The Influence of a Mere Social Presence in a

Retail Context
JENNIFER J. ARGO
DARREN W. DAHL
RAJESH V. MANCHANDA*
While the majority of consumer research that has studied sociai influences has
focused on the impact of an interactive social presence, in this research we demonstrate that a noninteractive social presence (i.e., a mere presence) is also influential. We conduct two field experiments in a retail setting to show when and
how a noninteractive social presence that differs in size and proximity impacts
consumers' emotions and self-presentation behaviors. In doing so, we refine Social
Impact Theory by identifying boundary conditions under which the theory does not
hold.

S

ocial influence has been shown to play an important
role in the consumption process (Bearden and Etzel
1982; Moschis 1976). The majority of research in this area
has focused on how an interactive social influence, such as
being greeted by salespeople or debating a group purchase,
impacts a consumer (e.g., Childers and Rao 1992). However,
social influence situations in consumption are not limited
only to interactive situations but also include those that occur
without an interaction. These noninteractive social situations
include events where a social entity is physically present
during consumption but is not involved nor attempts to engage the consumer in any way (e.g., other shoppers in a
grocery aisle or a fellow audience member at the theater).
To date, little research has studied the effects of this type
of social influence on a consumer (for exceptions, see Dahl,
Manchanda, and Argo 2001; Zhou and Soman 2003). The
purpose of the present research is to broaden our understanding of the effects of a noninteractive social presence
and investigate its relevance in a consumption situation.
The theoretical framework used in our research is Social
Impact Theory (SIT; Latané 1981), which proposes that

people are impacted by the real, implied, or imagined presence or action of a social presence (i.e., another person or
group of people). This impact results from three "social
forces": number (i.e., social size—how many people are
present), immediacy (i.e., proximity), and social source
strength (i.e., importance; Latané 1981). Using a retail shopping environment as our context, we investigate the impact
of two of these social forces, social size and proximity, on
consumers' emotions and self-presentation behaviors in two
field experiments.
Our research contributes to the existing literature by refining SIT through the identification of boundary conditions
under which the theory does not hold. In two studies we
find that SIT does not predict the impact of a change in
social size on consumers' emotions and produces mixed
results for impression management tendencies. At a more
general level, we validate the importance of a noninteractive
social influence in the consumption context and point to important opportunities for future research. Next, we review the
principles of SIT and present the hypothesis for study 1.

*Jennifer J. Argo is assistant professor of marketing. School of Business,
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R6 (jennifer.argo@ualberta
.ca). Darren W. Dahl is associate professor of marketing. Sauder School
of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. BC, V6T 1Z2
(darren.dahl@sauder.ubc.ca). Rajesh V. Manchanda is associate professor
of marketing, I. H. Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB, R3T 5V4 (raj_manchanda@umanitoba.ca). Correspondence: Jennifer J. Argo. This article is based on the first author's doctoral
dissertation, cochaired by the second and third authors. The authors wish
to thank Peter Darke, Page Moreau, and Jaideep Sengupta for their helpful
comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. The financial support from
the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada is gratefully acknowledged.

As noted earlier, the impact of a social presence on a
person results from "social forces" that include the size,
immediacy, and strength of the social influence (Latané
1981). Social Impact Theory forwards three principles that
define its functionality. First, the theory posits that the impact of a social presence's social forces increases as a power
function such that the greatest influence will arise when the
social presence is large (vs. small), is in close (vs. far)
proximity, or is high (vs. low) in source strength (Latané
and Wolf 1981). The second principle addresses the relationships between the social forces and suggests that the in-

SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY

207
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00 to make the purchase and told that they could keep the product and any change remaining. Post hoc tests showed significant dif- .208 JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH fluence of a social presence is a multiplicative function of the forces with the greatest impact occurring when there are several people in close proximity and in high source strength.M3p„p|j. After participants retumed from the store. r = . they completed a questionnaire. Participants were mn individually and were told that the purpose of the research study was to evaluate the university bookstore for store management. happiness (good. and Gom 2002) or purchase certain products (Leigh and Gabel 1992). In the no social presence condition.88. and Chateau ($3. 0 0 1 . Similarly. and the suspicion probe were not significant in either of the studies and are not discussed further. Thus. in general. Dahl. cross-gender effects. a consumer will be more likely to experience negative (and less positive) emotions and manage self-presentation behaviors. A pretest showed that use of the station was "nerdy" and "uncool" in the presence of others. they were asked to visit the store. The confederates were trained to avoid interacting with partic- ipants and rehearsed their role to achieve consistency.45. 3 = used extensively). and source strength. the only product that could be drawn was a package of four AA batteries. consumers will go to great lengths. Our research focuses on the ideas inherent in the first two principles. The second behavior recorded was brand selection. using a three-point scale (1 = did not use. M . The choice of store aisle and the fact that the study was mn during offpeak hours helped minimize the likelihood that additional shoppers would be present in the aisle at the same time as the participants. they indicated how they felt while in the shopping aisle. the impact of the social forces will be divided between the targets. M„„_ = 0. Participants were given $5. sure. and responded to a suspicion probe. Thus. In the social presence conditions. a = . excited. and then provide their impressions. a confederate was not present. such as lie (Sengupta. happy.. age. The first behavior measured the extent to which participants interacted with a battery-testing station located next to the display.001). STUDY 1 Method In a retail shopping setting. if any.29).54). Langer and Saegert 1977). we expect that an increase in social size. As part of the evaluation. Analysis of variance with the measure of the number of people in the aisle as the dependent variable and social size as the independent factor produced a significant main effect (F(2. Social Size. An observer situated two aisles away from the battery display assessed self-presentation behaviors. = 3. and to achieve this desire. age. p < . HI: As the size of a noninteractive social presence increases. Unknown to participants.81).69). to impress others. research on crowding has found that an increase in the number of people present decreases participants' feelings of comfort and increases their negative affect (Griffitt and Veitch 1971. Analysis of gender effects. with higher prices denoting higher quality: Duracell/Energizer ($4. 2 = used somewhat. research on stage fright has supported this prediction by showing that an increase in audience size results in participants experiencing more negative emotions (Jackson and Latané 1981. females = 39) from a large North American university completed the study (cell sizes ranged from 28 to 30). Social Impact Theory proposes that as the size of a social presence increases. To assess the social size manipulation.001). make a product purchase assigned by random draw. including annoyance (annoyed and frustrated. they were asked how many. proximity. one person vs. Social size manipulations were based on previous research (e. Latané and Harkins 1976). Factor analysis indicated four underlying dimensions (two negative/two positive.g. The store's battery display was located in a lowtraffic aisle away from the view of the cashiers. Finally. Rayovac/Panasonic ($3. Results The social size manipulation was successful. a between-subjects experimental design tested the impact of social size (no one vs. three people) on consumers' emotions and behaviors. To assess their emotions. Social size was manipulated. will translate into an increased tendency for consumers to manage their impressions. self-consciousness (self-conscious and awkward. Eighty-seven undergraduate students (males = 48. it should have an increasing impact on one's emotions and behaviors. from a consumer battery display. which results in more people to impress (Schlenker and Weigold 1992). using 11 seven-point scale items (not at all/very). using trained confederates (one male/two females) who assumed the role of store shoppers. First. Procedure. Pretesting established the prices of five brands to refiect differences in perceived quality. We begin our conceptual development by outlining the importance of social size relative to consumers' emotions and behaviors. and interested. Independent Variable. a — . r = .06. an increase in the size of a noninteractive social presence is expected to increase consumers' negative emotions and decrease positive emotions. Second.139. p< . In fact.55. Jackson and Latané 1981). other people were present in the aisle in which they found their assigned product.99). a confederate (three confederates) was situated in the store aisle 2 ft.81). ^ _ = 1. 72% of variance explained). p < .37. Participants also indicated their gender. and confidence (confident.84) . and certain. the third principle states that a social presence's influence is an inverse function of the number of targets. they regularly engage in impression management behaviors. people have a pervasive desire to be viewed in a positive light (Leary and Kowalski 1990).

Instead. p < . as compared to when they were by themselves. females = 71) successfully completed the assigned task (cell sizes ranged from 23 to 25). one person vs. one person.54 (. 0 5 .81.01. there was no significant difference identified between the social presence conditions (?< 1). post hoc tests indicated that while participants used the station less (i. negative emotions decreased (positive emotions increased) and then inverted when the social size increased from one to three people.71 1. p < . 3 = Chateau.40) 3.1 control between-subjects experimental design. ANOVA for the battery-testing station measure produced a main effect for social size (F(2.76) (.10) (. 2 = Rayovac/Panasonic.31) 41. However. Sommer 1969).33 (. social size will no longer matter STUDY 2 Method Study 2 employed a 2 (social size: one vs. The no one and three people conditions did not differ significantly for any of the emotions (all /'s < 1 ). "1 = Energizer/Duracell.e.001). self-consciousness: F(2.61 (1.94) (. /7< .51.31.5 17 Three people 2.85) 5. p < .90) 4.85 . whose impact on emotions and behaviors is explored in conjunction with social size. when the social size increased beyond one person. regardless of the social size. the consumer experienced more negative (less positive) emotions.88 5. a person's personal space becomes invaded.MERE SOCIAL PRESENCE ferences between the conditions no one versus one person (f(57) = 5. Thus.01). manage their impressions more when a noninteractive social presence existed. all p's < .63 (1. p < .22) 4. the prediction that an increase in social size would result in an increase in negative (decrease in positive) emotions was not realized. Festinger.001). p<. However. p<.05. Schachter. one person versus three people (i(55) = 10. and no one versus thiee people (i(56) = 17. one person.01). However. The results of study 1 showed that two distinct patterns arose when the size of a noninteractive social presence increased. 84) = 5. see table 1). ordinal regression analysis demonstrated that social size impacted brand selection (ß = 1. 84) = 3. three people.72. when social size increased from no one to one person. f(56) = 3. Further examination of the frequencies indicated that the lowest quality/priced brand was selected the most when there was no one present to impress. 83) = 5. and the social presence will have enhanced visual accessibility to observe the behaviors of others (Kraut 1982).35.45 (1.01..10 1 = 2 = 3 = (.47) 1 == 33 2 =-. To .18) 4. proximity. Findings for the behavioral measures also did not support SIT.e.79.48 (1.05)./? < . no one vs.05.02.61. when the social presence is further away.36. happiness: F(2. for means. Thus.88) (1. personal space will not be invaded. 84) = 5. H2: A consumer will experience more negative (less positive) emotions and will be more likely to manage self-presentation behaviors when a close noninteractive social presence increases in size. small) in size.. but when the social presence is further away.84) = 4. ANOVA demonstrated that social size significantly influenced consumers' emotions (annoyance: F(2. Recall SIT's second principle. Researchers have found that when a social presence in close proximity is large (vs. Specifically. i(57) = 2. p < . far) -i. we expect that proximity will moderate the impact of social size on emotions and self-presentation behaviors.12 (. post hoc tests produced a surprising result. the presence of another person in the shopping aisle may have satisfied participants' need for association and caused the decrease in negative (increase in positive) emotions between the no one and one person conditions. managed behaviors more) when a noninteractive social presence existed versus when they were by themselves (no one vs.5 41. p < . and that this change to one's perceived belongingness can elicit a positive emotional response (Baumeister and Leary 1995.16) 0 1 == 63 2 == 22 3 == 15 NOTE.05. This principle has been supported in a number of investigations. Specifically.19 (1. and confidence: F{2. Research has suggested and shown that the mere association between people can create an initial level of social attachment. and it will have less visual access.23 5.93 (1. Baumeister and Leary 1995). three people. they desire interpersonal attachment. and Back 1950). the actual size of the social presence (when it existed) did not appear to matter Study 2 attempts to replicate the patterns of results in study 1 and introduces a second SIT force. all p's < . three) x 2 (proximity: close vs. Proximity.06. Discussion.001).—Standard deviations are indicated in parentheses.27 3 == 40 One person 1. which states that a combination of two social forces produces a greater impact on a target than each of the forces independently. Social size was manipulated as described in study 1. there was no difference in brand selection. A possible explanation for this unexpected pattern is that people have a fundamental human motivation to belong (i.35.01).91. However. consistent with SIT. One hundred and eighteen undergraduate students (males = 47. Wald = 6. but when a social presence existed (one or three). Similarly. Although participants did 209 TABLE 1 EXPERIMENT 1: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS No one Annoyance Self-consciousness Happiness Confidence Battery-testing station Brand selection (%)" 2.21) . creating stress and discomfort (Dabbs 1971 . Immediacy is a social force that refers to the closeness or proxitniity of a social entity to a target. p < .42) 2. a v-shaped (inverted

-shaped) pattern arose where the least negative (most positive) emotions were experienced in the one person condition (no one vs. The results for the two behavioral measures also did not support hypothesis 1.

210 JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH manipulate proximity. when the social presence was further away.study 1.54) 3.31. Study 2 demonstrates that the proximity of a noninteractive social presence moderates the impact of social size on emotions and brand selection.2.46. the interaction effect did not reach significance (p > . Sommer 1959).88) 4. When it was further away. M.99) 4.33 (1.001.Mf.. Third. /7<.32) .67 (.11. confidence: F(l. (far) from the battery display.1% to 100%).28 (. Wald = 6.90 (1. two hidden cameras recorded the behaviors measured in study 1.07) .^^ = .42 (1.05. The procedure followed study 1 with a few notable differences. 83) = 5.91 (1. 2 = Rayovac/Panasonic. p > . this study established the robustness of the findings for emotions in study 1.001.05).05(1. however.99(1. GENERAL DISCUSSION Using a retail setting.195)./?< . p < .g. social size did not influence brand selection (ß = 6.10 (. To assess the proximity manipulation. These distances were determined based on pretesting and earlier reseai-ch (e. a different campus retail outlet was used to increase experimental control.39) . Aíjpecpic = 3. Contradicting SIT. 91) = 6. < . a confederate(s) was situated either 2 ft.76(1. Participants interacted with the station more when the social presence was further away as opposed to close by.001. Wald = 3.01).55) 3. = l'..05) and a main effect for social size (ß = 1. 90) = 10. First. p < .81. Results Consistent with hypothesis 2. Wald = 6. p < .05).30) 1 = 84 2 = 8 3 = 8 1. social size did not influence emotions differently (r's < 1).02).46) . Discussion. targets experienced more negative (less positive) emotions as compared to those in a one person social presence condition.. Including the control group in one-way ANOVAs using social size as the independent variable rephcated the distinct pattem Of emotions found earlier (p's < .23. subsequent analysis demonstrated that participants in the control group interacted with the battery-testing station and selected the cheapest/lowest-quality brands more than those in the one or three close conditions (p's < .01.01. proximity: F(l. as predicted.76.05).85) 2.05).54) 1 = 70 2 = 3 3 = 17 NOTE. the results of two field experiments show that the social size and proximity of a noninteractive TABLE 2 EXPERIMENT 2: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS Close Annoyance Self-consciousness Happiness Confidence Battery testing station Brand selection (%)" Far Control One person Three people One person Three people 2.61. Wald = .81.41 (.05 (.20). and the footage was interpreted by two independent coders (reliability ranged from 97.64) 4. (close) or 8 ft.21) 3.25) 1. ANOVA for emotions produced significant interactions between social size and proximity (annoyance: F(l. ANOVA for the battery testing station measure produced only a main effect for proximity (F(l. selfconsciousness:/• = ./. Simple regression tests showed that when there were three people (vs. forrneans.64) 5. As in study 1.. 3 = Chateau/Classics. M. ^ciosc . A main effect for social size was also identified for each emotion {p's < .35 (1.69E-02.—Standard deviations are indicated in parentheses. although the social presence was still noticed.ss: F(\..42 (. ordinal regression analysis using the battery brand as the dependent variable and the two social forces and their interaction term as predictor variables produced the predicted significant interaction effect (ß = 1. self-consciousness: F(l. more negative (less positive) emotions were felt when a close noninteractive social presence was comprised of three people versus only one person (p's < . we again found that in experimental conditions with no one or a social presence comprised of three people.85) == 91.70 (. M. near/ distant.p.08 (. one person) in close proximity. .74) .09..90) = 248. a =.20). =1 = Energizer/Duracell.05..90 (1. 91) = 7./Í < .•OS. However.05). Planned contrasts indicated that.50) 1 = 35 2 = 17 3 = 48 1.79). participants rated the distance of other shoppers relative to themselves using three items (close/far. happiness: a = .86) 5.43 (. > < .75.„„ = 1.73.79 (1.34).74.20 (1. and confidence: a = .06 (. An increase in social size only influenced consumers when a noninteractive social presence was in close proximity.55.61) 4. Second. see table 2). p < . 89) = 5. p < .09.47.61 (..24) 1 = 47 2 = 21 3 = 32 2. p = . The manipulations for social size and proximity were successful (social size: F(l.82 (1. next to me/awaji from me. happine.69) 4.00) 4. a low-quality brand of battery was added to create an equal balance across brand quality levels.23) 5. p < . As in .21. annoyance: r = . p < . participants were more likely to select the expensive/high-quality brands (ß = 1.52 (1.01.02 (.88) 5.78.64) 1 = 70 2 = 15 3 = 15 1. the same four dimensions of emotions were identified (62.001.. the effects it produced did not change when social size increased.05. = 4.65. Further.3% of variance explained. but when the social presence was further away.

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-shaped) pattern arose where the least negative (most positive) emotions were experienced in the one person condition (no one vs. The results for the two behavioral measures also did not support hypothesis 1.

210 JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH manipulate proximity. when the social presence was further away.study 1.54) 3.31. Study 2 demonstrates that the proximity of a noninteractive social presence moderates the impact of social size on emotions and brand selection.2.46. the interaction effect did not reach significance (p > . Sommer 1959).88) 4. When it was further away. M.99) 4.33 (1.001.Mf.. Third. /7<.32) .67 (.11. confidence: F(l. (far) from the battery display.1% to 100%).28 (. Wald = 6.90 (1. two hidden cameras recorded the behaviors measured in study 1.07) .^^ = .42 (1.05. The procedure followed study 1 with a few notable differences. 83) = 5.91 (1. 2 = Rayovac/Panasonic. p > . this study established the robustness of the findings for emotions in study 1.001.05).05(1. however.99(1. GENERAL DISCUSSION Using a retail setting.195)./?< . p < .g. social size did not influence brand selection (ß = 6.10 (. To assess the proximity manipulation. These distances were determined based on pretesting and earlier reseai-ch (e. a different campus retail outlet was used to increase experimental control.39) . Aíjpecpic = 3. Contradicting SIT. 91) = 6. < . a confederate(s) was situated either 2 ft.76(1. Participants interacted with the station more when the social presence was further away as opposed to close by.001. Wald = 3.01).55) 3. = l'..05) and a main effect for social size (ß = 1. 90) = 10. First. p < .81. Results Consistent with hypothesis 2. Wald = 6. p < .05).30) 1 = 84 2 = 8 3 = 8 1. social size did not influence emotions differently (r's < 1).02).46) . Discussion. targets experienced more negative (less positive) emotions as compared to those in a one person social presence condition.. Including the control group in one-way ANOVAs using social size as the independent variable rephcated the distinct pattem Of emotions found earlier (p's < .23. subsequent analysis demonstrated that participants in the control group interacted with the battery-testing station and selected the cheapest/lowest-quality brands more than those in the one or three close conditions (p's < .01.01. proximity: F(l. as predicted.76.05).85) 2.05).54) 1 = 70 2 = 3 3 = 17 NOTE. the results of two field experiments show that the social size and proximity of a noninteractive TABLE 2 EXPERIMENT 2: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS Close Annoyance Self-consciousness Happiness Confidence Battery testing station Brand selection (%)" Far Control One person Three people One person Three people 2.61. Wald = .81.41 (.05 (.20). and the footage was interpreted by two independent coders (reliability ranged from 97.64) 4. (close) or 8 ft.21) 3.25) 1. ANOVA for emotions produced significant interactions between social size and proximity (annoyance: F(l. ANOVA for the battery testing station measure produced only a main effect for proximity (F(l. selfconsciousness:/• = ./. Simple regression tests showed that when there were three people (vs. forrneans.64) 5. As in study 1.. 3 = Chateau/Classics. M. ^ciosc . A main effect for social size was also identified for each emotion {p's < .35 (1.69E-02.—Standard deviations are indicated in parentheses. although the social presence was still noticed.ss: F(\..42 (. ordinal regression analysis using the battery brand as the dependent variable and the two social forces and their interaction term as predictor variables produced the predicted significant interaction effect (ß = 1. self-consciousness: F(l. more negative (less positive) emotions were felt when a close noninteractive social presence was comprised of three people versus only one person (p's < . we again found that in experimental conditions with no one or a social presence comprised of three people.85) == 91.70 (. M. near/ distant.p.08 (. one person) in close proximity. .74) .09..90) = 248. a =.20). =1 = Energizer/Duracell.05..90 (1. 91) = 7./Í < .•OS. However.05). Planned contrasts indicated that.50) 1 = 35 2 = 17 3 = 48 1.79). participants rated the distance of other shoppers relative to themselves using three items (close/far. happiness: a = .86) 5.43 (. > < .75.„„ = 1.73.79 (1.34).74.20 (1. and confidence: a = .06 (. An increase in social size only influenced consumers when a noninteractive social presence was in close proximity.55.61) 4. Second. see table 2). p < . 89) = 5. p < .09.47.61 (..24) 1 = 47 2 = 21 3 = 32 2. p = . The manipulations for social size and proximity were successful (social size: F(l.82 (1. next to me/awaji from me. happine.69) 4.00) 4. a low-quality brand of battery was added to create an equal balance across brand quality levels.23) 5. p < . As in .21. annoyance: r = . p < . participants were more likely to select the expensive/high-quality brands (ß = 1.52 (1.01.02 (.88) 5.78.64) 1 = 70 2 = 15 3 = 15 1. the same four dimensions of emotions were identified (62.001.. the effects it produced did not change when social size increased.05. = 4.65. Further.3% of variance explained. but when the social presence was further away.

and Michael J. 40 (1 ). Similarly. Childers. although efforts were taken to enhance experimental control. distracting or impairing one's ability to further manage impressions as compared to when one person was present. 73-85. [Dawn Iacobucci served as editor and Laura Peracchio served as associate editor for this article.] REFERENCES Baumeister. 19 (September). Research could also explore SIT's remaining social force. Second. and Robin M. 497-529. Roy F. 36 (4). consumers' emotional reactions turn negative." Perception and Psychophysics. To illustrate. 35 (3). a large social presence may have heightened arousal. Bibb and Sharon Wolf (1981). 198-211. If and how arousal affects emotions and behaviors as an outcome of different social sizes is an important question. Jackson. 42 (5).. Jr. 23 (2). Although these types of effects should randomize across conditions. see Stayman and Deshpande 1989)." 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