ENGINEERING STANDARD

FOR

FLARE STACK

NPCS-ES-PV-04
REVISION : 0

CONTENTS

STANDARDS

AND

CODES

OVERVIEW

OF

TYPE

FLARES

OF

FLARE

FLARING

SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

SMOKELESS

FLARES

MULTIJET

FLARES

DESIGNING

THEE

FLARE

STACK

AND

ACCESSORIES

GENERAL
KNOCK-OUT
SEAL

DRUM

SYSTEM

FLARE

BURNERS

FLARE

READERS

FLARE

STACKS

STACK

DIMENSIONS

STACK
WIND

SIZING

SUPPORT
BREAKER

DESIGN

AND

DESIGN

TEMPERATURE

DESIGN

LOAD

STATIC

DEFLECTION

DYNAMIC

ANALYSIS

ALLOWABLE

ALLOWABLE

STRESS

WORKING

PRESSURE

NATIONALPETROCI-IE~4ICA.LCO.
STIUJDARDS

: .

16

.1 7

FLARE STACK

STACK THICKNESS
NOZZLES, COUPLINGS AND FLANGES
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
CORROSION

ALLOWANCE

JOINT EFFICIENCY
NOISE POLLUTION
b

STRESS REI,IEF.

WINTERIZING AND CONTROL

.O

SIZING PIPING, HEADERS AND VALVES

.1

INLET AND DISCHARGE PIPING

.l. 1

STEAM LINE

-1.2

PURGE GAS LINE

.1.3

VAPOR LINE SIZING

All codes referred to.4 This standard when accompanied by the particular stack drawings. etc. - NPCS-ES-ST-06 Engineering Standard for Anchor Bolts. nevertheless. stack material standard for flare stack. and is intended to supplement the applicable codes. API 605. inspection and testing requirements do pertain to the design of stacks. and 0 . . - ANSI A58. mentioned for codes .__- NATIONAL PETROCI~EhUXL STANDARDS CO. NPCS-MS-PV-05. .l This standard covers the requirements for design and materials of fusion welded selfsupported/guyed/derrick flare stacks (hereafter called stacks). typical details and description. E'LARE NPCS-ES-PV-04 STACK PAGE 3 OF 30 SCOPE . Div.V.2 This standard does not cover the requirements for fabrication inspection and testing of fusion welded stacks. in the above such as ANSI B16.BS 407B Steel - Specification Chimneys. they have been mentioned. STANDARDS AND CODES (Latest edition and addenda) . constitute a complete set of standards outlining acceptable construction of stack. . - NPCS-ES-ST-01 Engineering Standard for Concrete.ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec.5. as far as the fabrication.1 and/or 2 & Sec. .1 Standard for Wind Seismic Load.3 The compliance with this standard does not relieve the designer from his own responsibilities and guarantees for the safe mechanical design of stacks. VIII.11 & Sec.API 941 Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperature and Pressure.

multijet burners. c) safety. a refractory lined rectangular flare box 'and a seal drum. iI . b) Pressure-relieving header(s) that convey discharges from safety and pressure-control in the process unit to the flare.1 TYPES OF OF CO. are a knock-out drum. namely. The flare flame is returned to the inside of the flare chamber. elevated flares and ground flares. combustion reactions are carried out at the top of a pipe or stack where the burner and igniter are located. The flame generated is open in this case. b) The Venturi type that depends on the kinetic energy available in the waste gases to inspirate and mix the proper amount of air with the gases.2 In an elevated flare system.1 The principal components in a ground flare system. :.1. 2 FLARE i. In an elevated flare system. Three types of ground flares are in general use: a) The type that uses a water spray to disperse the combustion gases. A ground flare is similarly equipped except that the combustion takes place at or near ground level. 1. c Multijet ground flares where the flow of the waste gas is distributed through many small burners. during plant startups there may be continuous flaring for six or seven consecutive days. However.lowing components: SYSTEM COMPONENTS a) Relief.1.2. and depressuring valves. 1.1. FLARE STACK NPCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE 4 0 OF 30 FLARING FLARES There are basically two types of flare systems.1 A typical flare system is comprised of the fol. valves Knock-out drum located before the flare stack in order to separate any condensate or liquid from the relieving vapors (It is hazardous to burn liquid droplets).3 Flares are not intended to operate continuously under normal process conditions. relieving gases are sent through an elevated stack from a closed collection system and burned off at the top.NATIONAL PETROCIIEMICN. STANDARDS 3 OVERVIEW 3. ) 1.

At the top of the burner tip. . Any condensate carried over along with the gases is knocked down here.. It provides a seal again& entrance of air into the flare stack and minimizes the possibility of an explosive mixture forming in the flare system. The stack is comprised of a riser section.through a flare main header. Accessories on the burner tips include about three or four gas pilots. and burner tip. The gas from the knock-out drum is then sent to an elevated flare stack. are positioned. At the bottom of the stack a liquid seal is maintained. Flare stack consisting of the riser molecular seal. The liquid is pumped to a slop tank or reused in oil recovery facilities. The flare header enters at the bottom section.ior Components Follows Riser structure This normally consists of two or more sections.ted in a horizontal or vertical knock-out drum . Alternately another seal may be located between the knock-out drum and the flare stack.2. and steam supply nozzles for steam injection.2 CO. Flare burner Lip The burner tip is a complete assembly sealed to the molecular seal outlet. The steam connection is also provided for smokeless flares and a purge gas connection is provided for maintaining an air-free system and to prevent flashback by maintaining pressure at the molecular seal higher than atmospheric pressure. pilot burners. A positive water seal is maintained by controlling the level. This arrangement prevents air from reentering the stack from the ambient surroundings. molecular seal. A Brief Description of the Ma. it resembles a bubble cap' and creates a seal by using the buoyancy of the purge gas to create a zone where the pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure. Briefly. Molecular seal This is welded to the riser section. It is also provided width steam for winterizing. . structure. which are automatically lighted from a remote place through the igniter line.jNPCS-ES-PV-04 / 0 NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL STI'JIDARDS PAGE 5 OF 3o I d) . a similar number of pilot gas/air mixture assemblies.3 The relieving gases from safety-relief valves are collec. which serves as a flare stack knock-out drum where any condensate carried over from the knock-out drum is collected. . Steam is used for winterizing to prevent freezing. A constant liquid level is maintained in the boot.2. and burner tip.

Consequently. noise or visible flame. I. This produces cracking of the hydrocarbons may occur. they cool down and form smoke. the addition of steam is most commonly used to produce a smokeless flare for economy and superior performance. If the temperature is high enough. they form smoke. STANDARDS FLARE STACK NPCS-ES-IV-04 PAGE6 OF 30 SMOKELESS FLARES A flame is referred to as being luminous when incandescent Carbon particles are present in it. Hydrogen reacts much faster than Carbon. When the cracked hydrocarbons travel to the combustion zone.NATIONALPETROCIIEMICAL CO. thereby minimizing polymerization reactions. When these particles cool. It costs about twice as much as a flare with no steam but half as much as an eleva~ted flare with steam if off-site steam facilities are included. Unless the Carbon particles are burned away. One of them assumes that the steam separates the hydrocarbon molecules. and forms Oxygen compounds that burn at a reduced rate and temperatures so as to prevent cracking. C) By distribution of the flow of raw gases through a number of small burners. free Hydrogen and Carbon. the raw gas is preheated before it enters the combustion zone of the flame. There are several theories as to the chemistry of smokeless flares using steam. 4 MULTIJET FLARE The multijet flare developed by Esso Research and Engineering Company burns with no smoke. either the Hydrogen atom concentration must be decreased to ensure uniform burning of both Hydrogen and Carbon or enough Oxygen must be provided for complete combustion. It has been observed that smoke formation mainly occurs in fuelrich systems where a low Hydrogen-atom concentration suppresses the smoke. Among these methods. 0 . Prevention of smoke in flares is normally accomplished in three different ways: a) By the addition of steam. In steam addition. b) By making a pre-mix of fuel and air before combustion so as to provide sufficient Oxygen for efficient combustion (which is always done in fired boilers and furnaces). in order to prevent smoke.

this valve is locked into posi~tion.1. . a conservative design is one that assumes all contributors for the process are relieving simultaneously under any emergency condition.3 Stacks severe design . The water seal to this release will blow at flaring rates higher than the design capacity of the flare. A third emergency release is provided in the center of the stack. regarded as minimum into account the most design temperature and . bypassing the multijet burners. But the unit is usually sized so that an overcapacity blow would be a rare occurrence. STACK The flare uses two burners.4 The design of a flare system first requires a detailed analysis of the possible situations that can cause discharge from pressure-relief valves. When the overcapacity seal has been blown. buckling and other design criteria of the stack. thus establishing the maximum loading for emergency operations. .1 GENERAL . A small burner handles normal leakage and small blows.l The stack designer shall be responsible for the accuracy of all mathematical manipulations. calculations and computer programs used for the stress. deflection. shall be shall be designed taking coincident conditions of pressure.t is. DESIGNING THE FLARE STACK AND ACCESSORIES .1. Tha.1. After its initial setting. the flare is both luminous and smoky. The maximum load of a system is comprised of the individual loads contributed by the entire process. The overcapacity line may also discharge to an elevated flare rather than to the center of the multijet stack. This staging is controlled by two water-seal drums set to release at different pressure levels.NATIONAL PIZTROCHEMICAL STIUJDARDS FLAKE CO.l. while both burners operate at higher flaring rates. The staging system is balanced by adjusting the hand-controlled butterfly valve leading to the first stage drum.2 The thickness specified thickness acceptable.

g. A particle that is 150 microns or less can be burned in the flare without Larger particles must be removed in the hazard. e. overriding pressure-control valves strategically located on some equipment are often used in addition to the pressure-relief . Therefore. The hydrocarbon liquid collected in the knock-out drum of the dry flare is usually vaporized below the knock-out drum and sent back to the flare. The liquid collected in the knock-out drum for the wet flare contains water and liquid hydrocarbons.NATIONAL PETROCIIEMICAL STANDARDS CO. Therefore.. where flaring for periods of time is often necessary. the use of pressure-relief valves is undesirable. since after popping. configurations a) A horizontal drum with the vapor entering at one end of the vessel and exiting at the top of the opposite end (no internal baffling). material entering ~the knock-out drum (also called a blow-down drum) will be a mixture of vapor and liquid. In the same manner. This liquid is pumped out from the bottom of the knock-out drum either for reuse or for disposal in a slop tank. knock-out drum. hot vapors containing water are collected in a separate flare header (called a wet flare header). cold and dry hydrocarbon vapors are collected in a dry flare header.2 Knock-out drums are either horizontal or They are also available in a variety of and arrangements that include: vertical. and especially at startup.1 The hydrocarbon relief streams are mainly vapors. the pressure-relief valves often do not reseat. overhead product lines of fractionating columns. gasification plan. For minor operational upsets. but they may carry some liquids that condense in the collecting line.2. and consequently reduces the recovery of valuable products. at the beginning or at the end of a series of high pressure reactors.2.ts. the . ethylene plants or coal In some process plants. 1. Examples of such locations are the suction sides of compressors. etc. 1. it is preferable that relieving of overpressures to the flare systems via the pressure-relief valves should be kept to a minimum.2 KNOCK-OUT DRUM SIZING L. C) A horizontal drum with the vapor entering in center and exiting at the two ends on the horizontal axis. This results in leakage. b) A horizontal drum with the vapor entering at each end on the horizontal axis and a center outlet. FLARE STACK From a practical standpoint.valves.

velocity traveling through the drum is sufficiently low.98 D".1i - r -2.m Similar expressions are available for vertical knock-out drums. of the vapor T = temperature of the vapor in ‘K P = pressure.66 m (12 ft).1219 4[(PL - Pc)/Pcl . e) A vertical drum with a tangential nozzle. Knock-out drums are usually sized by a trial and error Liquid particles drop-out when the vapor method. When large liquid volume storage is required and the vapor flow is high. when the drum diameter exceeds 3. where: W = kg/s of vapor liquid density Kg/m" PL= PC= gas density Kg/m3 M = mol. A practical formula for the vapor velocity is: v = 0. In other words. the drum must be of sufficient diameter to effect the desired liquid-vapor separation. Kpa D = drum diameter. normally a horizontal drum is more economical. the split flow arrangement is normally economical. As a rule of thumb. $[(F'L .PC) MP/Tl Valid for particle size of 400 microns. The outlet nozzle is located at the top of the vertical axis. wt.3 dl A vertical drum with the vapor entering at the top on a certain diameter and provided with a baffle so the flow is directed downward. A split entry or exit reduces the size of the drum for large flows. m/s . Tan gives the following formula for sizing horizontal drums: W = 4. Selection of the drum arrangement depends on economics.

In a vertical drum. etc.3 The selection of the seal drum depends essentially on the availability of space. In the former.1 Standard practice in refineries and most chemical plants is to provide a seal at the base of the flare to prevent flashbacks. preferably not exceeding 152 mm (6"). If a horizontal seal vessel is used. sometimes a piping seal is used as a seal leg located at the bottom of the flare stack. otherwise it causes a back pressure on the knock-out drum.dZ). Since the suggested ratio is 1:3.4 The capacity of the seal drum is usually the volume corresponding to 2.3. a liquid seal is used in a seal drum located between the knock-out drum and the flare stack. where d = inlet gas pipe diameter.91 m (3 ft) between liquid level and top of the drum is recommended. 4. the ratio of the inlet pipe cross-sectional area to the vessel-free area for gas flow above the liquid should be at least 1 to 3 to prevent upsetting surges of gas flow to the flare. used. Both are widely types. The area for the gas above the liquid surface should be at least equal to that of a circle having a diameter D equal to 2d.l~AL STANDARDS c-v. 4. In the absence of a seal.3. If located in a cold climate.3. a minimum dimension of 0. 4.5 The height of the vapor space above the liquid level in a vertical drum should be approximately two to three times the diameter (d) to provide disengaging space for entrained seal liquid. Instead of a drum. which do not require continuous flow. D2 . 4. This is often an integral part of the stack. J?J!LIII"LLuuv. the water must either be heated by a submerged steam heater or it may be replaced by liquids such as alcohol.44 to 3. Water is normally used as a sealing liquid and there is always a continuous flow of water with the overflow going to the sewer. I 3 STACK j$pCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE10 I 0 OF 30 4.2 Liquid seals are further classified as seal drums and seal pipes.3.3..__- / . the annular area is thus s/4 (D* . Seal drums are also either vertical 0~ horizontal.d' = 3d2 or D = 2d. Seals are of two main liquid seal and gas seal. The purpose of a seal drum is to maintain a seal of several inches on the inlet flare header. kerosene. a continuous quantity of gas may be bled to the flare to maintain a positive flow. - .05 m (8 to 10 ft) of the vapor inlet line. This can be derived as follows: Assuming a vertical vessel of cross-sectional area (s/4) D2 and the inlet pipe (r/4) d2.3 SEAL SYSTEM 4.

The recommended purge velocity through the molecular seal is about 30.7 m (12 ft) long and is called the flare burner tip.5 lURE CO.1 ft/s). The equation of a burner diameter can then be derived as follows. The burner diameter is sized on a velocity basis. a .r NATIONAL PETROCI~lXMICAL STfWDARDS 1. Nz.5 lit/s (20 gallons per minute). thereby increasing the purge gas requirement. The height of the seal leg should be equivalent to about 175% of the pressure at the base of the stack during maximum vapor release so that gas release at the base of the flare is prevented. It uses a purge gas of molecular weight 28 or less (e. the recommended velocity is 305 mm/s (1 ft/s). purge gas. the water seal may be blown out of the top to the flare stack. If a molecular seal is not used. or natural gas).3. The molecular seal is located at the top of the flare stack immediately before the burner tip. NPCS-ES-W-04 STACK PAGE 11 OF 30 I I Seal pipes located at the base of the stack are cheaper than drums. It is therefore good practice to size the burner or the flare stack on a basis of 20% of the sonic velocity as the exit velocity. However. The ambient air can not enter the stack because of this high pressure.g. Also. Experiments have shown that flame blowout occurs when the exit velocity of vapors exceeds 20 to 30% of the sonic velocity. d) Normal overflow is taken off the bottom of the seal through a seal leg. it creates a zone having a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. Because of the buoyancy of the CH4. FLARE BURNERS The flare burner is located at the tip of the flare stack. should not exceed 12" to A more recent gas seal type of device that has been developed to prevent flashbacks and explosions in the flare system is the molecular type seal. The top section is about 3. b) Depth of the water seal prevent gas pulsation. they can experience pulsation of the gas flow to the flare under very low flow conditions. C) Seal water level is maintained by a continuous flow of water at about 16. Some general guidelines for sizing seal legs follow: a) Slope of the inlet line is designed to provide a volume of water below the normal sealing water level equivalent to the inlet pipe volume of 10 ft.5 mm/s (0. during a large gas release.

Kg/s PC = density of the gas. mz The vapor density is: MP PC = 8314T The exit velocity equals 1 v = 5 The flare tip AC of sonic: KRT J( ) M cross = 20% section 0. OK ipa) (m3) R = gas constant.152").1 Flare Burner Diameter A flare stack. These results were obtained with small diameter pipes up to 3. m/s AC= cross-sectional area. Kg/m3 V = exit velocity. Experiments show that flame blowout occurs when vapor exit velocities are as high as 20 to 30% of the sonic velocity of the stack vapors.9 mm (0. must be of a diameter suitable to maintain a stable flame and pi-event a blowout should there be a major failure. . particularly the flare burner. P = absolute pressure of vapor 101325 Pa T = temperature. 8314 (kg mole) (<K) CP K = heat capacity ratio C" -4. wt.The mass flow is given by: W = PC AcV Where: w = mass flow rate.785 144 - is a2 where: M = mol.

but generally it should be appropriate for handling 95% of flaring for most occasions.__mRE STACK NATIONAL PETROCIIEA~1CA. . A record of flaring obtained from a certain group of units over a one year's time will help the designer to decide which size is better. but in the absence of data on blowout velocities for flare stacks.4.4.2 Flare CapacityI The most difficult task is to estimate the optimum design capacity of the flare.3 Burner Stages The multijet burner has a turndown ratio of approximately 1O:l. A two-stage burner will give a maximum turndown ratio of lOO:l. When designing for two stages. Kg/s T = temperature of vapor 'K M = molectilar weight of the vapor d = diameter of flare tip. It is easy enough to determine the maximum possible release from certain groups of processing units. . m.the second stage. the firs-t stage should handle approximately 20% of the total maximum load. it will permit a reasonably large flaring rate without blowing both water seals. This is desirable for smooth operation. which is adequate for most situations. but this maximumrelease would usually occur so rarely that it would not be economical to size the flare on this basis. ( . it is good practice to size flare stacks on a basis of 20% of the sonic velocity as the exit velocity. The equation for the diameter of a flare burner can be described as follows: dz= (w/zoo) ~(T/M) where: w = mass flow rate.L STANDARDS CO. It also provides a large overlap between the maximum burning rate of the first stage and the minimum rate of . NPCS-ES-W-04 PAGE 13 OF 30 There is evidence that higher blowout velocities are attainable with pipes of larger diameter such as flare stacks. Sometimes an over capacity line is added. Although this reduces the overall turndown ratio to approximately 50:1.

No jets should be placed closer than 305 mm (12") to the inside of the stack. Each nozzle is 127 mm (5") long. The common header on the second stage burner would be approximately 457 mm (18") pipe.4 V Where: N = number of jets v= flare design capacity. the recommended velocity permits a flow rate of 846 Kmol/s (61200 scfd) per jet. m. D = stack inside diameter. The number of jets is based on gas velocity. m.NPCS-ES-PV-04 j 0 NATIONAL PlXROCHEh~ICAL STANDARDS 4.69DZ Ps= (for rectangular layout) NC where: Ps= jet pitch. the burner lines are usually specified as 152 mm (6") pipe. Kmol/s MMscfd means millions of standard cubic feet per day (for a flare system. N = number of jets C q distance between centerlines of burner lines. . or burner lines.170 Kmol/s (12 MMscfd). For gases with low heating values. Expressed as an equation N = 1185.4 Number of CO. The burner lines are connected just outside the stack to a large header. standard cubic feet is almost always equivalent to actual cubic feet). For 25 mm (1") standard pipe. For design rates up to 0. PAGE 14 OF 30 Burner Jets The jet nozzles are made from standard 25. The jets discharge vertically from subheaders.4 mm (1" pipe). A first estimate of the required pitch can be obtained from the following: 0. it is usually preferable to decrease the jet pitch to less than 457 mm (18") in order to avoid an increase in the stack inside diameter. m.4. which run horizontally across the bottom of the stack. The jets are on a square or rectangular layout with a pitch of 457 to 610 mm (18' to 24").8331) Pg= (for square layout) N1 I2 0. It is preferable to keep the pitch above 381 mm (15").

'The entire burner assembly. These are distributed uniformly around the top of the flare. continuous pilots with a means of remote ignition are recommended for all flares. Pilot Burner One or two pilot burners are provided at each end of the first stage burner line.54 mm (. These burners are recessed into the wall of the stack and directed over the nearest jet. 2. The on/off type is used only to ensure ignition of the continuous pilot. The flameholders also promote better mixing of air and gas by the additional turbulence they cause above the jets. The number of pilot systems required per flare is ls~rgely a function of wind conditions. The position of the flameholders and burner lines relative to the bottom of the stack is critical for proper operation.08 mm (+ 2") of the distance between the top of the burner lines and the bottom of the stack.27 mm (l/Z") above the tips of the nozzles.l"l diameter rods of refractory material running horizontally above each burner line.NATIONAL PETROCI1EMICAL STANDARDS CO. This is done with variable-length pipe hangers and a relatively long main header. with the bottom of the rod 1. and an igniter. EURE STACK WCS-ES-W-04 PAGE 15 OF 30 Flameholders The flameholders actually are the most important feature of the flare. The rods provide a surface at which burning can take place. Most designs include both an oil-fired and a gas-fired pilot at one end of the burner line to insure an active pilot at all times. The rod is positioned directly over the jet nozzles. except for the flameholders. Flare Pilot and Igniter To ensure ignition of flare gases. Generally. They prevent the flame from rising up to the top of the stack. They are solid.5 m (100 ftJ from ground flares. The multijet designs have included provisions for field adjustment t5. A minimum of two pilo~t systems is recommended with normally three pilot systems used. The most commonly used type of igniter is the flame-front propagation type which utilizes a spark from a remote location to ignite a flammable mixture. / . The main headers are sloped back to the seal drums to provide drainage. a continuous pilot. the pilot system consists of three components. an on/off pilot. The burner lines should all lie in an absolutely horizontal plane below the stack. Pilot igni~ter controls are located near the base of elevated flares and at least 30. should be insulated to withstand direct flame impingement.

4. the important. Note that the flame height increases appreciably when combustible gas flow is sufficiently reduced so as to cause a shift back into . cooling water failure. it is located in areas'on the lee side of the planet (downwind of prevailing winds) and remote from operating and trafficked zones.the laminar zone.5. WCS-ES-PV-04 STACK PAGE 16 OF 30 4.6. This vapor load is obtained from a tabulation of relief loads from safety valves connected to the flare system. it is not desirable . of the flame in J/hr/n?. However. are summed up..6 FLARE 4. 4. Ground level concentration of toxic gases present in the flare stream in the event of a flame blowout. In addition. upstream smaller is the header size.2 The allowable upstream pressure in the header is The higher the upstream pressure.2 The height of the flare stack depends upon the following: STACKS a) Heat released by the flare gas in J/s.5 FLARE HEADER 4.to size the header so that the flow becomes sonic. There is considerable interest in flame mechanics. the pressure is usually limited by the lowest set pressure of the safety valve in the system.G. which collects the vapors from the safety valves for safe discharge to the knock-out drum and the flare stack. 4.L The location of the flare stack is a safety-related issue. Flame burning characteristics and flame length are of considerable importance in sizing the flare stack. e) 0 . This type of flare tip design also reduces the noise level. is sized for the largest vapor load caused by a single failure.5. etc. even if sufficient pressure is available. the increased peaking of the flare in the laminar zone may be avoided or materially reduced.1 The flare header. flame. By designing a flare tip which induces premixing of gas and air or selecting a smokeless design which induces partial premixing by agitation with steam.PWROCIIEMICAL STMIDNIDS FLARE CO. From these summations the largest load is determined. Normally. The loads which may occur simultaneously as a result of fire. bi Characteristics Cl Emissivity d) Radiation of of the intensity the flame and the flame length.

1 STACK DIMENSIONS The inside diame.million Etu/hr) is used. It is apparent that a time interval with varying radiation intensity must be allowed. Hence.~ STANDARDS CO. generated by a flame. The varying radiation intensity results from an individual increasing his distance from the source of heat. Values are based on experimental data on the threshold limit of pain to the human body as a function of the radiation intensity in BTU/hr/ft'. the full radiated heat intensity will be absorbed.535 ft") of stack cross-sectional area per 2. Assume a person is at the base of a flare stack when heat is suddenly released.6. FLARE NPCS-ES-w-04 STACK PAGE17 OF 0 30 The thermal radiation and escape time can be estimated from the data in table 4-1. during this short reaction time interval. to permit a human to escape from a suddenly released intense heat source. Currently. D = 0. As an equation. 497 cm2 (0. 4.ter of the stack is based on the rate of heat release at design capacity.1qh'rIONAL Pl%'I'ROCIIiX~~IC.4 A safe level of heat radiation intensity for unlimited time exposure has been found to be 1388 J/s/m' (440 BTU/hr/ft" ).9 X 10" KJ/s (. The average individual reaction time is between three and five second. Q = Heat release in KJ/s value ) (based on higher heating .01474 Q112 Where: D = Stack inside diameter in m. HEAT TABLE 4-l RADIATION AND ESCAPE RADIATION INTENSITY J/s/m* (Btu/hr/ftz) 1388 1735 2334 2902 4731 6940 9464 11672 19874 TIME (440) (550) (740) (920) (1500) (2200) (3000) (3700) (6300) TIME TO PAIN THRESHOLD (seconds) 00 GO 40 30 16 9 6 4 2 4.

Self-supporing. The minimum clearance between grade and the bottom of the stack is either l/4 of the stack inside diameter or 1.o 152 mm (4" to 6") of refractory and insulating material. while permitting the entrance of combustion air. They are sloped at a 45' angle to direct the flow of air downward on the inside of the eIlClOSUI?e* As a safety precaution.NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL STANDARDS CO. Guyed)* Guyed Derrick selfsupporting Labor Self--supporting Guyed Derrick expensive * 2. The stack's steel shell is lined its entire length with 102 t. the comparative costs for material and labor as functions of stuck height are tabulated here: Capital Investment up to 46 m (150 ft) Least Derrick type expensive Self-supporting Most Guyed expensive Installation Least expensive Most Only) ‘46 to 61 m t. flare location. wind direction.8 m (6 ft). supports: Guyed type.4 m (8 ft) from the stack and extending to a height approximately 0.150 to 200 ft) Above 61 (200 ft) Derrick Guyed Guyed Derrick type Self-supporting Selfsupporting Derrick (. there are four access doors in the windbreaker. The slats are approximatly 152 mm (6") wide with at least 102 mm (2") of overlap. The construction is somewhat like a Venetian blind. 4. FLARE WCS-ES-W-04 STACK PAGE 18 OF 30 The height of the stack depends on the toxicity of gases. it avoids line-of-sight vision to the bottom of the stack. Derrick As a rough guide to the economics of these three types of flare structures.9 (Equipment about equal in cost W1NDBREAWR The recommended windbreaker is an octagonal louvered fence placed approximately 2. etc.6 m (2 ft) above the bottom of the stack. whichever is greater. 0 .8 STACK SUPPORT There are generally three types of flare stack and self-supporting.

.10. etc. when subject to reduction of internal pressure below barometric pressure during normal and/or mal-operation.t zones my be based on their predicted temperature. the windbreaker stand over a slightly concave concrete pad. L.Ling pressure in excess of 10 barg upto and including 35 barg. L. Drainage is provide from the center of the pad to a sealed catch basin.3 Stacks which will operate at temperatures between O'C and -10-C shall normally be designed for the minimum anticipated operating temperature.2 Stacks which will operate at temperatures shall be designed for a temperature equal maximum anticipated. 1. not by minor parts such as flanges. 1. temperature. those coming on the stack shall be considered at design stages.11.11. Section VIII. reinforcing pads.12 DESIGN 1.4 The maximum allowable working pressure shall be limited by shell or head.1 Stacks which will operate at temperatures between 0°C and 4OO'C shall be designed for a temperature at least 14-C above the maximum anticipated operating temperature.1 Stack shall be designed for full vacuum.11.10. stacks shall be designed for at least 1 bar greater than the specified maximum operating pressure.3 For maximum opera.4 When different metal temperature can definitely be predicted to occur for different zones of a stack. and not coincident with snow and earthquake (. t-11 DESIGN 1. 1.2 For maximum operating pressure upto and including 10 barg. 1. f. nozzle necks. the design of the differer.10.12.11. 4.The stack and.10 DESIGN 1.1 From loading listed in ASME. stacks shall be designed for a pressure at least 10% greater than the specified maximum operating pressure. All combinations of loads shall be considered to determine the maximum design stress conditions as follows: a) AND ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE TEMPERATURE above 400-C to the LOADS Hvdrostatic test loads shall be considered simultaneously with 20% of wind load.10.seismic) loads.

12. coincident with climatic and or d) Conversion unit upsets: Conditions of normal operation plus the loads imposed by the weight of content that can build up inside stack or piping covered by a sudden stoppage of flow at any point in the system. and the resulting combined stresses shall not exceed the limits that will produce yielding or buckling of the pressure shell or heads. Beside wind or seismic loads.12. 4.4 The effects of stresses due to differential expansion shall be investigated.5 Support skirts shall be designed with adequate flexibility to prevent excessive localized stresses due to differential thermal expansion. simultaneously with wind loads.12. Normal loads: Operating loads seismic loads.12. those shall also be considered. The static deflection is based on full design wind load.FLARE STllCK PAGE 20 OF 30 bi 4. 4. 3) b) C) Erection loads: The loading to cover loads during loads construction. 4. .3 The effects of external primary mechanical loads plus design pressure shall be investigated. in case that other such as listed below be of significance for the purpose of stack design. Overhaul loads: The maximum maintenance loading conditions including hydrotesting of pipes and equipments partial loading for equipment loading. 4.13 STATIC thermal DEFLECTION The maximum allowable stack deflection is l/200 of the total height.lO% stack shell weight multiplied by the maximum outside shell radius plus 600 mm (24") shall be used. e) Eccentric loads: If the exact eccentric loading is not known an eccentric moment equal to a minimum of.2 Earthquake loads shall not be considered.

5 For La15. tensile stress valves permitted for different materials are given in the table stated in part UG-23 of ASME. 1. 2. shall be made to prevent over-stress/ excessive deflection/resonance and other failure modes. allowable anchor bolt stress.4 of this standard. pressure on see NPCS-ES-ST-06. Section VIII. 1. Division 1.6 For allowable bearing NPCS-ES-ST-01.4 The maximum allowable stress values that are to be used in the thickness calculations are to be taken from the tables at the temperatures which is expected to be maintained in the metal under the conditions of loading being considered. that are expected to occur simultaneously during normal operation of the stack will induce a maximum general primary membrane stress which doesn't.2 The maximum allowable longitudinal compressive stress to be used in design of cylinderical shells or tubes.3 The wall thickness of a stack computed by these rules shall be determined such that any combination of loading listed in part UG-22 of ASME Code or part 3.15 ALLOWABLE STRESS 1. t. Division 1. concrete see 0 .15. Section VIII.15.15.15. Division 1. provisions such as wind strn1res. 2. When vortex shedding due to wind velocity is likely to occur.1 The maximum allowable stress valve is the maximum unit stress permitted in a given material used in a vessel The maximum allowable constructed under these rules. Section VIII. subjected to loadings that produce longitudinal compression in the shell or tube shall be the smaller of the valves stated in part UG-23 of ASME.15. either seamless or butt-welded. exceed the maximum allowable stress value from the tables in subsection C of ASME Code. The designer shall make sure that such vibrations are precluded and/or provisions are made to increase the resisting strength of the stack.NATIONAL PETROCI-IEMICAL STANDARDS t-14 DYNAMIC CO. WCS-ES-w-04 FLARE STACK PAGE 21 OF 30 ANALYsIS Stacks shall be checked for wind-induced vibrations with good engineering practice. Except where limited by special rules which stated in part UG-23 of ASME.

shall not include any material used for applied corrosion resistant lining and also shall not include any cladding material on integrally clad plate. The plate thicknesses indicated must be maintained.5.16. pressure or dynamic conditions.2"): transportation: obtained thickness The exact thickness the formula of ASME than 10 mm = be from 0. These stacks may have thicker shell plates for the lower courses. For torispherical or ellipsoidal heads the thickness shall not be less than the adjacent shell thickness.9") : 6 mm Internal diameter less than 2100 mm (8. Stacks with varying wall thickness shall be so designed to resist all forces including wind. in accordance with the specified code. .4. The thickness for knuckle section shall not be less than the head or reducer section at point of attachment.16.2"): Internal 12 mm b) Thickness diameter greater required This thickness formula: Transportation is for should Code.3") : 8 mm Internal diameter less than 3600 mm t. seismic.003 the * calculated following diameter (mm) according to 4. made in more than one thickness.14. The minimum shell corrosion allowance and (b) below: a) Thickness plate shall required thickness for stacks excluding be the greater of parts (a) for general stability: Internal diameter less than 1500 mm f.NATIOMAL PlZTROWlZMICAL STANDARDS STACK FLARE CO.3 The thickness specified by the designer shall be the minimum thickness after forming. 4. NITS-ES-P"-04 STACK PAGE22 (0 OF 30 THICKNESS 'The design thickness. Similar increase in the width of a thick section may also be made for stacks which have thicker plates in zones of high temperature operation. in order to use standard widths of plates. shall have the thickness change in ~the cone section and not in the knuckle section. and the plate thickness may decrease for courses at the higher elevations. except that heavier plate may be extended more than specified. Any conical head or reducer section. 3600 mm (14.

-17.17. . fabricated from plate written approval. size is 38 mm (1 l/2").17. .Nl

rIONhL PETROCIUXICAL STfWDARDS NOZZLE COUPLItiGS 4. Forged steel slip-on flanges may be used for 150# ANSI nozzles where the design temperature is under 260°C.3 Flanges shall be of forged steel.8 Lap-joint flanges are allowed for Stainless Steel vessels with a design pressure not higher than 5 bar and a design temperature not higher than 23O'C. latest addition. . Section VIII. Such connections shall be limited to stack for which the design pressure and temperature is less than 41 bar and 232'C respectively.5 or API Standard 605. . FLARE NPCS-ES-w-04 STACK 0 PAGE 23 OF 30 AND PLANGES All nozzles over 38 mm (1 l/2") shall be flanged. corrosion same as that of the vessel. This applies also to blind flanges. of a type conforming to NPC piping standard and stack drawings. and per Appendix II "Rules for bolted flange connections". permitted.2 Rolled plate nozzle necks and reinforcing pads shall be the same material as specified for the stack shell or head to which they are attached.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings.1 CO. may not allowance be shall substituted be the .17. For stack in hydrogen service. . minimum size connection shall be 25 mm (1") and all connections shall be flanged. The minimum size of nozzles shall be 25 mm except that for alloy lined nozzles the minimum (1"). Couplings shall be 6000 psi rating for 25 mm (1") connections i3/4" may only be used exceptionally) and 3000 psi for 38mm (:l l/2") connections.17. these shall be calculated in accordance with ASME Code.17. Couplings shall not be used in lined portions of alloy lined stack on bottom heads of Threaded fittings or tapped holes are not stack.6 Flanges without . Connections 38 mm (1 l/Z") and smaller may be made with forged steel couplings.1?.7 For blind flanges.4 The dimensional specifications and the pressure temperature rating of nozzles and manhole flanges shall be in accordance with ANSI B 16.17.5 In special cases where non-standard flanges are specified outside the scope of ANSI B 16.

if any. but the projection of nozzles within tray areas. : . FLARE STACK NPCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE 24 OF 30 1.03") or less.17.8 mm (0. require that all inside diameters match. : .17. 17. special fittings with matched bores shall be used.9 The finish of the gasket contact surface of stack nozzle flange facing shall conform to ANSI B 16.14 When they the inside diameters shall be maintained. shall not be such as to interfere with tray installation or removal or flow is not unduly restricted. When drawings or specifications. 1. 1. 17. This requirement is also applicable at the joint of welding fitting to pipe.13 All code requirements must be met regarding minimum nozzle neck thickness including the thickness of hub at the small end of welding neck flange.11 Drain connections or other connections which may be used as drains shall be trimmed flush with the inside of the stack.NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL STANDUDS CO.17.10 Manholes for design pressures not over 3. as will be specified.5 bar and design temperature not over 150°C may be of built up plate. All other connections may project internally up to the extent required for welding.5 and MSS Standard SP-6 and shall be consistent with the specification of the connecting piping. and nozzle reinforcement. L.12 Nozzle necks having a heavier thickness than the thickness of hub at the small end of welding neck flange shall have the inside diameter tapered at a 3:l ratio by machining or grinding unless the thickness difference is 0.17. in which case the sharp shoulder may be removed with a grinder after welding. of nozzles are specified 0 . Manhole and handhole flange facing shall be similar to nozzles in the same section of the stack.

and TP-316L. NPCS-ES -PV -Oh 0 FLAKE STACK PAGE 25 OF 30 0F C ONSTRUCTION The following table outlines materials of construction for different components of the flare system. hardware and boltings Should be hot dip galvanized after fabrication . are met. CF3A. shall be considered. and F-316L. . . F-304L. SA-182 F-304.4 Materials joined by electroslag welding shall be limited to ferritic steels and the following austenitic Steels which are welded to produce a ferrite containing weld metal: SA-240 TP-304.2 Materials used in the construction of welded stack shall be proven of good weldable quality. Ststisfactory qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX ASME Code. TP-304L. ASME Code. CF3M. COMPONENT MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION Piping & up to-29°C Conventional Carbon Steel Knockout drum up to-46'C Special low temp Carbon Steel -100°C & below 18-8 Stainless Steel Above 4OO'C High temperature resistant alloy Stack Bottom Section Gunite line (cemented for corrosion resistance) Burner tips about 3 m (10 ft) Stainless Steel line with refractories Section up to 6 m (20 ft) below burner tips Nigh temperature resistant refractories Other sections of the stack Special low temperature Carbon Steel Structural members. SA-351 CF3.TP-316.NATIONAL PE'I'ROCHEh1ICN. CFBA . QW-250.3 Two materials of different specifications may be joined by welding provided the requirements of Section IX. CF8. F-316. STIVJDARDS MAm2IALs CO.

. ALLOWANCE The specified corrosion allowance shall be added to all pressure containing parts of the stack coming in contact with the service fluid including shell. . mechanical properties. .6 As a minimum requirement all materials used design of stack components shall be boiler fully killed and normalized. erosion corrosion. stress corrosion. and pitting corrosion are concerned. DIN or BS equivalent to those specified are acceptable with client's approval.specified by ASTM numbers or ASME numbers. and upper one meter of support skirts welded directly to the stack. the material selected shall be suitable for that service.8 For Hydrogen service the selection of material shall be based on Nelson chart in API-941. * 10 For each and every service specified.11 Where Carbon Steel is specified for steel plates of heads. Stack materials shall be in accordance with ASME specification and/or BS-4076 (specification for steel chimneys). ASTM specification numbers are prefixed by 'A' and corresponding ASME specification numbers are prefixed by 'SA'. manholes and manhole covers.12 Material for rings. . pressure. heads.23%.I Materials conforming to other standard specifications. . quality.WI NATIONAL . nozzles. shall be based on ASME requirements and not on the original standard requirements. COnROSION in the quality. . such as JIS.5 Materials are. crevice corrosion. testing and In any case allowable material stresses inspection.6 above. shall be the same material as the stack. . SA 285 Grade C is the minimum quality acceptable subject to provisions of 5. Materials of non-pressure parts welded direc-tly to pressure parts in Hydrogen service should be exactly the same as pressure parts. shells and other pressure parts. Equivalent material specifications are those that conform to chemistry. Also due care shall be taken for selec-tion of material as far as other factors such as temperature.9 No Carbon Steel part to be welded shall have a Carbon content higher than 0. beside ASME requirements.

F'IAFE STACK NPCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE 27 OF 30 . Section VIII. be half the stack corrosion allowance applied to pipe and plate surfaces. This is especially true when the flare tip is of the type used for smokeless flaring of hydrocarbon gases utilizing steam injection. noise is created because of two reasons: steam energy losses at the high pressure steam injectors. Section VIII.2 For compartments the specified corrosion allowance shall be added to the thickness of each side of the internal head or partition. 0 . Division 1. EFFICIENCY The joint efficiency depend on the type of joint and the degree of examination of the joints.6 Corrosion allowance for nozzles and manways shall be at least equal to that specified for the stack itself.5 Corrosion shall be . ASME. of ASME Code give the joint efficiency. . accepted in petrochemical plants as an inevitable by product of the flaring process. .-- NATIONAL PETROCIIEh4ICA. and unsteadiness in the combustion process. Part UW-12 and table UW-12. This is probably due to the fact that the flame contained inside a box is protected from wind effects and the stabilizing effect of the heat reradiated from the refractory walls reduces the random characteristics of combustion. For general requirements see part UG-25. Ground flares are normally quieter than elevated flares. Basically.4 Corrosion allowance on removable internal parts. "E" to be used in the formula of ASME Code. Division 1.3 Concrete lined stacks shall have the corrosion allowance which will be specified on stack drawing. NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution from flares has for too long been an inconvenience.L STANDARDS CO. . JOINT shall all allowance on non-removable internal parts at least twice the stack corrosion allowance. It has been established that the major individual source of noise from an elevated flare is usually at the flare tip itself.

Proper anchors. In some cold climate areas. greatly reduced the noise pollution. a similar arrangement is warranted. flare headers containing water are steam traced and insulated. . AND CONTROLS The major stresses to which the discharge piping of a relief system is subject are results of thermal strains from entry of cold oz‘ hot gases. Special attention to stresses is recommended where piping constructed of Carbon Steel is used for metal temperatures as low as -46'(-50'F).) of run. Design of discharge piping requires careful dnalysis of the possible thermal and mechanical stresses imposed on the pressure-relief valves. Steam is also premixed with air and gas before gases Some of the turbulent noise leave the flare tip. STRESS RELIEF. WINTERIZING. energy is thus shielded by the tip itself. combustion efficiency has been greatly increased by remixing of air with gas before they are combusted. thereby reducing the possibility of a pipe freeze up due to lengthy exposure to low ambient temperature.4 mm (l/4") per 3 m (10 ft. supports and provision for flexibility of discharge piping can prevent these stresses. It is a normal practice to slope the flare headers toward the knock-out drum 6. Temperature fluctuatiops are normally very wide. In the majority of situations it is usually possible to maintain stress levels within allowable limits over the full temperature range by providing an expansion joint or expansion with a cold or hot spring. This enables condensate to flow back into the knock-out drum. The walls themselves will absorb some of the sound Sophisticated designs of flare tips have energy. Where a water seal is used.- ~h'r10MAL PETROCI-IEhiIChL STANDARDS Co. Knock-out drums are usually provided with a submerged steam heater in order to prevent freezing. In some designs. Winterizing of the flare system depends upon the severity of ambient temperatures.

i.e. be not greater than 3% of the set pressure of the safety valve. Normally a flow sensor is provided on the main flare header. d) The knock-out drum is level-controlled in order to maintain a constant level for providing a seal and to prevent the pump from running dry. Sufficiently accurate results are obtained for normal design work. a suitable control system is provided to regulate steam injection into the flare tip. HEADERS AND VALVES The sizing of flare piping is primarily based on pressure drop calculations for compressible fluid flow. it is recommended that the maximum pressure loss. .NATIONAL . Sizing flare piping involves the calculation of the capacity or size of a pipeline and the upstream and downstream pressures. the maximum smokeless rate of the This is in ratio control with steam flow. For applications not covered by the nomograph or for higher accuracy. STACK NPCS-ES -PV -04 0 PAGE 29 OF 30 major areas as follows: requiring instrumentation and controls a) To ensure smokeless burning. cl An Oxygen analyzer with an alarm is normally provided to indicate the presence of the air or Oxygen in the flare system. including the inlet loss. with a predetermined back pressure. A nomograph based on Lapple's method is especially designed for the sizing of flare systems. INLET AND DISCHARGE PIPING The nominal size of inlet piping is the same as or greater than the nominal size of the valve inlet flange. In addition.. The flow sensor is designed to pass. upstream and downstream piping. flare. b) Thermocouples are provided for the pilots connected to an alarm in the control room. calculations can be made using a simplified form of lapple's equation.3 1?ETROCHIMCAL STANDIWDS The are FLARE CO. flare header. as well as safety and relief valves. SIZING PIPING.

STANDARDS FLARE STACK WCS-ES-W-04 PAGE 30 OF 0 30 Similarly. Frequently. ~ . and cfh is the flow rate of fuel gas (. the nominal size of the discharge pipe should be as large as or larger than the nominal size Sometimes it may be necessary to of the valve outlet.! NATIONAL PETROCBEbiICAL CO. the proper line size can be readily selected.3 VAPOR LINE SIZING The design chart can also be conveniently used for vapor line sizing in general. but also to avoid high vapor velocities. For practical reasons. including knockout drum and flare stack. The purge time should be at least V/cfh hr. particularly for start-up purging. header upstream. pipelines are sized on the basis of vapor velocity or pressure drop AP/Pl (orAP) per 30 m (100 ft). molecular weight and temperature of the vapor are given. 11. This means that during maximum emergency flaring the flame will not be smokeless. increase the pipe size ndt only to limit the pressure drop.cubic feet per hour). One or more 19 mm (3/4") fuel gas lines may be required. where V is the total volume of headers (cubic feet). STEAM LINE Complying with theoretical steam requirements for smokeless flaring may require using an impractically large size steam line. Requirements are readily estimated. If the mass flow rate. therefore. In start-up it is desirable to purge the headers with fuel gas to remove the air prior to igniting the pilots at the flare tip. PURGE GAS LINE Fuel gas for purging is preferably introduced into the main flare. the size of the steam line is usually limited to one-sixth of the stack diameter.

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rIONhL PETROCIUXICAL STfWDARDS NOZZLE COUPLItiGS 4. Forged steel slip-on flanges may be used for 150# ANSI nozzles where the design temperature is under 260°C.3 Flanges shall be of forged steel.8 Lap-joint flanges are allowed for Stainless Steel vessels with a design pressure not higher than 5 bar and a design temperature not higher than 23O'C. latest addition. . Section VIII. Such connections shall be limited to stack for which the design pressure and temperature is less than 41 bar and 232'C respectively.5 or API Standard 605. . FLARE NPCS-ES-w-04 STACK 0 PAGE 23 OF 30 AND PLANGES All nozzles over 38 mm (1 l/2") shall be flanged. corrosion same as that of the vessel. This applies also to blind flanges. of a type conforming to NPC piping standard and stack drawings. and per Appendix II "Rules for bolted flange connections". permitted.2 Rolled plate nozzle necks and reinforcing pads shall be the same material as specified for the stack shell or head to which they are attached.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings.1 CO. may not allowance be shall substituted be the .17. For stack in hydrogen service. . minimum size connection shall be 25 mm (1") and all connections shall be flanged. The minimum size of nozzles shall be 25 mm except that for alloy lined nozzles the minimum (1"). Couplings shall be 6000 psi rating for 25 mm (1") connections i3/4" may only be used exceptionally) and 3000 psi for 38mm (:l l/2") connections.17. these shall be calculated in accordance with ASME Code.17. Couplings shall not be used in lined portions of alloy lined stack on bottom heads of Threaded fittings or tapped holes are not stack.6 Flanges without . Connections 38 mm (1 l/Z") and smaller may be made with forged steel couplings.1?.7 For blind flanges.4 The dimensional specifications and the pressure temperature rating of nozzles and manhole flanges shall be in accordance with ANSI B 16.17.5 In special cases where non-standard flanges are specified outside the scope of ANSI B 16.

if any. but the projection of nozzles within tray areas. : . FLARE STACK NPCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE 24 OF 30 1.03") or less.17.8 mm (0. require that all inside diameters match. : .17. 17. special fittings with matched bores shall be used.9 The finish of the gasket contact surface of stack nozzle flange facing shall conform to ANSI B 16.14 When they the inside diameters shall be maintained. shall not be such as to interfere with tray installation or removal or flow is not unduly restricted. When drawings or specifications. 1. 1. 17. This requirement is also applicable at the joint of welding fitting to pipe.13 All code requirements must be met regarding minimum nozzle neck thickness including the thickness of hub at the small end of welding neck flange.11 Drain connections or other connections which may be used as drains shall be trimmed flush with the inside of the stack.NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL STANDUDS CO.17.10 Manholes for design pressures not over 3. as will be specified.5 bar and design temperature not over 150°C may be of built up plate. All other connections may project internally up to the extent required for welding.5 and MSS Standard SP-6 and shall be consistent with the specification of the connecting piping. and nozzle reinforcement. L.12 Nozzle necks having a heavier thickness than the thickness of hub at the small end of welding neck flange shall have the inside diameter tapered at a 3:l ratio by machining or grinding unless the thickness difference is 0.17. in which case the sharp shoulder may be removed with a grinder after welding. of nozzles are specified 0 . Manhole and handhole flange facing shall be similar to nozzles in the same section of the stack.

and TP-316L. NPCS-ES -PV -Oh 0 FLAKE STACK PAGE 25 OF 30 0F C ONSTRUCTION The following table outlines materials of construction for different components of the flare system. hardware and boltings Should be hot dip galvanized after fabrication . are met. CF3A. shall be considered. and F-316L. . . F-304L. SA-182 F-304.4 Materials joined by electroslag welding shall be limited to ferritic steels and the following austenitic Steels which are welded to produce a ferrite containing weld metal: SA-240 TP-304.2 Materials used in the construction of welded stack shall be proven of good weldable quality. Ststisfactory qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX ASME Code. TP-304L. ASME Code. CF3M. COMPONENT MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION Piping & up to-29°C Conventional Carbon Steel Knockout drum up to-46'C Special low temp Carbon Steel -100°C & below 18-8 Stainless Steel Above 4OO'C High temperature resistant alloy Stack Bottom Section Gunite line (cemented for corrosion resistance) Burner tips about 3 m (10 ft) Stainless Steel line with refractories Section up to 6 m (20 ft) below burner tips Nigh temperature resistant refractories Other sections of the stack Special low temperature Carbon Steel Structural members. SA-351 CF3.TP-316.NATIONAL PE'I'ROCHEh1ICN. CFBA . QW-250.3 Two materials of different specifications may be joined by welding provided the requirements of Section IX. CF8. F-316. STIVJDARDS MAm2IALs CO.

. ALLOWANCE The specified corrosion allowance shall be added to all pressure containing parts of the stack coming in contact with the service fluid including shell. . mechanical properties. .6 As a minimum requirement all materials used design of stack components shall be boiler fully killed and normalized. erosion corrosion. stress corrosion. and pitting corrosion are concerned. DIN or BS equivalent to those specified are acceptable with client's approval.specified by ASTM numbers or ASME numbers. and upper one meter of support skirts welded directly to the stack. the material selected shall be suitable for that service.8 For Hydrogen service the selection of material shall be based on Nelson chart in API-941. * 10 For each and every service specified.11 Where Carbon Steel is specified for steel plates of heads. Stack materials shall be in accordance with ASME specification and/or BS-4076 (specification for steel chimneys). ASTM specification numbers are prefixed by 'A' and corresponding ASME specification numbers are prefixed by 'SA'. manholes and manhole covers.12 Material for rings. . pressure. heads.23%.I Materials conforming to other standard specifications. . quality.WI NATIONAL . nozzles. shall be based on ASME requirements and not on the original standard requirements. COnROSION in the quality. . such as JIS.5 Materials are. crevice corrosion. testing and In any case allowable material stresses inspection.6 above. shall be the same material as the stack. . SA 285 Grade C is the minimum quality acceptable subject to provisions of 5. Materials of non-pressure parts welded direc-tly to pressure parts in Hydrogen service should be exactly the same as pressure parts. shells and other pressure parts. Equivalent material specifications are those that conform to chemistry. Also due care shall be taken for selec-tion of material as far as other factors such as temperature.9 No Carbon Steel part to be welded shall have a Carbon content higher than 0. beside ASME requirements.

F'IAFE STACK NPCS-ES-PV-04 PAGE 27 OF 30 . Section VIII. be half the stack corrosion allowance applied to pipe and plate surfaces. This is especially true when the flare tip is of the type used for smokeless flaring of hydrocarbon gases utilizing steam injection. noise is created because of two reasons: steam energy losses at the high pressure steam injectors. Section VIII.2 For compartments the specified corrosion allowance shall be added to the thickness of each side of the internal head or partition. 0 . Division 1. EFFICIENCY The joint efficiency depend on the type of joint and the degree of examination of the joints.6 Corrosion allowance for nozzles and manways shall be at least equal to that specified for the stack itself.5 Corrosion shall be . ASME. of ASME Code give the joint efficiency. . accepted in petrochemical plants as an inevitable by product of the flaring process. .-- NATIONAL PETROCIIEh4ICA. and unsteadiness in the combustion process. Part UW-12 and table UW-12. This is probably due to the fact that the flame contained inside a box is protected from wind effects and the stabilizing effect of the heat reradiated from the refractory walls reduces the random characteristics of combustion. For general requirements see part UG-25. Ground flares are normally quieter than elevated flares. Basically.4 Corrosion allowance on removable internal parts. "E" to be used in the formula of ASME Code. Division 1.3 Concrete lined stacks shall have the corrosion allowance which will be specified on stack drawing. NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution from flares has for too long been an inconvenience.L STANDARDS CO. . JOINT shall all allowance on non-removable internal parts at least twice the stack corrosion allowance. It has been established that the major individual source of noise from an elevated flare is usually at the flare tip itself.

Proper anchors. In some cold climate areas. greatly reduced the noise pollution. a similar arrangement is warranted. flare headers containing water are steam traced and insulated. . AND CONTROLS The major stresses to which the discharge piping of a relief system is subject are results of thermal strains from entry of cold oz‘ hot gases. Special attention to stresses is recommended where piping constructed of Carbon Steel is used for metal temperatures as low as -46'(-50'F).) of run. Design of discharge piping requires careful dnalysis of the possible thermal and mechanical stresses imposed on the pressure-relief valves. Steam is also premixed with air and gas before gases Some of the turbulent noise leave the flare tip. STRESS RELIEF. WINTERIZING. energy is thus shielded by the tip itself. combustion efficiency has been greatly increased by remixing of air with gas before they are combusted. thereby reducing the possibility of a pipe freeze up due to lengthy exposure to low ambient temperature.4 mm (l/4") per 3 m (10 ft. supports and provision for flexibility of discharge piping can prevent these stresses. It is a normal practice to slope the flare headers toward the knock-out drum 6. Temperature fluctuatiops are normally very wide. In the majority of situations it is usually possible to maintain stress levels within allowable limits over the full temperature range by providing an expansion joint or expansion with a cold or hot spring. This enables condensate to flow back into the knock-out drum. The walls themselves will absorb some of the sound Sophisticated designs of flare tips have energy. Where a water seal is used.- ~h'r10MAL PETROCI-IEhiIChL STANDARDS Co. Knock-out drums are usually provided with a submerged steam heater in order to prevent freezing. In some designs. Winterizing of the flare system depends upon the severity of ambient temperatures.

i.e. be not greater than 3% of the set pressure of the safety valve. Normally a flow sensor is provided on the main flare header. d) The knock-out drum is level-controlled in order to maintain a constant level for providing a seal and to prevent the pump from running dry. Sufficiently accurate results are obtained for normal design work. a suitable control system is provided to regulate steam injection into the flare tip. HEADERS AND VALVES The sizing of flare piping is primarily based on pressure drop calculations for compressible fluid flow. it is recommended that the maximum pressure loss. .NATIONAL . Sizing flare piping involves the calculation of the capacity or size of a pipeline and the upstream and downstream pressures. the maximum smokeless rate of the This is in ratio control with steam flow. For applications not covered by the nomograph or for higher accuracy. STACK NPCS-ES -PV -04 0 PAGE 29 OF 30 major areas as follows: requiring instrumentation and controls a) To ensure smokeless burning. cl An Oxygen analyzer with an alarm is normally provided to indicate the presence of the air or Oxygen in the flare system. including the inlet loss. with a predetermined back pressure. A nomograph based on Lapple's method is especially designed for the sizing of flare systems. INLET AND DISCHARGE PIPING The nominal size of inlet piping is the same as or greater than the nominal size of the valve inlet flange. In addition.. The flow sensor is designed to pass. upstream and downstream piping. flare. b) Thermocouples are provided for the pilots connected to an alarm in the control room. calculations can be made using a simplified form of lapple's equation.3 1?ETROCHIMCAL STANDIWDS The are FLARE CO. flare header. as well as safety and relief valves. SIZING PIPING.

STANDARDS FLARE STACK WCS-ES-W-04 PAGE 30 OF 0 30 Similarly. Frequently. ~ . and cfh is the flow rate of fuel gas (. the nominal size of the discharge pipe should be as large as or larger than the nominal size Sometimes it may be necessary to of the valve outlet.! NATIONAL PETROCBEbiICAL CO. the proper line size can be readily selected.3 VAPOR LINE SIZING The design chart can also be conveniently used for vapor line sizing in general. but also to avoid high vapor velocities. For practical reasons. including knockout drum and flare stack. The purge time should be at least V/cfh hr. particularly for start-up purging. header upstream. pipelines are sized on the basis of vapor velocity or pressure drop AP/Pl (orAP) per 30 m (100 ft). molecular weight and temperature of the vapor are given. 11. This means that during maximum emergency flaring the flame will not be smokeless. increase the pipe size ndt only to limit the pressure drop.cubic feet per hour). One or more 19 mm (3/4") fuel gas lines may be required. where V is the total volume of headers (cubic feet). STEAM LINE Complying with theoretical steam requirements for smokeless flaring may require using an impractically large size steam line. Requirements are readily estimated. If the mass flow rate. therefore. In start-up it is desirable to purge the headers with fuel gas to remove the air prior to igniting the pilots at the flare tip. PURGE GAS LINE Fuel gas for purging is preferably introduced into the main flare. the size of the steam line is usually limited to one-sixth of the stack diameter.

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