Techniques For Collecting Data In Conducting Educational Research

1. Interview
Two kind of interview
a. Structured interview
b.Unstructured interview
2. Focus group
3. Observation
a. Structured observation
b.Unstructured observation
4. Tests
5. Questionnaire
1. Interview
The interview is in a sense, an oral questionnaire. Instead of writing the response, the
subject or interviewee gives the needed information verbally in a face to face
Quantitative interviews When carrying out quantitative interviews, one must carefully
read the words as they are provided in the interview protocol. The interview protocol
is the data collection instrument that includes the items, the response categories, the
instructions and so forth. The interview protocol in a quantitative interview basically a
script written by the researcher and read by the interviewer to the interviewees
Qualitative interviews consist of open -ended questions and provide qualitative data.
Qualitative interviews are also called depth interviews because they can be used to
obtain in depth information about a participant’s thoughts, beliefs, knowledge,
reasoning, motivations and feelings about a topic.
2. Focus group
A focus group is a type of group interview in which a moderator (working for the
researcher) leads a discussion with a small group of individuals (e.g., students,
teachers, teenagers) to examine, in detail, how the group members think and feel
about a topic. It is called a ‘focus” group because the moderator keeps the individuals
in the group focused on the topic being discussed.
The moderator generates group discussion through the use of open ended questions,
and he or she acts as a facilitator of group process. Focus groups are used to collect

qualitative data that are in the words of the group participants. A focus group is composed of 6 to 12 participants who are purposively selected because they can provide the kind of information of interest to the researcher. where the observation are to be carried out (in the laboratory in the classroom. Quantitative observation usually results in quantitative data. what is observed (what variables are to be observed by the researcher. (composed of similar kinds of people) because the use of a homogeneous group promotes discussion. when the observation are to take place (during the morning hour. A focus group is usually homogeneous. in the library. such accounts or frequencies and percentages. on the playground) and how the observations are to be done. observation is defined as the watching of behavioral patterns of people in certain situations to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest. Laboratory observation is carried out in settings that are set up by the researcher and inside the confines of a research lab. which involves checking for events during time interval specified in advance of the actual data collection. In research. in the lunchroom. Observation is an important way of collecting information about people because people do not always do what they say they do. Observation The next method of data collection involves something that we do most of our waking hours: observe things. Observational data are collected in two different types of environments. Who is observed (what kinds of people are to be studied. Quantitative observation might also involve observational sampling techniques.  Quantitativeobservation Quantitative (or structured) observation involves the standardization of all observational procedures in order to obtain reliable research data. such as teachers or students). 3. An example of time interval sampling is a researcher observing student behavior for the first then minutes of every hour. during break time). It is a maxim in the social and behavioral sciences that attitudes and behavior are not always congruent. One technique is called time interval sampling.  Qualitative observation . Researchers are also observers of things in the world. such as time on tasks or out of seat behavior). It often involves the standardization of each of the following.

feelings. The individual check responses to certain questions or statements. . Personality scales are usually self report instruments. aptitude tests attempt to predict an individual capacity to require improved performance with additional training. qualitative observation is usually done for exploratory purposes Qualitative observation involves observing all relevant phenomena and taking extensive field 4.  Aptitude Test Aptitude tests seek to assess the level of achievement that an individual can attain in some particular academic or vocational field. advancing or retaining students at particular grade revels. perceptions. Researchers use questionnaire to obtain information about the thoughts. values.  Personality Test It is concerned with the non-intellectual aspect of human behavior. They are particularly helpful in determining individual or group status in academic learning. from one time to another. tests are among the most useful tools of educational research. Test As data gathering devices.The qualities of a good test are: Validity. In other words. Which are assumed or have been shown to measure certain personality traits or tendencies? Qualities of a good test . Achievement test scores are used in placing. for they provide the data for most experimental and descriptive studies in education Type of test  Achievement Test Achievement tests attempt to measure what an individual has learned his present level of performance. personality and behavioral intentions of research participants.Notes without specifying in advance exactly what is to be observed. Most tests used in schools are achievement tests. in general a test possesses validity to the extent that it measures what it claims to measure. It is reliable A test is reliable to the extent that it measures accurately and consistently. Objectivity: A test should yield a clear score value for each performance the score being independent of the personal judgment of the scorer. attitudes beliefs. 5. These instruments yield scores. Questionnaire Questionnaire is a self report data collection instrument that each research participant fills out as part of a research study. In other words.

an opinionnaire or Attitude scale is used. open pictorial and scale items. Thick description also includes the complexities experienced in addition to the commonalities found. when opinion rather than facts are desired. The challenge of documentation is that it requires an ongoing commitment to regularly document thoughts and activities throughout the evaluation process . This process provides a thorough description of the “study participants. This form of questionnaire is particularly suitable tool for collecting data from children and adults who had not developed reading ability. Pictures often capture the attention of respondents more readily than printed words.The use of documentation provides an ongoing record of activities. Best (1992) a questionnaire is used when factual information is desired. This can be records of informal feedback and reflections through journals. Documents Substantial description and documentation. context and procedures. the purpose of the intervention and its transferability”. diaries or progress reports. often referred to as “thick description”. Questionnaire that calls for short check responses as the. lessen subjects’ resistance and stimulate the interest in questions.“To get better answers. restricted or close form type.  picturesform Some questionnaires present respondents with drawings and photographs rather than written statement from which to choose answers. ask better questions” 6. FORMS/KINDS OF QUESTIONNAIRE The researcher can construct questions in the form of a closed.  Close form. which assists in maintaining data integrity.According to John W. They provide for marking a Yes or No a short response or checking an item from a list of suggested responses. can be used to further explore a subject.