of Sal- the only structure distinctly mentioned rians as having been consumed by fire. with rare exceptions. once occupied Minister of Finance by the houses of Cosmus. Sabina. marbles stolen from pagan buildings. mostly from sepulchral monuments. and utilised for hurried restorations . These indications fix the period and point to the same historical event. 410. The shown treasures for it dearly by the noble and the accumulated in its palaces roused the cupidity of the invaders. among the ruins. to the fourth century statues that had been restored over and over again . that these beautiful palaces must have perished towards watching these I the beginning of the fifth century of our era. and Christian symbols on lamps and domestic utensils. and in the garden of S. the capture and pillage of Rome by The Aventine paid the Goths in August. and led them to excesses of plunder and destruction such as were spared to more humble districts of the City. and of Marcella and Principia. for the partiality wealthy. signs of destruction all are of flames which blackeverywhere ened the red ground of the frescoes. the friends of St. and caused the roofs to fall on the mosaic or marble pavements of the the ground same: floor traces scattered coins . we by histo- are constantly . In was struck by the fact excavations. .

. and wrecked it by fire. and being pressed by the Consul Cerealis to marry again. as we have seen. they found magnum et However. husband of Melania the younger. that when Pinianus and Melania. Jerome. its The barbarians had plundered valuables. seven or eight years later the same domus pro nihilo palace was sold for little or nothing venumdata est. to Valerius Severus. the palace of all 1 Additional evidence regarding the fate of the palaces on the Aventine is furnished by St. as in the following instance On the Caelian Hill. prefect of Rome in the year 386. Stefano Rotondo and : the Lateran. namely. Ruins and Excavations. 345. and to his The son Pinianus. however. been discovered in a manuscript of the library of Chartres. determined to sever 1 Compare. there was a palace belonging to the descendants of the Valerii Poplicolae. One of these palaces. belonged to Marcella. p. in Epistles 54 and 127. The reason for such a change has lately fuit. crushed with on account of the in for sale ad it tarn loss of all their children. the founder of monastic life in Rome. This noble matron was left a widow after seven months of marriage.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS 59 IN 410 discovering evidences of a far more widespread loss from and even among the written records of those eventful days some new particulars come to light. between S. palace was so beautiful aud contained so much wealth. grief it put up none willing to purchase mirabile opus accedere nemo ausus 404. from this cause . time to time.

torture she died before the end of that eventful August. and divided her time between and pilgrimages to the tombs of apostles and martyrs. St. Following the rule of St. that in one of she is addressed as "the pride of Roman However. Athanasius. Bishop of Alexandria. at the feet of the Gothic chieftain conducted to the church of St. she threw herself and begged to be Paul outside the walls.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 60 connection with the world for the rest of her all life. was under- it . the barbarians broke into her peaceful retreat and tor- tured her in an attempt to discover the secret hidingplace of her treasures. . gave use of up the wine and meat. who had built in the neighbourhood of their palace. when Rome became his letters matrons. which. she dressed herself in simple garb. and beauty of her character. Thermae Decianae from the family of the Caecinae Decii." the prey of the Goths. had been set apart by Alaric as a refuge for women and children. like St. treasures that she had long before given Fearing more for the up to the needy. called the the public thermae. prayers. Jerome became Marcella's spiritual adviser such was the serenity the study of the Scriptures. The barbarians attacked with equal fury buildings One of of the Aventine. whom she had adopted as a spirit- ual daughter. Peter's. safety of Principia. especially these establishments. than for her own life. The destruction her Aventine of and home and the shock of the pillage brought Marcella's life to a close .

on this to have been seriously injured. and the symon the other. while planting a vineyard near the church of S. are described in an inscription discovered on the spot in 1725. Such being the fate of the Aventine. seems if not destroyed. VI. by Matteo da Castello. L. and now preserved in the Capi- The temple Museum. came across two or three receptacles of lead. marbles were made use of by Peter. occasion.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS 61 IN 410 mined by the Goths so that the main wall of the tepidarium leaned forward. image of the bol of the Pope as of his Empress Helena on one side. Sabina in 425. and rebuilt in imperial times with great magnificence. first erected by Camillus after the capture of Veii. Pius IV. with the Prisca. The gold was valued 1 C. as well as the by Caecina Decius Albinus in the year 414. 1 toline Juno of Regina. and received the whole treasure cross a present. He duly notified the discovery. I. at about three . the Pope's architect. it need not surprise us the Genius of the if say) has searchers Such a now and then vouchsafed after antiquities a truly was that made in the find would place (as the ancients to us modern remarkable pontificate of find. 1703. an who built the church of S. containing eighteen hundred pieces of gold. with its luxurious homes and countless treasures. made repairs haste in The damages. dragging into its own ruin all the neighbouring halls. who. Its Illyrian priest.

" . concealment was covered and screened from view by a piece the worked Villa of a Pamfili. equally quarrying stone at the foot of the hill near S.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 62 thousand Matteo Flaminio Galgano. many curious things were discovered. built the Bastione del Priorato di Malta. acting under the orders of Carrings. formed by two walls. he thought it better to abscond with the box than to wait for his money. he discovered in the heart of the rock a square room. in and the walls covered with panels of gilt the cornice of which rare medals were set as a motive of decoration. probably asso- same barbarian invasion: "When Urban VIII. place of The in repousse. 128). da was Castello. another workman from Aquila discovered a leaden box. the police. in his the following many damaged by fire. Among them was a hidingplace. in front of the church of S. and. all find. inside of which was concealed a silver table service. Prisca. While fortunate. sought far and wide for the but they could never lay hands on him. A few days after. since removed to Another treasure of gold coins. Maria Aventiria. and other precious objects was found inside an earthen jar. although his pay for several weeks of finder. dinal Antonio Barberini. a contemporary of dollars. marble cornice. Memoirs (n. copper. paterae and instruments The room Pietro Sante Bartoli. with the pavement inlaid with pieces of agate and cornelian. gives account of another ciated with the contained of sacrifice. labour was still to his credit.

xxv.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS Perhaps the most remarkable IN 410 63 of silverware set ever buried in Rome for fear of barbarian plundering is the one discovered between June. five goblets in the shape of ewers. 1827. Rome. The service a lady of collection. and rank. thanks to the generosity of the late Sir Augustus Franks. weighed names comprised a pyxis inscribed with the Clivus Su- to the toilet- of Turcius Asterius Secundus and of his wife Projecta. una antica supeUettile . Visconti affirms that he saw a piece of a linen towel inside the shell-shaped basin. plates. a wash- basin in spoons. von Schellersheim. five plates and four soup-plates. under the convent of the Paolotte. of which belonged 1029 ounces. 1793. The finest objects are now exhib- Museum. and chair and sundry other articles. the ancient buranus. allowed the by Ennio Quirino Visconti. together with remains of a sedan forks. and March of the following year. Lucia in Selce." in goldniello. on the Via di S. the catalogue of which is given 1 Pius VI." The concealment must have 1 Lettera di Ennio Quirino Visconti intorno ad 2d ed. with the name "Projecta Turci. and lamps. A few pieces were bought by Carlo Gherardi. and resold to Baron von Kevenhuller all the rest were purchased by Baron . The silver set was ited in the British evidently hidden in great haste. (Vargento. "of the hurry with which the treasure was buried. etc. the shape of a shell. "a proof. two candlesticks in the shape of brackets." he says. treasure to be disposed of by sale.

that 537. or some other year. bronzes were hidden through fear of an imminent calamity.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 64 taken place 362 after when Turcius Asterius A. because some of the pieces bear the name of a Peregrina. in many not able to determine whether the concealment took place in 410 rather than in 455 or What we do know is. from the archaeological point of view. We who seems The question of 410. after the first sack- .. therefore. and the presumption is in favour of the earlier date because the number of bronze statues in existence must have been vastly diminished ing of the City. from easily two or the in lives the raised than persons who sack of 410 was burnt Asterii bar- to . is even greater of nificance than the burying of treasure of bronze careful hiding order making statues save them from injury to their possible a perfect state instances. the ground. we of are in or : I sig- refer to the times of panic in destruction. to are not far. were not after the Perhaps the date of naturally suggests itself this collection of valuables. and in fact after his death. Of course. thus rediscovery in modern times in preservation. knew the secret lost possibly the palace the sack is the retreat of more one their of the Why : and many others concealed the same cause. Secundus was prefect of the City. the same time and for dug out and recovered The inquiry barians? answered. and all access to the hiding-place cut off.D. at have been his daughter. The barbarian invasions had one result which.

of 1897. p. Two inscriptions. p. and in . Ruins and Excavations. Augustine 2 is the images in the City of Rome. in Ipapi del Medio Evo. who. may have been the cause that led to the concealment of images. of The rough painting the Via Salaria Vetus which represents the unique in its way. consulatu Honorii. are contradicted by Claudianus. particularly of the gods lence against pagan sanctuaries but deeds of vio- . 42. Grisar's 6 I. di arch. as in the case of the destruction of the magnifi- cent Serapeum at Alexandria in 391 rare in combs Rome. Luc." published 4 Compte-rendus de I'Acad. Bull. " De quelques statues cache"es par les anciens.. 13. reperta in abditis or translata ex abditis locis. Sermo cv de rerbis evang. 456. and speaks of "the overthrowing of 1 overthrowing of a statue though were extremely in one of the cata- St. ital. . Rossi. 4 Statues were sometimes concealed by the magistrates themselves. writ- ing in the year 403." his words. not uncommon in the East. I have described elsewhere 5 1 De 2 Augustine. Vol. on account of the acts of violence occasionally committed It has by the populace against the temples and their contents. X. describe the reerection of works of statuary. 3. obviously all 3 metaphorical. De vi. pp. Fuller information on this subject will be found in Edmund Le Blant's paper. dcs Inscriptions. 541 p. lining the streets and the forums. 1865. 8 locis. mentions vast multitudes of bronze and marble statues. edit. 1890. the other at Capua.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS IN 410 65 been suggested that fear of the Christians. one of which was dis- covered at Benevento. crist. 38. 4.

filled As a rule. in bronze from any possible injury. mentary to be of value or even thrown into the Tiber. as with finely sifted earth. a sitting posture. the bronzes order discovered in to save Rome the since the Renaissance I speak of this later period because our knowledge of earlier finds is too imperfect and fraghad been carefully hidden. had been upon a stool. three of them deserve have been found special mention. which was in Via care. in times of panic. the second in This 1864. 1885. The March. or it because impossible to again. of the . in the Drammatico Teatro The bronze in on the haste in that heap but had been treated with the utmost figure. . and the trench. and of the Hercules Magnus Gustos concealed by those of the Circus Flaminius in first came to light the time of Sixtus IV. either on account secret of the place of hiding of the death of those who knew the made the great masses of debris had reach it Many in spot. coffin last made had been carefully buried in a kind of slabs of portasanta. (1471-1484). likewise. had been on a stone poised capital. discovered foundations the of in Nazionale. which had been dug under the platform of the temple of the Sun to conceal the statue. gladiator. The was lost. of these places of concealment our days .DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 66 the discovery of Hercules Invictus which the bronze had been hidden by the charioteers of the Circus Maximus. had not been buried of rubbish.

under the English church. Via del Babuino. Augustus. 2. in 1880 Portrait head of the first century name unknown. Brouze heads fouud 14. 4. .FIG. 3. Nero. 1.


pi. 30. now Vicolo dell' Atleta. copy of the bronze Apoxyomenos of now of the bronze horse. marbles and . a few storming of Rome by the French army under General Oudinot. several busts of Nero un- century. a masterpiece.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS The first is IN 410 69 the treasure-trove unearthed in 1849. It con17. The second discovery was made September at the Gesu was feet e corner of the Via del 15. and known personages of the first The third discovery took There which was thought have some connexion size. which may possibly have belonged to the rider of the horse of a bronze bull. 1881. described by Emil Braun as " work. place about the same time at the corner of the Via Nazionale and Via di Eufemia. 1880. weeks before the sisted of a marble Lysippus . 1 in process of threshold more than of life the represent Augustus. The i treasure consisted Bull. of a bronze foot with a particularly ornamental caliga. beneath the house at No. Vicolo delle Palme. less importance. to with the eyes lay nineteen main door... and to with the mausoleum of that Emperor perforated. in the Palazzo dei "an unique Conservatori. city house. of i. Com. p. while the Marchesa Capranica del Grillo (Madame Ristori) was laying the foundations of her S. and Via del Babuino Maria where the English Church of All Saints below the was a head of The bronzes erection. and a genuine Grecian antique .and many other fragments of . a head of .

gists The reason for this abandonment is The easily seen.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 70 The bronzes. Peter Procopius declares. very 410 400 and on rare between account of the insecurity of the suburbs. Paul. the " glorious era in the history of underground Rome " . bigoted Christians as they were and and full of respect for the basilicas of St. It is Silverius " churches and tombs of martyrs were (536-537) that destroyed by the Goths". the Christian was the archaeolo- have stated that burials . and the head of a youth. art.in the Catacombs. These bronzes all soon disappeared. Another consequence abandonment of of the Gothic invasion Catacombs. the most superb piece of bronze work I have ever seen. a diminutive millstone a of in the left hand . breaking up their commemorative inscriptions. the Catacombs were irreparably during the siege of the distinctly stated devastated in Goths under Vitiges. After suffering more damage in the invasion of 457. but it is not easy for us to understand why the Goths. by the biographer of Pope 537. end of a great and storming of Alaric marks. it put an end altogether to the work of the fossores. holding latter Greco-Roman of Greek. as martyrs. mouth the fountain in the shape of a lion's head. and I have never been able to find out what became of them. should have ransacked the Catacombs and have violated the tombs of St. were given up altogether after 410. rank among the best specimens if indeed they are not purely There was a sitting statue of Cybele. . thus.

Catacombs of Thrason. .followed by private indi- viduals. the date of the retreat Vitiges. naturally. . barians pauperis ex censu. could hardly resist the temptation to explore those subterranean wonders . the date of commemorating Vigilius of the journey this Pope's restorations catacombs. over the The linus. The tomb Via of Crysanthus and Daria. to Constantinople. Payan and Christian Home. barbarians. a memorial tablet made the in has been found haste repairs by Pope between March. they were obliged to do so by the most elementary rules of precaution. 537. 324. Whatever may have been the reason of their behav- iour. His example was. or the relics of saints. In each of the two cata- combs mentioned.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS IN 410 71 Perhaps they could not read Latin or Greek epitaphs. indeed. and the other on the Via Labicana. 1 of Vigilius especially Traces of have been found also in other those in of Callixtus and Hip- polytus. and so were unable to make a distinction between perhaps they were pagan and Christian cemeteries hunting for hidden treasures. over those of Peter and MarcelSalaria. in the was repaired Salaria. it is certainly a significant fact that at least two encampments of the Goths in 537 were just over the Catacombs and around their entrances one on the Via . p. and the following November. Notwithstanding the feeling of insecurity caused by 1 Cf. after the retreat of the bar- with the modest means of one of the humbler followers of the Master.

Peter's Church.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 72 sack of 410. where the chapel of Saints Simon and Judas now stands the other met with a similar fate room for the south transept of sixteenth century. whence its occurs in the of also of "Our Lady chapel of of the Fever. 423. gives us the measure of the decline of Roman art and civilisa- when we compare with the imposing mausoleums of Augustus and Hadrian. tion. Each rotunda contained six or seven recesses. The quarter of the make new basilica. but was transported to the in burial imperial mausoleum Rome and given been had which on the south side of St. raised posed of two round halls. Helena (the Torre Pignattara) on the Via Labicana. during the pontificate occupied by the mosileos. was not interred that city. the who in died at Ravenna. (752 the supposed daughter of St.D. of who the life of Stephen mosileos II. the body of the Emperor Honorius. other rotunda was known as the Andrew.. in wretched imitation of the great structures of Augustus This tomb of the decadence was comand Hadrian. Petronilla it ." building was destroyed in the first St. with structure (mausoleum) A. The so similar to that of the its place was architecture of the tomb of St. to the . it . derived its mediaeval name of S. in which Mention the imperial sarcophagi were placed. and first denomination genuine of the placed in the western chambers the remains Petronilla. and sacristy. new of Pius VI. joined by a covered passage.). Peter. August 15.

and sister of Thermantia and Eucherius. in rius and his . deeds other of The occurred. which is now every in other identity. the first second took place unique set unscrupulous 1519 . the fifth century was sent to the mint. ception of a bulla the all which desecration dates from 1458 in crown jewels of age in inscribed with the With names the ex- of Hono- empress Maria. Peter's was accomplished at It excels.THE SACK OF THE GOTHS IN 73 410 The robbery of the imperial graves which filled rotundas by St. daughter of Stilicho and Serena. or sold or given away. the hands of specimen has Prince Trivulzio of disappeared or Milan. the two refinement of barbarous and useless destruction. the of last. lost its . in various times and by various persons. it the The 1544.

who had himself caused the death of Valentinian and usurped the were mixed Bedouins III. with whom throne.. 455. by Genseric and the Vandals. but is it was probably the beginning of June. three days after the murder of Petronius Maximus. was offerings also off of since the time of the Tar- put to ransom were carried of to . and plundered it at leisure for the space of fourteen The booty was days. not known. The palace ships which Valentinian III. Optimus Maximus. entered the City by the Porta Portuensis. It 74 is also reported that the . and half the roof was stripped of its tiles of gilt bronze. and Moors. unlike his predecessors.. carted methodically to the off moored alongside the quays. now morata and Ripa grande. had con- stantly occupied and had kept in repair. who from the lofty summit the Capitoline hill had presided over the destinies ter the Roman Commonwealth quins.THE SACK OF ROME BY THE VANDALS THE IX 455 exact date of the second capture of Rome. its statues and votive adorn the African resi- dence of Genseric. called of La Mar- the Caesars. was stripped The temple of Jupieven of its commonest furniture. The Vandals.

widow III. issued at Ravenna in 458. as reI gards the fate of buildings and works of art. wanting. first.THE SACK OF THE VANDALS IN 455 75 Jewish war. for the In most reason that exact information is. or the Porticus Tellurensis the of neighbouring edifices. Pietro in Vin- which was built by Eudoxia the younger. confirms our belief that the former to be looked upon as stone quarries. of the usurper coli. cannot undertake here to speak with more detail of the consequences of the sack of the Vandals. and carried back in triumph. were discovered at Carthage. not to Rome. have a memorial of these eventful days in the We Basilica Eudoxiana. by Belisarius. and a victim. and then of Genseric. forbidding once more the dismantling of ancient structures tion of new had come for the erec- ones. fell into the hands of spoils. know whether or those of cer- later . eighty years later. paid by the members of the imperial families to the laws concerning The edict of the preservation of ancient buildings. as well plundered from the Roman the barba- as the massive gold plate churches. which shows how little respect was Maiorianus. This beautiful church is built with columns of Greek marble taken from one perhaps the Baths of a fact Titus or of Trajan. These rians. but to Constantinople.. now the church of S. represented in the basof the arch of Titus and deposited by him in of trophies reliefs the the temple of Peace. of Valentinian Maximus. cases tain we are results not in a position to followed this invasion.

famine. pillage. In that the last half of the fifth century was almost as disastrous a period for the history of the Roman monuments as it was for the wretched inhabitants.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 76 date. general we may assume and pestilence. fires. . massacre. Nor does it fall within my province to recount the history of the City for the half-century after the storming of Genseric. truly a harrowing narrative of siege.

and The pro- then proceeded to the palace of the Caesars. and have already seen he revived the office of the keeper of statues." an The arcliitectus theatre of Pompey was re- paired with the help of one of the great men of the the Coliseum. penetrated. The duty 77 prefect of the of putting the aque- . with the help age. ened administration day of his arrival in Rome Theoderic addressed kind words to the people from the rostra in front of the Senate-house (in loco qui Palma aurea dicitur). visions made by this Prince for the improvement of the City are recorded in the Variae of his secretary. whose enlight- (500-526) gave itself no little On the concern for the remains of Rome's greatness. under the direction of as " we publicorum. siodorius. Cas- He appointed a body of engineers and architects to superintend the restoration of public edifices. Avianius Symmachus .CHAPTER VII THE CITY IX THE SIXTH CENTURY AT the opening of the sixth century the prevailing is gloom contrast. and thrown into a ray of A by dawn with light. Basilius. new even stronger era seemed to the accession of Theoderic. of Decius Marius Venantius City in the year 508.

not at the other edifices. named Johannes tary engineer bour of Rome was portus urbis shows " were supervisor given Romae)." the branch aqueduct supplying the imperial The sums palace in the Via di S. as in the case of the prede- cessors of Theoderic. made. Stefano Rotondo. but with brick expressly prepared in the great old brickyard called Portus Licini. the theatres and expense the charge of the har- a harbour-master assisted under by the amusements Thus thoroughgoing of . They were all stamped we must acknowledge with the inscription REGNANTE D N THEODERICO FELIX ROMA I have never made or witnessed an excavation the site of any of the great buildings of Rome on without discovering one or more of Theoderic's bricks. destined for such works were derived from local taxation. Maximian of Ravenna two hundred pounds states in his annals that the of gold set aside for the restoration of the walls of the City and of the imperial residence .DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 78 ducts in order. in this case appropriately. The masonry which prevailed in his time can best be examined in the repairs made to the " arcus Caelistyle of montani. to (comes a deputy (vicariu9)\ other buildings placed of to a comes the care of public sewers to a sani- designed for public of superintendence a " (tribunus were repairs voluptatum). and keeping the baths and the foun- was entrusted tains well supplied with water formarum urbis.

arietis. Trajana.THE CITY IN THE SIXTH CENTURY were collected from the city tax on wine day remains one of the chief sources this the municipal treasury. which at revenue for of of Martino 79 St. and the intrenched camps raised by the Goths around the beleaguered refers Procopius to the cutting following words the of the (De Bello Goth. because there were enough springs within the walls to meet the emergency of the moment. The consequences of the cutting were not so serious as to cause a water famine. capaces fuerunt. . Claudia. dorso insidentis. and their channels are so horseman This statement is could r easil} ride erroneous in two aqueducts were in reality not fourteen Appia. Marcia. The churches on the Via Aurelia and of from the time of S. Pancras Monti date ai this benevolent ruler. to March. broke down Rome the aqueducts to cut off the supply of water. Tepula. not to speak of 1 Fabretti. City. 538. 145 : ne Pygmaei quidem. quales eos describit Plinius." respects : the that . enemy from making them a of entering the City. Anio Vetus." walled up the mouths of order to prevent the in means 1 the aqueducts. In describing the siege of Vitiges. which lasted from February. capraeve . Anio Novus. p. a . 537. . De aquis. Julia. by a pygmy Belisarius riding on a goat or a ram. Alexaudrina and their channels " could not be entered even but eleven. aqueducts I. has fourteen aqueducts and high broad through them. in "The 19): Goths having thus surrounded the City. Alsietina. Virgo.

but they hardly exceed half an inch in thickness. near Claudia. 1881. I made real at state The following section of the channel. 1 Frontinus. the purest and best of Roman waters. will indicate the than better any description (Fig. which may have been formed in the golden age of Roman administration. after the removal of is also the imperial Court to Constantinople. 13 : formed at the time of the bar- qnae bonitatis proximae est Marciae. It observe that. May of the case of the and Castel between Tivoli Monitola Colle Tivoli. feet (1. The channel (specus) measured originally one -half feet (2. at the Ponte degli Arci at the foot of Monte Arcese. to and the one-third as the aqueduct was well taken care of by the curatores aquarum and their staff of subordinate officers. the dimensions of and channel the diminish. 1 in purity which 5. There are.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 80 the Tiber. its capacity did not perceptibly on the sides and the bottom. or that ranked next to the Marcia. the water supply of much Any of necessary to Rome had lost world-famous purity and wholesomeness. however. thin layers of alabastrine purity and transparency. the water of which has always been consid- ered potable and wholesome. Monte Arcese. 15). its one can convince himself of the truth of this state- ment by examining the channel of the Marcia.01 metres) in As long six is. which near the Madama. and three and breadth. I. . that base of the vaulted ceiling.05 metres) in height. The deposits.

nel of the > Aqua Marcia. the free channel being thus reduced from six and a half to a little more than four feet (1. taining carbonate of lime of spongy texture. and a conglomerate of gravel. mud. Although the inhabitants of Rome were not immediately affected by a water famine. joints Ot the which the channel Arcese Section of the chan- 15. and to a width of less than a These deposits are of every colour and quality. are fourteen inches thick. confoot. showiu e de P bottom and at sits Monte on the sides. clay. as you enter by the first gate on the left of that church. stones.65 metres) in height. in other respects the cutting off of the water supply by the barbarians . was so saturated with deposits of lime that the whole height of the was covered with incrustations. of is built. The water dripping through the .THE CITY IN THE SIXTH CENTURY 81 harian invasions and in consequence of the abandonment of the aqueducts. and came to arcades have the appearance of a great rock honeycombed with cavities. Another curious instance of the neglect of the aqueducts after the middle of the fourth century is to be seen in the Vigna di S. FIG. . Croce in Gerusalemme.

basins King Theoderic had The same fate was called stagna or euripi. they join and cross each other in such a way that the one which was on the right now . because water supply. hills were abandoned toward the end of the fifth century. not to be inhabited again until the time of Sixtus V. on the other hand. The higher quarters suffered the most. connected is described by ProcoBetween the Latin and the Appian exist two aqueducts (the Claudian with the fate of the aqueducts. the fiftieth furlong from Rome (at the place now At called the Torre Fiscale). which just tried shared to put into by the artificial repair. In the City it led to the abandonment of the great imperial thermae. because the channels of the Virgo.. borne many miles on stone or brick The supply of arcades. was never their diverted for any great length of time. who in 1587 made life building of his One upon them Acquedotto possible again with the Felice.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 82 proved disastrous to the City as well as to the country around it. could be more easily stopped. ran underground and could be repaired without This is the reason why the more salubrious mostly difficulty. incident of the Gothic siege of 537. and of the Anio Vetus. the lower quarters. supported by massive arches. of the Appia. which fed the Campus Martius. and by the 1212 public fountains and 247 reservoirs which had adorned and supplied the City in earlier days. pius as Ways follows there " : still and the Marcian).

on " In Vecchia). on the skull of one of the skeletons. inflicted by a sword or some similar weapon. they original there- is surrounded by aqueducts. which bore traces of having perished by a violent death. and were only driven out by the plague.THE CITY diverges the to THE SIXTH CENTURY IN After left. . found by Fortunati the Via Latina. evident traces of an oblique cut. " by the side of the 1 De Bella Goth. II. the . Goths occupied themselves with despoiling and They remained there a long ravaging the Campagna. the Torlonia tomb itself we found. With . were those of this warlike horde." De l Rossi has collected important proofs of the accu- racy of this Describing portion of the the sepulchral narrative crypt. in order to prevent any kind of provisions from entering the City. so as to form a regular fortification. the lower arches of which were filled up by the barbarians with stones and fore entirely mud. in 1876. to the number of at least seven thousand. and which were lying very near the surface quite close to In the Torlonia tomb. tions. . (Roma : where the Goths intrenched themselves in the sixth century. and each follows its The space between the two crossings course. . 3. within which they remained encamped. he says this very quarter of the suburbs I located the campus Prince Torlonia's farm barbaricus. a short 83 distance meet and cross again. at the fifth mile-stone of of Procopius. ." " In 1853." De Rossi continues. time. this as a base of opera- . and I suspected that the bodies.

filled with skeletons of men. . made with simple marble slabs. and cophagus. between the fourth and the to was I mile-stone. and thought to have been soldiers killed in acif This discovery recalled to my mind an episode in the Gothic war (as described by Procopius) which made fearful havoc among the neighbouring tion. and breasts bound with broad bands. of ing. down was necessary to we have no reason to supso far as great arches and pilasters that would simply for the pleasure of destruction creaThese wonderful have been mere lost labour. The . at traces a moment of uncover- gold and purple of far off. mention is made Massa Camustis iuxta campum barbaricum ex corpore ' patrimonii AppiaeS It is done easy to picture to ourselves what damage was to this Campagna. villas. . rich of of made coffins of stones and random. we saw face. just beneath the sur- of series a sar- had been enveloped in first form the in Then not . . most conspicuous of them but just to observe that the barbarians especially to the Claudia. . of a ' . cloth. . corpses the which. once and to and fertile the smiling aqueducts that part of traversed the it. In the records of Gregory II. present at the discovery tombs.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 84 modern road fifth Albano. Yet it is damaged the aqueducts only stop the flow of the water pose that they threw . we saw threads. . . the all. which tiles collected at the loins looked as we these they had been saturated with blood.

monuments. new . Giovanni. were practically intact. over which the Claudia spanned the Via Latina near the farmhouse of Roma Vecchia and again. about the same time. after his hands on the noble burning their travertine blocks into lime. especially of the trustees of the hospital of S. Domenico Fontana. is responsible for other 1 and damages. in whose archives I have found documents concerning the sale at public auction of the stone arch. both seven miles long. Three or four hundred feet of the channel of the same aqueduct were destroyed farm of the Capannelle in way Company. and uting everywhere fertility as SIXTH CENTURY and distrib- health. laid first. in times 85 these triumphal arcades skill. when the construction of the Acquedotto Felice was decreed by Sixttis V. standing became the prey of local land-owners. of two to the brothers Guidotti. 20).THE CITY Roman tions of crossing the IN TIl hydraulic Campagna were so many in every direction other themselves. Whatever remains were left structures. the sale of four piers of peperino to . 1 Vitali. built the line to Segni. 1887 . p. the series of arcades of the Marcia and of the Claudia (Fig. Bartolomeo so on.. We have reason to believe that in 1585. Matteo da Castello. 149. by the owner of the the Mediterranean Rail- which. Lanciaili. were destroyed. resignation. and hammering those of tufa and peperino for splitting use in the new aqueduct. / Comentarii di Frontino. by the Romans much nearer to our own than is ordinarily supposed. and.

Notwithstanding the ravages of the Vandals and the desperate straits of the people of Rome on many occa- . of the Claudian aqueduct at the Porta Furba. by the Vicolo del Mandrione. The remains which. will give the student a melancholy appreciation of the to the Roman importance and of the fate of the FIG. after so among the aqueducts. many centuries of spoliation.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 86 A walk from the Porta Furba (on the road to Frascati) Porta Maggiore. 16). 16. most impressive remains of are ancient still Rome (Fig.

him that the especially. was . and how the in the of hippodrome gardens Greek garrison of the mole of Hadrian hurled upon its assailants many statues which even to that time had orna- mented this fortified mausoleum. probably. they have succeeded in keeping up many of their great buildings. the world. which Pliny classifies among the earliest works of the kind in Rome still gave the faced temple. and preserving relics connected with the origin I and foundation of their City. five preserved in the cella of his four- still and that the group of the Three Fates the one. the people in Romans monuments love the best." he concludes (IV. We learn from and the Forum City in general. a circus or Doonitia. speaks of a number of monuments as standing uninjured toward the middle I of the sixth century. retained an imposing array of bronze and marble statues. Procopius. whom have already quoted so often.THE CITY IN THE SIXTH CENTURY 87 sions since the first sack of the Goths. Among these last can mention a large canoe hollowed out of the trunk . name of Forum Tria Fata to the north corner of the by the Senate-house. fallen a prey to barbarian invaders so many City Although and " its historical times. the works and Lysippus of Phidias Myron was yet Forum of Peace cubits high. that the celebrated Cow of above the fountain in the that the bronze statue of Janus. their Of all " the 22). to be seen . The same historian describes how one camps had been established of the of the Gothic Gaianum.

" In the year 590. had caused the ruin of some temples and monuto ments and innumerable private dwellings. and murdered or driven away. its sur- by the inhabitants . Peter's (a memorial of the vision still remains in the bronze figure on really the of Rome. followed The beautiful mausoleum the of legend Hadrian in of seen angel the act above the of sheathing his sword.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 88 of a tree. at the end of the previous year. bank left which they preserve in the arsenal on the by Aeneas of the Tiber. marks change for the better in the fortunes By Rome by the walls the top of was the City itself protected and Honorius incessantly for the devastated Agilulf and Ariulf. as usual. An inundation of the Tiber. which was that of the election of Pope Gregory the Great (September 3). Angelo). Rome seems have reached the extremity of misfortune. and the by famine and pestilence. . as the one used in reaching the Latin shore. while Gregory at the head of the panic-stricken population was proceeding in pilgrimage to St. of flood was. the first rounding Lombards I mean of Aurelian district of Castel S.

CHAPTER VIII BURIAL PLACES WITHIX AND WITHOUT THE WALLS FROM a remote period. Those of the Praetorian of S. and in the graveyard Giacomo del Colosseo. and Nibby has suggested infringement of the early enactment. the of in the first quarter of the within the cells which line the north side quadrangle . . in that part of the Vigna Barberini-Spithoever which is now crossed by the Via Flavia and the Via Aureliana.D. the interments intra muros. are not time in of the Theoderic Praetorian camp. Tombs dating from (493-526 A. last century. camp were seen by Lupi. Yet many graves have been found within the walls. burial within the city limits was prohibited by Roman law. There were two or three layers of tombs. in 1869. The gan exploration of the graveyard by the Coliseum be- in the spring of 1895.) have been the found however. must be regarded as a that the first first consequence of the siege of Vitiges. at length in the Bullettino and its results are described Comunale of the same year. those of the gardens of Sallust were seen by De Rossi. Earlier instances lacking. the oldest. of the practice. in the gardens of Sallust.

the in them 2 In course of and there were churches came the in to a possess We local Rome cannot excavate anywhere graveyard. . The two one of green and one of reddish basalt. century from the Baths of Caracalla to the Cortile di Belvedere of the Vatican Museum. Nicola in Calcarario. without coming across one of them. I have seen. 2 Bartoli. removed toward the end of the last precious basins. 31. may he share the fate of Judas ! wonder the : grave thoroughfare. must of a have been crowded. which. " Whoever shall violate or injure " No this tomb. Mem. Vigna time each the Roman of many Baths of Con- the remains of other baths Grimani (Barberini). of 1 Vacca. thirty-third exhibited in the Museo Municipale on the Caelian The gives the names of a Fortunatus inscription Lucia and of their little Hill. 112. dating from level the time of Theoderic. and in several in instances have myself explored.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 90 same at the with the amphitheatre. A sepulchral vault containing hundred bodies was discovered stantine the 1 . now is arcade. and ends with the warning. S. had both been used for coffins. stood right even in the in those middle days. and daughter Gemmula. of S. the latest dating from the begin- One ning of the seventh century. of hundred several in another. Marcello. Pantheon). cemeteries Maria ad Martyres (the belonging to the church of S. Mem. discovered the opposite of the later tombs.

and within easy reach of the passer-by. cle largest of all. or the bodies laid to rest in The former. The family composed of a vaults. colonnades. etc. eight feet in thickness. and attached to the hospital of Maria delle Grazie. loro diroccamento. Fran- cesco Ficoroni. the built. Part II. standing richly carved marble sarcophagi. and of a crypt where the ashes were kept in urns. . where the funeral banquets and the anniver- sary gatherings took place. romani. the porticoes. and roofs. of in Ciriaco S. Sebastiano in Pallara. the When 1 inroad there was nothing else of value Romans attacked tombs were first the very walls of which left. The others. Camilliano. The Catacombs. above ground. perhaps even before the of Alaric. as we have seen. 1 as j it is La Bolla d'oro dei fanciulli I can only mention a few points. 91 Campitelli. were generally room or enclosed place on a level with the road. 410 . must have been stripped of their valuable contents at a very early period. of S. were abandoned in but what was the fate of the pagan tombs and mausoleums which lined the highroads in every direction I wish that I could beyond the limits of the City ? summarise here the information given on this subject by that indefatigable explorer of Roman tombs. Dicersita dei mausolei romani. Ficoroni remarks. of S. occupied one half of the Basilica Julia. the layer of human remains being from six to S. in his work. Maria Nuova.BURIAL PLACES Maria of S.

or hypogaea. and the tombs of Vibius Marianus (Fig. to be sure. finger-rings. because among the three or four hundred thousand tombs which encircled the City. the general rule. there were. have survived to the present day. exposed to view speak. either by the degenerate Romans or by the barbarians.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 92 for the sake of the marble. suffered less damage. as the mausoleums of Caecilia Metella and of Lucilius Paetus. sepulchral monuments emperors had the which they wanted burning the of for lime to enact for their marbles of became so common that capital punishment as a In 349. of but those . the Emperor Constans substituted a heavy fine for capital punishment. 17) and of Vergilius Eurysaces. This process lime-kilns. the . 1 See his constitution to Limenius in the Codex Theotlosianus. 1 These imperial provisions may have saved from destruction for a few years longer the mausoleums more standing back from the highroads. for the valuable objects or placed as a memento in such as cinerary urns. before Alaric's invasion. and brooches (fibulae) but the urns themselves. X. probably disappeared faster than ever. able exceptions. 17. The underground rooms. Search was made. screened by trees or by the undulations of I the ground. . conspicuous for their their wealth in marble and travertine. and for size A few some remark- of them. sixty-one years penalty against the offenders. de sepulchris violatis. the beauti- buried with the corpse. Tit. ear-rings. of course.

when those lining the Via Severiana. Vibius Marianus. experience in the exploration of tombs dates from 1868.BURIAL PLACES ful sarcophagi. 4$ miles north of Rome. They yielded a great quantity of glassware and exquisite Arezzo cups. 18). besides a few obNext in date and imporjects in gold and enamel. and terra eotta and even the bronze lamps and candela- were often bras." on the Via Clodia. My is rich in can testify from personal observation. why vessels peculiar left undisturbed. This is the excavation of our ancient cemeteries rinds. between Ostia and Castel Fusano. the glass to columbaria. were first opened by the elder Visconti (Fig. as I FIG. Tomb first the reason of P. tance came the exploration of the columbaria of the . 93 17. so-called "Tomb of Nero.

Columbarium on the Via Severiana. near objects in terra cotta. and many hundred FIG. In the space of a few an area of a few thousand square and within weeks. bone. 18.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 94 Statilian family. we recovered 566 inscriptions. feet. in that portion of the Esquiline ceme- tery which extends from the so-called Minerva Medica to the Porta Maggiore (1875). has offered an ingenious suggestion in regard to the engraved gems or cameos which are found loose in the earth in great numbers within a circuit silver. Ostia. which he of . Ficoroni three or four miles from the walls. opened in 1868. ivory. gold. and precious marbles. glass. bronze. After stating that out of ninety-two sepulchral chambers.

he been searched says : " I found in the un- a few neck- the charred bones. possible value could engraved stones rep- resent in the eyes of the Romans of the fifth century. Sebastiano. it . seems to me that they must have been taken out and thrown away as a useless encumbrance by those who were seeking for gold What alone. and open passages between them. found a great and intaglios in precious stones. and the sarcophagi or urns sealed with brass clamps and molten lead. resembling in colour and shape those with which the mausoleum was covered and every trace of an entrance was then made to disappear. however. only one had not before.BURIAL PLACES 95 had excavated in the Vigna Moroni by the Porta S. also the stantly found in the vineyards and orchards which ex- and as they still show traces of the hard glue. ear-rings. or of their invaders?" This general prising cases if to we rifling of burial crypts is the recall conceal the the taken precautions entrances to them. My workmen. by means of which they were tend over the old cemeteries fastened to their sockets. between 1705 and 1709. broken cameos many These stones are conor indented around the edge. This is rest of the . opened urns. among laces. the last door was walled up with stones or blocks of marble. in sifting the earth which filled up or covered these columbaria. and a piece of jewelry with sapphires. . and finger-rings. more in sur- many After the occupant had been laid to rest.

in nine cases out of boring a hole through the core of by ment toward ten. took place also in connexion with the pyramid of C. by means of which the plunderers had effected their descent." into this hole chamber was found could be seen to be undisturbed in the ceiling. called " Sepolcro degli from the well-preserved bas-reliefs in plaster. Cestius. representing nymphs and nereids driving sea-monsters. A similar discovery. The recent period. tomb in the time of Paul III. sepulchral chambers discovered in time had been plundered in this way. The . The door leading which ornament its vaulted ceiling. and carried away the spoils (Fig. Most of its the how- monu- the centre. under Alexander VII. The my best in- stance can be seen in the beautiful crypt at the second mile-stone of the Via Latina. of Caecilia Metella in until funereal decoraa comparatively secret passage leading to the was discovered by accident. grave-robbers. (1655-1667). rich have escaped molestation tion. The beautiful sarcophagus found in the inner chamber is still to be seen in the palace that of Pope. the entrance to which was so artfully disguised that it could be by the hollow sound of the stones with located only which ever.96 DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME the reason why some crypts. it had been blocked. feet in diameter. 19). hardly two but a . by a stone-cutter en- gaged in wrenching away the blocks of travertine from the square foundation. have avoided the The difficulty. (1534-1550). stucchi.

in the side of the coffin. showing the hole made by plunderers in the vaulted ceiling. of a hole The Sepolcro made degli Stucchi.BURIAL PLACES 97 marble sarcophagi had been carefully searched. found lying in pieces on the floor. some by lids. the removal of the some by means FIG. 19. .

. III. . of my Storia degli Scavi di Roma. who instituted the Giubileo in 1300. that the to highroads Rome were followed by the pilgrims on the way repaired every twenty-fifth year. and IV. The information which I have collected on this point will be published in Vols. to the end of the last century. at the expense of the tombs lining the road on either side.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 98 I may close this chapter by reminding the reader from the time of Boniface VIII.



and an unhealthful have paid special attention to the fication of its ruins. blocks of tufa. The lowest. I a Roman villa what the cause of a general rule. dates from the time of Villas and farmhouses Gregory the Great (590-604). its from the has been excavated in these strati- only means of finding out There destruction was. olive orchards and vineyards uprooted.CHAPTER IX THE DEVASTATION AND DESERTIOX OF THE CAMPAGXA THE of the final desolation Campagna. the supply of water cut off. plaster. ruins into plain life soil. such as brick. The uppermost are. were set fire to. as the of vegetable sources of by earth the trees. as consists produced by the disintegration of the themselves. and grass. deposited by atmos- The middle stratum is made up of building materials. Whenever last years. and fragments of marble veneering. thrift were drained. by the decomposition of bushes. to the sea and the all whole was turned Apennines and dangerous wilderness. three strata. and pheric agencies. cement. tufa prisms for reticulate work. lying directly 101 . the plague of malaria. with its con- comitant.

colonnades were its still its terraces. the portrait-busts likewise uninjured. must have walls whether the infer that. For the same reason. From we villas relation of parts this perished by the or fire. part to first which. for that by natural decay and abandonment. The not centuries. whether by natural decay or of man. the few villas which. remained would have remained not been for the lime-burners Renaissance. in fall reason. still fountains. later. the of the exquisite carved crossings garden avenues. and for the contractors for the maintenance of the highroads. in situ. The walls have generally fallen toward the same point the compass. and nymphaea. if because there is always a thin layer of vegetable soil between the remains of the roof and those of the walls. the remains of upon the pavements. that when by the in regard is . on account . as of thrown down by an earthquake if and a similar observation has been made One thing the columns of the peristyles. and so they to the present the early of day had it the of atria. was the lie roof. and its some cases were in The herms at the standing on their pedestals. to certain : fell. fallen decades. the marble statues which the roofs violence adorned the villa. all the centuries of barbarian plundering. exclusively of roof tiles and roofing materials.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 102 over the marble or mosaic composed almost is floor. who in this respect more works of art have caused incalculable damage have been destroyed in the last five centuries than in .

I have documents on this point be published later. describes the finding of a beautiful marble basin. more precisely. eight such good results that a section of the farm ally called Statuario. 1485. 295. with the Labours of Hercules in alto-relievo . It led to the discovery of the body of the so-called Tulliola. See Pagan and Christian Home. The in the following century. of the Ionic order. sarcophagi. p. Winckelmann. who was present at the excavations of 1762 made by Cardinal Alessandro Albani. Let me quote two instances. from the church and monastery of that name. still re- taining the rosy colour of the flesh and lifelike appearance. which owned them has been ages. The Quintiliorum. prove to be a perfect collected some remarkable mine of statuary." with actuoldest search dates from the pontificate of Innocent VIII. which will the ancient Castrimoenium. of the areostyle type. . " in past is The mine of statuary. the picturesque remains of Villa which are now called S. 1 and with columns of a wall covered with frescoes. Maria Nova. from April 16. of a portico. thirty-five palms in circumference. escaped the mediaeval and Renaissance plunderers..DESERTION OF THE CAMPAGXA of their secluded location and safe 103 distance from the highroads. one from the Villa Quintiliorum on the Appian Way. and sepulchral monuments came tomb to light on the of the Apusii was found same occasion. excavated at least times. the other from the Villa Voconiorum near Marino. 1 Several inscriptions.

pedestals. be- young Caesar. tried their luck in the section of the same villa called Roma Vecchia. columns of bigio Giovanni Volpato discovered several and breccia corallina. in 1780. thirteen feet high. . discovery of 1789. two sarcophagi. and led 15. nine heads and busts agi . a life- Euterpe. The importance. to May the following Eleven statuettes belonging to the ornamentation of one or more fountains eight life-size statues items : . a third and a fourth of two Romans. the grounds at the beginning of the present century. a . several and other objects of Ionia purchased . two statuettes of youths playing and fragments scenic of masks less . by About the same year an Englishman and a Scotchman. two sarcoph- columns. perhaps Decem- with the names engraved on the plinth viri. which was bought a Pacetti. to the May 11. and undertook other excavations about 1828-1829. of these marbles tion These excavations lasted from 1792. the magnificent results of which are de- . who at the same time ordered fresh excavations to be made on his own account. several . Carlo Tor- interest. the colossal head of Julia and the "Antiochia. the Ganymede.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 104 Here also. size statue of with birds. Thomas Jenkins and Gavin Hamilton. They found a bust of Lucius Verus. and best por- was purchased by Pius VI." now sides the statue of Domna. two double herms mosaic pavement inscriptions. . for the Vatican Museum. another of Diocletian. in the Vatican Museum.

made by Giovanni Battista Guidi. other interesting things a cas- tellum aquae. and its area put The most interesting particular gathered from these excavations is that when the statues fell. 726. 1. by The Villa Voconiorum was excavated at my sugges- that the mine tion is Luigi Boccanera in 1883-1884. and who drew their supply of water from this reservoir of the Villa Quintiliorum. each lying a few inches only from tion.DESERTION OF THE CAMPAGNA scribed by Nibly 1 and by Visconti 105 in the catalogue of Museo Torloma. a round temple at the Way. about 1855. 2 Gavin Hamilton excavated. remains have since been destroyed. Vol. or were thrown from their pedestals. with its organ-like range of water-pipes. III. He found among cess. Its by Signer beautiful against our laws. under cultivation. 122. 2 1 Analisi. Having myself surveyed the site of the villa on more than one occasion. See Riccy. inscribed with the names of the patricians who owned property in the neighbourhood. p. much by a local owner. its original loca- . I have persuaded myself no means exhausted. then. with as many statues as there were intercolumniations. we may Once for all. p. eighth mile-stone of the Appian in or about 1780. The last search. n. Pago Lemonio. was already covered with over three feet The statues therefore were still standing after the first barbarian invasions. absolve the barbarians from the blame of a useless destruction or mutilation of classic statuary. the floor of the villa of debris. was also attended with considerable sucthe .

Phocae dementissimo principi. . 602. 106 bury and con- erected in that Ruins and Excavations. the erection of the col- of the umn of Phocas. the murderer of the Emperor Mauritius. in the middle of the Forum. the transformation into a church. a step they raised an hon- orary column. and cowardly assassin" and of his wife Leontia were received in Rome with the portraits of "base this customary honours by the clergy and the Senate assembled in the Basilica Julii at ward exhibited the to Cesario in Palatio. transferring of the Pantheon and the inauguration of the practice of of martyrs from the Catacombs to relics sanctuaries within the walls. Phocas. 1 show farther in their the public Lateran.CHAPTER X THE MONUMENTS IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY THE early years of the seventh century were marked by three events of special significance for the history monuments. 169. which still remained free from ceal 1 the it. and afterthe in church The Romans went even of servility : of S. ruins This The remains is that were the last later to monument of this church are described in p. had seized the throne of the East in The November. These are. inscribed.

FIG. 21.

of Phocas in the Forum. At the right, further back,
the remaius of the temple of Saturn.

The column













period and the beginning of the Middle Ages.
the three monumental columns still extant at Rome,"
Dyer well remarks, "two were erected to the best
emperors (Trajan and Marcus Aurelius), one to the
worst and basest
the style of their



merits are aptly typified by


monuments." 1

the inscription on the pedestal of the column

Phocas (discovered February 23, 1813) we learn
the pillar was surmounted by a statue in gilt
Now such a statue could not have been modof



and cast in Rome

in 608 A.D.

(the column was

dedicated on August 1 of that year).


must have

been an old statue, cast centuries before, of which,


inclined to believe, not even the head

The column

for the occasion.



was changed

forty-five feet high,

and leans considerably toward the southeast. The style
of the shaft and capital is certainly better than that prevailing in 608 A.D.



either the

column was

removed bodily from a classic edifice, or else the Romans
and their exarch Zmaragdus dedicated to Phocas a monu-

ment which, up

to his time,

had borne another name.

It is interesting to note that the


at this time free


of Trajan also

from any accumulation of rubbish.

Venantius Fortunatus, a contemporary of Gregory, speaks
of the custom of poets reciting in that place as still
flourishing in his

day (Carm.


History of the City of



p. 363.



Boniface IV., elected bishop of Rome in the same
year in which the column of Phocas was dedicated,




Emperor the permission



Pantheon of Agrippa to the Virgin Mary and
Christian martyrs.
This concession marks an ex-

cate the




destruction and transformation




of the









Rome, be-

previously remarked, up to
seventh century the Christians



abstained from worshipping in places where divine
honours had been paid to pagan deities.
No classic


only civic buildings had thus
far been used for churches
but about this time all



such scruples disappeared.
To speak only of the edifices lining the Sacra Via and the Forum, we now find



hall of the

ple of


to S.



Antoninus and Faustina to

Janus to

St. Dionysius, that of

The Heroon

Hadrian, the inner

Maria Antiqua, the temSt.

Lawrence, that of

Saturn to the Saviour.

Romulus, son of Maxentius, becomes


the vestibule of the church of SS. Cosmas and Damia-



a chapel to

of the temple of




raised in the vestibule

Venus and Rome


another to



tina in the Secretarium Senatus; a third to SS. Sergius

and Bacchus, near the steps of the temple of Concord
and a fourth to an unknown saint in the Basilica of

Constantino. 1


Pagan and



p. 162.





would be interesting to know whether the Pantheon was submitted to any alteration in the process

of transformation


a church.




Augustus and Agrippa still standthe year 608, in their niches under the portico,

portrait statues of
ing, in

or those of the ancestral gods of the Julian gens in
their shrines



under the dome?






and the bronze bas-reliefs

the great rosettes





ornamenting the

It is difficult to give a
pediment of the pronaos?
I incline to the
satisfactory answer to these queries.
view that when the Pantheon was placed under the








was already

reduced to the present state, or rather to the state


was before the


in 663, of

1747. l


Urban VIII.
In the lapse


in 1625,




and of Benedict XIV.

time between the closing


and the abandonment of the public baths,
and the reign of Phocas, the statues of the gods and

of temples

heroes must have been
their pedestals,




removed or thrown



and the rosettes of the dome probably

the tiles of gilded bronze which covered the
and the dome Urban VIII. melted into cannon
metal from the trusses of the prouaos and Bene-



roof of the pronaos

410,778 pounds of



XIV. destroyed the marble veneering of the attic story.
2 For the fate of the three
Caryatides by Diogenes the Athenian,
formerly in the Paganica and Giustiniani palaces, supposed to have


formed a part of the decoration of the attic, see Notizie degli
Emil Braun, Bull. Inst., 1853, p. 36.
1881, pp. 265-267






one by one, through the disintegration of

The bas-reliefs of the
masonry of the coffers.
It seems
pediment had perhaps escaped spoliation.






Rotonda was



vated and paved by Pope Eugenius IV. (1431-1439),
a head, possibly of Agrippa, the leg of a horse, and
the wheel of a chariot,


were found

cast in bronze,

These fragments may have
No mention is made of
fallen from the pediment.
marble statues, except of a head attributed to Cybele,

at the foot of the steps.

which Camillo Fanucci claims to have seen lying on
the floor near the high altar in the year 1600. l

Another clew as to the
taken possession


clumsy restorations

by Vitalianus


state of the Pantheon,

by the Church, is given by the
made by Boniface IV. (610 A.D.),







materials taken from other edifices, such as the marble







temple of



from the



belonged to the




by Visconti
and other such

the fact that some







Vol. IV., 1876, p. 92),

more important




from the






the two beautiful

with festoons and candelabras and sacred im-

plements, removed from the sides of the

and the doorpost taken from one of the


Camillo Fanucci, Trattato di


V opere



side entrances.

pie, etc., c. xxxvi.



According to the Liber fact. Felicianus of Viatrix. The first translation remains is time of Boniface IV. from the time of Constantine. name newly consecrated church on account twenty-eight cartloads of sacred bones which had been removed from the Catacombs and placed in a basin of porphyry under the high altar. 1874.THE MONUMENTS IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY 115 These three pieces had been used in the restoration steps leading from the square in front of the of the Pantheon to the pronaos (Fig.. country around Rome became more and more insecure and unhealthy. when the bodies of Primus and were removed from Nomentum. and Simplicius from the ceme- . inhabitants it at the time was deemed necessary of the to place Langobardic within the protection of the city walls the bones of the martyrs. the third in 682. of the second took place in the . and that great damage was done to As the during the siege of Vitiges. and September. one just mentioned. was given to the this Pontificdlis. given to the Pantheon by Boniface IV. I have stated above that burial was given up Rome by in 410. whose tombs. recalls an interesting of S. and were found between December.-X"- in the year of the Catacombs storming of Alaric. 537. This was the of beginning of an important change. the 648 of . The designation Maria ad Martyres. 1875. and was almost completely abandoned them by in its inroads. the . and those Faustinus. had more and more become centres of pilgrimage. 22).

DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 116 tery of Generosa. Two bodies " porphyry archaeologists. at the sixth mile-stone of the Via Campana. 817. near La Magliana. Giovanni . Prassede. were placed by Leo II. Vibiana " in a basin of oriental alabaster of oval shape. the official of Contemtransfer- register of relics... mentioned above. Apostoli in 816 A. The in the Vigna Ceccarelli. Caecilia speaks likewise of the removal of bodies quae primum in cryptis pausabant. removed July 20.D. while rebuilding the church of SS. and Simplicius. likewise placed the of and Claudia " in a basin of Eugenia (in concha porpJiyretica). with heads of leopards in high relief. Catacombs for the bones last exploiting of the martyrs was due to Paschal I. One of them. to S. " innumerable " porary documents speak of ences of relics. Faustinus. in and Diocletian particuViatrix. These removals of relics are interesting from another they mark the beginning of archaeological research among the remains of the great imperial thermae. The relics of martyrs were. Theodora Episcopa. Zeno. had built in the memory of his mother. mentions twenty-three hundred bodies deposited under the chapel of S. under the high altar of the church of S. twenty-five palms in circumference. deposited in basins and bath-tubs of which the thermae larly abounded. of Caracalla The bones of rare marble. (817-824). point of view. The mosaic legend of the apse of St." Stephen V. as a rule. which Paschal I.

of these precious interesting Roman of spoils add should baths another used class of in churches works of to . in its most crude and hateful churches . until 1703. They could hardly spell the Latin words inscribed on the marble slabs which they used in the pavements. in spite of their distinctly pagan as Singular reliefs of a character. this practice judge of the taste of the seems Roman to us. was used as church S. of its grave of St. have made a list. 14. altar. we cannot clergy in those dark and semi-barbaric days in the light of our own feelings and education. an altar of Michele in Borgo. by a on the rim of Avhich the following words the of S. Peter. was patched with 931 . in the foundations of the church of the epicurean legend." walls miscellaneous inscriptions. Teodoro was supported. in the walls. which occasionally take the place of the bath basins. Flavius Agricola from Tibur. of the Magna Mater. and in the altars of their much could they understand their meancovered with symbols of the worship pedestal ing. with of the Crucifix round left front The high altar in the Baldacchino. were inscribed : " On cense was offered St. though incomplete. less A form. the sarcophagi. a few feet from the was discovered August column in The tombstone Paul's without to this the the marble of the gentiles in- The pavement of gods. 1626. art we it similarly employed.THE MONUMENTS THE SEVENTH CENTURY IN 117 Marangoni and Francesco de Ficoroni.

and. which dates from the time of Stephen II. This passage of the Chronicon shows that the palace. turning to the side walls.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 118 A worshipper raising his eyes toward the apse of the church of SS. the chariot of Apollo. Andrew at the Manger. (752-757). and six other emperors. pagan I cults. where proclaimed Emperor. Martina. church of S. monocrator constitutus esfy. formerly the Secretarium Senatus. initiates performing mys- and other representations from may mention in the last instance the terious Egyptian rites. Diana hunting the stag. Bassus on the Esquiline. he was diadem Emperor betook himself to Rome. and a group of the twin founders of the City sucking In the basilica of Junius the wolf. says that " after the " recovery of the Cross made by Heraclius in 629. representing the of sacrificing before the altar of Jupiter Optimus The Epitome of the Chronicon Cassinense. Christianised under the name of St. Hylas stolen by the Nymphs. and given the imperial the in the throne (in augustdli solio tus et room of the palace of the Caesars Caesareani Palatii a senatoribus posi- diademate redimitus. Cybele on the chariot drawn by lions. adorned with the bas-reliefs the walls of which were from the arch Emperor Maximus. could behold at the same time the great mosaic figure of the Saviour. Marcus Aurelius. in opus sectile. Galba. he could see the group of the Saviour with the Apostle in the Tribune. . the portraits of Nero. Cosmas and Damianus.

ceiling. the enormous solidity The remains of the hall. and windows. and gave official required repairs. of its banquets. where Heraclius took place. roof. with capitals and bases exquisitely cut in ivory. first mean the special wing known in classical " Domitian's house " (olicia by the name of palace I times Aedes publicae populi Romani. of giallo antico Bianchini discovered which stood on either side main door. not only in its essential parts. a threshold made of a block of of for Greek marble large that the high altar of the church of the Ro- tonda has since been cut out of it fragments of the of columns sixteen pavonazzetto supporting the entablature. but also in its two columns decorative details. It was excavated by Bianchini in 1724. The building had never on account of construction. presided over councils of state. which were sold by the Duke Parma to the stone-cutters Perini and Macinocchi of the 3000 scudi so . there is no doubt that in 629 this throne room was well preserved. of Genseric. ceremonies in the By THE SEVENTH CENTURY 119 the pillages of Totila. coronation of these two occasions. and again Judging from the finds made on by Rosa in 1865. are still to be the seen. such as walls. but simply as a state residence where Ao/imafoO) or they held their levees. received foreign envoys. delivered their decisions. .THE MONUMENTS the Romans themselves. and of spite of in IN could be used for state still half of the seventh century. This been used as a had never structure dwelling by great the emperors.

they repaired and strongholds of the Palatine only case of necessity. officer these This wing was put styled a euro. Another wing the Domus of the palace. after at the of lime-burners mercy of space ten colossal eight much remained it had been and stone-cutters centuries. Caesarii in Palatio. If so of the decoration of the hall in 1724. did not as live to see his project carried out took no interest in his successors it. conceived the plan of making the Domus Gaiana the official residence of the bishops Rome. officers. His son. rebuilt or repaired the long staircase which ascends from the Clivus Victoriae to the rooms above. and coloured statues which stood the of in the niches. named Plato. Palatii. first mentioned in . . above the of present church of S. John VII. having been elected pope in 705 under the name of John VII. There were four of these ecclesi- to the monasteries in astical establishments on the Palatine.. the Ecclesia and Monasterium S. Maria Liberatrice (super ecclesiam sanctae Dei genetricis qitae antiqua vocatur episcopium construere voluify. as a practical evidence of their in power political under the care About 680 one an of of Rome. the hall itself may for the well have been in almost perfect condition at the time of the coronation of Heraclius. which overlooks the Forum and the Sacra Via. seems to have been kept in repair and sometimes occupied by the popes. the northeast section of Graiana.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT HOME 120 two out marble.

of the that This pope's ruins of the when Marinus official II. at the beginning . by 1883.THE MONUMENTS IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY 121 the time of Phocas. Polveriera in the the of symbol of the power that they Rome claimed over now Byzantine emperors were exhibited the of still Palladium. near the east corner a strongly fortified place where the popes hill.D. east residence At the north- corner of the peristyle the remains of a modest mediaeval dwelling were discovered. Peter from must have been rooms which were Domus this small Gaiana. sought refuge and protection in times of popular outthe Turris Cartularia built on the platform of breaks . Jupiter of were the church Titus. who occupied 942 to 946.. the chair of St. 603 A. where the images to the public as a the monastery . called represented by the church of S. Sebastiano alia Vigna Barberini. and by the arch Stator. during the excavation of the House of the Vestals. a pontiff.. belonging to a high official of the court of wise obscure. The latest bit of evidence regarding the real or nomi- Palatine episcopal of the nal occupancy the popes came to light November 8. the temple of which in the archives of centuries many . other- It is house was placed in charge among the important to notice built. Andreae et ad Gregorii Clivum Scauri. but probably older. kept for lastly the Septizonium. garrisoned by the Frangipanis under the ownership of the abbots of est the monastery SS. the great- mediaeval stronghold of the Palatine.

Peter's. the roof and nave of old St. as well as those of S. (625-640) of the gilt-bronze roof of the temple of that to of St. existing.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 122 tenth the of the century. who destroyed. S. and of Schola Graeca. St. of Saba. of S. the walls of stripped small tesserae the from their setting. Another famous 1 of edifice fell at the same time into the particulars. their marble the of even mosaic pavement wrenched Around the the Byzantine colony. see the interesting chapter on the history of the Palatine in Grisar's History of the Popes in the Middle Ages. been removed or knocked down from their bases. Palatine hill clustered we owe the construc- the Anastasis. Maria in Theodore. This fact to be proves removed that the temple was at that time in a good state of repair while. the stripping off of the tiles was a sure way to promote the downfall of the build. of the City. Specimens of these by Justus tiles were seen and described Rycq and Giacomo Grimaldi at the time Paul V. tiles which covered the Venus and Rome. The S. 1 Phocas. in 1606. Euplos which have long since disappeared. For further the Peter's. .. on the other hand. St. ing. and of visit of Heraclius to Rome in 629 is connected with another event in the history of the destruction He made a present to Pope Honorius I. to which tion of the churches of and veneering. still George. of pavement ' the Atrium Vestae was already covered with a layer of rubbish The columns of the peristyle had five feet thick.

II. a compelled fratricide The to sheets of lead of considerable growth. di arch. were afterward stolen. masonry. p. who raised the floor of the church to the modern level. of restored. the gilt coffers of the vaulted roof.. which he dedicated to St. the Heroon of typical of the stars Romulus.. of partly in 1589. tiles of its saved the dome with by covering the sheets of lead. son of Maxentius.. the the pediment. at 1654. ornamented with the of the Lateran. 62.THE MONUMENTS IX THE SEVENTH CENTURY 123 hands of the Pope. by a guilty conscience on account 1 See De Rossi. was added to the ancient metal work. and altered the removed to the church of The bronze doors were St. 663. The ancient decorations of the hall. were smaller than the a band. the marble panelling of the walls. Rome had fortune of an imperial for the last time the mis- Constans visit. in 1879. Hadrian. and the bronze door did or alteration with the " Christianisa- of bas-reliefs not suffer damage tion " of the building. ander VII. Pope (Chigi). Cardinal Agostino Cusano and of Alfonso Sotomayor. about eighteen by eleven doorway John Lateran by Alexwhich filled an aperture feet. a saint otherwise unknown. roof about temple from destruction lost the bronze Pope Sergius I. sprung monument was fig-trees. the same time. found roots of ilexes. Bull. in the cracks of the crist. A third edifice. When and the 1867. They disappeared hands the partly in classic shape of the building. and vegetation. wedged . 1 On July 5. but as the folds. the Curia or Senate-house. I four inches in diameter. up on the bare dome.

between and basilicas. is not exaggerated. legious as yet having been converted into a Constans was mean and sacri- enough to carry which covered off the tiles of After perpetrating these it. Constans Peter. had been The statement to plunder. The Appian Way. and attending mass the at tomb of St. of Dyer in he . which were. in the spring of that and year.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 124 wander from sanctuary Rome to pilgrimage had undertaken a to sanctuary. repeated and Lombards. Christian church. and ruins. carried booty to Syracuse. claim to protection. Goths. bronze gilt acts. was met by Pope Vitalianus and the few inhabitants the near the sixth mile-stone of and short of visit friendly proved most disastrous to the seized everything of value sieges of Vandals. this left regard to this " In the twelve days which " he carried says this writer. as bad as robberies. Christian emperor Roman monuments the after which." off as many bronze statues as he could lay hands on and though the Pantheon seemed to possess a double ." fell off his into the A remarkable discovery has been made in later years The Embearing on this visit of Constans to Rome. His plunder ultimately hands of the Saracens. at least. peror. as having been presented by Phocas to the and Pope. attendants his acts of doubtful devotion in churches found time to These visits by scratching visit the pagan monuments were recorded by one his sovereign's of his name on a . robbery Constans spent at Rome.

and the column of Marcus Aurelius. The fate of the statue on the column of Marcus Aurelius also is not known perhaps ried off . One of these graffiti is to be found on the four-faced arch. Possibly more than mere records of a visit of curi. of There "best of the was Princes. When the Marchese Ferrajuoli rebuilt the foundations of his palace on the south side of the Piazza Colonna. it was hurled down from the top of the column. Pantheon. on the right side archway facing the church of Velabro. osity. the finger of the left hand of a bronze statue of colossal size was discovered in the layer of rubbish which covers the ancient stone pavement of the square. It is quite possible that a careful examination of the principal Roman monuments. and broken into pieces by the fall. Giorgio in another on the very top of Trajan's column. such as the Coliseum. would lead to the discovery of *other graffiti of a similar character." on the top of the column of Trajan. in 1868. car- by this visitor. the wanderings of the last Emperor who saw Rome Normans. the ancient Forum Boarium of the S. step by step. these scratchings is every probability are records of that the statue plunder. Janus Quadrifrons. and thus enable us to follow. before the ravages of the .THE MONUMENTS IX THE SEVENTH CENTURY 125 prominent part of every building which the party dishonoured with its presence.

AND THE EXTENSION OF THE FORTIFICATIONS OF THE CITY THE Palermo by the Saracens conquest of in 831 caused the reigning Pope. IV. harbour of Ostia. judge from the remains 1 of this Gregorius. seemed to have been altogether destroyed " stricken inhabitants Gregory a new is line still . and protected by a The account is greatly exaggerated. Gregoriopolis. Gregory IV. IX 846. their contents being transferred within the shelter of the City's defences. The founding of mouth of the river. in the wilderness of the Campagria. praised by the biographer as having built of walls with portcullis gates. yet there were a few fever- wandering among the ruins. outside the walls. 126 Gregoriopolis which . crowned with powerful batteries (petrariae). tion Tiber of a fort an as first was the construc- outpost at the mouth of the another was the abandonment of the churches .. the fortress at the described in the Liber Ponti- is 1 AVe are informed that the ancient colony and ficalis. "stricken with age. 38.CHAPTER XI * THE INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. to adopt cer- The tain measures of defence. to deep moat.

Count Adalbert. leaves off It point. as well as the great treasure which many generations of pilgrims silver had deposited over defenceless basilicas their of outlying and Via Cornelia and of the tombs the in the . a contemporary. Peter in gold and of the princes of the and Paul. of old houses filled up mud walls. were levelled to the ground. and perhaps an eye-witness. 846. the winter of 1867-1868. IN 846 Carlo Ludovico Visconti and laid erecting on the left to in the main the or little two or three blocks of side Ostia at amounts fortifications simply selected They did actually and street or his way of nothing. representatives I 127 It is possible. (844-847).the late INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. but very uncertain in The its details. sent making five for the hundred mouth had been horses. and shop-fronts with They bare in What Gregory IV. also barricaded the openings of the streets which the doors. biographer of Sergius II. of the scription at the most critical facts. Tiber. although we found no evidence. of 846 is a well-known event streets The Saracenic invasion main in its lines. Governor of Tuscany and protector fleet of warning that a seventy-three Saracenic vessels. his de- seems that on the 10th of August. carrying eleven thousand men and nalled of Corsica. windows. the of sig- Count Adalbert urged the Romans to place within the protection of the walls the bodies apostles. that the houses surrounding this rudimentary fort on the opposite sides of the boundary ran between the blocks.

while stream. Peter and St. sufficient as inhabitants who courage to rush to the defence of Porto (on the side of the river opposite Ostia. and connected with it by means of a " wretched bridge ") were the members the of foreign colony. their free fleet was towed up- and undisturbed of the basilicas of St. pursued as far as 26th of . they found Gregoriopolis abandoned. infidels This happened on the on the following day the Saracens August marched upon Rome. and were able to make the of that outpost their base of operations.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 128 Via The Romans. in which nineteen skirmishers lost their lives. likewise. however. not to shown want had call it Romans showed much weak- cowardice. . Porto was taken by the the garrison put to the sword and the few survivors were Ponte Galera. and the Franks. treated the message with tempt so that . Saxons. paid Ostiensis. In these straits the ness. between the castle of Frisians. Paul outside the walls. that these might assemble for the defence of the coast. who lived Biygus. selves with but little atten- satisfied them- communicating the contents of his letter to the villagers and farmers of the Campagna. when the Saracens landed at the con- mouth Tiber. and took possession . on the twenty-third of the month. as they had previously The only of forethought. tion to the warning of Adalbert. After two encounters. Villagers and farmers. called the in S. the the quarter Angelo and the Vatican.

There can be no doubt that the Romans despised the warning of Count Adalbert in regard to the safety of . Paul. which well repaid and trouble of their expedition. Fleet and crews were ultimately lost in a gale off the coast of Sicily. IN I of 129 846 on the authority weight of gold and have taken the pains to estimate Liber the lavished silver Pontlficalis on the the decorations rich of the two churches from the time of Constantine down. the Romans for the cost attempted a sally in the "plains of Nero" (the Prati di The farmers Castello). seem to have been more of the successful in attacking and dispersing a near the Basilica of St. The most important circumstance events is in this chain of the fate of the tombs of St. them almost fallen into the fabulous hands of the Sara- booty. but were easily driven back. as nearly as I can reckon it. Peter and St. Campagna. the invaders began their retreat. and carrying off "a very great booty of people and of all things. While these depredations were going on.INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. Paul. destroying by fire many towns and strongholds. while great the fleet skirted the coast as far as Gaeta. after slaughtering a number of men. about three tons of gold and thirty of must have silver an cens. For band of pirates this reason. supported by the villagers from the Alban and Tiburtine hills. or per- haps because they had secured more booty than their vessels would hold." Their infantry and cavalry went south along the Appian Way.

Benedict. here is the proof . the passive" less according nothing. was so broken down by gout and humor he was podagricus that he could attend to no duties is . in the first place. of His brother.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 130 in treasures the and gold silver to belonging both these tombs all the accounts agree in . testifying that Saracens seized in either place innumerabilia bona. et the statement "extremely dull and valde). What this plan of the Moslem invaders was. Pope Sergius. They the treasures of the crypt body and plundered reposed the most holy certainly entered " where of the Prince of the Apostles" (ubi sacratissimum corpus principis apostolorum requiesdfy . Would not their first aim have been to invade the Kasbah and scatter to the easy to understand. for "good his own from same (brutus source. the Saracens account." to fell on both sanctuaries like a thunderbolt. we learn biographer. and so of even was stolidus In the second place. A four winds the like policy bones of the prophet? in the followed infidels seems to have been by regard to our sanctuaries. according to a plan of campaign that had been carefully matured beforehand. it is Suppose that the crusaders had taken possession of Mecca. the Did the people of Rome heed the second part of the admonition as regards the bodies of the apostles? Did they open the sarcophagi and carry the precious contents within the City walls? The answer more than doubtful.

PAULO in the style of the age in existence. Paul. Peter. Petri altare violatum et ad vilitatem injured by the Saracens : perductum. is still xxii. cannot be taken in a literal sense the lid of the sarcophagus. Leo of gilt silver.: 1 Sepulchrum (Pauli apostoli) Sarracenis destructum fuerat. Peter's. by a case escaped of solid while rifling. relief was stolen by the Saracens. would be impossible to discuss It ail present the arguments Peter and Paul in 846. The passage relating to St. the Virgin The basMary. in . and a copy was subby Leo IV. Paul. with the epitaph APOSTOLO MART(YRI) engraved of Constantine. 145. but the altar of the Apostle as having been beatiss. a quod The word destructum. however. stituted in its place after the retreat of the invaders. III. p. placed in a subterranean crypt and protected metal like the the sanctuaries of both two holy places was not the book forward to prove brought or to deny the profanation of of in a embedded in masonry. mentions not the grave. 1 Chapter II. that of St. Vol. IN of it. 846 131 had placed over the tomb a bas-relief representing the Redeemer.INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. in the life of Leo IV.. same . We find life of Benedict III. My opinion in is that the fate all the respects that the sarcophagus of St. Andrew. . perornavit. I saw it on Decem- Duchesne's edition of the Liber Pontificalis. the evidence of the fact last mentioned in the floor of the basilica. a plain marble coffin level with the was certainly injured or destroyed. and Petronilla. Peter.

157. after the fire of 1823. or p. 1891. 1 (Fig. are . was the inclusion ber FIG. the other at the le Mura. Paolo fuori le Mura. See Pagan and Christian Rome. and the powerful outlying forts. of the Vatican district construction of two in the City proper. Burgus. having lowered myself from the fenestella under the high altar. 23. 23.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 132 1. Paul and the canopy of Arnolf o di Lapo in S. The walls of 1 the Civitas Leonina. from a topographical point of view. one at church of S. The tomb of St. Paul's.) The most noteworthy consequence of these events. Lorenzo fuori St.

is 1527. to a certain extent. The construction of the Leonine wall. the palace Angelo. The His structure Aurelian. The upper one arcades of the lower gallery were walled up in Pope Borgia.INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. who in passage from the hordes of Charles of Bourbon. Here no galleries. the steep slopes of which consti- a tute we natural and effective find a plain wall with line of defence.. save a passage at the height of the battlements. and the gallery the famous the fifteenth century by transformed into a secret passage itself Corridojo di Castello connecting Vatican with the fortress of S. The one represented in the . in existence. as may be seen in our illustration. fled that of Pope through this Clement VII. 24. the construction of the wall of and has two The lower gallery within.) The most exposed angles were still the by round towers. IN 133 846 and are properly considered a masmediaeval military engineering. ing instances May. . To the of this cor- many popes and cardinals have been indebted for one of the most strikescape from death or servitude ridor. (Fig. feet thick. two of which are existence and form a conspicuous landmark in protected in Vatican landscape. so elaborate in the level stretch between the Vatican and the for- tress of S. one above the other. still terpiece of undertook to imitate. Leo IV. Angelo. becomes more simple on the hill behind the church. is is twelve galleries. supported by open arcades facing is level with the battlements.

IV. which stands the sea. unde mare prospicitur tions of the Vatican group. 187 feet above commands an unlimited view over pagna and the FIG. the It is early now used representaas an ob- servatory for photographing the section of the heavens which was allotted to the Holy See by the Interna- . Tower and is of the wall of Leo coast. at a height of 2-i. turris the Cam- therefore described as the now in used as an observatory.134 DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT EOME illustration..

to indebted for the illustration. . Two inscriptions. IN Astronomical tional used a as chapel Congress. and the wall between them " the other. that while the 1 am This work is entrusted mostly to Cavaliere Mannucci. The pontifical treasury zens of and the resources of the Rome were unequal to the task of A the walls in the required time. fifteen miles from Rome) on built these two towers. but with this difference. the One says. Paul's without the Walls what Leo IV. the chief engineer of the Leonine wall. In 880 John VIII. whom I . Peter's. did for St. "In Pope Leo IV. service (praestatio operis) and to. the Militia the time of our Lord Saltisina (a colony the road to Ardea. give important details of the scheme adopted to obtain thus speedy assistance and cheap labour. the colonists of was completing system of forced in consequence the citi- fortified resorted farms of the Campagna were called upon to take a share in the work." Both companies declare of that they worked under the direction who was probably of a certain Agatho. the Militia Capracorum (a colony founded by Hadrian I. the for 135 846 The other tower new summer casino 1 is of Leo XIII.INCURSION OF THE SARACENS.. now affixed to the arch which spans the Via Angelica. Cornelia) built this tower and the wall which connects it with the next. near the ruins of Veii on the site of the present farm S. " In the time of our Lord the Pope Leo IV.. had done thirty years before for St.

fuori le protection of Mura. p. 1 mentions the fact. 2 selves. Saltisinum and nish a strong contingent of Capracorum. had to refurnish with sacred implements and vestments. 347. nected with the City only by means of a colonnade a to be seen above A founder. the prisoners taken at St. II. Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Romae. however. the astery Basilica and in and became a part Ostiensis with hospices remained a its of the City adjoining mon- detached con- fort. . I may add that some of the Saracens them- namely. is was named Johannipolis The stronghold mile long. Paul's and on the road to Gaeta. seems to prove that a few fortified farms did escape from the depredation of the Saracens. 35.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 136 Burgus was included proper. No the basilica of historical document but we possess a drawing of Martin Heemskerk which shows the state of the stronghold The fact that two inhabited centres of about 1534. The extent of the zone plundered in the fearful visita- tion of 846 can be determined with the help of the of churches list which Leo IV. at least I have not been able to find in the Liber Pon- 1 Reproduced 2 De in Ruins and Excavations. seem to have been materially damaged. None of the church buildings. Vol. were compelled to take a share in the work. Fig. could fursoldier-workmen for the defence of the Capital. its the same ground now after of which no trace second detached fort was built about time for the Lorenzo S. the Campagna. Rossi. the fact being recorded in an inscription.

Important. having list of plundered churches comprises those of Silva Candida. or doors. and that afterwards they were allowed to form a settlement and live in peace by substituting the cross for the crescent. and into the very heart of the Simbruine Mountains. Cosmas and Dami- anus (S. windows. and along the Via Appia as far as Terracina and Fondi. and of 1350 feet above S. and shelter among these rocky precipices.INCURSION OF THE SARACENS. walls. Massa Maruli). having been cut off from the finding a retreat impossible. or tificalis repaired 137 846 his successors The roofs. There is no doubt that a foraging nest party. I must record especially that of S. perched like an eagle's on a conical and almost inaccessible peak at a height of 2500 feet above the sea. is the mention of the church of SS. . of the delta of the Tiber. consisting mainly of daggers and poniards with curved blades of Oriental make. Cosimato. IN any mention of Leo IV. Some of the inhabitants. of Ostia and Porto. Morena. above all. Cosimato) near Subiaco. We day find a survival from this incursion at the present in the village of Saracinesco. because it shows that the Saracens carried their devastation as far as the upper valley of the Anio. Cyriacus on the Via Osti- because ensis. took main body. Other churches are mentioned on the Tusculan and Alban hills (Frascati. remains that it was Signor twenty-five years ago just in the Pietro traces neighbourhood of its Rocchi discovered some one of of the Saracenic camps.

). etc. Balferin. from the invasion Saracenic names Mischabel. like also the name From village. Allalin. there- Anio forms a counterpart of the Valaisan Alps. have preserved as the still preserve their (Monte Moro. Almagell. Rome to costumes names. Alphubel. of a cave in the neighbourthis point of view. . of 927.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 138 who come resque their Arabic Elmansour is hood of the fore. the villages and our valley of peaks of every winter clad in their pictupainters' models. the Saas-Thal in which El-Mansour (Almansorre).

See Liber . Agatha. xxiii. on such a day of such a year. Vol. chap. the Tiber rose violently. 860. done to the classic but the records show that during the Middle Ages there were several destructive inundations of the Tiber. and 1 Hora diei X. and they are described with an almost stereotyped formula in the Liber Pontifie alls. 856 when Benedict III. and flooded the lower quarters of the City to the According to the Liber Pontidepth of several feet. was pope.CHAPTER XII THE FLOOD OF ON January 6. The formula runs thus : On such an hour. 1 the waters broke through the posterula of St. the river from Rome to the sea. 856. for the inundation of October Pontificalis. Dionysius. Maria away by the hundred. broke through the embankments. 139 30. and the architrave of the door of Via Lata. cattle and crops destroyed. 145. waters reached the highest step of the stairs the ficalis of St. near the present church of S. Silvestro in Capite. drowned. II. trees were uprooted. p. What damage was all the in this instance monuments we do not know . in Houses fell or were washed men and way down S.

In the inundation of 856 the obstacle must have been in the line of the . etc. pushed back by they followed the line of the Pallacinae. lying districts. then. The Forum Hooded by the Tiber 18%. . we have life here rather a sudden outburst. or a wall. followed the line of the Via Flaminia (the modern Corso) to the foot of the Capitoline hill this obstacle. produced by the breaking away of an obstacle. giving time to the citizens to save and property . '25.140 DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME rushing over the waste fields of the Campus Martius. or an embankment. whether a levee. which quietly spread over the low- FIG. Such a description would not be applied to a gentle rising of the waters.

the wall. to give Even quent. which followed the left the river from the Turris ubi umbra Neronis walls of Aurelian bank of by the present Ponte Margherita. through which inundations broke. infre- shows the Forum under water freshet carried (Fig. 25). away part A of destructive the Pons . din mansitavit. which served to give access the to ferries The and to the mooring stations along the Agatha. was the northernmost of the bank. modern times floods have been not first Our illustration time inundation in of a 1557 Aemilius (Fig. the posterula of St. way in under the pressure of the flood. and consequently the most exposed of all any temporary obstruction of the water here would be apt gaps.44). to There were two or three gaps in the Ponte Sisto. at the . called posterulae.THE FLOOD OF 141 856 and Honorius.

therefore. e V Ordo di Benedetto Canonico. (1837) pp. Jordan. or routes. in Switzerland.CHAPTER XIII THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY THE name a summary Einsiedlen Itinerary has description of century. Lanciani. p. religious attraction. 329. now in that of Einsiedeln. in a manuscript formerly in the library of the Abbey of Pfeffers. De Rossi. Vol... 1 Inscr. From the Aelian Bridge to the Porta Salaria. Haenel. Rome. The volume has been examined and illustrated in by Haenel. between The list is the time use of pilgrims. II. which tions. 9 et seq. V. Christ. are arranged so as to itineraries. Jordan. the form eleven main as follows of The centres of : ROUTE I. Vol. II. II. V Itinerario di Einsiedlen . From the Aelian Bridge to the Esquiline. prepared Rome of for the of legends. Vol. 142 1891. by S. map Charlemagne. in Archiv fur Philologie und Padagogik. mostly of is Rome been given to dating from the ninth appended to a collection of Roman inscrip- volume origin. Lucia in Selce. 1 Our joint researches have proved that the Itinerary was made up the of legends of a Rossi. pp. 115-138. Topographic von Horn. De its minutest details and myself.

VII. at right angles with it . from west to east. the Third. Sebastiano) to the Schola Graeca (Bocca della Verita). From the Porta Appia (now Porta di S. way from one basilica to another. marks what the camp surveyors would call the decumanus maior. Paul's without the Walls. the others are designed to illustrate the four quarters formed by the intersection of the cardo and the decumanus. IX. From . From (now Porta Maggiore). IV. From the Porta Aurelia (S. From the Porta Tiburtina (S. document had two purposes show the pilgrims in view : first. gives us the line of a cardo. Giovanni).THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY III. XI. and again the Porta Tiburtina to the Subura by the Viminal gate of Servius. V. profane as well as sacred. across the Caelian Hill. Lorenzo) to the Subura by the Esquiline gate of Servius VIII. Capitol (Via di Marforio). Pancrazio) to the Porta Prae- nestina X. From the Porta VI. to point out to them the most another to their . conspicuous edifices. The author of the south. from the grave of one martyr to that of and secondly. from north to approximately. The Ninth Route. From the Porta Flaminia (now Porta del Popolo) to the Nomentana to the Forum Romanum. From the Aelian Bridge to St. which they would see on the right or on the left of their . From the Aelian 143 Bridge to the Porta Asiuaria (now S. the Circus Maximus to the Porta Metroni.

The the which the pilgrim streets along are City exactly those change had yet taken their pavement of of led through Rome imperial in place of blocks is their direction. no and was not yet covered with a layer of rubbish or with sand from the inundations of the Tiber. itself. may be gained from the first of Routes. believe it com- for the and of the Curiosum Urbis . Vicus Patricii. : those on and those crossed by the path . A conception of the importance of this document. in general deviation of for there . . the am speaking. which the to the City. course. Esquiline. downfall of some the great building of the Republic or of the Empire. Ha- stantinian distinctly classical as to drianum) much betray a origin than the earlier time of Charlemagne. to be a revised in Con- of the edition map. The takes directly edifices are us from the Aelian through the N S(inistra) . the oldest of which is which served of the time of Constantine. I the N heart the columns three D(extra) Bridge of . I in grouped those on the right of the path. Minervium. because some of the names are so (as. as throwing light on the state of the Roman monuments in the ninth century. age. after those path. The text says : left.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 144 The map used by the compiler of the Itinerary we have knowledge. worn by basalt. of more than one instance is from a straight obstacles placed in I way by order to avoid in line. pilation of the Notitia I fact.

Sergius. of S.had since the time of Procopius (Goth. of S. Cypress. I. statue equestrian of Con- stantine. from which gate of the Aurelian wall. Vitalis in Vico where the The church of S. of St. PETER TO THE CHURCH OF LUCIA IN ORTHEA FROM THE GATE OF S. of " the chief of the apostles. The church Longo. The The Rotunda. 19) been superseded by that of name Peter. Hadrian. The church of St. The church Vico of S. is The Arch of Septimius Severus. Laurentius in Damaso. The The Tiber. horses are. the at the left or site Its classical Angelo. the Left of S. The Forum of Trajan and its The church column. The thermae The church of Constantine. The Forum Romanum. Back again by the beautiful Subura. of St." We now enter the . where the Umbilicus Romae. St. on the of the present Piazza di Ponte S. The church of S.THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY 145 ST. theatre of The Pompey. Patricii. Subura. we which opened start. Euphemia in The thermae The gate of of Trajan ad Vin- cula. is Cistiberine entrance to the Aelian Bridge. Pudens in Vico Patricii. The Capitol. The thermae of The church Coramodus. Porta Aurelia (nova) . Lawrence. On The Circus the On Right The church Flaiuinius. Agatha. Laurentius in Formoso. Peter.

of ruins. Fig-tree . Square. of Pompey's which zetta of streets. are Our Ninth Ward (Rione) Rome.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 146 Via del Banco di S. the name of Circus Flaminius Rotunda. derived of " Pine-tree Ward " . all pavement which are constantly discovered under the modern pavement at a depth varymains of basaltic The buildings pointed ing from ten to fifteen feet. ancient as shown by the re- Spirito. founded by Pope Damasus in the barracks of the green squadron of charioteers (Stabula Factionis Prasinae. Piazza Names Pigna. the Stadium. the remains of which occupy the space between the Piazza di Campo di Fiori and the Via Argentina. quarters. and Via del Pellegrino. Library and archives of the Church of Rome. Roman Via dei Banchi Vecchi. where now is the out on the left are : Piazza Navona. (Cupressus*). or Pantheon . probably the Baths of Agrippa First on the right are the restored by Commodus. not infrequent in is we actually have called also a " Elm-tree Olmo. the Thermae Commodianae. Lauren- and the theatre Pompey. while such designations may be adopted by the seems hardly credible that they should have been registered in such a document as the Itinerary. or mention even of from a solitary tree growing conspicu- a wilderness ously in della in our itinerary follows the theatre. a Via dell' Arancio." and a Piaz" " Fico. to which the is wrongly applied . S. etc. dell' del Yet. We are not sure what is meant by " the Cypress " tius in Prasino). populace. it .

we reach the end of the journey at the Esquiline gate. from which the Quirinal hill borrowed its popular name of Monte Cavallo. and Ascesa Itinerary mentions of SS. Entering the Forum Romanum by the arch of Septimius Severus. we enter the Via delle Botteghe Oscure. I. and named Clivus Argentarius in Prothi in the Middle Ages.. and Via di S. we turn at once to the Bacchus on the the and following the succession left. skirting the east side of Flaminius (the site of which is indicated by that of the church of S. Via Bianca. Lucia in Selce. Nine points of interest are recorded on the namely. and to the Clivus Suburanus. by now St. and . Resuming our journey toward the Forum. Agatha. The and the church di Marforio. Laurentius in Pensilis. the Circus Marco or Pallacinae. corresponding to the Argiletum. Hadrian Pope Honorius called dei SS. Subura. in the neighbourhood of the church of S. S. Trajan on the right. Leonina. the Senate-house dedicated to St. the Cyriacus. the Quirico e church Giolitta of . and the beautiful group of the Horse-tamers. Lucia in Orthea. Sergius and Forum and the column of left. the Capitoline hill Via lastly the antiquity. della Croce Lucia of short streets. de' Monti. better known under the name of S. in Selce. the Baths of Constantine. built among and above its ruins).THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY 147 and put down as indicating one of the most important landmarks of the City. then the Via di S. church of left.

del Pellegrino. follow the lines of ancient thoroughfares. under the houses which flank the modern streets. Euphemia. and of churches are which Lorenzo in Panisperna. On Maggiore. etc. but to those from buildings which have partly or wholly of . (Via Vitalis on the Vicus S. still Bambino Gesu). the statement must not be too accepted slight deviation to literally. rather than under the streets them- selves. dei Banchi.. the in exist- Via del column Trajan. of that containing the Itinerary. Longus (Via di Pudens. of S. in 1587. and the arch of Septimius Severus. of S. a in conse- quence of which the old pavements of basalt have come to light. as a rule. inscriptions ence. Euphemia on the Vicus Patricii S. only are Basilica it is Maria mentioned. of S. Vitale).DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 148 churches of the four lastly. from the as the edifices the arch of obelisk of is almost as great as I do not refer to which are Claudius the still in the Vatican. in which are transcribed some of the monumental inscriptions of the City. There the right or to the is usually left. modern streets two right of edifices and Trajan in Though the general mentioned above. was destroyed by Sixtus V. del All these extant except that of S. delle Botteghe Oscure. Via Urbana. Pietro in true that the the Baths the Vincoli. while cutting open the new street between the Panisperna and S. The importance of the other section of this precious document. such Nazzareno.



1728 a. Celso in Banchi. end of the We was find a reference also to a Nymphaeum. Peter's. destroyed toward the of fifteenth century . at the corner of the Via della Navicella (Vicus Capitis Africae) and Via dei rebuilt in the fifth SS. The epitaphs were destroyed in July. and Theodosius. and lastly an arch built at the curved end of the Circus Maximus. in- . L possess a drawing of 1 The monumental L. which century by Flavius Philippus. prefect of the City. we Following the order of the manuscript monument to be the bridge by which find the first the Via Salaria crossed the river Anio. the triumphal arch and Theodosius. 1579. Next the of 26). the church of S. which stood by of Arcadius. that of Gratian.THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY disappeared. VI. who made use of the marbles for the decoration of the Cappella Gregoriana in The document mentions furthermore St. soldiers in 1867 (Fig. Quattro (Tabernola).. Honorius. order are inscriptions from the square base mausoleum of Hadrian. Valentinian. by Pope Gregory XIII. we Peruzzi. Titus by the fate of which is not known. the epitaphs of the in the second great emperors of century buried within. Orso at the entrance of the bridge Nero (Pons Neronianus or Vaticanus). made about 1500 by i C. which stood by the church of S. it. broken first in 151 down by Totila in 544. again by the Neapolitan army and for the third time by the Pope's own 1798.

Maria in pavement various of restoration Trastevere. 25) on the extreme right toward There was consequently a gap the arch of Constantine. I. 183. . are otherwise unknown. The Baths of the Julii Akarii. As the total length of the building was not far from three hundred feet. Maior and Septem Solia Minor. the of which 118 could be copied by the Einsiedlen scribe.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 152 market (macellum) of Li via were scriptions of the in place they were afterwards made use of . VI. Another inscription rather confused way of the collection to the repairs and Honorius to the theatre of 1 C. ous condition. according to another document of the Einsiedlen manuscript. 2 Ruins and Excavations. of that churches. refers in a made by Arcadius Pompey. twofifths of had seemingly collapsed before or about the time 2 Charlemagne. of 117 which between the letters were respectively two ends called Septem of the Solia ruins. 1 still in of from which they came to light again the S. which. and 45 letters by the anonymous Barberi- nianus (Cod. on the extreme left of the building toward the Circus Maximus. stood near the island of S. Bartolomeo. The Septizonium at the south corner of the Palatine hill seems already to have fallen into a ruin- The inscription on the frieze of lower colonnade numbered originally 280 letters. which had L. the in 1868. XXX. p. including two miles distant. 1178.

of the of frauds the of such as the millers of the City. 1 and of Diocletian still the Baths retained some Trajan of their ment monumental Forum Romanum. the eye before. 1711. of hill. 2 Ibid. 1472. centuries there. 773.. 472. of the the Vicus Tuscus.. 1014. 562. and the finally. at .THE ROME OF THE EINSIEDLEN ITINERARY 153 The Forum of been half -ruined by an earthquake. the of The pave- inscriptions in place. VI. c. 1191. monuments on the Capitoline siderable remains of the embankment several Tiber. and that. and of the Argiletum was still clear from any accumulation of rubbish. 916. 1708. the 2 It appears. here fell on an edict issued. and others almost level with the pavement He saw itself. lonesome their epitaphs and roads the walls of also conthe many tombs along Campagna still retained that and marble decorations. by some prefect regulations against Janiculum. the the customs officers posterns of stationed the walls of Arcadius and 3 1 C. L. 8 I. Ibid. and gates and Honorius. of Sacra Via. as shown by the fact the that compiler the of collection could copy the inscription of the Caballus Constantini. 1016.

as that of Boniface VI. (1073-1085) degradation in the history of we follow the chain of events. 154 . There were forty-nine years. as Marinus I.. and Peter for popes in . As of John Gregory VII. days. . We read of pontificates lasting only weeks or even days. of of Theodore Benedict V. (872-882) and that the witnessed SEE. but by the prevalence for the moment of one or another faction. which extended over fifteen days days. Popes were elected in direct opposition to the statutes of (882-884). Formosus (891elections were secured 896). sixty-three two hundred who was Pope for twenty who filled the chair of St. the comparison being always in favour of these last. roughly described in contemporary chronicles. II. and John X.CHAPTER XIV THE USURPERS OF THE HOLY OF THE two AND THE SACK centuries between the pontificate of VIII. 1084 deepest mediaeval Rome... we are often reminded of the time of the "thirty tyrants" in the third century of the Empire. as that of Benedict canon law. not by established usage. (914-928) by an open purchase of votes. and the succession was determined.

usurpers might in turn be ex- in a monastery. Auxilius. Defens. John X. in 903. as a pope 904.. case the body was exhumed from before the high the face and hands. or stabbed to the heart. n. p. after reigning only 40 days pelled and shut in up . and that and Gregory VI. The sum spent on this occasion is variously stated at 1000 to 2000 pounds of Papienses. 8 Lib. 248. Christopher I. p. The grave of a pope might Peter. 235. Auxilius und Vulgarius. 18 Martinus Polonus in Lib. Auta240. in III. and Benedict IX. suffocated Stephen VI. Pont. 10 pod. 53. II. Dummler. II. p. Inscr. p.. II.. Alamann. n. 95. 1045. John 2 or chased from the chair of St.. I. 270. Peter's. 225. XII. in 898. Germ. II. . as was Leo V. mutilated. Rossi. . 4 Formosus Sepulchral inscriptions of popes in this period are still 1 1021-1024. II. as Christopher was might be strangled with a rope. as was the tomb of Hadrian III. Vol. Leo V. 2 De ch. Lib... 155 triple election." in Lintprand.. Formos. Benedict VI. p. in 896. 275. dragged itself altar. Vol. 43 . Vol. slashed in on the floor of St. 4 "Ann. Scr.. Vol. Vol. there was a double and even a that of Sergius III. Sylvester of John IX. in 885 3 in one . See Lib. The supreme pontiff might be thrown into prison by his own attendants.. or gold denarii coined at Pavia. Pont. such a lot befell the corpse of and thrown into the river. Vol.. 3. p. n. Mon.. Pont. 215 1. as Romanus was. III. . at Nonantola. pp. or with pillows. Christ. Pont. .THE USURPERS OF THE HOLY SEE 1 VIII. p. be violated for the sake of the richly embroidered vestments in which the body had been buried.

Formos. this striking contrast with the tendencies of the age. we now and then find a pope of noble character. Pont. The extent murders. whose virtue. it state Europe in those dark days was corrupt yet. even in period. 882 . mutilated. and sanctity are in . wisdom. p. n. Defens. famine. to Maria like fights in the streets. a. Inscr. p." 2 The sacred office was at the mercy an unspeakable Theodora vestararia and a Marotia of senatrix. pestilence. 4. Matrons were punished by being stripped of their garments in the populace and scourged till the blood ran. (931-936) is registered in the r But Liber Pontificalis in words that are unquotable. 4. II. Vol. 215. attacks the castle of St.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 156 " extant in which their predecessors are called " wolves l and "unclean. 6 Mon. Superista. Scr. p. 212.the on successful robberies. 483 Ann. ad 4 Rome were Rossi. were blinded. p. ad a. 3 Patricians. Fuld. Germ. 258. Mon. . Christ. II. appeals to face of . fires. and dragged from church to church. . and Lib. Angelo. Lang. which the moral sense of men w as blunted may be inferred from the fact that the paternity of John XI. like George and Aventinensis 4 Gregory the Nomenclator. Vol. ch. is only affairs fair to remember that did not prevail in this Rome of The whole of shocking alone. 928. To what vicissitudes the remains of ancient subject in the tenth century it is easier to imagine than 1 Be 2 Ibid. p. 5 There were foreign often invaders. 483. Scr. Germ. Auxilius. 3 Chronicon of Benedict of Soracte. Lang.

" the principal item in the revenue of the Holy See. . the iting to in 1045. This was due to the insecurity of travel not only in the Campagna. VI. and possession of the Circus Flaminius by the lime-burners. great buildings were trans- others were levelled to the their occupation by the opposite few were occupied by the lowest orders of thus the Forum Transitorium was taken tradespeople to ground prevent A faction. pontiff holy as both these popes were illiterate. Scr. 358 ad a. 1 See Mon. by the butchers. 1044. . 1 The falling off in the number of pilgrims was manifest in the shrinkage of the " Pilgrim's Pence. Germ. There were regular bands of highwaymen. Lang. There was a decline in the number of pilgrims vis- in regard Holy City. the Crypta Balbi by the candle-makers. own for his purposes. p. had extended reading writing after the double election of Sylvester and Gregory. a third was named who could help them celebrate the offices.THE USURPERS OF THE HOLY SEE 157 Amidst general disorder and the strifes of contending factions. but also in the rest of Italy and in the Alpine passes. Lack of knowledge and so far that. the Basilica Julia by the rope-makers. Vol. organized to waylay the pilgrims and rob them of the pence that they were expecting to offer to the "great beggar. Some formed into strongholds . they became the prey of any one who had the power to seize them and use them to set forth in detail." as Rome was Especially for pilgrims from the northern side called.

I cross site There exists still a few years ago) a modest wooden bank of the ancient Via Clodia. a distinguished pilgrim. especially Bernard and pilfell on the rich monastery of St. These were the Moors Bernard Pass. who for more than half a commanded the passes of acting heavy ransoms from grims. In 940 they crossed the St. ex- the travellers. recorded the murders committed by a band of Saracens in the of St. p. was taken at the bridge of Orsieres.DESTRUCTION OP ANCIENT ROME 158 journey to the "seat of the Apos- Alps the the of tles" involved risks and sufferings which An credible. of Frassi- century. yet the lonely roads converging to not until recently been quite secure. -Pierre. and compelled to pay a large sum in gold to save his of life. 973. 93. The outlaws of the Moors cruelty with the vied in rapacity and Campagna of Frassineto . opposo-called Sepoltura di Nerone. Maurice in the Rhone In 973. saw (at least. Cluny. which marks on the the it Rome have left the spot where a murdered Toward young female pilgrim was atrociously in 1827. from 906 to western Alps. period the . although the popes of a later age succeeded in extirpating the evil. now seem in- inscription formerly in the parish church Bourg-St. as regards the existence of regularly organized bands. and. neto. abbot Valley. 1 the beginning of 1 Shown this troubled in Fig. Maiolus. in the Val d'Entremont. 17.

Duke of Apulia. of the arrived in sight of the walls of Rome. at least so far concerned .) several thousand pounds of gold. of the nave rested on columns of various kinds of marble. Negligently built. and all the utensils. . May 24. as were source. with spoils from earlier edifices. it had The walls long since begun to show signs of decay. the venerable basilica of St." The chastisement that followed sweeping. differing in height and strength. 1084. so the "usurpers bore from the basilica all its furniture of gold and silver. City. as and the fortunes papacy were always closely connected with the Robert Guiscard. and Julius Caesar gathered large sums of money from the demolition of the temple Forum of Pietas. John Lateran fell in. the other churches of the time of Constantine. (896-897).THE SACK OP 159 1084 revenue from the contributions of pilgrims was temporarily offset by an increase from an unexpected loss of In the pontificate of Stephen VI. In the were untold treasures accumulated in the course their sockets. as Gaius Marius stole basilica of cen- from the smouldering ruins of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol (83 B. yielding under the pressure of the roof. These.C. near the the Apostolic of treasures. turies . all its See Holitorium. and introduced a new the history of the papacy of the fate is those evil days was era. bulged outward so far that the ends of the beams of the roof-trusses came out of and the building collapsed.

chief of whom was the consul Cencio Frangipane. knowing what they had to expect at the hands of the Normans and Saracens." says . and the unhappy City became the scene of horrors. The whole of the Campus Martius and of the Caelian hill was devastated by the flames. way through the eastern quarter of the city. The Romans displayed more courage than might have been expected. whom Gregory VII. At daybreak of May 28 the Normans and their infidel allies effected a double entrance by the Porta Flaminia (now Porta Porta Tiburtina (now Porta di S. probably his camp among the ruins of the aque- on the same spot by the Torre del where the Fiscale. del Popolo) and the Lorenzo) fighting ..DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 160 and established ducts.. but the attempt was stifled in blood and fire. Pope Hildebrand. The scene is well pictured by Gregorovius. traitors among them. in comparison with which the sack of the Vandals seems merciful. and conducted him amid fire and carnage to the Lateran. Abandoned by welcomed as the Emperor Henry a liberator IV. "When both flames and the tumult of battle had subsided. On the third day the citizens tried to rise once more against their foes. however. had summoned to his rescue. their Angelo. whom only a few days they had previously. they succeeded in releasing the Pope from the Castle of St. they pluckily entered on the unequal There were fight. fourth mile-stone of the Via Latina Goths had encamped 547 years before.

246. churches were devoid of ornament. 1 The grim conqueror Mrs. of Romans. the dead bodies . and among them the imperial prefect. while the plunder of the Moslems in the service of the duke could no longer have been comparable to that which their predecessors had ravished from St.THE SACK OF the learned author of Rome 161 1084 in the Middle Ages. streets in ruins. which were remained here and there in the already falling into decay. slavery. p. and attracted the spoiler by the gold which was possibly votaries. nevertheless. Peter's 230 years before. men calling themselves senators. formed a thousand accusers against him. . until the Romans. Goths and Vandals. were led in troops into their camp by Saracens. Noble women. Vol. bound with cords. for The still affixed to them by brutal fury of the victors satisfied itself some days in robbery and murder. 1 " Rome smoking ashes before Gregory's eyes lay a heap of burnt churches. had been more fortunate than were the Normans. and a cord round their necks. children. Hamilton's translation. and youths were openly sold like cattle into others. threw them- a sword selves at the feet of the duke. The Pope must have averted his eyes as the Romans. Hideous images of saints basilicas. since Goths and Vandals had found Rome filled with inexhaustible wealth. The city was now terribly impoverished. IV. and even the Mutilated statues stood in the ruinous streets or lay in the dust amid the relics of baths and temples. were carried as prisoners of state to Calabria.

we can still whole has never recovered from the state of desolation to which (Fig. of two churches the level the city before. have evidence of this in the of S. Clemente. had been hurried from the castle of S. centuries. Clemente was undertaken. traces of this Norman-Saracenic invasion. to tant from S." Even after the lapse of so Rome find in many The Caelian quarter as a it The few roads which 27). earlier . at an un- known pave a room in a house two miles disClemente. was reduced in 1084 traverse this silent region are practically the same as those through which Gregory VII. The Pisano. and the upper that after. The lower church shows one above the other.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 162 compassion. comple- This information has lately been obtained from the epitaph of Cardinal was accidentally discovered new house in Via Arenula. reconstruction of S. tion who of died in 1126 or 1128. only their present level from debris the burnt is edifices higher. There is a difference in level date. after the withdrawal of Robert Guiscard. leaving the the work to Cardinal Pietro Pisano. by Cardinal Anastasius. having We considerably raised the level of the whole district. Angelo to the Lateran the layer of . of thirteen feet and the and seven inches between the later church. the The fire. but he felt could not make good their losses. which in the foundations of a marble slab on which this inscription was cut appears to have been divided up into small squares.



after the catastrophe. but it the original area.THE SACK OF The fate another of ecclesiastical the church of the Caelian. in dently rolled down This 1111 on the same fire had evi- the slopes of the knoll on which the building stood. the Porta Perusta. reconstruction Forum Romanum of To the (1110). still the Coronati. porpkireticam et aliam erant recondita sacra corpora. by which it was believed that belated travellers were pursued on entering the city. Adriano churches of of S. of S. Monti (1113). 1116. We II. and of a chapel Maria in Monticelli. It pagan monuments by the pillage must have been great. or the " burnt gate. Quattro fire. Salvatore in Primicerio (1113).. . stroyed by the same somewhat II. for on building SS. erected to scare away the ghost of Nero. Much has been written in regard to the extent of the damage done and fire to the of 1084. Pantaleo ai near the Porta Flaminia. especially in the region of the Caelian. of S. valley which runs between these The and of the hills in the direction of old Porta Asinaria was named. is church was rebuilt by Paschal Paschal 165 1084 occupies only a small portion of learn from the extant. de- different." the Lateran. that he inscription of made excavations under the marble floor in search of some holy relics: iussit cavare sub altare quod prius combustum et confractum fuerat et invenit ex proconesso duas concas in quibus unam The work was not completed the same Pope is due S. of the Oppian. till the also in the January 7. the reason that the debris of the level.

ceased altogether to be inhabited. also went safely through the ordeal. now hills. the final of the old level of streets and squares (Fig. works of of and of Marcus Aurelius did not The being in the middle of open squares.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 166 the abandonment decay of the City. and to the for the second. Archbishop of Tours. and the scanty gration. The long since stricken by water famine. why the two massive columns of Trajan and of Marcus Aurelius were spared in these centuries of wholesale destruction. dated 1119. states that both the column of Marcus Aurelius and the little church . who visited Rome in 1106 or 1107. the present church of S. Hildebert. theatres. suffer at collection and that art in bronze at the Late ran. The col- all. In fact. 28). the disappearance of the remains of private houses. namely. and also of the beautiful statues in We which the City know one still abounded. Silvestro in Capite. to the public treasury for the monks An of SS. such as temples. at least. of marble statues on the Quirinal. where the digging of wells was easier on ac- count of the alluvial Tiber. speaks of great remains which struck him with admiration. of the reasons. population pressed more and more toward the Campus Martius. and even dates from this fearful conflaof some public edifices. They brought a respectable income to their respective owners. were not much damaged by the fire. The umns of Trajan which forms the valley soil of the larger monuments. and baths. Dionysius and Sylvester inscription in the vestibule of first.



and the nature of the fracof rubbish. This shaft was undoubtedly erect on its the pedestal in the time whether. Nicholas were leased it from year to year. quate cause we know still . why should the Vatican obelisk have been the only one to withstand the shocks ? Further. after sponsible for Charlemagne. the injuries that they had received before. be held in re- possession of precise records of the discovery of the different obelisks. or after the fall. because obelisks were that standing in some of the principal and seventh the sixth Nor can earthquakes be considered an ade- centuries. probably account of the fees tourist or pilgrim that Rome from The a lofty point of observation. Normans the all. indicating the way in which they lay on their bed which the various fragments were found. the tures. depth at we should probably be able agency the giants were laid low. up by Augustus as a sun-dial in the obelisk set Campus Martius is commonly attributed to the Normans. during.THE SACK OF 169 1084 which stood at the foot of of St. its . obelisks were less fortunate than the columns just referred rative of wished to behold the wonders of commemo- and the overthrowing to. on which could be collected from the to the highest bidder. that the responsibility of the to tell But it by what is throwing down certain of the monoliths cannot be fixed upon the early barbarian invaders. it has . when the Einbut we are not sure of was compiled siedlen Itinerary are to Were we destruction.

152 of his book Degli obelischi di Boma. now in V. by building fires of the efforts drilling made by man holes to insert all They to bring levers. showing the 1 See p. and the one from the mausoleum had of Augustus. on the contrary. toward the norththat east. 1 Sixtus contemporary. Michele He states that the obelisks discovered by his of the first Mercati. Maxim us. base. which rested on the showed the edges rounded off by the violence of Such operations require more time and the flames. appear to have fallen toward every point on the horizon. He says that every saw come out of the ground was broken obelisk which he three into intact.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 170 been proved that the columns of the porticoes of public and private buildings destroyed by the earthquake of 422 all fell in the same direction. . toward the point of the compass from The obelisks. or by about the pedestal. the the two from Piazza del the Laterano Circus and the Piazza del Popolo. this One is an unpublished sketch by Carlo Fontana. is. retained evidence them down. which the shock came. The last statement is corroborated by the evidence man who investigated the subject. pieces. MDLXXXLg. now in the Piazza dell' Esquilino not been overthrown by accidental causes.. I have three documents to present in relation to interesting subject of the fate of the obelisks. the upper and middle pieces being while the lower portion. patience than would have been devoted to such a pur- pose by the barbarians.

The The obelisk sketch (Fig.THE SACK OF way the moment obelisk of 171 1084 the gardens of Sallust lay at the of its discovery. 1 It of the obelisks decorating the Egyptian casino of the gardens of Sallust had fallen. interesting in the light of Mercati's i Volume G 1. experience in unearthing Isis. sheet 249. as of Carlo it Fontana. and the private library of shows the way Queen Victoria which one in is at it had fallen. one double the This division of parts is especially length of the other. at the time my own the record of the obelisk of the temple of of fall its and . FIG. having been broken into two pieces. Another is a sketch by Maria Bandini. lay after here dated March 21. is of the gardens of Sallust. showing the injuries which the Angelo lower portion of the obelisk of the Campus Martius had suffered before or lastly. statement that in . 1706. 29). reproduced preserved in Windsor. near the apse of the church of La Minerva. 2i).

30. see also the holes drilled in the upper insertion part levers of iron clamps. chief importance Obelisco Ccesaris Augusti. Romae. The obelisk of the Campus Marti us. 30). have reproduced it on a scale a one third the than less little size of the original (Fig.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 172 their the fall would obelisks break generally into three pieces of about equal length. for by those the and who were endeavouring to hasten the But the 1 De fall of the shaft. The drawing given by Bandini 1 to illustrate the condition is I the obelisk of Campus Martins the in even more significant. This how the lower portion of the monolith !/: dMflFEX-MAXlMVS off had been away and rounded eaten fff/STVS shows drawing by fire we can . Campi Martii ruderibus nuper eruto. . e FIG. MDCCL.

We classical the feet Campus . Com. the shaft was protruding meaning of this is clear above ground and exposed to injury. 1 June 14. therefore. 1 Bull. In other words.THE SACK OF in the fact lies we that 173 1084 from the evidence thus afforded are able to determine the approximate date of the fall The reader itself. when the in Augustus fell. In a line with this conclusion was the condition of of the the obelisk of Rameses the Great. it was and the modern may.. 1883. AVhen which was brought among the ruins of the temple monument was laid on its this graceful pavement of the temple in which it was standing had already been covered with a thick layer side. the pedin a remarkable state of The preservation. shaft is estal is will observe that though the greatly injured and in part calcined. p. assign the fall monolith to the tenth or the eleventh century. to light of Isis. . 1883. the level of Martius had risen some ten or eleven obelisk of about halfway between the level of the City. while the base was embedded and protected by the soil and debris which had accumulated around it. the of rubbish. 33 sq.

cardinal of St. 50. of the ninth century. of the twelfth. describes seven routes by which Caelestinus II. better known under the name of Ordo Romanus.CHAPTER XV ROME AT THE END OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY THE ITINERARY OF BENEDICT THE state of Rome vasion could in no before and after the way be more Norman in- clearly indicated than by comparing the Einsiedlen Itinerary. 51 . Topographic der Stadt Lanciani. (1130-1143). Peter's under the pontificate of Innocent cated to of Castello. Vol. 1 Jordan. Urlichs. 174 . with the Itinerary of Benedict. Bene- became Pope in 1143. IS Itinerario di Ein- . 143. dex topogruphicns urbis Romae. Vol. edited by Mabillon. p. Co- Jordan. Museum Italicum. 664 sq. Horn They II. the popes used to cross the city at the head of public processions on certain days of the year. and myself. p. was dedi- It Mark. 79 sq. Guy dict himself II. last This document. follows 1 are as : Mabillon. nn. II. forms a part of the Liber politicus written by Benedict. Urlichs. under the name of His Ordo. 87 sq. . p. siedlen. who was canon of St. in Altertum. p.

Benedict the Canon apparently had Romae}. when describing the City. From the church of IV. " The Marvels of Rome " (Mirabilia Urbis 1 In fact. the Itinerary of Benedict has a distinctly mediaeval character. the church of the Resurrection (now S. Hadrian to S. VII. by a Maria Nuova (now different route. and are specially important for our study a greater number of landmarks are mentioned than in the Einsiedlen document. M. S. From the church of mana) to S. III. S.THE ITINERARY OF BENEDICT 175 ROUTE From I. of map made at a the City of the fourth or when time the edifices still bore their correct and classic names. than this vade 1 There is through the of ignorant pilgrims. Anastasia) to St. 1889. S. These seven routes correspond in part with those followed by the Einsiedlen Itinerary. From the Lateran to the Vatican. which pontifical mecum pageants an English translation by F. while the Einsiedlen Itiner- based on a century. Back from the Vatican V. Peter's. II. and Maria Maggiore to the Late ran. Maria Maggiore. From the church of St. at hand no better source of information for topography. Peter's. and shows traces of the influence of that widely used mediaeval guide-book. and . London. We may is ary fifth also observe that. Francesca Ro- Maria Maggiore. to the Lateran VI. From the Coliseum to St. many changes are clearly seen to have taken place in the thoroughfares of the City since the ninth century. Nichols. .

e. now the church of S. we readily see. as did the Politicus of Benedict and the liber Censuum of Cencius Camerarius. Porticus. which has start already been transformed follow Benedict over into Sancta the same route. Sanctus Angelus. the theatre of Pompey. all belong to the classi- Ordo Byzantine periods. Anastasia. Jovis. i. the colonnade of Octavia. The and Porticus usque ad Elephantum has become the Porticus G-alla- . compare the Tenth Route of the Einsiedlen Itinerary with the First of the Itinerary of Benedict. of interest first Maximus and the mentions the following objects : Scola Graecorum. theatre of Marcellus. Elephantus Herbarius. the colonnade of Philippus. These names. Theatrum. and their relation of the cal or to the We names given in the Mirabilia is at once obvious. on the Via della Bocca della Verita. Templum temple Ecclesia Graecorum. colonnade on the west side of the Via della Bocca della Verita. now Piazza della Bocca della Verita. between the Circus The Crypta Balbi. Maria in Cosmedin. both conduct the reader over the It will be instructive to same ground. Portions.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 176 had gradually made of the Roman its way among the official documents curia. Theatrum Pompeii. from the church of the Anastasis. But the names are of an altogether different class. Capitoline Elephantus. of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. on the hill.

2. as actually having the shape of a tree 1 ! 1 The name N for turpentine-tree in Italian is terebinto. now the bridge and castle of Augelo. destroyed by Alexander VI. the familiar Terebinth of the Mirdbilia. Obeliscus Neronis. which is not covered by the Einsiedlen Itinerary . one Porta of the great mausolea on the border of the Via Triumphalis. The name Terebinthus seems to be a corruption of tiburtinum. dealing with the Burgus. It was demolished to take advantage of its beautiful marbles for the building of the steps and of the court of St. from ancient to mediaeval names in every route of the Ordo . which in the language of those days meant an edifice built of stone or marble. and Craticulae. the gate of St. collina. Sibyl. in one of the panels of the bronze gates. Antonio Filarete has represented the monument. Pans. accurate as well as clear. 3. first rank for our knowledge of monumental Rome in the twelfth cenTo indicate its value we may take up the part tury. now 177 represented by the church and hospital of the temples of Pietas and Hope in Holitorium the Forum have the name of Cicero and the S. the theatre of Marcellus Porticus Minucia the Crypta Balbi A is similar shifting found to be now is is a is a Basilica Joins Portions the Templum the Crinorum. in front of the castle. . S. is as follows : 1. templum. Peter's. Peter Mallius describes this mausoleum as resembling in shape and in height the mole of Hadrian. Peter. or Vatican district. nevertheless always remain a document of the this will . Galla Patricia . castellum Adriani.THE ITINERARY OP BENEDICT torum. the topographical outline.

to it 8. Via Sacra. just shrines. Salvator de Porticu. between the church of S. The covered way and demolished July donia. Peter's. as well as in Raphael's fresco of the Vision of Constantiiie. and followed the line of the present Borgo Vecchio to the foot of the steps of St. 7. . toward St. 6. one of which was of porphyry. Romulus " was a mausoleum of pyramidal form a pair with the so-called Meta lieini. also popularly called Antonio Meta by the Porta di Borgo. This was a small square at the foot of the steps of St. S. S. Interesting as it would be to follow the worthy canon through the other parts of the City. by means of which the pilgrims could cross the Borgo under shelter. Angelo. Porticus Maior. 5. in 1568 to which it belonged. the other two were of white marble. Alexander VI. now mentioned was lined with churches Maria Transpontina de Capite Porticus. It started at the Ponte S. Paolo. ornamented with three fountains. It stood on the left of the Via Triumphalis. represented by Laurentius of the Ordo. the limits of our task . This was a covered way. 1564 S. so called from the corporation of makers and sellers of pilgrims' staffs. Peter's. This was a church at the end of the covered way. Porticus.DESTKUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 178 4. S. and the present shape by the Cesi d' Acquasparta in 1659. rebuilt in its . levelled it to the ground to make room for his Via Alexandriua. Cortina Beati Petri. This " Tomb of shape. demolished widen the area mentioned under the next head. 13. pyramid of Cestius. or de Bor- Giacomo Scossa-Cavalli S. Laurentius in Porticu Maiore. and di is Filarete's bronze panel. Peter's. so called to which we know S. Memoria Tomb seu sepulcrum Romuli. It as the was represented in of Romulus. such as S. Maria Transpontina and the palazzo Giraud-Torlonia in the Piazza Scossa-Cavalli. Maria in Virgari. Pius IV.

31. City in most places A surface. construction was such as to defy Nature herself. moss-grown and crumbling except where the FIG.THE ITINERARY OF BENEDICT forbid. Mediaeval Rome has limit of its greater changes. left . the great monuments. in part exploited for such building materials as are of use to the scanty population of degenerate days (Fig. in part undisturbed in the midst of the wilderness. metropolis lies ten now almost readied the The level of the ancient or twelve feet below the large portion of the site of the once proud is wholly deserted . are in part turned to account as habitations. A 179 typical Roman house solidity of of the twelfth century. 31). built with odd fragments.

son John. flourished toward the end of the twelfth century. cutters. or marble- serious damage. by the Sons of Paul. his who . filii Pauli. whose work was in a sense a precursor of the Renaissance.CHAPTER XVI MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS OF MEDIAEVAL AND RENAISSANCE ROME IN the exploiting of the Roman monuments for valumaterials in mediaeval and early modern times. are only a branch great succession of workmen which was founded. and flourished from 1143 to 1209." of this about 1150. or lime-burners. son of Cosmas. the last Romano. which also includes Vassalecti form three or four generations. and was followed The by five generations of artists of the same name. and the The Roman Calcararii. Cosmatis. Lawrence. the third branch. marble-cutters. from 1153 to 1275 branch is that of Ranuccio and Nicholas. sculptors. the head of the Cosmati branch. and mosaic-makers. with his sons Peter nephew John Guittone. whose are command artistic creations still generally called the " School of The Cosmatis. however. able two workmen classes of in particular wrought the most These were the Marmorarii. 180 his grand- . architects. our admiration.

being almost ready and panels This is of the for use in borders mosaic. two pavement of SS. it is sufficient to observe that for the space of three centuries the guild lived and prospered and accomplished work at the expense of the ruins of ancient Rome. Frothingham. and nearly were similarly turned to use in the without the Walls. reason why the of floors our mediaeval churches are so rich in epigraphic documents about hundred inscriptions were used in making the . and others have written on the origin and progress of For our purposes this great school of marble-cutters. ambones. De Rossi. The marble-workers traffic two and a half spirit of emulation in building of Italy. Boni. Paul's felt in by the which had seized the cities centuries. Each town an interprovincial Roman marbles. sustained impelled to raise a church. to find models and its They were to secure materials for their work. beautiful.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS It is not necessary to repeat here 181 what Promis. which also inaugurated and even international flourished for a thousand floor of St. and decorative patterns. The marble-workers made excavations and destroyed old monuments with two ends in view. Quattro Coronati after the destruction of the church by the Normans. "grand. whose just proportions . Richter. Mazzanti. Reu- mont. especially fond of epitaphs whether pagan or Christian it mattered not because the thin slabs of marble on which the epitaphs were inscribed could easily be adapted to their purpose. magnificent.

baths. breadth. and more spoils were accumulated than could be disposed of in the local market. donment of the Roman monuments. whom he describes as following in the path of destruction. the middle However. and worthy of the worship of Christ in and duomo canticles.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 182 and length should so harmonise with the decoration as to make it decorous and in height. His pungent remarks were addressed especially to the nobles. . treading in the footsteps of the Goths the Vandals. The first influential voice heard in remonstrance against these practices of the marble-cutters. theatres. broken to pieces and thrown into the lime-kilns. hymns and campaniles stars. classes closely followed their Temples. try in excess of the grew with which demand. and even their walls overthrown and their foundations broken up for the sake of the stones or of the bricks After a time the produce of this indus- they were faced." like the of Siena which should reach "even to the . are known to but they have yet to be properly grouped and compared. Some of the facts connected with this new phase in the history of the destruction of students . and palaces were their marble ornaments were demolished piecemeal example. and lower if and the patricians were to blame. tions. The archives ." like that of Spoleto. Rome I shall here offer only a with the hope that they investigate the subject may few observa- induce others to more thoroughly. and the utter abanis that of Petrarch. the details of solemn.

the desire to follow Roman traditions was so great was actually the one which then that the fountain in front of the cathedral decorated with a brazen wolf. The lofty openings of the upper story are decorated with a double row of is columns of unequal length. The portion of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle erected by Charlemagne in 796-804. The earliest instance of the removal of marbles from the Eternal City to distant lands dates from the time King Theoderic. an octagon copied from S. examining the documents connected with the building of the duomo at Orvieto leads us to hope that other records may be found. 1 In fact.. Peter's. by means of which this branch of trade of mediaeval Rome may be illustrated. like stood in front of the Lateran. Cassiodorius. brought from Rome. in the atrium of St. on both sides of the Alps. Vitale at Ravenna. and Ravenna. orders that the columns of the Domus possession near the gate of the Pinciana same name an imperial should be sent to Ravenna. of rare marbles and breccias. the king's secretary.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS of our great church buildings 183 have yet to be explored Fumi the success achieved by Luigi in . and consecrated by Leo III. but . one which stood on the fountain of Symmachus. of In a letter addressed to Festus the Patrician. designed and built by Roman marmorarii. stolen by the French invaders in 1794. like the 1 The most valuable were restored at the peace of 1815. Treves. and with a pine cone.

and even of some parts Westminster Abbey. a magistrate in- Genius imported sarcophagi. the shape and quality of the marbles. by Busketus and Ronald. the architects of the duomo. and covered They . and of S. dis- now name and leading citizen of Ostia. 32). of the marbles actually bear the mark of their origin one near the southwest corner of the transept scribed COLOXIAE GENIO of Ostia. on the north coast of Sardinia. of those of S. (eleventh century) in Florence . . between Sorso and Castel Sardo. and the inscriptions engraved upon them. is mostly built of marbles The workshop in which remains were transformed into new shapes Ostia. of the church of S. To some of the buildings of this statement in the case of prove we need no literary evidence ." OSTIEXSIS. in 1100) . Some has lately been found on the banks of the Arno. and consecrated 1118 by Pope Gelasius taken from Rome and the classic II. begun in 1063. The inexhaustible stores of Rome were resorted to for the construction of the cathedrals of Lucca (1060-1070) and of Monte Cassino (1066) Salerno (1084 . Andrea of the baptistery of S. Francesco at Civita Vecchia. Yet give unmistakable testimony regarding their origin. of the cathedral of Orvieto (1321-1360). as that in 1742 at the foot of the high altar. (begun .. Matteo at at Amalfi Giovanni of the monastery of Nostra Signora di Tergu. inscribed with the Marcus Annius Proculus.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 184 The in cathedral of Pisa. " To the is preserved in the of also Camposanto. Fig.

32. and purchased in Rome These spoils were put on marbles of various colours. Matteo at Salerno." .MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS 185 Monte Cassino we do have the authority of Alphanus and of Leo of Ostia. bases. who expressly state that Desiderius for FIG. The pulpit in the cathedral of S. and capitals. " columns. built with marbles from Rome.

Monte Cassino the work Garigliario to was accomplished with teams the mouth of the of transportation One of buffaloes. conse- quence of the sack of 1084 was the carrying off of columns and marbles of various kinds by the retiring adornment for the army We of the cathedral at Salerno. are indebted to Luigi Fumi for detailed informa- Rome tion concerning the use of materials from building of the cathedral at Orvieto. in the deW Opera deC duomo. and landed at the mouth From of the Garigliano. in June. the shattered remains of which I brought to light in 1881. then probably not subject to individual owner- the ship. from the forty years the maestri intendents of first barge- quay of the For the space Ripetta to Orte. and the ruins of Veii 1 were in like Fumi. the temple of Isis and Serapis. shared the same fate in the following year centre of devastation being the theatre. of nearly or " super- construction." sent their agents through the country around Rome in search of blocks of marble The ruins of Porto (the Portus carvings. In process of time the villa of Domitian at Castel Gandolfo. 1321. 1881. II duomo manner put di Orvieto ed i to ransom. in May. the portico of Octavia. The docu- Rome. 1316. near the mouth of the Tiber) were attacked Augusti.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 186 board light coasting ships (tartane) like those that still sail up the Tiber to the wharf of Ripa Grande. the mausoleum of Hadrian. 1 The loads were shipped up the Tiber. with the consent of their owners those for their . suoi restauri. . of Ostia.

but believed to a small be of the daughter of Henry The name of III. When search was made a compensation was paid to the of the colonnade of Octavia.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS 187 by Fumi give us many this merits collected Savelli. engraved in the basement of the shrine of Edward the Confessor. . and of window which occupies the Other blocks were brought from the same source in 1359. in a paper read at a meeting of the and American Society of Rome. while Andrea di Ugolino was superintending the work. March 28. a block of marble purchased for thirty-five florins was taken from the colonnade cut into the beautiful round Octavia. Giacomo Boni. at the disposal of the builders of the cathedral the remains of the villa of Domitian." he says. British makes an interesting statement regarding the use materials in Westminster Abbey. d' Orcagna. In 1354. a fee was paid to the City for the license of exportation. of Roman still is preserved in Westminster Abbey. wax. and saffron. in private grounds owner. which belonged respectively to Alessio Matrice and to Paolo di Converrone. "Among the most important works of a Roman marble-cutter 1893. were remunerated with a gift of pepper. under the mastership of Andrea centre of the fagade. who PETRVS ROMANVS civis is died in 1257. If the blocks were considered res nullius. as in the case and of the temple of Isis.. Peter. who had placed details of Pandolfo and Giovanni remarkable trade in old marbles. "there tomb bearing no inscription.

" The attempt of Richard of Ware to of the transplant to England a style of work which could only find its proper means of support among the ruins of an ancient city.on relics of the the place of honour by Henry it toward 1269. save the grey The Purbeck marble. porphyry and serpentine. and brought as back. he lies buried under the red and green porphyries (the essential element of a Romanesque pave- ment) which he brought himself from the banks Tiber to those of the Thames. the Confessor were laid in III. of Ware. was not successful . that is to say. erected in 1281. the following words Upon some his grave may slabs of be read : HIC PORTAT LAPIDES QVOS HVC PORTAVIT AB VRBE. I do not wish to cast more blame on the loss of the . has nothing English about it. but there is no doubt al- that the Romans though we yet lack material evidence found new outlets for their trade to compensate for the English market. which the year in .DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 188 must have worked therefore. the second founder of Westminster Abbey. is the abbot paid a visit to the Eternal City. which took place in 1258. a souvenir of his pilgrimage. materials of which the in front of the high altar Roman- esque pavement composed were certainly imported from Rome by the Abbot Richard After his election. In presenting this aspect of the destruction of the Eternal City. The tomb of this king.

and more so to know that the request was granted. the . to Pope Pius VII. Fea. While the army of Vespasian was beancient buildings . 1822. and Cardinal Pacca. Rome became the capital Pope Pius IX. a few months before of Italy. named Matteo Lovatti. be said in extenuation of their treatment of and many instances of more wanton destruction might be cited. by a building contractor. on the favourable report of Visconti. but Self-defence I may be urged as have discovered in the State archives a petition addressed on August 20. as we have seen. It is astonishing to think that such a request could have been addressed to a man S. and the garrison of Hadrian's mausoleum.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS mediaeval marble -cutters Much may 189 than they actually deserve. a legitimate excuse . he like to destroy certain ancient ruins opposite the church of Maria in Dominica. and the trouble of quarrying travertine from the territory of Tivoli. the partisans of Vitellius hurled bronze and marble statues on their assailants . In 1870. Valadier. to provide materials for a house he would was raising in the Piazza del Popolo. sieging the Capitol. To save time and money. defended themselves in a similar manner during the siege of the Goths. one of the most interesting and best preserved gates of the City. determined to raise a monu- mental column in memory of the Ecumenical Council. like Pope Pius VII. in which he states that. from the time of Nero to our own age.. and trying to scale its walls from the roofs of the nearest houses.

opposite the church of S. of which it was built stones were sunk in the foundations of the column. but sometimes claimed officials a share in the profits. referring to marbles taken from this source " : The statues lie broken in fragments. were ruthlessly sacrificed. We have already seen that Roman legislation at one time imposed capital punishment on those who destroyed old tombs for the sake of the marble of which they were built. Chryso- loras. while those less exposed to view. . 245. preserved in the Vatican archives. 1 See p. ready for the lime-kiln. The destruction did not decrease in the Middle Ages. July 1. made use of as building material. says. or 1 standing on private grounds. and that Constans substituted a fine for the death and that these and similar provisions for a time checked the destruction of the tombs lying close penalty . 92. or as mangers or are in stables. I have seen many used as mounting-steps. to the and waxed even greater in the Renaissance. 2 2 of we Diversorum. Vol.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 190 The Porta Tiburtina of Honorius. was sacrificed. learn that p. or as curbstones. the master of Poggio Bracciolini. From a document 1426. Pietro in Montorio all to no purpose." Public not only tolerated this search for sculptured marbles and for limestone. highways. IX. because the events of September 20 of that year made monument out the raising of the of the question.

" 1 See the article by Miintz in Bevue Archeologique for May-June. in opening new Paul of years III.MARBLE-CUTTEKS AND LIME-BURNERS the papal while giving a free hand to a authorities. ging "many cellars. 1884. fate similar to that of the Basilica Julia fell to the lot of the Monte del Grano tomb Alexander Severus at the of thus perished also half of the Coliseum. used to be thrown into the kilns. especially those sculptured in of issued most cruel regulations to the effect that no one should dare thus to penalty of The the death. the Cancelleria. in repairing made Giacomo his of Isolani. the arch of Lentulus. from this source to Cardinal then engaged A Eustachio. Greek marble. Paul III. says and statues discovered torsoes De in dig- planting gardens and vineyards." (1534-1550). the spoils of which served to build St. and in streets. the early Marchi. of lime-burners company 191 to destroy the Basilica Julia on the Sacra Via for the sake of the blocks of travertine of pillars and of the nave aisles were reserved to themselves half the produce of the built. the square basement of the mausoleum of Caecilia Metella. the " In Palazzo Farnese. titular income the who was church of S. the Palazzo di Corneto. on account the wonderful lime which they produced. number and value logical collections in 1 destroy ancient statuary under was a steady increase in public and private archaeo- result of Rome. . Peter's. the Circus Maximus. and a hundred other monuments. St. the Villa Giulia. . kilns which the a present was afterward . Mark's.

" 2 Thou- sands of inscriptions have perished in the same way. suggests the use of powdered Parian marble. put at the mercy of the the Fabbrica di Forum and S. 17. Pietro Via of the Sacra all . opposite the church of S. n. 116. his . so its way through fire. suppose that the destruction of the masterpieces being. dated " " of deputies July 22." 1 Flaminio Vacca. Pirro Ligorio. edited by Fea. 1540." with respect to a statue found by Orazio Muti. the architect. 23. did not produce a lasting effect. Memorie. "which had been sent to the kiln to have the moisture taken off its back. but it art may have diminished for the time was by no means suppressed. after describing a certain marble boat with figures on it. the monuments of the and they did not hesitate by the pontifical grant to the fullest possible to profit extent. remarks that " as it now it has been made to steer He makes a similar observation once floated on water. adducing testimony from 1 2 Codex Bodleianus.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 192 As a matter of fact. discussing the best way of obtaining a particularly fine plaster. found in the Baths of Caracalla. Flaminio Vacca. We must not forget that another edict of the same Pope. The spoliaand stone edifices went on with increasing tion of marble activity to the end of the sixteenth century. p. however. Vitale. Ligorio. these " most cruel regu- lations We " of Paul may Greco-Roman of III. Fra Giocondo da Verona. " obtained from the statues which are constantly being destroyed.

. and S. was also a dell' Olmo. Cesarini. Lucia de Calcarario. Calcarario. Then there were temporary establishments opened near this or that which were abandoned as soon as the supply was exhausted. The headquarters of these destroyers of ancient at the " Botteghe Oscure." that was is. of industry lime-burning at the whole minius that the So important was the exercise Circus Fla- district received the Lime-pit (calcarario. and above but. the Circus Flaminius facing the street of the arcades were then Rome in the wing that name of a in good state of preservaas a matter of fact. fed with the spoils of the mausoleum of Augustus and of La Pigna. ai Francesco delle now spring named S. SS. says that some Roman 193 citizens boasted of having had the foundations of their houses and palaces constructed with ancient statues. . Adriano. Nicola S. Baths of Agrippa and the temple of Isis. We must class among these the kilns by edifice. now now S. calcararia). name The extent of area covered by this designation can be determined of the by the site of the churches of S. ground. for the burning of the marbles of the Imperial Forums of the Ayosta. Quaranta de Stimmate. tion. supplied with materials from the . there II Calcarario. in the Piazza Other famous kilns were those of S. Nicolaus in Calcaria retro Cesarinos. high there was no great ruin of marble or stone that did not have of this its own kiln.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS own experience. Lucia dei Ginnasi .

a masterpiece of the time of Hadrian. He Flaminio Vacca. " To the insatiable incident relates the following " greed of Giuseppe Vitelli. 244. p. by Pirro Ligorio those of the necropolis between the Via Latina and the Via Appia. Memorie. Vol. is a document of Celestine III. of the temple of discovered by Nibby and by myself. dated March 30. 415. Inscriptiones alb. Ligorio. Codex Neapolitanus. "is due the disappearance of some in miles of the paving of the ancient Ostian way. Basilica Julia. see Bull. described by Panvinio. and Venus and Rome. p. 75. . as the temple of Vulcan. seen by Marini those of the Regia. 29 C. p. I. . tenant of the : farm at Ostia the year 1816. that is known to me. 104 Marini. mentioned the Baths of Diocletian. III. mentioned those of the villa of Livia at . . 1871... approval of to the pontificate of Pius VII. 1 Outside the City the burning of lime was practised for many among years Ostia and Porto.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 194 by Flaminio Vacca Prima Porta. X. . 1 state of Bullarium Vaticanum. Fea if not open. down the papal authorities. I. Vol. L. Pauvinio. the ruins of The oldest record bearing upon the matter. well carved cor- broke the latter into frag- . where mention is made of a " locus qui vocatur calcaria civitate" 2 The extra portam non ab longe Hostiensi exercise of this trade continued without interruption and with the tacit. . and those of the . 1191. 2 preservation. which was in a most excellent as the destruction of nice from large pieces of many . del lust..

A lime-kiln was found in the palace of Tiberius on . FIG. before the eyes of Poggio Bracciolini and Cosimo de' Medici." shown on the spot (Fig. none of the important excavations with which I have been connected. not far from the temple. I Fragments of cornice from the temple of Vulcan. Similar kilns were discovered in 1796 by Robert Fagan. have myself had no small experience in tracing the results of the operations of the lime-burners . 195 but I suc- ceeded in stopping him before the fagots were set on The fragments thus rescued from the flames are fire. I mention two examples as specially worthy of note. 33. at rescued from a lime-kiln by Fea. has failed to bring to light remains of one or more limekilns.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS ments to make liine in a kiln close by . in fact. still exquisite entablature had 33). Other pieces'of this been destroyed in 1427. either in Rome or on neighbouring sites. Ostia.

afterward the Dr. leaving as few interstices as possible between them. In February. which took place at 6. p. others in fragments. a head of Nero the exquisite basalt.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 196 the Palatine brim with Among was It calcined. in the excavations on the south side of the Atrium of Vesta. a pile of marble was found about 14 feet long. pi. works of art. helped the . we were agreeably surprised to find among statues. published Mittheilungen for 1895. . which number to the alas ! is now hardly recognisable. one of I distinctly my Emperor colleagues. The statues and fragments had been carefully packed together. owing been left exposed in the of years it has dampest corner of the Atrium. 9 feet wide. 97-119. and 7 feet high. 1 little the filled to some intact. and other minor fragments. and of Prussia. pocrates. and remember how the prince. . some unbroken. statuette of by Hauser in the a head of Har. Henzen. It was wholly made up of statues of the Vestales maximae. 1883. in 1869. some hill fine now three cary- . this on February the in only four people besides the workmen. then the full vigour of health and strength. There were present at remarkable discovery.30 A. in an ephebus in black . and the spaces formed by the curves of the bodies were filled in There were eight nearly perfect with chips.M.. the latter were the veiled bust of Claudius. Terme delle nero antico atides. Crown Prince Frederick myself 9. II. and the broken ones the lower part of the lovely seated Vesta with the footstool. Museo in the by Rosa.

By what fortunate accident these sculptures were preserved it is but one thing at least is certain difficult to guess in order that . who had carefully filled the spaces between the statues as they lay side by side. 1883. a great House kilns quantity of of the Vestals other marbles belonging to and two deposits found in the course of the same excavations. 54.MARBLE-CUTTERS AND LIME-BURNERS workmen to raise the masses of marble the golden age of as if and to it Roman were a dream ! excavation. p. no empty spaces might be left. and set the That was up against the wall of the atrium. by some diggers of marbles. December. 1 1 the Two must have perished by of lime and of charcoal were fire. See Notizie degli Scavi. . like a cord of wood. statues 197 we recall it These beautiful statues had been piled into a regular oblong.

000 people in the entire area. which retained its " modernisation " 198 in its hills. Without them the site of Rome. the Whether men who remained the figure faithful to their native soil deserve the gratitude of mankind. might now have to be pointed out to the inquiring stranger as that of Veii. there were only 17. stricken We was papacy of within the walls was put under cultivation. from Avignon. return of Gregory XI. In the abandoned parts of the City a remnant of life could be found in the churches and fortified monasteries as of that character the of S. still mediaeval began While the seat of the Avignon (1305-1377). mediaeval 1884. of Fidenae. three-quarters the their prehistoric ancestors roofs. and quenched their are space The in- with fever and poverty. Esquiline. lived like in mud huts with thatched habitants. to be slowly transformed into told thirst that in with the waters of the on the the year 1377. and of Tusculum. is exact or not.CHAPTER XVII THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY IN the fourteenth century Rome was in the fifteenth a at modern it city. . of Ostia. Vines . completely deserted. until Caelian. Tiber. and Aventine Balbina.

while entrance those the Ponte the to of di commanded Pierleoni Santa Maria (the ancient Pons Aemilius. were in the hands of the Orsini. Papi. while the the hill of ised Monte by them Citorio. family occupied a fortified enclosure in the abandoned quarter about Trajan's Forum. proof of perpetual warfare holds the of Campo were bristling with square and battlemented. were util- (Villa Colonna). Romani. Anicii. obtrusive Torrecchiano. stood the dismantled ruins of baronial houses destroyed by the victor of the day other quarters . Via Tre Cannelli and Via Nazionale. 34). had supplanted the Pierleoni theatre of Marcellus (Monte in the possession of the The Colonna Savello). The strong- Stefaneschi. at the corner of the is still mausoleum standing . there are also towers of the Mellini and Sanguigni near the Stadium. and grazed again on the cattle site of Here and there the Forum. the amphitheatre of of the Statilius Taurus (Monte Giordano). One of of their towers. now Ponte Rotto). and Anguillara dominated the region of Tras- tevere. of the Bartolomeo (Fig. for instance brick the Normanni. and those Frangipani the island of The ruins S. towers. and of Pompey's theatre (Campo di The Savelli Fiori). as detached forts.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY and 199 in the halls of the imperial palace olive trees grew on the Palatine. of the Sinibaldi and . as in the days of Evander. loopholed and bloodshed. with the centre of their stronghold at the temple of the Sun on the Quirinal Augustus and strongly garrisoned.

. of a palace. 34. which had not the aspect FIG.200 DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME Crescenzi near the Pantheon. These ugly square struc- tures were raised to protect the residences of the barons. but of a cluster House and tower of the Margani.

the construction of which was popularly attributed to Nero. The great Torre de' Conti. chains the surrounding Frangipani covered the the southern half of the Palatine. was by Petrarch Turris toto orbe unica from its proIt commanded the district digious height and strength. Around them wall. The aspect of with that of S. who every night barred with The great fortress of lanes. of the Carinae part having collapsed during the earthquake of 1348. enclosed by a battlemented lived the vassals and partisans. 35). about 858. and posts also at the Coliseum. It was very likely built by Pandolfo della Suburra in 1210. pulled down the the lowest of the three stories. were towers crowned with battlements and with iron brackets for signal fires (Fig. and rebuilt by Innocent III.TEE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY of 201 narrow dwellings. called The upper and of the Subura. is rest. Rome may be compared In many parts there in those days Geminiano to-day. erected by Nicholas I. Pope Urban VIII. the core of the forti- being the Septizonium fication . as far as Much the top of better preserved the Torre delle Milizie. at Forum Boarium. at the the Janus Quadrifrons of the this family Turns had out- Cartularia. so great that a district of the City Their number was on the slopes and . low. In the second half same century it became the property of the Annibaldi. and later passed into the possession of the of the Caetani. and the arches of Titus and Constantino at . in 1216.

A of the beautiful. Via della Lungarina.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 202 at the foot of the hill was actually called the Torrecchiano. all lane of mediaeval Rome in 1877. Campo All Oppian sense FIG. demolished . 35. appreciation of art.

. on account of the graceful simplicity of their proportions and the finish of their work. (1464-1471) called Palazzo Venezia. Under the of of now pontificates of Paul's successors. palaces. as the handicrafts from Tuscany.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY 203 seems to have been lost for a time among the Romans. While other cities in Italy were raising churches. They can in their public and domestic point to splendid examples of the skill and taste of their master masons of the four- teenth century. artisans from other to revive. Viterbo. Sixtus IV. Mark. and . while to show that is influence of the we Romans have absolutely nothing Every trace comparable. the builders at Rome did little more than pile up and jumble together fragments of older structures. were in this Rome period far superior to architecture. The first impulse toward the rebuilding of the City was given by Eugene IV. (1484-1492). fountains. had to be parts of Italy. of the local Cosmatesque School seems to have dis- appeared before the beginning of the fifteenth century. interest in artistic construction of art no longer existed began which form the auxiliaries in the City. and the region of the lakes of Como and Lugano. town exchanges. who occupied the chair St. without regard to form or fitness. Peter from 1431 to 1447. and even Corneto. therefore. and splendid private houses which command admiration at the present day halls. Tivoli. Paul II. When.. is A splendid memorial the palace of St. Umbria. especially summoned to Rome. Innocent VIII.

the and S. the of Apostoli. owe Damaso the beautiful court of S. Celso (now commissioners of streets (magistri viaruni). the Spirito. began to manifest itself in the cutting of spacious streets through the ruins rambling habitations March 30. the round temple in the cloisters and the palaces of the Riario of S. . by Early in the fifteenth century the modern spirit. S. of the City. Torlonia-Giraud. Maria giore. Agostino. in the Belvedere. near the church of S. Via Banchi). Sistine chapel.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 204 Alexander VI. the Via di S. Maria del Popolo. Pietro in Montorio. S. 1425. paved the Corso between the Arco di Portogallo near S. Pietro in Vincoli hospital of S. so methodical in all things and so fond of straight lines. Sixtus IV. The aspect of the City was considerably changed the erection of these buildings. By a Martin V. and erected successively the churches of S. the Vatican. the galleries connecting this last with the pontifical residence. and Paul II. (1492-1503). Pietro in Montorio. and de' the Piazza Venezia. was named "the great . the Maria della Pace. S. Baccio Pontelli carried to Rome the artistic traditions of Brunelleschi. reestablished the bull and dated office of the Eugene IV. Mag- To B ram ante we which was recently destroyed. palace of the Governo Vecchio. (now the now Cancelleria) and of Cardinal di Corneto. in the and the lanes of several straightened paved Campus Martius Nicholas V. Lorenzo in Lucina. and the great court of the pontifical palace. the facades of SS.

at once covered it up again. once lined the dromos but being annoyed by the curiosity of the people. It cannot be denied that these improvements in the material aspect and welfare of the City involved great losses on the archaeological and historical With- side. for our purpose sufficient in his election which will to follow Poggio Bracciolini ride through the City in 1447. He also speaks of the remains of of the temple. out entering into particulars regarding the extent of be fully given in my volumes on the Storia degli Scavi di Roma. of describes Poggio where the the Beginning with the Capitol. Speaking of the temple of Isis and Serapis. the year of the Nicholas V. it will be the transformation. near the church of La Minerva. . and frieze . but a had dis- appeared so completely that archaeologists since then have found serious difficulty in determining which of the two summits of the hill was occupied by the Capito- lium and which by the Citadel. as covered with columns. on account of the many improvements made under his rule and Alexander VI. who rushed to see his find. southern Caffarelli palace now platform of the the colossal remains of the temple of Jupiter few decades later hill.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY builder " 205 {gran fablricatore). He says that a local gardener in planting a tree had lately dis- covered a head of one of the colossal river-gods. . capitals. carried the Via Alexandrina through the Borgo. stands. together with other recumbent figures. which. Poggio mentions two interesting particulars.

from which they could obtain materials of construction. fifteenth cenpatricians. When of the Martin V. facing the of Concord. Of the temple visited first Poggio says that when he 1431 the front portico. Rome in Forum. Similar instances of in the case of wanton destruction are recorded by him portions of the Coliseum. or Before commencing their work simple citizens.. as well as of the remains at Ostia and other suburban places. by these cardinals. contractors for the work. undertook the laying beautiful cosmatesque pavement of St. removed in December. John Lateran. they would secure the possession of a petraia. that is. instances. but that later the whole temple with a part of the portico was destroyed. There is no edifice in Rome dating from the fifteenth century the erection of which did not simultaneously carry with it the destruction or the I add a few mutilation of some ancient structure. an ancient structure or part of a structure. Maestro Aristotile di Fioravante degli Alberti. 1425. either Some -the 1451. whether was this: popes. received the Pope's permission to . engineer from Bologna. Antonio Picardi and Nicolao Bellini. lime and ornamental marbles. The general practice followed tury builders. to the Loggia of the Benediction at St. 'under the skilful the temple. columns were these of on lying ground or half buried under the ruins of of management the Peter's. was almost intact. in July.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 206 a with portico many columns.

1876. Giovanni Paglia Lombardo. complains that some precious slabs porphyry and serpentine had been wrenched off from 29. and the temple of A document of 1452 1 certifies that one contractor alone. 1436. the Circus MaxiVenus and Home. was allowed to remove from the Coliseum 2522 cartloads of travertine in the space of only nine months. of the pontifical chair. September. tomb In a brief of March of the prince of the apostles. The monuments which rule of Nicholas suffered the most under the V. "the altar of The same Pope issued a second brief for the protection of the Coliseum against the "diggers of marbles". the Curia. Eugene IV. "both within all in 207 which divine service was no Apparently the contractors gave to the grant a very broad interpretation. The temple of Venus and Rome was worked as a quarry columns of both cellae from 1450 to 1454. John Lateran. . but on the very longer celebrated. and yet I find that stones from the Coliseum were used by him in the restoration of the apse of St.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY of their strip marbles and without the City. Valen- Published by Miiiitz in Revue Archeologique. and marbles from the Curia and the Forum Julium in the restoration of the Apostolic palace. as most blessed the Peter " ! it were. and laid hands not only on abandoned places of worship." the churches. which was. Pope 1 The same destroyed the triumphal arch of Gratian. mus. the porphyry being used as lining for the lime- kilns on account of their refractory qualities. are the Coliseum.

of spoils of the the tombs of the Via Flaminia. the ruins of Ostia. Spirito. Paul II. the masterpiece of the time of Pius II. the Mil- vian bridge. the Senate-house. the bridge of Nero. of Cosma e Caracalla. Celso in Banchi. caused more damage vasion. of the Coliseum. chapels at the entrance to the same bridge with statues and ornamental marbles from the mausoleum of Hadrian. Maria in Cosmedin. in order to widen the Piazza di Ponte S. The next Pope.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 208 and Theodosius. at Gaianum Spinelli . to ancient monuments than Materials were extracted a barbaric in- and lime obtained from the Coliseum.. of the Septa Julia. and the massive tombs of the Via Flaminia near the farmhouses of Valca and Valchetta. the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Angelo and he built also the foundations of the two expiatory tinian. of the Loggia of the Benediction at St. Peter's. built the palace of St. of a temple near S. templum Urbis Sacrae Damiano). and of an unknown travertine building (the the vineyard of the banker raised the beautiful Tommaso Castello taken from the Amphitheatre. Mark with the temple of Claudius on the Caelian. by the church of S. the portico of Octavia. the genial .. the Palatiolum on the hill of S. ?) in and he Tivoli with materials Nevertheless. the Forum Julium. the temple of the Dea Dia on the Via Campana. . In 1456 twenty blocks of rare marble were removed from Ostia to Orvieto and made use of in the decoration of the facade of the The building Duomo. the the Baths (SS.

which stood near the Ara Maxima and the Forum Bo* monuments destroyed under the The two square towers on either arium. Les Arts a la cour des Popes. Heemskerk needed " for the work. The Porta in order to secure the stone del Popolo of the time of Sixtus IV. dated April 7. p. was one of the rule of this pontiff. 15. 36) 1 were built Miintz. 209 Piccolomini issued his famous brief 1462. 1 The From a sketch by (1536).THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY Aeneas Silvio April 28. side of the Porta del Popolo (Fig. authorises "the architects of the Vatican library to make excavations anywhere FIG. other. which u Cum almam of nostrum threatened heavy penalties and urbem^ the pontifical wrath against the destroyers of ancient in he remains. 1474." The beautiful round temple of Hercules inflicts Victor. 36. we have two for it our subject. in the . M. 1471 . the tutelary god of the charioteers of the circus. III. One is briefs that are important dated December 17. Vol. commencing. Of Sixtus IV. "the greater excommunication" on those who remove marbles from " the patriarchal and other churches and basilicas.

the charioteer. Nicias . The list Reliefs from the tomb of Calpurniaiius. Maria de' Miracoli. 37). Angelo with the marble frieze 1 and veneering of Hadrian's Visconti in Bull. Com. 6 . 178. Altogether 250 large marble blocks were used in the 1 building of the two bastions. The same Pope round tower built a near the gate of the castle of S. .. of a patrician lady named Postuma. 1877. of Valerius of Lucius Nonius Asprenas. sq. for this century closes with the destruction of a triumphal arch (called arcus novus) near S. in the of restoration Maria which were used by Innoof this church. and from an unknown tomb of pyramidal shape which stood on the site of the present church of S. consul A. the famous charioteer (Fig. Fier37. in Via Lata. 185 mausoleum. the materials cent VIII. and the removal of the great pyramid of the Borgo the socalled Meta Romuli 2 which was accomplished by Alexander VI. 2 See p. p.D.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 210 from the tombs pontificate with marbles same of Aelius Gutta Calpurnianus. in the widening and straightening of the Via Alexandrina.

and the importance of preserving ancient buildings was slow to be recognised. who died in 1503.. . Before passing to the disastrous sack of Rome by the army of Charles of Bourbon. the court. arch of Gordianus. Basilica Julia and the Palazzo built by Cardinal Riario with stone from the Coliseum and with marbles from the triumphal della Cancelleria. the A artists. I must remark that the first quarter of the sixteenth century showed a decided improvement in the increasing appreciation of the value of certain classes of ancient such popes as Julius II. of sculpture The of old science of topog- infancy. in the course of was afterward which the remains buildings suffered great damage. and such private individuals as Raphael and his archaeological advisers. of Cardinal Adriano di Corneto. of an unknown temple on the Sacra Via.. Fabio Calvo da Ravenna and Andrea Fulvio. Statuary and inscriptions were especially prized. The finding of the Laocoon among the ruins of the house of Titus on the Oppian seems to have struck with amazement the Pope. The last years of Alexander VI.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY Among 211 the palaces built by private individuals during the palace century I shall mention only two. raphy was the whole population. now Torlonia-Giraud. near the Praetorian camp. in fact general search for works instituted. this which was built with the spoils of and of the four-faced temple the of Janus. in its were marked by the destruction of a portion of the Baths of Diocletian. monuments on the part of and Leo X.

fresco. Peter's.. IV. laid the foundations of the Greek cross in 1506 under the pier now called della Veronica. his suc- cessor (1503-1513). Peter's appears in Jenichen's Pano- Rome. gressing very slowly when impulse. The four piers and the arches which spring from them were the only parts of the structure completed at the time of the Pope's death. it Bramante. St. Julius II. engraved more than half a century later . 1 Julius II. temple of Christendom was levelled to the ground with antiquities all its precious decorations in mosaic. 2 Bramante's design was to substitute for the old church. history. and Christian by the destruction of the venerable basilica The west half of the greatest is simply incalculable. 70. and Leon Battista Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino had been commissioned pare plans for its reconstruction. Vol. p. attention to However. gave under the direction of entered upon his duties in 1503. of a pure basilica type. an edifice in the form of a Greek with a hexastyle portico in front. cross. fears had been entertained for the safety of the building.. the old ramic View of (Frontispiece). he took up the remains of in earnest the re- construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. 1 Jahrbuch fur Kunst und Wiss. The loss occasioned to art. sculpture. was too much absorbed in military operations to give much ancient Rome. 2 Curiously enough. Since the time of Nicholas V. and an immense cupola over the centre supported by four great piers. placing who it Julius to pre- The work was pro- a new II.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 212 and Forum of the Transitorium.

which collapsed on the night of May 23. written in language. . (f 1243). Boniface Innocent VII. church of SS. the embankment of which was supported by The stones were removed to of travertine. among which were those of Celestine IV.THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MODERN CITY in marble and and its IX. and Nicholas V. in wood. "to the end that might classic the City of Rome might increase in size and in dignity by reason of additions to its buildings and its populaThe Via di Ripetta and the Via d' Aracoeli were tion. Donatus. Celso e Giuliano in Banchi. great walls St.: Eugene IV. The only act of vandalism which can be brought home to him is the destruction of a certain part of the Via Tiburtina. Peter's. . No great losses are recorded under the rule of Leo X. (f 1406). (|1447).. who. in the pontificate the old titulus Marcelli. for the encouragement of those who be willing to raise new edifices." opened by the 'same pontiff. Gregory IX. on September 2. called La Quadrata. Cj-1404). (f 1455). Three other churches also disappeared of Julius II. 1517. issued a bull. which was destroyed to widen the Piazza di Ponte. 1509 the church of S. demolished for the opening of the Via Giulia and the . (f 1241). with its 213 historical inscriptions pontifical tombs.

and the destruction caused by the Normans One in of 1084. and placed his headquarters in the convent of S. twenty thousand Germans.C. Angelo. 1527.. opposite the gate of S. fourteen thousand and six thousand Spaniards. 214 The pillage of the City." the name Barbone. appeared before the crumbling walls of the Leonine City May 5. the man with the long : ! beard. Spirito (Fig. Although he himself fell the victim of a stray shot early on the following day. Barbone " is gone.CHAPTER XVIII THE SACKING OF ROME BY THE ARMY OF CHARLES OF BOURBON IN 1527 THE sacking of Rome in 1527 was a calamity comparable only with the burning of the City by the Gauls in 390 B. the remorseless leader of a cruel ! army. e passa via Barbone Go to sleep." having usurped that of the hated conqueror. comprising Italians. succeeded in storming the Borgo while the Pope was seeking shelter in the castle of S. 38). Onofrio. his forces. the familiar lullabies sung to-day over the " Fatti cradles of restless children begins with the words " la ninna. . So persistent is the memory of those days of terror Charles of Bourbon.



SACK OF 217 1527 with unspeakable horrors. workman- marvellous mediaeval of II. women. they used the chalices of ship as drinking cups. were copied in tapestry by Bernhard The cartoons van Orlay and . horses profligate in the aisles with precious and Sixtus IV. vents. The Spaniards searched every tomb. from the In so short a time the treas6th to the 14th of May. were dispersed. The fate of these world-famous tapestries connected with on the that vicissitudes of to the City. Roman ures collected in the and con- palaces. The the sacred precincts of hands of Catholic the Peter's St. Julius the corpse of II. The litters Guillaume de Marcillat were and the Flemish by Raphael were stolen with for the tapestries sake of designed their gold threads. of its Lombards They stripped vestments pontifical . preparing their manuscripts collected by Pius stained glass broken into windows bits. thirteen years before these events. lasted eight days. during the lapse of centuries.. fared worse at and Spaniards than they had at the hands of the Saracens in 846. churches. which Rome have been exposed in and is throws relics of these later closely light antiquity in centuries. Pope Leo X. and rested themselves by lying stretched out on the venerable altars. and they in stabled company their of the sanctuary. they gambled with their booty. had given Raphael a commission to draw cartoons illustrating scenes from the New Testament.

and the other burst . They experienced perhaps a worse treatment in 1798 at the hands of the French invaders. of which Van Orlay had made use weaving the bright did not meet his expectations. directly in front of the one portraying the Miraculous Draught If we of Fishes. when they were sold a nominal sum to a Genoese Jew. 1527. and were carried off with other spoils from the VatiIn 1553.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 218 Michael Coxie. He burnt one them for the sake of of the gold and silver threads. they came into the possession of Anne de Montmorency. Two cannon-balls entered the gallery where the tapestries were hung one fell on the floor. recall the vast collections which the piety of Roman sacristies of centuries. but some of them were lost forever. however. we can of May. who restored them to can. festivals. bought the rest back in 1808. Even the tapestries that had been preserved to this time were not to be spared further vicissitudes. in but the profits Pius VII. and the priceless fabrics thus produced were exhibited in the Sistine chapel on certain church The tapestries were stolen by the lansquenets. their legitimate owner . siege of for Rome in 1849 they During the were exposed to injury for the third time from General Oudinot's artillery. the faithful churches appreciate of objects of value had heaped up during the preceding the losses of the Sacred vessels of small size in the month were packed . lights.

Via Borgo and trampled under di Andrew was stolen again in 1848 and hidden recess of the city walls between the Porta Cavalleggeri S. in 1606. and in and of Paul. . in A Capite. said Fiesole. was saved by Cardinal to the Ricci of Florence. have belonged to to Veronica. a masterpiece of the school of Mino da The vail. was tossed tavern to tavern mud in the The head 1 of the of St. It is family in the church of S. and the most precious relics were treated with contumely. German on the point of his lance the spear which was believed to be the one with which Longinus hoisted soldier had pierced the side of the Redeemer on the cross it had been presented to Pope Innocent VII. head of Silvestro St. the St. The busts of St. 1 and that of John the Presbyter were stolen respectively from their shrines in the Lateran. to bear the impression of the Saviour's features. where the 2 This limina. Marco. marks the spot was re-discovered the was kept first in a shrine built of the Virgin alone it in 1850. and St. was dragged from among the jeerings and taunts of the drunken soldiery. removed were destroyed.. Pancrazio. The now visit ad was de- The image who made a present preserved in the chapel of that Pallotta. by Bayazed II. which hung over the Apostle's tomb in St. relic relic.SACK OF sacks and carried off in 219 1527 others which could not be . Peter Andrew. one which the pilgrims sought on their stroyed in 1606. Peter's. Santa Lancia. A marble statue erected by Pius IX. church the of S. shrine priceless mosaic pictures. together with of in a and the Porta its by John VII. and was preserved in the famous shrine of the . in the Vatican. 2 The cross of Constantine. destroyed by Paul V.

and afterward dragged through the streets of the City with his hands tied behind him . Exquisite devised to extort ing concealed it. to be buried alive unless a fresh should be paid. Cristoforo Numalio. Lawrence in the Lateran most august shrine of the Catholic world. pearls and precious stones were apportioned among the German mercenaries by spoonfuls. he was lying cession and in profligate cardi- was torn from the bed where placed on a hearse. the Furniture. was held for a ransom of twenty thousand ducats. ecclesiastical his Another robes. although a partisan of the Emperor. and dragged in pro- ill. the chapel of St. palace. the share of an ordi- nary soldier in the booty being sand ducats. brandishing torches and vociferating infamous songs in imitation of Thus priestly canticles. was profaned and stripped of all its contents. from three to four thou- refinements of cruelty were money from persons suspected of havThe old Cardinal Ponzetta.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 220 Even foot. women surrounded Drunken soldiers the bier. he died soon after in great destitution. carried into the the unfortunate old man was church of the Aracoeli and lowered into a crypt. and works of art of every description were destroyed in private and houses palaces . soldiers A group had dressed a donkey in sacerdotal . nal. last his ransom rescue at the moment. pictures. Still more unhappy was the name ought of Friends came to drunken fate of a priest whose to be enrolled in the list of heroes.

We have quite definite information regarding the num- ber and the quality of the statues discovered and ex- . and suffered from those demons in human rible martyrdoms recorded flesh one of the most hor- in the history of persecutions. that assert that chisels. are at least exaggerated. if not altogether incorrect. cardinal of Ulloa. Giovio. . or of florins to . old man. by while Gregorovius. V. mentions a sum of twenty millions between seven and eight millions of find at fifteen nearly a million and a half pounds sterling. but these statements. Having caught hold of a priest. work that of others Greek Raphael's and those of Pinturicchio in the Sale Borgia of the Vatican were deliberately injured by the smoke of bonfires lighted in the middle of the halls that the very the tomb . dollars.SACK OF robes and made it 221 1527 kneel before a street shrine. the biographer of Charles in estimating this loss. they tried to force him to adThe good minister the holy communion to the brute. under the apse of was broken into. remains of the Apostle scattered to the four winds . and the of St. many were Cappella. The loss sustained by the City in those eventful days has been valued at seven or eight million of ducats by Como Scaramuccia Trivulzio. to save the Host from such profanation. In the light of these barbarities. Peter. swal- lowed it before they could prevent him. deep Constantinian Basilica. and ancient statues. mutilated or not surprising Brantome. frescoes in the Stanze is it the destroyed .

hill. are examining these three years ago last. In the Sale Borgia were reopened Leo XIII. as is usually stated. in the Piazza di May removed to the Belvedere gardens by Julius of Heracles in the possession of the Colonnas the torso of the Belvedere II. near Grotta Ferrata . found Campo di Fiori and attributes of Hercules (Heracles on among Commodus with the 15. not at Antium. and the people by exhibited in the Palazzo dei Conservatori the statue of Marcus Aurelius. and the two river-gods of the Quirinal. and the frescoes of Raphael. the three Constantines.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 222 hibited in Roman among them were palaces and villas before 1527. . 1507. and removed to the Vatican by Clement VII. when by order of still to be seen. I observed German . found at the time of Leo X. which has disappeared.. the ruins of the temple of Isis . Belvedere Apollo. the Sleeping the Ariadne. but on a farm of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. found. and the Laocoon group. found on January 14. 1506. the Heracles of the Colonna palace. Chief the recumbent colossal figures of the Nile and of the Tiber. There were also the bronze works of art Sixtus IV. the Capitoline marble horse-tamers. a torso another discovered in 1513 under Ciampolini house at the Campo di Fiori. by Felice de Fredis in his vineyard on the Oppian hill.. All these marbles and bronzes have come down to us uninjured except one. as well as those of Pinturicchio. . whose place of discovery is not known the . the and Telephos). Roman presented to the Senate and now on .

39). FIG. on the lower surface of the wall . 39. or of more peaceful visitors of later times unable to say (Fig. of the it The . but whether they are names of the mercenaries of Charles I am V.SACK OF 223 1527 names scratched with a pointed instrument. whether a sword or knife I could not tell. Reissner asserts that the right arm of the central figure Laocoon group must have been broken off after was discovered but it is a fact quite generally known that the arm was missing at the time of discover}^. One of the Sale Borgia that of the "Vita della Madonna" in the Vatican. assertion of a letter published some years ago by .

The " have soldiers. was violated during the sack been distinctly contradicted by Grisar. that in named Cecconi. 1879." etc. 27. they their victims have broken the on the coffins. Again. in the Historisches and bears the date of June 17. Mayerhofer that the of 1527. found a shiny piece of metal. diarist of the last century. Paul. 1892. 40. profaned every church in Rome. sacred vessels used in the divine service." the writer says. and on the morning of June put it in his pocket waiting for a chance to a connoisseur. relates 1705 a treasure of sixty thousand scudi was cellars of the Palazzo Verospi on the found in the Corso. Roina. Peter and St. Professor we ought not to take too literally the man writing under the excitement of Grisar thinks that expressions of a the appalling disaster of descriptions . p. Interesting discoveries have from time to time been made A in connexion with this sack of the City. and dispersed the precious dust they have stolen the . " 1527. engaged repairing Via della Stelletta. an 1. 23. or urns. containing the relics of St. certainly not one of the hundreds by eye-witnesses of the events agrees with this statement. 1 was written by Theodoric Vafer (alias Ge- has letter scheid). apprentice mason in the drain of a house at No. n. The tomb of St.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 224 I. . where it had been concealed in 1527. Peter 751) p. 1 show it to In the meanwhile the dirt from the drain See Le tombe Apostoliche di Roma. Jahrbuch (1891. and have slaughtered altars of the apostles.

their valuables into who gathered them in his and has preserved them to our day. and found forty-two more pieces. under whose pontificate the pillage took place.. had been seen in the treasure-trove. examined the contents. these outside the Porta Angelica. and : the legend of Pius II. once on the spot. Q would place the concealment of this gold at a later I have not been able to see the coin in question. if substantiated. for. and 142 gold coins were found for his made piece at Policemen were sent after the and near the drain. in 1503. to the great amazement of the drivers. a fact effigy that. and of other predecessors of Clement VII.. muddy of 1 treasury. certain is the coins bear the effigy. eighty-four gold pieces had therefore been concealed in the drain of the house during The date or immediately before the pillage of 1527. of Innocent Alexander VI. himself amount to one-third coins of the whole number. period than the sack. Clement VII.. The lad was caught in the act of receiving twenty francs Search was from a goldsmith opposite. The Tiber of hiding-place of chief importance . .SACK OF 225 1627 was carted away in the direction of the Porta Angelica. who who died in 1464 . the coat of arms. who died VIII. At the time of the discovery it was asserted that a coin with the and name of Paul III.. The died in 1492. by the invaders. in They overtook carts. the Romans threw 1 is the bed of the rather than allow their treasures to be seized the arms of Father Tiber. who had no idea that they were removing gold from such an unexpected One hundred and mine.

because time than one could watch personally. as republican symbols and weapons of every kind. were made to disappear as soon as General Oudinot had become the master The next important layer seems to correspond with the French invasion of 1798-1799. the tion of the works connected with the construc- embankments along the ing and deepening of its river bed began. and. and the of the City. third from the top yields mementoes as its harvest innumerable of the sack of Charles of Bourbon. I and the widen- made it a point to ascertain the comparative depth of the various finds with a view to determining the stratification objects of every description at the bottom. Rome. in such cate inquiries. . the archaeological strata of the Tiber correspond with considerable regularity to the leading catastrophes in the history of objects with which the dredgers first recall the revolution of 1848-1849. personal observation is necessary. of the The task more dredgers were kept at work and more compressed-air caissons were sunk at the same was not easy. I have come to the following result that if we leave out of ac: count the miscellaneous objects which may pertain to any age and hence are not conclusive. The came into contact and bear witness to the haste with which compromising objects. in 1877.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 226 When. deli- Comparing the notes taken from 1878 to 1889.

as when a newly elected pope rode in state to the Lateran to take possession of his chair. which I have gathered at random from contem- the sixteenth century is porary records." Ap- had been parently. and Sforza "to di Montepulciano. when the heat the air shall not be tainted. cast light upon the condition of things. facts. and the City government diminish vagrancy.CHAPTER XIX THE MONUMENTS IX THE LATTER PART OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY THE wretched state of Rome in the latter part of hardly concealed beneath the The following superficial brilliancy of the Renaissance. In April. no attempt to clean made see that the streets are promptly cleaned. directed the cardinals Crispo. I To illustrate may mention another the curious means adopted by Pius IV. so the streets were only cleaned on great occasions. They determined that "the to magistrates at the head of the City. accompanied by thirteen wards thirteen gentlemen 227 of the chosen by . aspect of the administration. of Rome of summer comes for years. in the years of Jubilee. Pius V. so that As the streets the country roads were only re- paired four times each century. 1566.

their parishes once a The 1562). was no longer ous Palilia. but in 1549 a revival was proposed on the ground that "some gentlemen had said that they were willing to contribute from " their private purse defray the to expenses of the celebration. the gloriApril. On the . particularly by a bull dated July 22. the municipal to raise and their voice in to protest against missioners for the and reverence of officials favour of their Paul III. the shameful deeds of the com- "Fabbrica di S." Their alma parens was never crushed by untoward events. This attitude of mind was so consistent and unvarying that in the many hunlove for the dred volumes of Records which I have consulted in the municipal archives. In justice to the City magistrates of this period. so far as relates to the preservation of the ancient monuments. 1540.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 228 the Council one for each region should go around month with the almsbox " (July 8. Apostolic of officially sanctioned and encouraged the destruction of classic remains. their behaviour was different very from that the and of the authorities had popes While the papal Chamber. for lack of money. feast of the Birth-day of Rome. Pietro. we must acknowledge that. I have found no trace of any opposition to projects connected with the safeguarding of the classic remains. or with the increase of the archaeological collections of the Capitoline Museum. on the twenty-first of celebrated. never ceased preservation.

. now in the Conservator! Palace. from the arch of Marcus Aurelius. Bas-reliefs church of S.FIG. removed from the Martina in 1525. 40.


thus in March. 42). had stood near the Lateran is thought to have been L. they forgot all confess. of itself. /. sculptor. into an that this 231 at now academy overzealous devotion to antiquity might justly be criticised. Antonius (sz'c). according to the design of Master Michael Angelo. 40). the cause gloomy we must S. In 1538. they took of of art . VI. the sense of justice away from the rector else present and sometimes. and its it it preservation i C. has remained ever since. as were. also. we are compelled to admire the patriotism of the City officials. THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY IN the the glories of past was times carried to an extreme. and another portion to the building of the substruction walls of the Piazza del Campidoglio. where In the Middle Ages (Fig. the City Council voted that "of the said sum of 320 scudi a portion should be devoted to the setting up of the equestrian statue of M." The equestrian statue referred to is the bronze Marcus Aurelius which was then set up in the square of the Capitol. pensation (Fig. . for in trials. 1 now on Conservatori the landing of the staircase of the without allowing him any com- Palace. after 320 scudi had been laboriously collected from the Cerrini and other defaulters and criminals in the district of Cori.THE MONUMENTS for regard contrary. 1014. 1525. of the church Martina the bas-reliefs from the arch of Marcus Aurelius. prospects for the future. and the City Council and then transformed it Even allowing humanists.

for the decoration of The proposal was acthe new Capitoline buildings." It accept happened that the repairs were not suc- City commenced proceedings against Rutino for reimbursement of the money. incident. he asked the City to accept in settlement of the balance due them "two beautiful statues. and Tommaso de' Cavaand Mario cepted. statues of 1584. In December.. Monsignor After paying 640 scudi. doubtful both tradition. are They that colossal somewhat The one on on the left. Christian Emperor. interest of the municipal authorities in the pres- ervation of statuary is illustrated also by the following When Pius IV. the restoration of the colossal Castor and Pollux came to a standstill on . the suggestion until " Monsignor Rufino guaranteed to reimburse the Municipality in the sum of 2000 scudi if the plan should not Council hesitated to the succeed.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 232 due to the the first The was a statue belief that it of Constantino. the right represents a victorious Roman admiral. urged the Municipality to complete in timber the unfinished portion of the bridge of Santa Maria (now called the Ponte Rotto). and the cessful. in the Julius Palace. in 1561. Frangipani were appointed appraisers with power to choose a The statues are still third appraiser to assist them. in size. according a to Forum Julium." to be valued by experts. Caesar . lieri to be seen. on either side of the vestibule of the Con- servatori found.

41). complete the to 233 In order to provide the work the Council farmed out the public notary for two of the wards of the City. In 1576. in spite of the emptying of the treasury to .THE MONUMENTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY account of the lack of funds. the Rione di Ripa and the Curia Capitolina. 41. restored in 1584. The statues of Castor and Pollux on the Capitoline hill. means office of FIG. and the statues were set in the places which they now occupy (Fig.

caused hardly be read. be taken from had been used by construction of an altar in tablet it it to hiding-place and set up in the nave.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT EOME 234 defray the expenses of the Jubilee of 1575. copy. to Compelled at last by a decree of the Pope to take some action. in the John Lateran. in 1346. owing Lateran. 1580. he was wont to speak fiery words on the right of the people to choose own form their of government. the Council. of the decree by which the " " Senate and the Roman conferred the imperial people The power on Vespasian. The 200 scudi were secured by pawning certain objects of value belonging to the City. VIII. showing set so awkwardly that it could Cola di Rienzi. the City fathers voted a large sum. engraved in bronze." begged that they might receive something gave them 200 gold scudi on condition that they purchase a silver ewer in return. In the minutes of the City Council for May 17. the Canons voted to commit the precious tablet to the guardian care of " the and as they Roman people. and basin and a pair of candelabra for use in the basilica. and its where. The efforts of the document had always the opposition of the Canons of the municipality to secure the valuable failed. on . for those days. Boniface St. to bring the Lex Regia to a famous document is a dispute regarding the possession of the satisfactory This conclusion. out of gratitude. " It is I find the following statement clearly seen that : the antiquities of Rome are disappearing every day. to his fellow-citizens.

XII. the Cardinal. is." and The deputa- Gregory XIII. which is carried on in the most reckless manner. dealt with " Seeing that the Pope was quite bent on the destruction of the antiquities of Rome. In the Autobiography of Cardinal Giovanni Antonio 1 by Professor Cugnoni. a new founda- require and buttresses to be kept standing. with no regard ruins the of preservation recent instance of this in the undermined so to as tion was sent him to revoke all grants given ber "for to Pope A the procuring of Pietro Apostles. four-faced arch of the and Vol. the Velabrum (that i See Vol. a Santori. p. "many Roman noblemen came to beg me to try to persuade his Holiness to abandon his strange purpose. p. of Forum the Archivio della . XIII. edited instance is given of the way characteristic that Sixtus V." tions the have Palazzo Maggiore (the where the most beautiful halls palace of the Caesars) have been to We themselves." says ancient monuments. particularly as he cherished the intention of destroying the Septizonium (as he afterward did).. 151. Societa reale di Storia patria. Pietro were extended to the ruins of Ostia and Porto. even for church the by the Apostolic Cham- marble and travertine from of the result of this interview the Fabbrica Prince may of the be inferred from the fact that by another apostolic brief the destructive powers of the Fabbrica di S. instructed to ask the ancient ruins of the di S. the 372.THE MONUMENTS THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 235 IN account of the search for marbles. City.

" indeed. in May. to pull mausoleum The of Caecilia Metella. that rare and splendid monument " I of the Republic.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT HOME 236 Boarium). contained a provision " : rescript. another of marble at Ponte dell' . provided that the Roman people monument. which it would be very advantageous to them to dismantle." as I will show . and Girolamo Leni and his the Pope. one on the road to Tivoli. however. They therefore of humbly pray your Holiness that they may be granted permission in such a way that the gentlemen of the City Council (Signori Conservator!) cannot oppose it by saying it is an antiquity. the Pope's Camarlingo. where there is a tomb. and the Capo di Bove. are the owners the farm-lands of Capo di Bove. are to give here the This content." which we know as the tomb of Caecilia Metella. Our Sovereign Lord and Master grants the concession. made this request in company with Cardinal Colonna. which they ought not to say. and others have been dismantled. Giovanni Battista Mottino and Girolamo Leni and his brothers had no from Cardinal down the difficulty in obtaining permission di Montalto. : so characteristic is it spirit - brothers. 1589. as it is out of Rome and not in a public place. but I clause think it saved exact words of the request of the the worth while made to of the age "Gio. and received the reply that he wished to remove the unsightly ruins in order And to repair those that required it. or tower. Battista Mottino.

1891. our most Holy Lord. and so tomb the of others Metella was saved.THE MONUMENTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY Arco. Antonius Antius Lupus. Vat. of 1590 : 26. . that. Pope of the November peace to cannot quite make out which tomb on Via Tiburtina is alluded to Mottino and his friends perhaps it is that described in in this petition of . of return rate the the death August 1 I 24. and leagues. but so tated. 1585. Pope " To-day. The antiquita al ponte delV Arco is the tomb of M. p. The mausoleum of Aurelius Cotta still bears the characteristic name given it in the memorial (Casal Rotondo). 1 concession we think this please him. and your Holiness will make If likewise be favour unceasingly pray a that (popolo people special and long many others. This occurrence. 221." on whom Cardinal di Mont- had sought to lay the responsibility. to commemo- and plenty.. the Municipal Council cancelled the permission. Cod. Com. 3439. f. and the work of alto numerous and serious were the remonstrances the motion of Paolo Lancellotti. thus announce the Council on Monday. and same nature. at first hesidemolition began. of for his be life we and and preservation." The "popolo Romano. Ottavio Gabrielli. to granted your Excellency. yet another at Casal Rotonno. the of change of Those same magistrates who had ordered the erection a statue to him. and to the by will Roman the that God happy 237 thus Romano) will do we receive will all our Master. about which see Bull. 35. on seconded by his colAlessandro Gottifredi. possibly account for the feeling among the people toward Sixtus V.

and the renovation The demolition of the whole City. to say toward some that. of the Pope's Some 905 favourite scudi were Do- architect. in spite of him the classic so ruins.." 1 his friend- modesty and in his he conferred on the Eterhis and in the contempt he professed toward It would. the discovery and reerection of three obelisks. has departed this life. the Septizonium of Septimius Severus took place in the winter of 1588-1589. omnibtis diem suum clausit extremum. citizens. blocks of and peperino marbles. in the benefits nal City. but the valuable materials recovered. the loss of which archaeologists have regretted more than of almost any other in Rome. be more correct the classic ruins." I have stated else" were used in the foundation of the where. many columns of Trajan and of Marcus Aurelius. and of the Horse-tamers of the to the restoration of Quirinal. . expended in the work. was great in everything.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 238 Sixtus V. the removal of the Vatican obelisk to a more suitable place. perhaps. Syxtus maxima omnium laetitia. teresting travertine. for we cannot forget we owe acts of destruction. "Thirty-three blocks of stone. offset what became of the rare of It spoils is of in- this famous building. pedestal of 1 Hodie sanctissimus dominus congratulantibus et noster. under the direction of menico Fontana. more than to see and columns the expenditure. magnificence. amidst the rejoicings and mutual congratulations of all classes of But Sixtus V. papa qtdntus. in ship and in his in enmity.

"it has been cleared but now." he says. of all had one of the (February 12. the court and palace.THE MONUMENTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 239 the obelisk in the Piazza del Popolo. from which 15 of the following year. in- cluding the base of the bronze statue of Paul St. John Lateran. spoils of the Septizonium. the north facade of St. the staircases of the adjoining Moses on the Quirinal. was of the 1 the destruction of praises of the lastly. "this large tract of land. 104 of marble in the restoration of the column of Marcus Aurelius. . less The May we 16. and an equal number in that of Pius V." the present Piazza di Termini. and that of the Trinita de' Monti." Not 2. The that the destruction lasted from 1 up than in the figures can be verified in the pontifical Books of Account. by the Ponte Sisto. and levelled up. Diocletian were Gualtieri. . thanks to Sixtus V. fountain of the "which no use because uneven and covered with the ruins of the baths". 15 tomb of the Pope in the Cappella del Presepio. church their share of not more mercifully Pope's "We admirers.000 cubic feet of masonry were broken course of the work. Maria Maggiore. 1586. or in the at S.. 1588). to learn May materials were carted Euins and Excavations. the wash-house (lavatore) in the Baths of Diocletian. and Girolamo degli Schiavoni. p." The Baths treated the . S.660. 183. workhouse. a portion of sings them of had. The staircase of the Casa dei Mendicanti. the door of the Palazzo della Cancelleria.

arches which. who merely attempted to create a water famine in the besieged city by removing a few The Marcian and Claudian stones from the channels. Giovanni. I have found several grants in the archives of this charitable institution. rests the main part of the responsibility for their Whenever the disappearance. Felice Peretti. the Claudian. 20. conveying the right and even to destroy one. 1 See p. Many of them were demolished that the materials might be used in the construction of the new Felice Aqueduct. 1 four. . aqueducts at any rate were practically intact till near end of the sixteenth century.. pilasters at one time.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 240 away and put to use in raising the level of the Vicus Bambino Gesu). the Marcian. Patricius (Via del of the Vicus Portae Viminalis (Via Strozzi). the architects of Sixtus V. Next in importance come the damages inflicted in upon the Claudian aqueduct. which received its Pope. the the time of Sixtus V. 85 and Fig. and other adjacent streets. the height of one hundred and twenty feet above the level of the Campagna. seven of miles reached in places long. two. had suffered little at the hands of the barbarians. a certain number of arches were sold by public auction. name from that of the and other aqueducts. and upon the trustees of the hospital of S. hospital was in need of money or building materials. and demolished by the purchaser. As we have seen. Upon Matteo da the Castello and Domenico Fontana. the Alexandrine.

Fon- tana. being perhaps afraid to engage in acts. seize. and the pieces of a fourth. Pope says: "You are and remove from any place you think it expedient. the so-called Janus Quadrifrons of the Forum In a letter addressed to his architect. the vandalism of which was too obvious and he took the precaution to provide himself with a safe-conduct from the Pope. travertine. Donna Camilla. and also for the coat of arms and the inscription which belong to the same I grant you also the three columns of portapedestal. santa which support the portico of a canon's residence. of the ruins. columns. In another letter. Giorgio in Velabro. is adding to . dated January 1588. escaped destruction by a hair's breadth under the rule of this energetic Pope. that you may use its marbles for the pedestal of the obelisk which I have resolved to erect in the Piazza del Laterano. as I have already inti- Some mated. and any other material necessary for the building and ornamentation of the chapel.THE MONUMENTS THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY IN 241 which are now the pride of the City. he could use in case the " him. which our sister. the authorised to excavate. Maria Maggiore. which are lying there on the ground. is Boarium. 1589. marbles. you are to use for S. "I give you permission to destroy that ancient arch by S. which ." the ciborium of These our chapel in Fontana did not avail himself fully of the permission. Sixtus says: 4. One. Roman " People should arrest dated February 5. near the Loggia of the Benediction.




the church of S. Susanna.
a present to her, and
interfere with




our will that no one shall

in the execution of our

The aim which Sixtus had
extenuation of his


give these materials as


view may be urged in
treatment of the ancient monuments.

should not forget that while destroying with one
to his mind, had no value, he was

hand ruins which,

with the other raising structures which to this day com-


the admiration of the world.




concede that the loss of portions of the ancient aque-

compensated by the conAcqua Felice, by means of which the
higher parts of the Esquiline, Quirinal, and Pincian
hills, almost entirely abandoned for eleven centuries on
ducts, for example,



struction of the

account of the dearth of water, were again made habitable.



one act


archium, or pontifical residence





Lateran, with

chapels, oratories, banqueting rooms,

loggias, colonnades, mosaic

vandalism that

the destruction of the old Patri-

can never forgive,




was the most wonderful museum

that ever existed.




mediaeval art

one can read the accounts of

Pompeo Ugonio and of Giacomo Grimaldi, without profound regret that so much of priceless value has been
The oratories of the Virgin Mary, dating from
(858-867), of St. Sylvester and
St. Sebastian, dating from the time of Theodore I. (642-

the time of Nicholas






church and monastery of St. Pancras, the
shrines of S. Caesarius, of Michael the Archangel, of
649), the

S. Apollinaris,

dating from the time of Hadrian



795), the Leonine triclinium, the Loggia of the Benediction, built

by Boniface VIII. (1300), the Council


View of the Lateran buildings before their destruction by Sixtus V.
In the foreground (6) , the bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius. From a sketch

FIG. 42.

by Ciampini.

were razed to the ground in a few months.
loss most lamented, not only by cultivated men of the

day but


by the populace, was that

of the Oratory


Holy Cross (Oratorium Sanctae Crucis), the
shape and location of which are shown in the sketch

by Ciampini (Fig. 42).
This Oratory was in the form

of a




a small atrium in front, surrounded on three sides by



columns and presenting the type of a classic nymphaeum.
There were three fountains of rare marble, one occupying
the centre of the vestibule, the others at the sides, each

with water trickling down into it from the capital of
The three doors were cast in bronze and
a column.


Three of the four arms of the cross


contained altars, while in the fourth stood the baptismal
Exquisite mosaics adorned the ceiling, and the
walls were covered with the finest marble veneering, of

the sort called opus



destruction of this

of early Christian architecture is recorded

the following words


down amid



by Ugonio


" This most
splendid oratory was

the groans of the City, and



tion has left a sense of loss in the hearts of all."


closing years of the sixteenth century fall in the

pontificate of



transept of

Pope Clement VIII., Aldobrandini (1592undertook, in 1597, the renovation of the


John Lateran, which was

him, the Nave Clementina.


called, after

also raised the magnifi-

cent Altar of the Sacrament at the south end of the

same transept.

The names

of Cav. di






Pietro Paolo

Arpino and Cristof oro dalle Poof Antonio Valsoldo, Francesco

Landini, and Silla Longhi, sculptors;




of Curzio

of Orazio Censori, founder




of Giulio

Lanciani, goldbeater, are associated with this important


But what a destruction



marbles and




bronzes the completion of




It is clear


the account-book of the clerk of the works, Giovanni

Vaccarone, that for three consecutive years Rome, the
suburbs, and even parts of Etruria were ransacked to

Damages were caused not so much
private speculators who provided, one

secure materials.

by the


a column, another a bit of frieze, or a tombstone, or
plain blocks

marble, as by the contractors


with the Pope's


permission to carry


any antique monument that would

to pieces

or pull

suit their








own account are Muzio
who sold the marbles of
Piazza di Sciarra



having provided matemonuments on their


del Bufalo


Flaminio Vacca,

the arch of Claudius in the

the nuns of S. Silvestro,



marbles from the temple of Mithras at S. Giovannino
Loreto Facciolo, who thus dis(Via della Mercede)

posed of the remains of the temple of


in Calca-

the canons of the Pantheon, who sold the marbles
from the Baths of Agrippa; the monks of La Minerva,
who apparently furnished marbles from the temple of






the nuns of S. Marta,





sold the remains of the

The monks of

and the Duchess

not what splendid remains.




Apostoli contributed a column of porphyry and a block
of giallo antico
the nuns of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna,


blocks of travertine from some ruins which occu-



pied the slope of the Viminal, in the neighbourhood of
the priests of S. Agnese, in the Piazza
S. Pudenziana

Navona, furnished stone and marble from the Alexandrine Stadium


and there were a hundred others that

I cannot take the space to mention.

Meanwhile the papal board of works on its own account undertook excavations and the demolition of ruins,
granting two-thirds of the proceeds to those who did
the work.
Under these conditions Alessandro Senzolino
carried on systematic operations in the


Forum and

Petruccio Bettania, at Ostia ;


Ponte Salario






Ottaviano da Gubbio, at

the Torre Pignattara and S. Maria Nuova, that



Empress Helena and the temple of
Venus and Rome.
They took columns wherever they


of the

could find them, not only from sacred

edifices, like


old Lateran, S. Croce in Gerusalemme, and S. Pudenziana,

but even from the street corners.


April 25, 1599,

a Pietro Savia, a mason, sold "the shaft of a column of
giallo taken



similar shaft

from the corner of a house near



the same day a certain Ippolito conveyed a

"removed from the corner

at the Sette Sale,"

and on

sold a piece of portasanta,



of his vineyard

Simon the apothecary

which had served as a curb-

stone at the entrance to the Ponte Sisto.

The worst deeds

of destruction at this time, however,

must be brought home

to Orazio Censori, the builder of

the Altar of the Sacrament.

This masterpiece







merited with four large bronze-gilt columns, which supThe guide-books
port a pediment of the same metal.






the origin of these four

One account assigns them to the temple of
Optimus Maximus according to another, the

Emperor Vespasian brought them from Judaea; and a
third version says that they were cast

by Augustus from

the beaks of the ships captured at the battle of Actium.

probably true that the columns, or at least two of
them, were placed in the Lateran by Constantine, to
It is

serve as light-bearers (Pharo-cantharoi) on each side of

the high altar.


the necessary metal was



adapt the

columns to the design of the new altar, and to crown
them with capitals and a pediment, Censori made a tour
in Etruria, in the district of Tarquinii and Falerii.
brought back to Rome hundreds upon hundreds of
pounds of works of art in bronze, collected from the


of Corneto

and Civita Castellana, which were


melted up in the furnace, together with pieces of the
bronze beams of the Pantheon. An entry dated July,
1599, records the payment of 5089.55 scudi to Censori
"for mending a broken bronze column; for the manufacture of three new capitals with foliage, flowers,

and ovules

cornice, consisting




the decorations of the entire

16 doves, 16


and 2 large

angels; and for the expenses of his journey to Corneto

and Civita Castellana,

to bring metal to



Senator. asked obtain stones from the neighbourhood of Senatore the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus. The Loggia permission to use this the shameful behaviour City Council never of the granted of Pietro Squarcialupi. On September. 43). In opposition to Apostolic chamber. The decree of the Council granting the authorisation is a model of . FIG. materials from ancient structures without restrictions designed to protect the structures themselves. Palazzo del Senators.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 248 commune pounds Corneto of of bronze . 1520. wishing to complete the Loggia in front of the Palazzo del permission to on the Capitol (Fig. Pietro Squarcialupi.85 scudi 665 for have not found the account rela- tive to Civita Castellana. I received 59. 43.



who. decree was worded with the greatest " care It is agreed that the marbles and stones required for the work shall be excavated and removed from the belt of ruins around the amphitheatre. responsibility excavation and at has his reached own the expense desired ." be quoted from the Records On of the latter half of the century. The search can 1 belonging to the S." as well as of the . 44). with a committee of ten " shall visit the citizens. and in no way attached to any standing part of the be extended to other monument. the chairman of the Council. place. : monly called il Coliseo. official designation of the ancient city. our architect. to restore the Ponte Rotto (the Pons Aemilius of classic the times. provided that the said marbles and stones are found loose. comof the Council. P. monuments similar instance in the may Forum. pressed by Pope Gregory XIII. City Council. October 15. 1557.THE MONUMENTS THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY IN The Senator must excavate on prudence. 1574. Fig. his 251 own and when the depth he must notify the magistrate. to carry out the instructions 1 an Senatus Populusque Romanics. done to standing ruins Matteo sites provided no harm is da Castello.. accepted the suggestion of Giovanni Battista Cecchini. "The government Senate and People of of the modern Rome. however. Q. R. to make use of blocks of The travertine from the Coliseum for the work. and satisfy himself that no harm is or of other A done to the standing remains of the arch. three arches of which had been car- away by the inundation ried of September 27.

meaning of Panvinio. sible it as themselves the place in which an inscription was discovered. full of antiquity has scientific method ." In this connexion founders the Smetius. P. of their expound is worth while to remark that science with such matters all Fulvio Ursino. or burnt into the Farnese.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 252 of the Council all statues. Metello. study having to A do with come only with the development in our own days. or Cesi. R. They did not seem to think it important to notice whether a block containing an inscription had been found in the situ. shall be the property of may the S. . copy the greatest pos- to inscriptions. lime. aimed simply number not at the of Cittadini. which eventually come to light. was inscription indifference was Once the in or mass of rubbish. and to investigate and concerned they . and Pighius. sawed was a it them whether the an original or into Carpi slabs to recognition of the importance of recording the minutest details in all pave the branches floor of of St. whether in removed to to museums. or loose in a Forum matter of stone Campus Martius. or movable antiquities. Peter's. epigraphy. Q. Ligorio. copied and made known. or its subsequent fate.

which had. 1606-1615. to 253 . inaugurated the movement by pulling down the east half St. preserved their their beautiful basilica type in all its simplicity and majesty..CHAPTER XX THE MODERNISATION OF MEDIAEVAL BUILDINGS IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES THE systematic demolition of the remains of ancient Rome ends with which period. but the next the sixteenth century. of restoration patricians. In 1651. car- laid hands upon the most noted and the most venerable churches. and embellishment. S. Ambrogio with its marvellous frescoes by Pierino del Vaga. pretext dinals. also. adds another chapter to the record of loss and disappearance Under the the destruction of mediaeval buildings. until then. of St. popes. Peter's. under Alexander VII. under Urban VIII. and by Alfonzo Sotomayor and Borromini. of other modernisations Hadrian and the old basilica of The seventeenth century . nessed.. and heads of monastic orders. wit- the twin churches Martina were disfigured by Piero da Cortona. from extends the beginning of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century. Paul V. Onorio Longhi destroyed the church of S. as we have seen.

and was carried out in accordance with a uni- form plan. "The columns of the nave were walled up. to Antonio Canevari for that of SS. orini. the inscribed. and so on to wearisome length for the restoration of churches became a general S.DESTRUCTION OP ANCIENT ROME 254 build in place the its structure of S. This plan may be easily outlined. basilica of of Croce in Gerusalemme was profaned and reduced to its present form in 1744 by Passalacqua and GregS." might most epithet Severus. of SS. to Francesco Ferrari for that of Gregorio on the Caelian. a restoration classed of "nefarious" architects. century the list is rapidly exThe old church of S. tasteless Carlo al Corso. by Milizia among the works The same title of dishonour was given by Fea to Paolo dict XIV.church The Gimach. The appropriately be ap- plied also to Borromini on account of the disfigurement of the Lateran. Giovanni e Paolo. was Apollinare Fuga.. substi- tuting chiaroscuro daubs for the exquisite marble incrustations of the time of Septimius "nefarious. by S. Damiano the . practice. and concealed in thick pilasters of whitewashed masonry . and The to Arrigucci. profaned the attic Posi. in by Carlo in 1722. or sculp- . urement Marchis de of S. Apostoli to SS. due of disfig- Ferdinando to Francesco Fontana. Alessio was modernised eighteenth Tommaso Anastasia. In the tended. Cosma e 1750. . of who. under Bene- the Pantheon.

that floods of light might enter and illuminate every remote. and of the fountain of the Acqua Paola on the Janiculum.. vaults or lacunaria were substi- The simple but precious frescoes of the fourteenth century were whitewashed. and the fresh surface was covered with the insignificant productions of Frantuted. In this period." 1 But the most surcesco Cozza. The blocks of stone belonging to the cella of the temple 1 Ancient Some. Constantino and four churches to make room palace of his kinsman. such was the perverted taste of the prising fact is time. cle we are called upon to chroni- only a few instances of the destruction of classical Paul V. however. Giacinto Brandi. Gerolamo Troppa. and other painters equally obscure. . Scipione Borghese. demolished the Baths of monuments. that all these profanations could be not accomplished. were cut into slabs and utilised for the decoration of the Borghese Chapel in S. Maria Maggiore. peaceslabs. p. .MODERNISATION OF MEDIAEVAL BUILDINGS marble tured 255 and the cosmatesque pavements. in 1610. xix. He now for the the Ros- ground the beautiful remains of the temple of Minerva in the Forum Transitorium (1606) the columns and frieze pigliosi palace. the winwere taken up and replaced by brick floors dows were enlarged out of all proportion. also levelled to the . but amid general applause. ful recess of the sacred edifice. made of For the beautiful roofs cedar wood. only without opposition.

to the The bronze doors were wrenched S. damaged the Templum Sacrae and the Heroon Romuli. S. S. of the some portions Hadrian. . in 1662. and sold or Jesuits for their out reset of place . Two Museum Two were of the bas-reliefs . Pallara. Adriano. was sectile opus for the destroyed. In 1632 Urban VIII. The last incident we have nexion is to mention in this con- the demolition of the triumphal arch which stood at the corner of the Corso (Via Flaminia) and the Via in Lucina (Ara Pacis). accomplished by Pope Alexander VII. of the old churches of Maria in and S. a third was given columns of verde antico were bought by the Pamphili and placed on either side of their altar at S. Salvatore in Campo. Agnese in the Piazza Navona two . which are united in the church of SS.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 256 and the Forum were given to the enclosing wall of the monks to of S. Vibiana. Ignazio. removed to to the Capitoline Maria Peretti Savelli.251 pounds. which covered the portico of the Pantheon. the were obliterated. their them of in also (S. and the beautiful responsible Secretarium of the and fastenings historic inscriptions feet. He raised the Urbis level both buildings twenty-four of stones from presented church of from veneering Urban is of marble Senatus mausoleum S. The weight of the metal removed to the apostolic foundry from the Pantheon was 450. destruction of Martina). and lastly of the bronze roof Anastasia. Cosma e Damiano.

. discovered in 1740 at the foot of the arch. and the group dancing Hours. has been removed to the Galleria delle of the three Statue in the Vatican Museum.MODERNISATION OF MEDIAEVAL BUILDINGS others the found a resting-place Lateran. The key of in the the arch the vestibule of the University of 257 Corsini Chapel at is to be found in Rome.

CHAPTER XXI MODERN USE OF AXCIEXT MARBLES IF we could only wrest the secret of their origin from the marbles. and bricks with which our palaces. 258 . stones. if the marble-dust with which the ceilings and the walls were plastered. and our churches were built and decorated in the period of the Renaissance. could be again moulded into the statues and bas-reliefs from which of the ancient City it and knowledge art would be wonderfully enhanced. our houses. our of its We treasures of cannot follow the record of this practice without a feeling of melan- we upon the irreparable loss to culture and progress which the modern world has experienced in the disappearance of so many masterpieces in which were choly as reflect embodied the highest ideals of antiquity. and their stucco ornamentation modelled. was obtained. by the cinquecento artists. fittingly close this brief sketch to my notice. and I may. Nothing would better illustrate the strange turns of fortune than the varied uses to which the marbles from ancient structures have been put in modern times. perby relating a few out of the almost numberless instances that have come haps.

1 In the same connexion Vacca says: " I remember also that while the Theatine Fathers were laying the foundations of the church of S. in S. Maria of the dell' Anima are veneered. Maria del Popolo. Andrea della Valle they found a part of a column palms long. "several columns of Pentelic large which the the marble were found. We know from the Memoirs of Flaminio Vacca that arms of Pius IV. of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Tarpeian rock behind the Palazzo dei Conservatori. on the Porta Pia was the coat of carved out of the capital of a column of the Porticus Eventus Boni near the Stagnum Agrippae. . was cut out of a cornice from the Baths of Agrippa. were from a marble-cutter's shop." he says. was able to Their capitals were so carve out of one the lion in the loggia of the Villa Medici facing The others were used by Vincenzo de Rossi for the statues of the prophets and other figures 1 See p.MODERN USE OF ANCIENT MARBLES The 259 beautiful slabs of portasanta. threshold of the main door of the church. 3. that is Upon I now garden. buried August 29. The tombstone of Inigo taken Piccolomini. Chief Justice of the kingdom of Naples. Marquis of Capistrano. with which the doors church of S." Vacca further throws light on the disappearance of the last remains " Maximus. This was sawn and one of them was turned into the of grey granite forty into several pieces. discovered in the foundations of the same church. 1566. Duke of Amalfi.

45). Maria della Pace. but as the building was close to the edge of the Tarpeian rock I suspect that must have fallen over the precipice " (Mem. Maria della Pace (Fig. entablature was found. built with Peutelic marble from the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. No fragment of the F T G. .DESTRUCTION OP ANCIENT ROME 260 which adorn the chapel of Cardinal Cesi in the church of S. 4". its marbles 64). The Cesi chapel in the church of S.

When the tepidarium or central hall of the Baths of Diocletian was adapted for Christian worship the capital of one of the eight granite pillars Michel Angelo replaced dentally among it the ruins of by Pius IV. these and Lisbon as a of Portugal. also some alabaster columns found which he had sawed into slabs for tables other valuable present to the objects King were shipped to purchased same at the . by another discovered accithe temple of Claudius on the . The frieze was ornamented with festoons fastened to the heads of bulls. Pietro in Montorio. As spot before any one could this house of stands at the foot of the Capitoline Duke Lante have no I hill.MODERN USE OF ANCIENT MARBLES The correctness of this surmise 261 was proved in 1780. one hundred and eighty years after the publication of " In that Vacca's Memoirs. 13 Via Montanara. belonging to Duke Lante della Rovere. doubt that the marbles belong to the temple mentioned by Vacca. They were destroyed on the make a sketch of them. year. was missing." Toward num- the middle of the fifteenth century a ber of fluted columns of giallo antico thirteen feet long were discovered among the ruins of the temple of Venus Cardinal Ricci di Montein the gardens of Sallust." says Montagnani. but the vessel which bore them foundered in a gale. " great blocks of entablature of beautiful workmanship were found under the house at No. pulciano bought them and used them for the balustrade He in his chapel in S. place.

statues . Up to about the middle of the sixteenth century there were considerable remains of the Baths of Titus standing . the Via dell' Anima. Peter's built of on these with sheets. near The Augusteum was an oblong hall. supcolumns of Greek marble twenty-two feet ported by La Magliana. Borgo bulls' erection. mostly Hadrian. Peter's. Rome at the memorandum the Collacchioni frieze is library. has left the following Sepolcro : now in " The heads. Beneinbene in the Piazza Nicola dei Lorenesi in with marbles from the mausoleum of Giovanni Alberti. 1579. of Domitian." A similar fate befell the marbles discovered in the Augusteum of the Fratres Arvales. sketched S. Hadrian by order of Pope Gregory will be used in building the Gre- gorian Chapel in St. now represented by the Piazza Navona. contained statues of imperial members of the brotherhood. wreaths and together with the architrave and base. who happened to be in time of its in sketch-book. It high.DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 262 The stadium Caelian. in the Vatican gardens. standing on pedestals inscribed with their The were saved and were dispersed among several collections the columns and pedestals were cut up for the decoration of the same chapel. in St. was taken from the river-front mausoleum of the of The marbles XIII. I made these drawings July 20. the church of buildings. The chapel of Gregory XIII. has supplied materials for the erection modern of several among them the palace Madama. his S. and the Casino of Pius IV. praises.

some great blocks of marble which he sold for one hundred ducats. S. premier historien. and were sold to the Jesuits to be used in their church of Gesu. were sawed up into slabs. par .. and those of the villa of Julius III. SS.MODERN USE OF ANCIENT MARBLES east of the Coliseum. or sulphur springs. tells The columns of verde antico which ornament the balcony of the Farnese palace. Apostoli were found in 1728 in the palace of 1 They chita di 2 The alabaster columns of the Odescalchi Chapel in the La are represented on sheets 17 Roma of du Perac vie de Saint and 18 of the Vestigi deW Auanti- (edition of 1575). Ignace de Loyola d'apres Pierre Bibadeneira. according to the prevailing custom. on the Via Flaminia. Charles Clair.J. 263 Pietro in Vincoli and the Baths of Trajan." which. From my memory The another the beautiful volume 2 lately published by Plon in Paris. unearthed in the piazza then called degli Altieri. between S. the head of the Roman house of the Jesuits. The columns of rare breccia on the high of the altar of the church of S. now del Gesu. mention of this church brings to incident of the same sort. come from the Baths Acque Albule. Father Condatius. 278. son le P. we learn that in or about 1541. ment which I Another docu- have discovered in the state archives us that the marbles were bought by a lime-burner and consumed in a kiln close to the church. 1 Here were found sections of "the most beautiful cornices. p. Rocco are from an ancient building on the two site of the present Orto Botanico. in the plain below Tivoli.

inclined travertine The columns theon. of S. and the Bernini palace at S. Andrea delle Fratte. approach of the Capitol were paved slabs from the area in front of the with Pan- of breccia corallina in the chapel Sebastiano on the Palatine come from the house those of the chapel of the Morti in S. the left built bank The terminal tower of the Tiber of the city wall on below Monte Testaccio was by Honorius or Narses with blocks of alabaster from the neighbouring marble-Avharf at the beginning of the last century the tower was pulled down and the . Andrea della Valle with slabs of Africano discovered at Porto in S. Maria Maggiore. with marbles Chapel the Borghese from the great temple of Juno at Veii Chapel in S. is inlaid the Falco- Giovanni dei Fiorentini. The Ginetti chapel in S. When we think of the Avealth of marbles displayed .DESTRUCTION OF ANCIENT ROME 264 gustus on the Palatine. were paved with blocks of Ripetta. temples and palaces on the Aventine. of the Vestals . The piazza and the serpentine from the same place. with the spoils of the Baths of Licinius Sura. modernised by the present owner in 1868. with the spoils of the . Lorenzo fuori le Mura from the police barracks on the Caelian (castra Peregrinorum). at La Marmorata. nieri . of S. blocks were used again for the chapel of Raphael in the Pantheon. Teodoro The vestibule of the church paved with pieces of porphyry found is The uppermost steps of the Porto di in removed 1888.

so that at least from a third to a half of the gross cubic content has been lost. but it is far from incredible. that the greater part of the ancient modern architects shapeless or in a form unsuited to the use for which they were needed. and at the same time consider that every cubic foot has been in obtained from the gain a new monuments of the ancient City. In 1845 Faustino Corsi made a list the of marble columns dispersed over the fourteen wards of the city the total number recorded by him is 7012. if we recall that the City once possessed 3000 statues of bronze alone. marbles used by and marble-workers were found either too.MODERN USE OF ANCIENT MARBLES 265 the public and private buildings of Rome. Since the publication of this catalogue fifty-four years have elapsed. . . so that to-day the sum total is probably not far from 8000. We must remember. insight into the operations of the ancient we of the building magnitude Romans. and we may calculate that the number has been increased by at least one-tenth. This is truly a surprising number.


Ambrogio. 79. Camigliauo. 91. Alessio. S. . Agostiuo. 104. 112. 148. Aesculapius. Alaric. 53. Auguillara. . 36. 240. . 183. 57. church of the. 69. 57. See Church. church of. 184: Anastasis S. 199. Agnese (Piazza Navona). Andreae et Gregorii ad Scaurum. temple Faustina. on the Corso. 37. S. 256 fol. Adriano. 85. Westminster. church S. 57.. Appia. 242 Marcia. 20. 184.264. 259. Arcadius. Aurelius. Lucius. statue of. See Church. of Arcadius.Annibaldi. . 240 Virgo. of. Aldobraudini gardens. 20 S. gives warning of the Aunia Comificia Faustina. 253. baths of. S. delle Frate. 52. 133. Agnese f uori le Mura. Apoxyomenos. 50. Arch. 214. See Church. church Alexander Anselmo. Antonius and garden of. Appian Way. SS. bronze colS. 82. water supply of. castle 8. Count. 254. Anicius Acilins Aginatius. VII. 263. 246. 80. Pantheon of. 127. and Theodosius. see Aqua. 88. . 247. Andrea at Amalfi. 82 Aix-la-Chapelle. statue of. 118. 259. 156. of. 80. 56 enters the city in 410. approach of the Saracens. 160. 80 fol. Arcadius. 187 fol. 151 121. 110. of. linus.INDEXES I. Agatha. Apostoli. 128. 201. channels of. 32. 231. VI. 85. Aracoeli. SS. . Agrippa. inscription relating to. improvement of Rome. PauAcque Albule. of. Angelo. Aqueducts. 264. 240 Auio Vetus. 220. di of Claudius. 145. 245 dosius. 17. INDEX OF SUBJECTS ABBEY. house of. St. Altar of the Sacrament. S. neglected. 85. of. 111. church Also. statue head of (?). Houorius. Apollo Belvedere. . and Theoof M. of. church. 139 fol. 29. 209. cathedral of. Antonio da Saugallo.256. copy of. See Via Appia. Albinus. Apollinare. 118. Ara Maxima. 24. 199. 53 with Honorius repaired theatre of Pompey. Apusii. 147. drian. church of. memorandum church of. 103. Agrippae Staguum. church umns of. See Pope. Aqua Alexandrina. of. cut off by Goths. 246. 53. . 112. fountain of. at the della Valle. 4. of. . Adalbert. 222. 177. younger. used for fortifications. 254. S. . 82. . tomb of the. Aequa Paola. 111. 115. Agilulf. Honorius. 255. 82 Claudia. 11 S. Clivum 152. the 88. under Ha. restored city walls. . (S. 240 Felice. 83. 204. 32. Anastasia). Anicii.. Manger. of. 267 . church of. garden Antiochia. See Arch. . poster ula of. advance on Rome in 408..

buildings erected by. 222. Benedict V. seat of papacy at. Compital shrines. 34. Avignon. Ariadne. 239 bronze equestrian statue of. of S. 241 . Balbina. 145. 22. 208. Angelo (Aelian). VIII. 28. 118. 58 column of. S. mausoleum of. tomb of the. 122. Caelian. See Thermae. of Livia on the Palatine. statue of the sleeping. of of Lentulus.. church of. Eudoxiana.Borgia. of Janus Quadrifrons (of the 245 . Bernini. 45. . 24. and Theoof Gordianus. 11 capacity of theatre of. Arruutii. 34. Caesar. transformation of the city during the administration of. 251. 262. . See Caecilia Metella. Julius. cryptus of. statue of. 151. Arcus Caelimontani. 177. 121. Forum Boarium). Aurelian. 147. 222. Augusteum. church of. 31 of Valentinian and Valens. 36. 152. 33. 204 fol. See Arch. Calcararii. Aemilian (Pons Aemilius. . of the Acque Albule. Palatine. 151. 191. Capo di. . 96. of Valentinian (Ponte Sisto). 88. Balbus. of Cestius (S. suffered from Norman-Saracenic invasion. Cameos. 201 of Trajan. 61 fol. See Pope. 142 fol. 24. . 235. Marcus. 7. Julii Akarii. Basilica of Junius Bassus. 176. 29. 251 of Titus. See Pope. Art(orius?) Gernianianus. 201. 110. 157. 246. 263 of the . 77. . 210. Belvedere. 194. 34. the 263 of. . Avidius Quietus. 162. 148. 41. Stefano Rotondo). 31. See Church. 19. . 177. 198. Peter's. . headquarters of. (near S. market hall on (S. 77. 92. pagan. 176. 236. the quarter. 91. Barbarians not accountable for the disappearance of Roman monuments. buildings erected by. 177. dosius. 199. extracts Constantino. house Jovis. 198. 111 Bridge. Byzantine colony about the Palatine. 211 Salvatoris in Laterano. 177 Julia. Lorenzo. Aventine. Milvian. statue of the Indian.. the. 23. of Bartoli. 191 Maria in . . vales.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 268 of of Constantine. 178. 199. 136. Caetani. walls of. 53. See Pope. made by. Augustus. 232. finds on the. Caelestinus II. VIII. Architectus publicorum. S. 147. 90. Septimius Severus. 110. Burgus. 180 fol. 75. 38 statue of. 157. 116. 238. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus. 231 fol. palace Ponte Rotto). Burial-places. . 204. See Pope. 34. . 201. Boniface IV. arcus novus Via Lata). 104. Caecilia Metella. from the memoirs of Pietro Santo.. Aurelius. . 132 walls of. 53. Bath-tubs. of the Fratres Ar. house of. IX. 78. . 75. 236 fol. Baths. 109. See Gems. 30. 166. house of. 41. 151. Bove. .. 232. statue of a young. L. 125. 153. 52.. 117. used for holding the relics of martyrs. 212. fol. 79. XIV. . 10 Bramante. 15.. Cornelius. VI. Argiletum.. 193. Vatican (Pons Vaticauus or Neronianus). 204. Baccio Pontelli. 208. 170. L.. Bacchus.. 207 211. Bartolomeo). Bathing establishment discovered on the Esquiline. 40. 5. 222. tomb of. VI. 201 Gratianus. of Licinius Sura. 204 torso of. 191. 37. on fol. 125. Belisarius. Valentinianus. Caecilia. See Tombs. (i2. 128.. discovery of. places images of the gods in the designs for St. Ariulf.

S. 71 restorations of. Maria Nuova. 264. 251 (see Lateran). 254. Nero's architect. 110. . S. Galla S. SS.~6 Euphemia . S. 183 Pisa. of the Ordo. Agostino. Maria della Pace. ancient. 256. 106. Maria Maggiore. . Hadrian (S. Cestius (S. . 256. S. partially built of Roman marbles Aix-la-Chapelle. 178. 254. Ambrogio. . (see St. Cesario in Palatio. 253. 239. bridge of. Maria delle din. . SS. 176. Casal Rotondo. 184 fol. John) : . Balbina. Catacombs. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (St. 241 S. 264. 116. 33. 178. 145. SS. St. Campo . Apostoli. St. on the of. 148: S. S.137. 269 142. 213. S. Cespian in 16. 38. 254. 115. Gaius. Church. 118 (Subiaco). 254 S. Maria in CosmeS. 123. 145. leum and epitaph. 91 devasted by the barbaria ns. Vico Patricii. 184 fol. 77 fol. 177. Giovanni e Paolo. statues of. 264. Alessio. S. Cesario in Palatio. Cosma e Clemente. covered over. Andrew at the Manger. 147. 208 S. S. Euplos. 162 Damiano. . 178. S. 122. 33. S. Cathedrals. Carinae. 121. of. 147. 136. 178. of S. Cyriacus). 263. 175. 263. S. Maria in Monticelli. 201. 40. 175. and others. S. 201. 94 fol. 213. Laurentius in Damaso. 4. Grazie. S. See Thermae. 187 fol. 2. 145. Girolamo degli Sehiavoni. 246. osseo. 204. 34. S. Cestius. Laurentius in Formoso. S. Andrea della Frate. 246. S. 213. cameos and gems found sites of Christian. 234. 10. 120. 33. Giorgio in Velabro. 175. 147. Gerusalemme. Celso e Giuliano. Casino dei Quattro Venti. See Pope. 37. Gesii. 176. Laurentius in Lawrence. 175. 101. 137. 148. Cartularia. S. church of. 246 S. S. 111. 40. 145. tomb 256. 208. Giacomo del ColGiacomo Scossa-Cavalli. . 123. 255. Celso and Giuliauo. 244. 24(5. 90. of. 106. S. 206. . 115 fol. Lucia de Calcarario (S. 254. 145. Celestine IV. Carlo al Corso. Campagna. . Adriano). . 232 fol. Cemeteries. John Lateran. 91. Castor and Pollux. 198. Bartolomeo). 237. 110 fol. 189. 139. 91 120. 147. S. Caracalla. 204. Carlo al Corso. Patricia. SS. Turris. 120. 120. S. S. 254. 207. 5. 70 f ol who encamped about the entrance to. See Museum. 254. Lorenzo in Panisperna. 122. Donatus. 20. Maria Liberatrice. . Campitelli. S. Cassiodorius. SS. S. 213. 151. . S. S. Gregorio. . 264 St. . Dionysius. Andreae et Gregorii ad Clivum S. 193. . Caryatides of Diogenes. Canale di Fiumicino. 175. Lawrence on the Via Tiburtina). S. 165. of the Aracoeli. S. the Resurrection). Andrea at Amalfi. 32 (Piazza Navoua). Scaurnm.INDEX OP SUBJECTS 153. Maria Nova. S. 20. . 239. relics of martyrs transferred 71 from. 121. S.. monasterium church 15. hill. 91 . Marcelli. 241. 110 . See Pope. 246. Celso in Banchi. Christopher. Monte. Celer. . abandoned after the Gothic invasion. 34. 254. Westminster Abbey. 147. 204. 145. Maria in Maria Antiqua. 125. 19 his mauso. 132. 259. Francesca Romana. of. 143. Maria dell' Anima. Apollinare. Anastasia (Anastasis. 25!). 165. S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. 89 . S. Celso in Banchi. 96. 264 S. . 248. 256. Lucia in Selce. outlaws of 158 desolation of. Capitolium. final di Fieri. 220. . Andrea della Valle. 208.. 254. Porticu Maiore. Agatha. 122. 110. Laurentius in Prasino. 264. 91. 103. 110 S. church of. Agnese. . 110. Laurentius in Pensilis. cathedral 254. 151. 184 S. S. 246. S. Marcello. Ignazio. . Ciriaco (S. 118 . 12. 90. Croce S. 70. 146. 153. in Eustachio. 239. Caecilia. Maria ad Martyres (Pantheon). 191 S. S. S. church of. 22. Lucia dei Ginnasi). S. 116. 253 S. 183. 145. Cassino. 159. S. St. S. S. S. 245. S. 106. S.

S. 126. 143. 145. Maria Transpontina. 178. Claudius Claudianus. 1(55 of the Saviour. Forum Romanum. 31 and erected the basilica of St. . 178. Peter's. Quaranta de Calcarario (S. 176.7B. "Vibiana.. 22. in S. SerS. 191. 34. 19. Constantius II. Corneto. bust of. See Pope. S. 191. 251. Coliseum (Flavian Amphitheatre). S. St. dismantled earlier buildings. Civita Castellana. ignorance of the Clivus Argentarius. 165. traces of this fire. 34. Scauri. 148. S. S. 231. . 165. statues of. S. Constantine. Thermae. 217. 11. 253. Capitolinus. 153. 122. 208. S. 91 S. 128. 17. 204. 205. Prisca. 78. gius et Bacchus..245. 48. Francesco delle Stimulate). S. 192. S. Concord.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 270 204. 79. 34. See Burgus. Clemente. Phocas. 181 St. fano Rotondo. 14(5 S. 20(5. 262. Suburauus. Pudens . See Cathedrals. 122. adorned by Augustus. Montorio. Vico Pudenziana. Sacer. Civitas Leonina. 33. VIII. Conflagrations. 135 fol. Pietro in Vincoli. 208.D. .219. 22. 77. 13. 261 . Ciriaco (S. 245. . house of. 110. S. S. Cortile di Belvedere. 90. 145. . Cyriacus). Constans II. 27. 145. Teodoro. Colonna family. 8. 75. .207. 261 bust of. 169 St..) St. Claudia Vera. Nicolaus in Calcaria (S. La Minerva. S. Cortina beati Petri. 191 A. 48. 122. . Pancras. 12 S. . S. Maria in Via Lata. Maria in Schola Greca. 110. 80 A. Praesede. 148 246: SS. Rocco. Paul's without the walls (S. 193 of Nero. S. 171. Pietro in 262. S. 222. 193. in the reign of Carinus in 283 A. 60. S. Compital shrines. S. 263 . . 125. S. Sil""^vestro in Capite (St.D. 3(5. 264. 259.. offices of. Sebastiano in Pallara. 22. Patricio. 148. (see Pantheon = Rotonda . . 117. . Clement VII. 25(5. S. 120. 116. Maria del Sole. treasures from. 4. 11(5. Comes formarum urbis. 92. 247.. 110. 122. 147. 199. dei Lorenesi.. 24. 89. 12 S. Churches outside the walls abandoned. 22. 219. 181 SS. 20(5. . Salvatore in Campo. Vitalis in Vico Longo. in 1084 A. 117. 191. 177. in Virgari. Sabina. 152. 47 fol. 111.D. described by Livy. Paolo fuori le Mura). 208. Cosma e Damiano. Maria del Popolo. 162. S. 143. S. 222. Nicolo in Calcarario.. . 36. Michele in Borgo. 32. 145. 147 Victoriae. Basilica. Claudius (Caelian) temple of. SS. 90. 175. S. Corridojo cli Castello. 170. 211. 201. Clergy. 260. 24. 34. S. 178. 117. 160 fol. 242. Commodus. Quirico e Giolitta. 79. 178. 121 SS. 132. in 64 A. 243.D. 117. 190. 178 S. Collegium Fortnuae Felicis. 128. 72. 52. See Arch. equestrian statues of. in the reign of Commodus. 147 Roman. Sylvester) 139. 63. Stefano delle Carozze. regionary catalogue compiled in the time of. 28. 8. Clodius Hermogenianus. Maria 110. 66. 212. 14(5. 204. 247. Susanna. 145. Peter's. Salvator de Porticu. 31 fol. S. HI S. : . 28. 151. . Martino ai Monti. 207. . 213. . 37 . Nicholas. 196. 175. 117. Saba. Martina. temple of.. mausoleum of. 151. Maria in Pallara. 133. 256.D. S. house of. S. Salvatore in Primicerio. . 122 . 147 S. 33. S. Quatro Coronati. visit to Rome in 663 A. (50. . S. 157. 193. Ste. St. 139. 19.. 204.D. in the reign of Titus. Flaminius. Nicolo ai Cesarini).. See Church. 210. Nicolo . 29. . 123 fol. Lucius. 17 fol. 61. 66. 253 S. Orso. Pantaleo ai Monti. . 16 under the Emperor Nero. Constantia. Circus Maximns. Maria in Trastevere. 166. 25(5. 32. 204. SS. Sebastiano alia Polveriera. 38. 151. See Church. S. 118. . Cornificius. Comes port'its urbis Romae. 19 in the 21 fol. 48. church of. Sistine Chapel.

13 fol. . the. Donatus. Eugenius IV. 103. 47. house Excavations.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 271 Cosmatis. 103. covered over and raised Fates. 49 fol. 22. in 1762 (Villa Quintiliorum).. 213. Craticulae Templum. 66. . repairs buildings in the Forum. in 1869 (Palatine). 112. on the Palatine. house of. Forum of Trajan. 36. church of. the. 12. 34. 69. 125. 17. 94. in 1864. 104.Formosus. 5. hill. defeat of. in 1876. 105. 112 of Sixtus IV. Curator Statuarum. 255. Cypress. Crescenzi. Damaso. Curia. Decius Albinus. 58. Elephantus Herbarius. of.. in 1862. ita). 241. (Piazza Bocca della Verin . 58. . in 1780 (Appian Way). 29. 176. Forum Transitorium. in the Vigna Torlonia and Vigna Maciocchi. 93. church of. 13. 5. 254. Decii. statue of. S. 104 of. in 1879 (Thermae of Constantine). 36. 42. 77 Trajauus.. 23. statuette of. 110. 145. 203. . 28. Gl Marius Venantius Basilius. Falerii. S. Croce in Gerusalemme. 199. 119. 87. in 1895 (near the Coliseum). . (Via S. Factionis Prasinae Stabula. 105.. 189 fol. Esquiline of. 38. 200. 143. Severiana). (Via Xazionale). 201. 89. Forum Boarium. 24 in 1880 (Site of the English Church). in time of Pope Pius VI. . in 1849. in 1883 (House of the Vestals). 101 . in 1873 (Esquiline). 146. 199. 41. Sabina). in 1875 (Esquiline). 196.Forum of Augustus. 112. Damasns. 139. 22. 119. 1885 (Teatro Drammatico) 66. 183. Flavinus Philippus. in 1724 (Palatine). 208. 241. Pinciana. by Boccanera in 1883-84. Titianus. Domitian. Dionysius. 165.. in 1896 (Piazza Bocca della Verita). 151. 14. statue of. Forum Julium. group of the Three. in 1886. tomb 57. S. 208. causes of monuments in Roman and in modern times. 191. 147. 85. Forum Romanum. 127. Fabbrica di Fabii. 207. colonnade Cosmus. Dea Dia. Euterpe. 212. church of. . 15. statue of. in 1887. church of. found 50. S. 153. 35. Ephebus. 66 of Innocent VIII. Caecina. in 1877 (near the Coliseum). in 1855. 196. 42. See Pope. Eustachio. 13. 91 fol. prominent in the history of. 148. . 238. Cybele. 119. Ficoroni. St. of the. See Pope. 145. Euplos. 4. 145 fol. school Eventus Bonus. . 34 gate of. 120. 235. 34. 152. 70. 196. 120 Domus Gaiana. . 69. See Thermae. " " Destruction " and " Disappearance Roman monuments. 121. 177. 159. of. See Senate-house. Euphemia in Vico Patricii. 4. 240. church 2445. 104 by Carlo Torlonia. triumph of. 19.. by Augustus. court of. . 14 the event com. 104. three facts of. in 1891. 34. memorated by Horace. 31. 235. 5. temple of. villa of. of. 16 arch place on. pedestal in Forum. 204. 177. Francesco di. of the. 228. 61. S. 157. . Pietro. 209. . 186. Diocletian. 145. Roman Destruction of villas. in 1892 (garden of S. 15 market. 147. 39. of meaning. 246. See Thermae. 105. 110. 28. distinction in 4. 34. 180 fol. Fabius Felix Passifilus Paulinns. Destruction of Rome.). church of.. Domenico (architect of Sixtus V. Eugenius. (Esquiline). in the time of Pope Eugenius IV. of Pius IV. Equestrian group. . 21 fol. in 1867-68 (at Ostia). Fontana. 122. in 1888 (Temple of Isis). Forum Holitorium. St. See Pope.

bronze statue of. Hadrian See Pope. 12 of Sallust. statue of. group of. the. statue of. I. Scossa-Cavalli. S. finding of. church of. tor. temple Pope. bronze statue of. 6. fol. 118. on the Jerusalem. bronze. of. 69. 193. temple of. Robert. 240. 104. 89. Hadrian. 43. John Lateran. 174 fol. Invictus. 222. of Benedict. Heraclius. 222. 175. fol. Laocoon. IX. church of. Gothic wars. III. See VIII. church of. See Temple. Gildo. of. Inscriptions. church S. 50. hospital S. S. III. Gems and cameos. 125. 223. 177. Horse. XIII. 18. 209. 145. See . 74 264 Helena. IV. Gelssius II. 58. temple of. 66. 256. 174 fol. XL.. Guiscard. Pope. Licinian. the younger. Maxim us. See Pope. See Arch. villa Via Praenestina. Galla Patricia. S. 120 fol. Hercules. Giacomo del Colosseo. VII. . 72. 34. Gregory III.. church Janus. Honorius. et Schola. Gratianus. engraved. of. See Pope. of Maecenas. Gregorian Chapel. 23. Frangipani. Isis. 174 fol. S. Einsiedlen. Gaianum. 15. Janus Quadrifrons. Graecorum Ecclesia of. 104. 122. 254. e Paolo. Vic. baptistery of. Julii Akarii. Gladiator. church S. 171. Hadrian. Gardens. Count. signs of the pillage of Rome by the.. Harpocrates. III. 44. See Church. Grain Exchange.. Innocent church of. 72. statue of. 147. St. 262. of. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. IV. 48. Lateran John VH. 41. Gallienus. See Mausoleum. 184. arch 66. 196. Olivarius. 238. Johannipolis. servatori. Hathor. 100. 176. XII. 119.. 55. Itinerary. bust of. 254. 142 of Benedict. Julius II. See Church.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 272 Francesca Romana. Golden House of Nero.. baths of. 159 of. 121. 201. 53. VI. Jupiter Optimus ple . St. 39. S. Francesco delle Stimulate. 151 fol. Gesii. in St. spoils from the temple Goths. 222. 66 Magnus Gustos. See Pope. . 50. 61. Kilns. Giovanni.. 50. of.. 265. in Florence. 110. XVI.. Giorgio in Velabro. of.. the Apostate. Gregoriopolis. 36. Ignazio. of the Einsiedlen Itinerary. 44. Farnese. Gregory the Great. . XL. of. 263. Genseric and the Vandals. 119. Heracles. S. replica of the sacred cow. Ganymede. of.. 87.. 201. Tem- See Lime-kilns. of.. Julia 34. 32. Giovanni. 136. Honorius. See Juno. Emperor. of. X. VII. Peter's. Julian. 22. usually found near the sites of cemeteries. 455. S. of the Palazzo dei ConHorse-tamers. 239. 94fol.. Girolamo degli Schiavoni. Gregorio. II. 57. monument relating to. VIII. head of.. tomb Henry 87.. 178. church . See Arch.. see Stator. bronze statue fol. 199. replica 211. S. torso of. Gabinius Vettius Probianus. 121. Pope. See Church. St. Gordian. IX. 152. 211. 35. Domna. .. church of. 32.

242 fol. 158. 194. 180 Liber Politicus of Benedict. Mosileos. 260. 146. church of. I . Liberatrice.. S. 239. 60. 151. 176. in. in Selce. 58 fate of. 31. 195 fol. 180 fol. 33.. 8. Marinus I. Mole. See Theatre. 117. 248. Licinian gardens. . 148. See Church. Mithras. Lucia de Calcarario (S. 147. in Schola Graeca. Marbles. 255. UI. in Damaso. under St. Minerva. 190 fol. 178. officials. 120. 122. . 210. 256. Mellini. Minerva. 53. 12. church of. IV. fol. Palace of Tiberius. plan of the city. Laurentius. 204. 15. fol. cathedral of. 152. 178. 39. architect of Pius S. 54. 95. . See Pope. 12. Mediaeval Rome. 246. 147. 165. 192. 29. in Trastevere.:t lit in Pope. Lucca. Nuova (see Church). 5 de' Cenci. Ordo. Moors of Frassineto. Lucia dei Ginnasi). 79. 75. 30. 117. on the Esquiline. 231. 178. tomb of. 87. 254. Meta di Borgo. Moon. . 189. John Lateran. of Augustus.. S. by public fol. (so called). 17. . 91. in Pauisperna. of the Empress Helena. Leo II. at Prima Porta. temple of. 234. Atrium of of Ostia and Porto. Church) (see (Pantheon) (see Church) S. del Popolo. La. 17. 180 tolerated of. See Church. temple of. 16. church of the. II. . in Pallara. 37.. villa of. church of. of Hadrian. X. in Virgari. 145. Marcelli. the imperial mausoleum of the Decadence. Cosmedin Grazie. 178. V. Ligorio. Leonine wall. 145. 32. Moletta. 213. Magad Martyres giore (see Church) niac. XIII. Loggia of Squarcialupi. 59. Minerva Medica of.. S. church of. Magna Mater. on the Via Tiburtiua (S. See Pope. 196 . 175. temple of. Marble-cutters. 186. 23. the. del Sole. of. 5. edict Maxentius. Li via. Monte Giordano. Marcella. 170. 259. 103. Lorenzo. cathedral of. 12. Marcellus. 35. Market hall of theCaelian (S. Lucilius Paetus. Maecenas.. Marmorata. Mausoleum. . Pirro. 194 Vesta. Monti- Nova.. 175. 18. traffic in Roman. 210. Mauritius. temple of. Martino ai Monti.. 262. 181 Antiqua. 240. S. See Church. Liber Censuum. 72.. Lime-kilns. dell' Auima. Maioranus. 184. Lex Regia. Michele in Borgo. 87.. Moses.. 219. 90. 133 fol. of the Lysippus. 166. 92. 252. house of. church 110. 139. 246. in Formoso. 193 fol. Lime-burners. . 178. statue of. 194 market fol. 199 of Constantia. S. on the Palatine. 208. Lorenzo fuori le Mura). delle . 106. fountain of. desolation Meta Sudans. Martina. 61 S. See S. in . Matte"o at Salerno. Matteo da Castello. 245. S. 17C. 34. 8. Martin V. Mirabilia Urbis Romae. . . in Pensilis. Stefano Rotondo). Lorenzo fuori le Mura. temple of the. 152. 193. 178 fol.. church of. of. 25!) Campitelli. of Sixtus V. Transpontiua. See Mausoleum. 204. in Prasino. in Via Lata. See Church. 246. 160. 256. 106. 85. Mater Matuta. 142. in Porticu Maiore. IV. 264.INDEX OF SUBJECTS in Lateran. rise celli. 22. La. Level of the city. gardens Maria. Marcello. See Church. 174. 91. 145. Marmorarii. baths of. of Rome. 273 in of. 199. La. 184. della Pace.

. house of. 204. St. temple of. Lucius Clemens. Neronis Obeliscus. Paul II. 171 fol.. chapel to. V. Patriarchium. 4. manner of the fall of. 165. 223. Orso. 228. Peregrinorum Castra. Obeliscus Neronis. Penates. Oratories of the Lateran destroyed by Sixtus V. Peter. 24. church of. 211. traces of this fire. 264. 235.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 274 Municipal authorities favor the preservation of monuments. St. 186. 169. 41.. 208. 242 fol. Oratorium Sacrae Crucis. dei Conservatori. Nicholas. See Pope. Nero. 199. 243. temple of. tomb 8. See Church. 177. . tomb of. Palilia. Pallacinae. 110 fol. 170 of the gardens of Sallust. 90 . . of Augustus on the Palatine. 254. . Giraud-Torlonia. S. II. Neroue. 201. in the Campus Martius. Peter's. V. 37. Museum. 221. . Petronilla. Orsini. 125. Peace. 106. 7. 174 fol. 48.. 263 fol. Nicolaus in Calcaria (S. I. Norman-Saracenic invasion. 243 fol. from the Mausoleum of Augustus. 238. 9. in Calcarario. figure of. the. 184. 93. Paul's without the walls. Pancras. of . 137.. cults. 19G. cathedral of. 173. 182. 193. of. . church of. of. 17 fol. 3. S. S. 184 fol. 263. 239. 146. Natural agencies in the demolition of ancient buildings. 23. the. 177 224.. 242 fol. 57. See Church.. of the Caesars in the seventh century. 32 bust of. Paschal See Pope. St. desolation of.. St. 'in Christian churches.. 19. 158. . 119. 194. 232 di Corneto. 228 fol. 170. into Christian churches. Octavia. 222. villa di Giulio III. 199. Nicolo. Thothmes Obelisk. Pagan edifices converted of. Palatiolum. 129 fol. 13. 204. 222. 105. Frangipani. See Palazzo del Conservator!. Odeum.. Phidias. 199 possessed by the Paolo fuori le Mura. 171 of the temple of Isis. 255. 33. Sepoltura di. 87.. Orvieto. removed III. Constantino II. 126. 18. 5. 90. . 129 tomb of. church of. Papi. Palace. . 178. pontifical residence at the Lateran. 228. Ostia. 124. III. Petrarch. 169. of. . dei Lorenesi. See Porticus. Ordo Romanus. See Church. Palladium. Capitoline. 262. 121. 151. della Cancelleria. 208. 169 fol. church . palace of the. traces of. 145. to 48 of the Vatican. S. Nile. Pantaleo ai Monti. Pantheon. 204 Rospigliosi. 200. St. 264. . . church of. 199. remains of private houses on the. Paul. church of. 14 set the city on fire. 119. Oppian. Palazzo. See Pope. gate fol. Nicolas I. 4 thermae of. 79. Nicolo ai Cesarini) church of. 13. cow Pactumeii. 72. from the Circus Maximus. . Torlonia. 206. 145. 58. representation of. 245. 147. 148. monastery called. of Septimius Severus. S. . 257. 117 fol. 191. 246. Pagan Naevius. . al Celio. . 90. 13. 256. 231. 211 del Governo Vecchio. fol. fol. 119 fol. 104. of the Piazza del Popolo. 191 Farnese. 151. 48. . Myron. 165. 256. 87. 90. Rome by . 110. 191. Normanni. 235. 177. 37. 23 Circus of. St. late occupancy of. 169. 19 Golden House of. 239. 159 Nymphaeum. 110. Vatican. 162 Palatine.

234. BoniAurelia.. 111. 178. Christopher I. 222. 155. 155 Honorius I. 31 Colface IV. 71 Vitalianus.. 143. 133. Innocent III. 136 fol. Portus Licini. the. shrine of. Urban VIII. 205 fol. .. church of.. Sergius III. . Hadrian I. S. house 147. 222 Leo XIII. .. Benedict III. 225 Clement VIII.' : . 242. 10.. 239: Pius VI. . Innocent II. 8. Leo Leo IV.. 143. 177.. Boniface lina. 213. 194 54. Sixtus IV... 143. Septimiana. .. 176.. Porta Appia. of Octavia. 244 fol. 86. 155 Gregory VII... Clement VII... 115. Paschal II.. house of. Theodore II. 58. Formosus. 177. Porto. 203. 52.. John X.. 160. . 209... Symmachus.. 178 Maximae. 219. Poggio Bracciolini. 70. 217. 5.. 116.. Benedict IX. Crinorum. of Philippus. Pius VII. 139. 227. 201.... Eventus Boni. VII. Phocas. Pope. 225. Pisidius Romulus. VII. 213. 89. 246. Gregory III. 217. John XII. IX. Pudenziana. Vigilius. 204. Pierleoni. . 122. 211. Julius II. 253.. 55... SS. 155. 207. 155. VI. 154. Maior (Via Sacra).. . V. 235. 55. Leo X.. Praesede.. 131. 111. 203. Pompey... church of. 118. 137. 143. 221. 186. Eugenius IV. 11. Philippus. 176. 116. Benedict VIII. 143 Asinaria.. . 219. church of.. 78. 191... Prothi Ascesa. Inno. 131. 174. 54 Portuensis. 204. Festus. 253. . 177. . 206 Nicolas II. 154 John IX. 155.. 160.. 130. 106 fol. I. Sergius I. 133. 154.. cathedral of. 154. 162. 96.. Pope Alexander VI.. 259. 154. Celestine IV. Gregory XVI. See Pius IX. 213.. 211. 190 Vimina- 53. 219 .. 203. 145 Capena. 203.. 53.. 104. 54. See Theatre. 232. Tiburtina. Paul V. 184. 212. Borgia.. 206 fol. 170. 120. 54. 96. 146. 225 Alexander VII. 208. . 122. Prisca. Gregory the Great. 222. Praenestina. 143. 143. lestinus II. Leo XI. S. 253. . Pietas. 177.. 228. Pius 275 IV.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 201. 55.. 121 . 177 Flaminia.. . 243. 28. 127. Marinus Martin V. 235. 110. 135. " Romanus. 37. 204. II. . Ostiensis. Marcius.. 131. Postumius. Sergiusll. Theodore I. 189. 160. 207. John Praetorian camp.. Gregory IX. 61.. 243 Furba.. 251. II. 264. 155. lis. 219 John VIII. Paul III. M. 143. 55. 195. Marinus I. Benedict VI. . 34 Minucia. 206. 261 . . 37. Popes destroy ancient monuments to Benedict V. 135 fol. 55. Principia. 222. 204. 155. Gelasius II. 222. 237 fol.. 262. 116.. frescoes of. Stephen V. 176. 155. 184. church of. 20. church of. V.. Paschal I. 151. 217. Pius V. 142. 159. Leo 183.. 124.. Hadrian III.. Gregory VI.. 155.. in the Via Bocca della Verita. 189. 98. 208. Sixtus V. 235. 36. in Montorio in Vincoli. John ... 159. . 143.. 211. 116. 155 III. Salaria. 154. Pietro. 128. 218... Porticus. 165 VI. Phocas. 213.. 210. 199. 255. 165 155.S. 217. 123. cent VIII. 147. : . 148. church of. Stephen VI. 101. 204. 155 S. 194. 145. Pisa. Francesco delle Stimmate). 225. Silverius. Caetana. Quaranta de Calcarario (S. 54. 126 fol. Church. of Gratian. S. 242 Nicolas V. 156... 213 154.. 112. 154. . 103.. 82. 201. . 133. 178. Paul 33. Metroni. Benedict XIV. Pius See IV. 148. 198. 193. 165 . rebuild Christian churches.. 112. 122. 160. 120. See Stadium. NomenBoniface IX. 18. II. 176. Stephen II. of. 112. Praedia Aemiliaua. Piazza Navona. Pinturicchio.. 155. 53. .. 72. 112 Gregory IV. Pudens in Vico Patricio. Julius III. Sylvester III.. . 24. 187.. Pius . 123. Gregory XL.. 212. 256. Damasus. Pilgrim's Pence. 154 Boniface VIII. 213. 225. Gallatorum. . 54. 213. 256. 210. Gregory XIII.. 186.. S. .. Innocent VII. 205. 259. 155." 157. 222. 204. 88.. 174..254. II.

See Pope. 222. Rocco. palace of. 110. S. Septimius Severus. Sylvester III. Regia. Stratification of ruins. Statuary. S. 158. 5. S. 263. 176. 64 fol. S. 199. Sinibaldi. 45. 58. tyrs. Sentius Saturninus. tapestries of. 166. Romuli. when discovered. Sebastiano. 191. Rotondo. the. Silvestro in Capite (St. Stefano. Septa Julia. Romulus. 83. alia Pol- veriera. Savelli. 204. Saracens. Rienzi. architect of Nero. 123. finds of. 58. 152. ' Ranncci Romano. church of. in Pallara. See Pope. traces of the Stephen camp Bernard Pass. 221. 147. Ruins of Romau villas. church of. called Monte Cavallo. shrine rebuilt marble statues on. Sarcophagi. 104. Spirito. G. panic. church of the. Romanus. 12. church of. 56. 48. gardens of. the 199. 222. temple of.. 143. Quirinal. 208. Sanctus Angelus. 242. river gods by. Static Marmorum. trates. Sette Sale.. Columbaria of. II. 28 restorations of. 89. 204. S. Severus. 123. Statues. church of. in times of Sallust. .. 121. 96. 217 foi. Saviour. Saturn. delle Carozze. tondo. 37. frescoes . hiding of bronze. Roma Vecchia. 110. 22. condition of. Susanna. 234. 117. quiline. 50.. Quirico e church Giolitta. stratification of. S.. 37. 180. of. 11. Sergius and Bacchus. 19!). Sixtus IV. used to hold relics of mar. 18. 165. 145. hospital of. 199. 110. See Church. 65. Raphael. church of. 201. 118. See Church. 84. 199. 256. 41 fol. 34. 199. temple of. of. 101. 34. Sepulcrum. 91 181. II. Silverware. church of. Severus. 178. Cola di. 256. S. Remi Meta. 110. Heroon of. S. Sabina. Septizonium. 147. church of. the. 210. concealed by magisS. III. Stilicho. 137 . .. of. 53. 42. 194. Salvator de Porticu. 207. Ro. Constantino. Silverius. V. SS. Quatro Coronati. 239. See Pope. 199. . Sylvester). 27. Rospigliosi gardens. . . 28. See Via. Regiouary Catalogue of the time of SS. See Pantheon.' 147. 201. Sepolcro degli Stucchi. the. 94. Subura. 28. church of the. Salvatore in Campo. Stefaneschi. 48. 147. See Pope. 199. 24.INDEX OF SUBJECTS 276 SS. 235. Schola Graeca. 256. See Pope. (55. 208. 18. Sergius I. Statilius Taurus. Serapeum of Alexandria. 22. 246. 33. 122. condition of. S. 121. of. Saba. the. De Rossi's account. of. 3 See Arch. 208. 110. 143.. 261. Rhadagaisus.Studio of Greek sculptors on the Esin the St. 63. Statilian family. Alexander. where now is the Piazza Na- vona. 246. S. 61 garden . Record office. V. 19. 227. Salvatore in Primicerio. 262. Sistine Chapel. 178. Sacrae Urbis Templum. Senate-house. VI. 165. Sun. Streets. 101. 36 used as rubble. 218. Romani. church of. Sacra Via. 178. 50. 146. removed from pagan places of worship. Secretarium Seuatus. 256. See Pope. Stadium. Sanguigni.

132. 8. 146. . 191 Vergilius Eurysaces. 192. 259. 32. of Agrippa (Commodianae). 180. of Constantine. Tigellinus. Thermae (see Baths) areas closed for. Valentinian III. 77 78. . 63. See . . St Peter's. 205. Dea Dia. 13. . house of. 119. 177 Romulus. 208.. Triumph Terebinthus. figure of. . 152. 22 fol. 186. 139 fol. 5. 18. 159. 259. 91 entrances con- . See Arch. 116. 261 of Nero. . 109. Turcius Asterius Secundus. 42. 177. 31. 14 of Titus. 36. 92. 10. . of Diocletian. 201. Moon. Theodore See Pope. 96. .. 38. 92. fate of. 222. . 145. 23. . Mater MaJupiter Stator. 208. 153. 247. Peace. 256 Sun. 103. 194. 208. 110. 15. 31 on the Via Flaminia. 145. I. Urban VIII. of Antoninus and Faustina. 173. 57. 201 Fiscale. 60 of Diocletian. 145. 121. 90. the. Valentinian I. 199. 178. See Arch. extracts from memoirs of. 211. Hope. 92. 259. Tabernola. 23.INDEX OF SUBJECTS See Church. di Nona. 147. 194. Torre. Tombs. Trajan. . 22. 146. 256. 95 fol. . Vassalecti. 122. 177.. Valerius Severus. Teodoro. . 262 of Trajan. . 236. Theodosius. 48. Tombs. 121 . S. Isis. 208. 145. inundations of. 110. Tiber. 255. 245. Vesta. . . 109. 246 prohibited sacrifices. Concord. 191. . 208 Lucilius Paetus. 162 delle Milizie. 57. bridge of (Ponte Sisto) . Venus and Thermae. 222 treasures thrown into. 116. 237 Romulus. 33. See Pope.. 61. Rome. 245 Torrecchiano Campo. 201. 192. Craticulae. . 35. cealed. 225 fol. 1527. 5. arch of. fol. of. Vulcan (Ostia). 74 fol. 209. 246 Venus in Calcarario. 90. 110. 148. See Arch. of Caracalla. 236 fol. 7. 5. 246. 27. 22. 33. Turris Chartularia. of Balbus. 35. 52. house Titus. 14. 148. . 128. 5. 207. Janus. Theatre. 34. 72. 206. . . 34. II. 57 column of. See Pope. Pietas. 224 fol. 32. 59. Hercules Victor. Venantius Fortunatus. 145. 111. 8. Sepolcro. Juno Regina. 110. 239. 159. 175. . 190. 245 Venus Treasures. 176. Symrnachus. 193. Pignatarra.96.. 166. dei Schiavi. Arruntii. . Urbis. 255 of the Decii. 201. 259 fol. at the Ponte de41' Arco. 145. 103. 202. 57. 14. 101. 211. 33. de' Conti. Juno (Veii). channel of. Temples closed. 50. Pompey. 74. 18. Minerva. 151. 90. 238. . 245. 176. 264. 177. 199. . 194. Tapestries of Raphael. 177. 77. 36. . 39. 33. seum. Vatican. concealed at the sack of tuta. 82. See Arch. of the Apusii. 199. 35. 14(5. 193. 92 Vibius Marianns. Marcellus. 123. Theoderic. Tulliola. 217 Tarpeian rock. 199. 205. Minerva Medica (so called) 95 Mithras. 4. 265. Flaminio. Thermae. 14 their building an important factor in the transformation of Rome. St. church of. Umbilicus Romae. . 14. 208. . Saturn. 23. 176. 186. 125. Tribunus Volnptatum. 171. Totila. 112. Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Ugolini house. Penates. Vatican district included See Mu- in the city proper. 17. Vacca. Sacrae See Forum. 18. . Fabii. . 237 Caecilia Metella. 722. Gaius Cestius. 49 fol. Claudius (Caelian). 194.48. Sylvester. (gardens of Sallust) 261 . fol. (Meta Remi). 14. 48. . 24. 133. Valens. Veii. 39. destruction of. 12. . 41. ander Severus. 36. 178 Alex- 31 Temple. 18 . Casal Rotondo. 14. 110. 89. 183.

Salaria Salaria Vetus. 145. 6 Sacra. Vol. xx vi. 264. Moroni. II. . lis. I. p. 52. 27. II. CL AUDI ANUS De VI. 148. . 49. Vibiana. 65. Leonine. Tit. I. See Pope. 194. 151 Patricius. LIBER PONTIFICALIS 38 38 10. 47 10. 7. 48. 240. 57.. VI. . 103. Vespasian. .. CODEX BARBERINIANUS xxx. tomb of. 240 Tuscus.. . Vitalianus. 192. of Aurelian. 270. Nomentana. Vol. 105. See Pope. temple of. 105. 196. 110. Tiburtina. Victory. Verus. 17. 36. Vulcan. 121. Gregorius. 53. 235. 38. 196. Luc. FRONTINUS 80 126 131 139 155 156 LIVY xxiv. II. AUTHORS AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS Satires PAGE PAGE XVI. Vol. 483. Gor- Vigna Barberini. church of. Vitalis in Vico Longo. 153. 15. Rufus. dianorum (Via Praenestina). Wall. p. 16. 18 statue of. 137.. 32. Via Appia. x. Consulatu Honorii 65 42. 178.13. 103 Voconiorum. . Aurelia. X. 122. . Maciocchi. 275. 178.xxiii. xcvi. Vicus. Livia. 158. house of. (museo). 104. temple of (at Ostia). . 92 DION CASSIUS 11 xliii. siege of. 92. 89. 79. Serrno cv de verbis Evang. 358. iv.INDEX OF PASSAGES 278 Venus.. 256.57. INDEX OF PASS\GES AND INSCRIPTIONS CITED HORACE A.. . Vergilius Eurysaces. Barberini19. 116.. 46. 160. 31. 13. 13. ST. 25. . 263. . See Temple. 95 Torlonia. 15. 153.. 240 Portae Viminalis. . JEROME Letters 65 13. 16 Giulia. Vol. 89 Ceccarelli. Labicana. . Vol. 92. Cornelia. 121 Spithoever. Volusianus. Vesta. 33 TriumphaSee Clivus. 248. Vestals. 72. 16. 16 16 MON. 6. 145. 8 fol.. 145. 16. tomb of. viii. 191. Latina. Variae vii. . Collatina. Vibius Marianus. 133 fol. S. 90. 155 156 157 . LANG. Villa Corsmi-Pamfili. SCR. 32 Nova. Vitiges. 194. 194. GERM. church of. . 96. S. Venus and Rome. 151 Nova. diGiulioIII. 15 ST.. 234.. 115. 116 Grimani (Barberini). II. 34. xxii. Vol. 109. 177. Vol. 33. Vigilius. Clodia.. Lucius. statue of. 31 Praenestina. 191. 15. I. statue of. 258. . Zmaragdus. 194 fol. 152 CODEX THEODOSIANUS i. II. . Quintiliorum. 59 59 xlviii. 20. Vicus Capitis Africae. Lex Regia of. p. 120. 211. AUGUSTINE CASSIODORIUS iii. 225.

43. PROCOPIUS de Bello Gothico i. 472. Capua. 121. i. 415. 22. vi. 3. 501-505. inscription found at. ZOSIMUS v. 29. Corjms Inscriptionum Latinarum i. p. 23. inscription found Brick stamp of Theoderic. VENANTIUS FORTUNATUS Carmina iii.INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS PRUDENTIUS Contra Sym. SUETONIUS Octav. INSCRIPTIONS Benevento. 279 . 773. B. 562. iv. at. TACITUS Annales xv. 36. 45. ii. 19. 285. PLINY THE ELDER Historia Naturalis vii.


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