Review and analysis of AJK educational

policy through desk review and a
consultative process to identify gaps in
existing education policy and to develop
recommendations for a more Inclusive
policy to support children with disability

Review and
Analysis of AJK
Educational Policy



Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 2
Background and Objective of the Review .................................................................................................... 2
Inclusive Education .................................................................................................................................. 4
AJK Educational Policy .................................................................................................................................. 4
Status of inclusive education in light of aj&k education policies ................................................................. 5
Right To Education ................................................................................................................................... 6
Kashmir Education Policy 2009 ................................................................................................................ 7
Kashmir Education Policy Implementation Framework (Kep If) ............................................................. 12
Aj&K Education Sector Plan (Esp) ........................................................................................................... 13
Curriculum And Curriculum Implementation Framework (CIF) ............................................................. 14
Student Assessment ............................................................................................................................... 17
Teacher Education Strategy 2018 ........................................................................................................... 18
National Professional Standards Of Teachers ........................................................................................ 20
Review Of Non- Documented Education Policies ................................................................................... 21
Teachers’ Deployment ....................................................................................................................... 21
TORS OF Teachers .............................................................................................................................. 21
Education Code .................................................................................................................................. 21
Schools Admission Policies ................................................................................................................. 22
Infrastructural Provision Policies ........................................................................................................ 22
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 22

This document includes an analysis of the existing educational policy of AJK perspective to
identify gaps in the policy from inclusiveness perspective. It also includes recommendations for
a more inclusive policy for inclusiveness of services, especially to encourage children with
physical disabilities to access their bacsic right of education and to enhance their access to
educational institutions.

Background and Objective of the Review
The analysis has been carried out as part of the WWOP project titled “Voice for making
Education Inclusive in AJK”. The project is being implemented by Women Welfare Organization
Poonch (WWOP). The overall aim of the project is to improve educational access and quality of
education for children with disabilities. In the beginning of the project, WWOP carried out a
comprehensive study to assess the existing situation with reference to inclusiveness of
educational services in AJK. The findings of the study presented an alarming situation with
reference to inclusiveness of the educational facilities. The findings also revealed that existing
knowledge and perceptions of the educational authorities and general community regarding
significance of inclusive education is very low. The study showed that children with disabilities
are being denied their basic right of education by not providing them a supportive and enabling
environment in mainstream schools. Instead of serving as an enabling environment for
Children with Disabilities (CWDs) to actively pursue education, the existing system tends to
discourage and oftentimes alienate them. The study pointed out that inclusive education is not
on the agenda of the state government and until now, no concrete efforts have been made to
include CWDs in mainstream schools.
As result of the study it was recommended that a comprehensive multi-sectoral approach is
required to make education inclusive for children with disabilities. It was also recommended
that key policy makers should be invited through a consultative process to review, revise and
develop recommendations for an inclusive education policy at the state level. The three
consultations organized at a local hotel in Muzaffarabad city were attended by all the important
stakeholders. A detailed methodology was devised so the very objective of the consultations
could be reached.Initially a list of relevant stakeholders was developed so all the important
voices could be heard in the process. Then a strategy was developed to make a breakdown of
which stakeholders may be called in different consultations so the presence of conflict of
authority or interest may not hamper the process of learning and participation. It was tried to
invite professionals and community from all walks of life and the representation of following
community groups was observed:

Senior government officials from education departments

Teachers/ Headmasters/ Headmistresses

Members of civil society organizations

Journalists/ Media personnel



Social workers

Children with disabilities and their parents.
In the second phase of the project the findings of the study were used to initiate the process of
the review of existing educational policy and practices through a consultative process. Along
with that comprehensive desk review was carried out to identify the gaps of the existing policy
from an inclusiveness perspective. The subsequent review of the policy has also been informed
by the findings of the consultative meetings held with different stakeholders to review the
educational policy. The dcouments reviewed for the policy review include:

NEP 2009,
AJ&K NEP 2009 Implementation Framework,
AJ&K Education Sector Plan,
AJ&K adopted Curriculum and its implementation Policies , just like
AJ&K Curriculum Implementation Framework
AJ&K Scheme of Studies,o
AJ&K teacher/ education management recruitment Rules,
TORs of teachers,
AJ&K School Management /Education code
Schools admission policies,
AJ&K Infrastructural provision Policies,

Inclusive Education
Inclusive education is a developmental approach seeking to address the learning needs of all
children, youth and adults with a specific focus on those who are vulnerable to marginalization
and exclusion. The principle of inclusive education was adopted at the World Conference on
Special Needs Education: Access and Quality (Salamanca, Spain, 1994) and was restated at the
World Education Forum (Dakar, Senegal, 2000). The idea of inclusion is further supported by
the UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities
proclaiming participation and equality for all. Since the Dakar World Education Forum in April,
2000, Education for All (EFA) has become the main thrust of Education Sector. As per goals of
the Dakar Framework for Action, education for the vulnerable children should be an integral
part of the overall school system throughout world. Inclusive Education, as a crosscutting area,
needs to be the fundamental philosophy of the EFA follow-up efforts, so that the goal of
‘Education for All’ can be achieved holistically.
Inclusive education means inclusion of all children in a meaningful learning process irrespective
of their disability or any other reason. To be precise, inclusive education is defined as: “all
students being educated where they would be educated if they did not have a disability (i.e., in
age-appropriate general education classes in their neighborhood school) with necessary
supports provided to students, educators, and families so that all can be successful”1.

AJK Educational Policy
AJK government has not developed a separate educational policy of its own. Rather, the
educational policy 2009 of Pakistan has been adopted as the educational policy of AJK.
Therefore the present inclusiveness review of AJK educational policy is practically the review of
educational policy 2009 of the government of Pakistan. The previous policy of 1998 has been
followed in decision making and day to day functioning of education department including
infrastructure development and hiring.
The educational policy 2009 is one of the best policies so far developed. It is the first policy to
discuss inclusive education. It also focuses on many important issues like uniformity in
education system, globalization, social cohesion, bridging public private gap, overcoming
structural divides, management and planning capacity, involvement of communities, early
childhood education, elementary education, secondary and higher education, literacy and
formal education, emergency education and improving quality of education. The policy clearly
mentions that the measures will be taken for inclusiveness in the education sector in future.
But in fact no proper focus has been yet given to this highly important issue pointed out in the


Dukes & Lamar-Dukes, 2006, p. 4

policy. Therefore, still on ground no visible initiative has been taken and no proper funds are
being allocated despite the lapse of almost 5 years.

Status of inclusive education in light of aj&k education policies
The main education policies of a country/ region which may have control on the status of any
type and nature of education may perhaps be Basic (educational) Rights to its citizens
(children), Education Policy, Education Sector Plan, Curriculum and its implementation
framework, Scheme of studies, Student Assessment, Teacher Education, Teachers’
management & recruitment rules, TORs of teachers, Education code, Schools admission
policies, infrastructural provision policies, and budget provisions to educational institution. It is
necessary to overview all these policies while perceiving the status of inclusive education in
AJ&K. It is also necessary to focus only those aspects of the said policies which directly or
indirectly influence the inclusion of all children in a meaningful learning process irrespective of
their disability or any other reason. If available policy are reviewed but in case of nonavailability of policy documents, field practices will be observed or discussed with the
concerned professionals. So following criteria / guiding principles/ questioning were adopted/
utilized while reviewing any educational policy document or practices in the field.

What is the title/ name of the Policy?
What is the expected implication of this policy on education of the state?
Is this policy may have any impact on provision of inclusive education in the state?
Is this policy formally notified?
Is this policy has any clear cut directions/ material about provision of inclusive education
in the state? OR is there any verbal directions found in the field to follow some specific
routine practices, useful/ harmful for inclusive education?
6. If yes, what are those directions? Mention with reference, and give their implications?
7. If no, what should the possible policy actions? What will be their implications?

Some policies were found in hard forms and notified from the government, some policies were
found in hard form but not had yet been notified but were in process of being notified. Some
policies can’t be found in hard forms, we had to observe their usual practices in the field or to
discuss/ interview the concerned HR working in DOE. Alternate way to proceed for report, was
to organize FGD of all educational stakeholders from policy makers to beneficiaries to know the
situation of Inclusive education in the state. In the light of given review criteria the important
policies review is summarized as following;

Right To Education
The right to education – like all human rights – is universal and unchallengeable, several
conventions have protected it in international law, thereby placing binding commitments on
ratifying States. Provisions on the right to a quality education inclusive of human rights values
appear in such treaties as the UNESCO’s Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960),
the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) and the United
Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).
In April 2010, through 18th amendment in the constitution of Pakistan, the Parliament of
Pakistan recognizes access of all children of age 5 to 16 years to free and compulsory education
as their Fundamental Right. A new Article titled “Right to Education (Article 25 A)” was inserted
in the first chapter of the Constitution which enlists fundamental rights of all citizens of
Pakistan. The 18th Amendment devolved education as a completely provincial
government/area government subject. All the four provinces including ICT brought legislation
regarding the implementation of article 25-A to cover the right to free and compulsory
education as fundamental right. Islamabad Capital Territory, Punjab Provincial Assembly and
Sindh provincial Assembly passed the relevant Acts in this regard whereas Baluchistan and KPK
assemblies brought in the bills in their assemblies for necessary legislation.
Due to signatory of ‘Joint Declaration on Education ’, issued on 16th September, 2011, in a
National Education Conference held in Islamabad, (annexure 1), which explains that, ”
Provincial / Area Governments shall enact legislation for the implementation of Article 25A”, so
it is obligatory for AJ&K Government to pass necessary legislation about Article 25 A in AJ&K. As
for AJ&K government is working under AJK Act 74, so for implementation of article 25 A, AJ&K
has to bring legislative changes in its Act. For this purpose a bill is being submitted for necessary
legislation. Article 25 A of the constitution says, “Right to education ---The State shall provide
free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner
as may be determined by law”.
The definition of the proposed Right to Education, also embraces the scope of inclusive
education. As the last part of the Article 25 A illustrates that the implementation of Article 25-A
requires comprehensive legislation, which should explain State responsibilities and the
procedure that the children or their parents could follow in the cases of the violation of their
constitutional right to education. So implementation of Article 25 A with reference to inclusive
education is linked with further legislation by the AJ&K parliaments, which will elaborate
procedures of its enforcement and roles and responsibilities of various organs of the state. So
there is a need to sensitize the parliament to make by-laws for provision of inclusive education
in AJ&K. There is a need to develop an Action Plan which shall commit to appropriately raising
allocations for education, set priorities according to the needs of access and quality of

education and provide implementation strategies/processes with time frame and key
indicators; ensuring fulfillment of constitutional needs with respect to all nature of education
including inclusive education and meet the international commitments including targets of
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EFA)”. (Annexure of proposed

Kashmir Education Policy 2009
Kashmir Education Policy is in fact the National Education Policy 2009. After 18th amendment
NEP 2009 is approved by all the provinces and AJ&K in a meeting held under the Chairmanship
of Prime Minister of Pakistan on 16-09-2011. It is adopted in AJ&K by the Cabinet in its meeting
held on 03-11-2011. It has 9 chapters, 45 sections, 270 policy action, 157 concepts and 63
pages. The purpose of KEP policy is to chart out a national level strategy for pursuing
improvement in education. The objectives are to serve the interests of students and learners
rather than of those who develop policy or implement programs. The vision endorsed by policy
is “Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to enable
them to realize their individual potential and contribute to development of society and nation,
creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance, social justice, democracy,
their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology articulated in the
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” Salient features of this policy regarding
Improved Access and Equity in Education are summarized as;

Dakar EFA Goals and MDGs relating to Education shall be achieved by 2015,
Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) shall be introduced in all primary schools which
shall be provided with additional budget, teachers and assistants for this purpose,
Universal and free primary education (6-10 years) will be ensured by 2015,
All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level, where feasible,
Well- developed plans for expanding school basic facilities shall be prepared,
Universal and free secondary education shall be ensured up to 2025, Grades 11 and 12
shall not be part of the college education, shall be merged into the school education,
high schools shall be upgraded to higher secondary schools,
High priority shall be given to reduce dropout rates at all levels,
A system for ranking of primary and secondary educational institutions across the
country shall be introduced,
Governments shall establish “Apna Ghar” residential schools in each province to provide
free high quality education facilities to poor students.
Every child, on admission in Grade I, shall be allotted a unique ID that will continue
throughout his or her academic career,

TVE relevance to Labour Market shall be ensured, access will be extended by ensuring
availability of TVE at district and tehsil levels,
Literacy rate shall be increased up to 86% by 2015 through up-scaling of ongoing
programs of adult literacy and non-formal basic education in the country,

Similarly the actions mentioned in this policy to Improve Governance and Management in
Education are shortened as;

Planning, Management and Implementation capacity in education sector at all levels
shall be enhanced,
Sector Planning in Education shall be promoted and Education Department shall
develop its sector/ sub-sector plan, with facilitation and coordination at federal level,
A system for donor harmonization for aid-effectiveness and improved coordination
between development partners and government shall be developed,
In order to bridge Public-Private divide, governments shall take steps to bring harmony
through common standards, quality and regulatory regimes,
A common curriculum framework shall be applicable to both public & private
educational institutions,
Deeni Madaris shall be mainstreamed by introducing contemporary studies alongside
the curricula of Deeni Madaris. Madrassah Education authority shall be established,
A National Authority for Standards of Education shall be established to determine
standards for educational inputs, processes and outputs,
The Governments shall commit to allocating 7% of GDP to education by 2015 and
necessary enactment shall be made for this purpose,
A system of checks and balances for the private sector shall be formed to oversee the
issues of fees, school standards, salaries of teachers, conduct and hygiene,
The curriculum from Class I onward shall comprise of English (as a subject), Urdu, one
regional language and mathematics, along with an integrated subject.
English shall be used as the medium of instruction for sciences and mathematics from
class IV onwards.
Separate academic & educational management cadres with specified training and
qualification requirements shall be introduced. Education sector management shall be
left to the Education managers without any intervention from politicians and generalist
civil servants; only then the education managers can be held accountable for outcomes,
A Personnel Management Information System (PMIS) as well as Financial Management
Information System (FMIS) shall be developed to support the planning, implementation

and evaluation function. These shall be linked to the existing Educational Management
and Information System (EMIS),
A National Standards and Certification Agency for EMIS shall be established to set,
monitor and evaluate the quality of education, data collection, analysis and use across
all levels and tiers of education management. This can be part of a National Standards
Authority for Education,
Provincial and district governments shall establish monitoring and inspection systems to
ensure quality education service delivery in all institutions.
A comprehensive Human Resource Development (HRD) policy shall be developed
integrating all types and branches of HRD institutions from Early Childhood Education
(ECE) to tertiary education.
A comprehensive school language policy shall be developed in consultation with all

Likewise the directions given in this policy to Improve Quality of Education are listed as;

A Bachelor’s degree, with a B.Ed. shall be the requirement for teaching at the
elementary level. PTC and CT shall be phased out through encouraging the present set
of teachers to improve their qualifications, while new hiring shall be based on the
advanced criteria,
Teacher training arrangements, accreditation and certification procedures shall be
standardized and institutionalized,
A separate cadre of specialized teacher trainers shall be developed,
Governments shall take steps to ensure that teacher recruitment, professional
development, promotions and postings are based on merit alone,
Standardized in-service teacher training regime shall be established. All teachers shall
have opportunities for professional development through a program organized on a
three-year cyclic basis. Progress in career shall be linked to such professional
development. Professional development of teachers in Science and Mathematics will be
Over the next two years, teacher allocation shall be based on school needs and
qualifications of teachers. Governments shall develop a rationalized and need based
school allocation of teachers, which should be reviewed and modified annually,
Curriculum development shall be objective driven and outcome based. The curriculum
development and review process shall be standardized and institutionalized,
Use of Information Communication Technologies in Education shall be promoted,
Matric-Tech scheme shall be re-introduced at secondary level,

Textbook Boards shall be transformed into competent facilitating authorities to develop
and implement revised improved curriculum,
A well regulated system of competitive publishing of textbooks and learning materials
shall be introduced,
Governments shall increase investments in school libraries, provide supplementary
reading materials and teacher guides,
There shall be periodic reviews of the assessment system, multiple assessment tools in
addition to traditional examinations shall be explored, student performance shall be
based on assessing competencies in different areas, and assessment system should
provide feedback to curriculum development, textbooks development, teacher
education and professional development.
Basic standards for school facilities including playground shall be established by 2012 to
improve school environment, and shall form the basis for allocation of funds. Federal
government shall provide necessary resources to less developed areas for provision of
missing basic facilities in all education institutions.
An awareness campaign against corporal punishment shall be initiated and teachers
shall be held accountable for violations
To create an order for excellence in the country, a “National Merit Program shall be
introduced to award bright students,
Career Counseling at secondary and higher secondary level shall be initiated,
Technical Vocational Education (TVE) Curriculum will be revised to meet new challenges.
Private sector will be encouraged to participate in promotion of skill development.
Special emphasis shall be laid on skill development and provision of quality TVE
matching with labour market,
Head teachers shall be trained in social mobilization to involve the community

The National Education Policy 2009 was developed after several rounds of deliberations with
relevant stakeholders, addresses all the dimensions of Pakistan’s education sector. The NEP
(2009) recognizes that there are close links between equity in educational opportunities and
equitable income distribution and income growth. If the education system is constructed on a
divisive basis, the divisions it creates can endanger long run economic growth as well as stability
of society. Affirmation of commitment to Pakistan’s egalitarian education vision in the service
of all citizens and as a driver of economic and social development can help produce a virtuous
circle of high level of human and social capital leading to equitable economic growth and social
advancement. The reaffirmation of educational vision requires a change of mindset that would
permit development of goals, policies and programs in support of the vision. The Planning

Commission’s “Vision 2030” also argues for such change of the mindset, which commits to a
new set of societal goals. Accordingly, the Ministry of Education too has adopted the following
vision: “Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to
enable them to realize their individual potential and contribute to development of society and
nation, creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance, social justice,
democracy, their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology enunciated
in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” (NEP (2009); Chapter 2; Section 2; Item
52; page 10 8)
Although there is no any direct policy provision about delivery of inclusive education in the
country but indirectly there is a lot of instruction in favor of inclusion education. For example
while addressing types of education such as ECE, elementary education, secondary education,
teacher education, etc. support inclusive education. If we observe the aims and objectives of
the NEP (2009) we find that its 6 out of 9 following objectives support inclusive education:
1. To promote social and cultural harmony through the conscious use of the educational
2. To provide and ensure equal educational opportunities to all citizens of Pakistan and to
provide minorities with adequate facilities for their cultural and religious development,
enabling them to participate effectively in the overall national effort;

3. To revive confidence in public sector education system by raising the quality of
education provided in government owned institutions through setting standards for
educational inputs, processes and outputs and institutionalizing the process of
monitoring and evaluation from the lowest to the highest levels.
4. To improve service delivery through political commitment and strengthening education
governance and management;
5. To widen access to education for all and to improve the quality of education, particularly
in its dimension of being relevant to the needs of the economy;
6. To equalize access to education through provision of basic facilities for girls and boys
alike, under-privileged/marginalized groups and special children and adults;
7. To eradicate illiteracy within the shortest possible time through universalizing of quality
elementary education coupled with institutionalized adult literacy programs;
8. To organize a national process for educational development that will reduce disparities
across provinces and areas and support coordination and sharing of experiences; and
9. To enable Pakistan to fulfill its commitments to achieve Dakar Framework of Action,
Education For All goals and Millennium Development Goals relating to education.

Effective inclusive education requires some special measures in curriculum, teacher training,
pedagogy and assessment of all tiers and types of education. So there is a need to add policy
guidelines in ECE, Elementary Education, Secondary Education, Curriculum, and Assessment
&Textbook development and teacher education keeping in view the demands of inclusive
education. It requires revisit of all education themes of policy or addition of one more cross
cutting theme of inclusive education in policy document, which embrace all tiers and types of
For effective implementation of NEP 2009, development of detailed implementation plans,
priorities and strategies is the key. This is exclusively the task of the provincial and district
governments. However, to facilitate the process and to develop a clear path and mechanism, an
overall framework for implementation is also given in the policy chapter 9, by following which
the policy implementation can be made effective.

Kashmir Education Policy Implementation Framework (Kep If)
NEP itself explains the implementation process as “Implementation is conceived as a
continuous process of review, implementation, monitoring, feedback and adjustments as
considered and agreed necessary during the course of implementation”, Implementation
framework is a way to work upon a given policy i.e. setting targets, designing strategies,
developing action plans, framing executing mechanism (assigning responsibilities, setting
timeline, devising monitoring) and scheming a mechanism of feedback. For effective
implementation of Kashmir Education Policy (KEP) Department of Elementary & Secondary
Education AJ&K drafted an implementation framework in 2013. Although it is still a draft (not
approved by the authority) yet it is very useful for effective policy implementation. Kashmir
Education Policy Implementation Plan (KEP IF) is consisted of two parts. Part I explains its
purposes and procedures of policy implementation, whereas PART II clarifies KEPIF monitoring
mechanism and its logical framework matrix. The framework addressed the policy by dividing it
in three main areas; improved access and equity in education, improved governance and
management and improved quality education.
The purpose of the KEPIF is to outline, create an understanding and achieve consensus across
all education units, on who will be responsible and who will do what, how will it be done
(implementation process, organizational set-up, interaction of working groups and advisory
panels), and when would something be done (priorities and time scheduling).
For effective implementation on NEP 2009 this framework also elaborates a federal-interprovincial process that would involve the provinces as autonomous in development of
implementation strategies and plans. The Inter-provincial Education Ministers’ forum has been
designated as the oversight body for monitoring, again shifting the responsibility to all the
federating units collectively. At state level KASHMIR EDUCATION POLICY IMPLEMENTATION

COMMITTEE was suggested to establish, which will be responsible to meet at least once in a
quarter to review the progress and challenges in implementation of policy and try to accelerate
the progress and remove the hindrances. This committee will be supported by a group of focal
persons/ working group from all implementing units of the KEP.
This Monitoring framework is based on six major components regarding each area, i.e. major
expected outcomes of the Policy with goals; Strategies to achieve targets; Tasks to implement
strategies; Responsibility of major stakeholders involved in policy implementation; Time frame
for targets achievements, and Monitoring / follow-up responsibility.
The KEP IF is purely based on KEP, so in it there is no any discussion about the delivery of
inclusive education in it. There is a need to revise its implementation strategies with reference
to inclusive education.

Aj&K Education Sector Plan (Esp)
Sector planning is a growth and development tool utilized by governments, departments or any
administrative unit. Irrespective of size and purpose a sector plan may provide an opportunity
to guide concerned community's future in the specific sector. Sector planning is performed
through a collaborative process through involving all type of stakeholders. It tries to ensure
provision of quality services that meet people’s needs in a viable and sustainable way. A sector
plan is an approved document by the authority. While sector planning the planners conducts a
comprehensive analysis of the sector’s current conditions, facilities available, community
needs, and public facility issues, as well as the area’s future opportunities and challenges with
representatives of stakeholders. The result of this planning process is an action plan that will
direct the revitalization or redevelopment of the sector to encourage quality, development and
improve the safety, quality of life, and appearance of the affected community.
In AJ&K first time Education Sector Planning was started during 2012-13. A zero draft of
Education Sector Plan was prepared and approved by the Secretary Education. While
developing sector plan many factors which hinder the delivery of quality education were deeply
observed and analyzed. Common factors observed were; lack of infrastructure, finance,
supervision, accountability, teacher’s inefficiency, gender discrimination, poverty issues, and
poor quality of textbook and curriculum development.
AJ&K Education Sector Plan was for five years up to 2013-18. It was developed by an indigenous
and conscious effort of the elementary and secondary Education Department AJK to set a road
map to manage the education reforms agenda effectively with a systematic and coordinated
approach with better governance. It symbolizes the first step in overcoming the, previously
disorganised approach of non-coordinated government and bilateral cooperation interventions.
The Sector Plan framework is comprised of 1) Communication to ensure that all stakeholders

and partners have equal information and understanding, 2) The annual budget, to ensure a
regular recurrent budget which sustain investments, and a development budget which follows
agreed plans and priorities.3) Plans for consolidating and upgrading existing educational
facilities, institutions and efforts to meet the modern world challenges in education.
The plan explains the vision, mission and goals of education in AJK. The plan thoroughly
analysis different areas of education, such as elementary, secondary, college, technical &
Vocational, teacher and early childhood education. It also discussed Education sector financing,
Education Management and Information System. While discussing each area of education indepth situation analysis was carried out, the gaps, especially with reference to resources were
identified and recommendations were laid down along with tentative financial requirements.
Based on available data, analysis of existing situation gaps and constrains future strategy and
road map had been prescribed. As the ESP AJK was considered a live document due to in built
mechanism of review, the department would in position to constantly analyse the situation and
initiate the corrective measure.
With reference to inclusive education it is observed that this sector plan does not address it in
any of its area or sub area. It depicts the unfamiliarity of the stakeholders about this aspect of

Curriculum And Curriculum Implementation Framework (CIF)
Curriculum is an important element of the educational process, it is derived from National
Education Policies or National Curriculum Frameworks. Curriculum sets its structure accordingly
to describe concepts, skills and attitudes that have to be developed in the students. It aims at
answering the questions such as; what is the purpose of teaching i.e. objectives, what will be
the level of the students i.e. standards and benchmarks, and what will be taught to the
students to prepare them for world of work and higher studies i.e. contents and competencies.
Curricula documents provide guidelines to textual material authors to develop textbooks and
supplementary reading material according to the competencies and scope, to the teachers to
plan their teaching lessons, to the examiners to set formative and summative assessment
according to the prescribed competencies, to textbook reviewers to review the textbooks
according to the contents and scope and similarly to many other users. Curricula are dynamic
documents that must change in order to prepare young students to cope with the challenges of
economic demands and technological changes. Governments keep on revising the school
curricula with a view to meet the global market trends and technological advancements of 21st
The Ministry of Education, Islamabad Pakistan initiated the school curriculum reforms process
in 2005-06 under a comprehensive package that included revision of scheme of studies with

introduction of new subjects as per modern trends and job market requirements, formation of
new groups at secondary and higher secondary school levels that entail better articulation
arrangements for further study and progression, development of a competency-based
curriculum by specifying standards, benchmarks and students learning outcomes, launching of a
new textbook and learning material development policy and plan of action that promotes
development of quality multiple textbooks available at affordable prices, training of teachers to
deliver effectively the new concepts and themes and undertake sound assessment and
evaluation system based on the stated learning outcomes within the three learning domains.
Curricula of all core subjects and elective/optional subjects were revised and notified during
2006-07 to 2010-2012.
The structure of the new competency-based curriculum is based on standards benchmarks, and
student learning outcomes which have been described under different learning elements of
Bloom Taxonomy. They are defined as:

Standards: that specify broadly the overall abilities that students should have at the end
of a specific theme/subject area in the form of a qualitative statement, whether it’s a
single competency, skill, content, unit, topic, theme, concept or cluster of competencies,
skills, content areas, units, topics, themes.
Benchmarks: that specify what students should be able to possess and be able to do at
certain specific developmental level. Hence standards are elaborated by several
benchmarks that pertain to specific competencies, skills, content areas, topics and
themes or their clusters.
Students’ Learning Outcomes: that specify what students should be able to do in a
concise and specific terms for each content area, topic. The SLOs uniquely describe the
competencies and skills that should be possessed by the students and helps the
teachers in designing the effective assessment and evaluation. They explain the
benchmarks and are stated in verb-object form.

The other major components of the new curriculum document include chapters on
“assessment and evaluation”, that provide guidance to the teachers to undertake assessment
and evaluation as per requirements of the curriculum, “guidelines for textbook authors”, to
develop textual material within the given scope of the curriculum, “teaching and learning
strategies”, that help teachers to design their lesson plans, and “reference material for
teachers” for further study.
After 18th amendment in the constitution of Pakistan, education becomes a provincial/ area
subject. So each province/ area has to develop its own Policy and curriculum keeping it in

alignment of National harmony and integrity. Resultantly, the government of AJ&K adopted
National Education Policy 2009 as Kashmir Education Policy and also the 2006-07 national
curricula for AJ&K, as it is.
If we examine these new curricula documents it shows that perhaps it is difficult to address
inclusive education directly in these documents, however under its guidelines textbooks and
teacher can be developed for inclusive education. But here in our system still this field is
Curricula documents are also supported with curriculum implementation frameworks (CIF)
which describe roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders and implementers so as to
facilitate in the process of effective curriculum implementation and monitoring. In AJ&K first
time Curriculum Implementation Framework was developed by Directorate of Curriculum and
Research Development. This document describes a brief picture about the competency based
curriculum developed and introduced, problems and issues faced in its implementation, need
for developing a curriculum implementation framework and its structure in the form of 5 main
steps and sub-steps in part-1, while part-2 deals with the monitoring mechanism of the
curriculum implementation framework including outcomes, sub-steps, activities, indicators,
data sources, responsible agencies and timeline, under each of the 5 main steps described in
part-1, in the form of a logical framework matrix.
The other major components of the new curriculum document include chapters on
“assessment and evaluation”, that provide guidance to the teachers to undertake assessment
and evaluation as per requirements of the curriculum, “guidelines for textbook authors”, to
develop textual material within the given scope of the curriculum, “teaching and learning
strategies”, that help teachers to design their lesson plans, and “reference material for
teachers” for further study.
At national level a National Textbook and Learning Material Policy and Plan of Action was
developed in 2007 in consultation with all stakeholders and was notified and introduced to
produce quality textbooks through a competitive process involving and promoting private
sector publishers to bring multiple textbooks. But due to some reasons its implementation
process remained very slow, and could only started from the academic session 2010 when new
textbooks from class-I were approved and introduced in most of the provinces of Pakistan. The
absence of a comprehensive, holistic Curriculum Implementation Framework (CIF) was
considered as one of the main reasons for non-implementation of the new national curricula.
A curriculum implementation framework does not necessarily mean a set of instruction or rules
to be followed but rather presents a set of shared guidelines about roles and responsibilities of
various stakeholders in implementation of curriculum, mainly the textbook boards, publishers

of textbooks and learning materials, teachers and teacher trainers, experts and bodies for
examination and assessment and curriculum developers and the departments of education who
have the sole responsibility for providing quality education to the masses they serve.
Briefly, Curriculum Implementation Framework is a broad policy guideline regarding
development of learning materials, professional development of teachers/ instructional
delivery system, assessment and testing of students’ achievements/ learning outcomes and
feedback for changes required for effective future revision of curriculum. Curriculum
implementation is a complex process which requires coordinated efforts of various
organizations with multiple jurisdictions. The main implementers include Directorate of
Curriculum & Research Development, AJ&K Textbook Board along with publishers (also AJ&K
Teacher Foundation), in-service and pre-service teachers training institutions (including
universities, GCETs and Directorate of Education Extension DEE), Boards of Examinations (AJ&K
Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Mirpur, All AJ&K District Level Elementary
Boards) and Institute for Assessment of students learning achievements in AJ&K i.e. KEACE.
The main objectives of Curriculum Implementation Framework for AJ&K are to: 1) Define
outcomes, goals, main steps, sub-steps and related activities in the effective and timely
implementation of the revised curricula. 2) Identify roles and responsibilities of different
stakeholders involved including those responsible for; dissemination of the revised curricula,
developing textual materials including textbooks and supplementary teaching and learning
materials, designing learning methods, strategies and materials for in-service and pre-service
teacher training, assessing the attainment / educational achievement of students, providing
feedback to the curriculum developers and policy makers for future planning/revision of the
curricula, include all the elements which are fundamental to successfully attain the standards of
a curriculum through assessment of students learning outcomes and monitoring, supervision
and steering mechanism.
Five steps were suggested in CIF for implementation of curriculum, those are: dissemination;
development of textual material; teacher training; examination/ assessment and evaluation
and feedback. It is worthy to mention that CIF is the most important document to implement
curriculum through inclusive education but due to least interest of professionals in this area it
was not properly handled in CIF.

Student Assessment
Assessment is the process through which student learning outcomes are measured, feedback is
given to students as well as other stakeholders on the progress and necessary decisions are
taken to improve the teaching learning process. Assessment is a core academic activity and an
essential component of the learning process.

The Assessment policies discuss its framework, nature, frequency, purposes, procedures and
uses. It is also an integral part of curriculum and its implementation. So each curriculum booklet
also describe the ways for assessment of its learning. It may discuss the selection of assessment
techniques, tools types, weightage to related theme, feedback procedures and ethics and many
other aspects of measuring learning. Purpose wise assessment policies may focus on quality
assurance, institutional improvements, accountability and student learning.
In AJ&K time to time student assessment policies are framed and implemented through
notifications and directives of the government / examination boards, for different levels of
education and for different types of assessment of education. Mainly the scheme of studies is
followed while designing any assessment. The education institutions have their inter
assessment policy whereas the boards and Universities frame their own policies for student
assessment. Different types of assessment (formative, summative, diagnostic, etc ) may differ
to some extent due to difference in their purposes.
Likewise other curriculum related policies student assessment policies of AJ&K have no any
specific measures for inclusive education.

Teacher Education Strategy 2018
AJ&K Teacher education strategy 2018 was officially adapted by the representative of the
steering committee and approved by the E&S Education Secretary in a meeting held on
December 29, 2011. The AJK Teacher Strategy is meant to function as a change management
tool. There are a number of changes that affect teacher education, notably the introduction of
the two-year ADE program and the four-year B.Ed. (Honors) program. A successful introduction
and scaling up of new pre-service teacher education reforms requires that various aspects of
the educational system should be harmonized with these two new degrees, e,g. new curricula
and instructional material that follow the new scheme of studies, need of adjustment of the
service and recruitment rules to reflect the higher qualification of the newly qualified teachers,
enhancing the professional capacity of teacher educators, ensuring the quality assurance of the
new program, increasing the facilities in colleges and universities that facilitate the extra year of
teacher education.
The AJK Strategic Plan is not only a “wish list” but also includes concrete targets and
benchmarks as well as an action plan and a budget, resultantly this plan serves as a foundation
to implement concrete actions towards achievement of the reform priorities set out in this
document. Even though the AJK Teacher Education Strategy 2018 identified eight different
reform priorities, the action plan, budget, and monitoring/evaluation plan will focus on these
pressing reform priorities.

This document has six sections. The first section of the report explains the organization
structure of the education department in AJK and also spells out that the DCRD is a lead agency
responsible to deal with all matters related to pre-service teacher education. The DCRD
exercises the administrative, financial and academic control over the Government Elementary
Colleges of Education.
The second section describes the subsector review in which the teacher education institutions
in AJK including their programs are discussed in detail. This section also provides information
on enrollment, faculty strength, facilities in teacher education institutions both public and
private institutions as well as composition of teaching workforce of government schools. The
qualifications of teaching workforce, vacant positions of teachers and trends in teacher
recruitment are also added to conclude the strength of existing teachers serving in AJK. Teacher
management, remuneration and deployment are also highlighted by including teachers’
appointment, transfer, promotion, service rules and teacher education budget. The
opportunities and challenges highlighted take account of the views and concerns of teacher
education managers both at central and district levels, the faculty of teacher education
institutions as well as students. The education sector of AJK encounters challenges that are
similar to those that permeate the other provinces and area of Pakistan.
The third section presents policy reform priorities in teacher education. The policy reforms
focuses on eight key areas:1) enhance the quality of elementary schools teachers, ensure
employability of ADE graduates, implement a quality assurance mechanism, consolidate and
strengthen teacher education institutions, provide continuous professional development
opportunities, collect information on Teachers’ Profile with EMIS, create distinct teacher
educator cadre and improve the work conditions for female teachers. The detailed framework
to achieve this strategy comprises three elements: policy reform area, rationale and key
tasks/management process.
The fourth section deals with the baseline, mid targets, and benchmarks for scaling up
ADE/B.Ed. (Hons.) and bridging courses. The enrollment projections 2011/2012-2017/2018 in
Government Elementary Colleges and Colleges of Education have also been worked out to
estimate the number of graduates in ADE, B.Ed. (Hons.) by 2018. The bridging courses for
existing CT and Diploma degree will also be designed and implemented through this strategy.
The enrollment projections for existing teachers interested to complete the bridging course for
ADE have also been included in the document.

The fifth section concentrates on action plan-framework for teacher education strategy. This
section indicates the management process, time frame and resource requirements to achieve
the key tasks of the policy reform areas.
The sixth section presents a monitoring and evaluation plan. In order to do this task effectively,
a Joint Committee will be constituted to initiate work on Quality Assurance Cell with mandate
to supervise, monitor and provide academic support to GCETs and colleges of education.
Again it is evident that teacher education policy 2018 do not say anything about inclusive
education. However it is felt that there is a great need to revise our teacher education curricula
to meet the needs of inclusive education in future.

National Professional Standards Of Teachers
It is universally accepted that quality learning is subjected upon quality teaching by
professionals who are dedicated to the principles of continuous professional development. The
review of professional literature clearly delineates the fundamental requirements to produce
best professional teachers. They include standards of what teachers need to know and be able
to do. All around the world, the professional standards for teachers has been developed. In
Pakistan, Federal Ministry of Education, with the cooperation of UNESCO and the financial
support of USAID, developed National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan. These
standards were launched on the 23 February, 2009.

Subject matter knowledge
Human growth and development
Knowledge of Islamic ethical /social life skills
Instructional planning and strategies
Learning environment
Effective Communication and proficient use of ICT
Collaboration and partnerships
Continuous Professional Development & Code of Conduct
Teaching of English as 2nd /Foreign Language

Due to the effective implementation of the new professional teacher new graduates from a
professionally accredited institution should be able to: help all children from pre-kindergarten
to twelfth grade in their learning ; can explain instructional choices based on research-derived
knowledge and best practice; apply effective methods of teaching students who are at
different developmental stages; have different learning styles, and come from diverse

backgrounds; reflect on practice and act on feedback; and be able to integrate technology into
instruction effectively
It can be said that NPST are very helpful for teacher to teach students in an inclusive

Review Of Non- Documented Education Policies
The Policies which were not found in documentary forms were analyzed by survey method.
Either their usual practices in the field were observed directly in the schools or these policies
were discussed with the experts having experience to work in DOE. Alternate way to proceed
for report, was to organize FGD of all educational stakeholders from policy makers to
beneficiaries to know the situation of Inclusive education in the state. This work was also
performed systematically keeping in mind some basic probing questions to explore the
relevancy of the policy with inclusive education. The said probing questions were as following;

Do you ever apply the-----specific policy while performing your daily routine work?
Is this policy influential on children learning process?
Do you think this policy has some guideline which effect inclusive education in the
If yes, what are those guidelines and how they affect the inclusive education?
If no, what do you think, there should be some guidelines in this policy which support
inclusive education or not?
What should be the expected guidelines in this policy for best implementation of
inclusive education in state?

In the light of above mentioned criteria a number of education personnel who are working or
worked in past on different key positions of DOE were consulted and inquired about presence
of any provision which directly or indirectly effect inclusive education. In this way the nondocumented policies review with reference to inclusive education is summarized as following;
Teachers’ Deployment

Does not any provision concerned to inclusive education. It may
influence delivery of inclusive education if teacher deployment will be conditioned to have skills
to instruct inclusively. Need to work for policy review
TORS OF Teachers

There is no compulsion that a teacher must have skills to teach in
inclusive environments. According to the need either inclusive education teachers positions
should be created of every teacher should be bound to take training to teach inclusively Need
to work for policy review
Education Code

Punjab education code is followed in schools of AJ&K, There is no any
specific direction in this code which address inclusive education Inclusive education provision

in education code may help in better delivery of inclusive education in all schools.
is a need to develop separate code of education for AJ&K schools, in which direction about
inclusive education should be included
Schools Admission Policies Each school has its unwritten admission policy but there is

nothing about inclusive education in any school’s admission policy School admission policy for
inclusive education compel the administration to enroll special child and to treat them
Inclusive education related Admission policy is required
Infrastructural Provision Policies The department has criteria of facilities required to any

specific school level i,e, primary, middle, high, higher secondary, college etc. but there is
nothing in it with reference to special child’s needs. It is very important that each school must
have facilities required for all types of special children to encourage them to come schools.
There is an urgent need to revise the criteria of facilities for all type of schools

Although the concept of inclusive education is not new but it is not being taken seriously in
AJ&K. The AJ&K education policy review and analysis depicts that although provisions of some
policies indirectly support inclusive education, but there is no any deliberate measure in any
education policy which support inclusive education in AJ&K. It also proves that AJ&K education
policy makers are completely ignorant or least interested about importance/ delivery of
inclusive education in the state. The analysis also infers that there is a dire need to revisit all
education related policies in the context of inclusive education and to include necessary
provision in it regarding inclusive education. It is also substantiates that there is a need to work
in this field of education multi dimensionally and step by step. In first step inclusive education
awareness campaign for all tiers of policy makers, implementers and beneficiaries is the
foundation of this reform. The awareness campaign will enable all tiers of education
personnel’s to make changes in their respective policies to contribute for inclusive education.
Government of AJ&K is struggling for legislation regarding Article 25 A, Right to Education, nowa-days. It will be finalized on a number of by-laws to provide education to 100 % population of
5-17 years age group. If inclusive education demands are also addressed in these by-laws it will
prove a gigantic drive to launch inclusive education in 100 % institutions of AJ&K. Donors and
implementing partners can play a vital role at present for this reform.