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WCM

Professional Maintenance

Dr. Hajime Yamashina


Professor emeritus, Kyoto University
Fellow of RCA (The U.K.)
Member of Royal Swedish Academy of
Engineering Sciences
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Professional Maintenance
Contents:
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Methods Tools, and Organization to Eliminate Machine
Breakdowns
Chapter 3: Step by Step Approach to Establish a Planned Maintenance
System
Chapter 4: Shutdown Maintenance
Chapter 5: Establishment of CBM

hapter 6: Spare Parts Management


Chapter 7: Maintenance Cost Management and Maintenance
Management System

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Apt Analogy between Human Body and Equipment
1.2 Why do Failures Occur?
1.3 What is the Problem?
1.4 Aims and Objectives of PM
1.5 Better understanding of the Maintenance Issues
1.6 Various Maintenance Activities
1.7 BM, TBM and CBM
1.8 Production Department Activities
1.9 Maintenance Department Activities
1.10 Professional Maintenance Activities
1.11 Structure of Planned Maintenance
1.12 How to Select a Proper Maintenance Method
(1) Flow Chart Based on Production Output, etc.
(2) Based on a Technical Viewpoint

Chapter 1 Introduction (cont-ed)


1.13 Planned Maintenance System Showing the Contents of
Work
1.14 Classification and Allocation of Maintenance Tasks
1.15 Economic Justification of PM System

Shame!

If breakdown (reactive) maintenance is


more than 40 percent of your maintenance
departments activities, you are not in the
maintenance business you are in the
machine repair business.

1.1 Apt Analogy between Human Body and Equipment


4

16

11
1
1

13

1
6

5
7

Similarities between Man and Equipment


No Man

Equipment

No

Man

Equipment

Heart

Motor, Power
source

10

Pulse

Vibration

Valves of the
heart

Main valve

11

Blood
pressure

Pressure

Bones

Main body,
Base, Axis

12

Joints

Bearings

Brain

Control function 13

Stomach

Tank, Reactor

Muscle, tendon

Connecting
function

14

Lung

Fuel, Pump, Fan

Artery

Main pipes,
Power lines

15

Other organs

Important parts

Vein

Return pipes,
Branch lines

16

Eyes

Instrument

Kidney

Filters,
Strainers

17

Arm

Handle, Lever,
Connecting rod

Blood

Fuel,
Lubrication oil
7

Similar phenomena between man and equipment


No.

Man

Equipment

Heterogametic anti body

Faulty material combinations

Nervous anaphylaxis

Stress concentration

Intoxication

Impurities

Gastec ulcer

Corrosion

Vomiting of blood, Hematemesis

Leakage through a crack

Bleeding, Hemorrhage

Oil leakage

Cerebral bleeding

Leakage from the main pipe

Ectoparasite

Dirt

High blood pressure

Clogged, Abnormal pressure

10

Arrhythmia

Unbalance, vibration

11

Lack of appetite, Anorexia

Insufficient quantity of flow

12

Heart failure

Snapping of a wire, Explosion

13

Blow

Dent, Deformation

14

Fracture of a bone

Broken shaft

15

Suffocation

Overcharging

16

Neuralgia

Uneven ground subsidence

17

Loss of eyesight

Instrumental damage

18

Fever

Seize, Expansion

19

Weakening, Asthenia

Overall deterioration

Preventive measures against breakdown


1. High blood pressure
[Preventive measures]

Cerebral bleeding
Reduce cholesterol
Clean, eliminate foreign body

2. Fracture of a bone
[Preventive measures]

Cripple
Give a treatment as early as possible
Insufficient fastening

3. Arrhythmia
[Preventive measures]

Sudden death
Do not be overloaded.
Proper countermeasures against vibration

We need to care for our equipment as we do for our body.


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1.2 Why do Failures Occur?


The major problem of a plant is to utilize equipment in an optimal way
with well organized maintenance.
 Equipment is designed to be reliable, but still liable to breakdown
because it consists of many components and only when one of the
components (A components) breaks down, it will break down.
 To eliminate breakdowns is technically possible, but the problem is how
to do it economically.

Maintenance
team solve
the problem.

10

Wear and Tear

Time

- New Component

The component
is OK for good
machine
operation

- Cosmetic Defects
- Acceptable Wear and Tear

Acceptabledeterioration limit

-Minor Defects
- Medium Defects

MAINTENANCE
OPERATORS

Nonstandard
parts cause
- Major Defects
machine
losses

Technical people
must set
standards for the
way machine
components
ought to be

Figure. Normal machine component deterioration


11

12

13

14

1.3 What is the Problem?


Equipment breakdown does not occur suddenly except by human errors.
Equipment breaks down when a component breaks down. There is a
symptom before the breakdown takes place. The problem to be
addressed is how to detect it economically.
 Identifying a component which will lead to a breakdown before it breaks
among many components which constitute the equipment is a real issue.
 Without analyzing breakdown data in depth, this
managed.

problem cannot be

What is the Problem?

15

1.4 Aims and Objectives of PM

1. To maximize equipment reliability and availability at


an economical cost
2. To eliminate unplanned maintenance activities
3. To achieve zero breakdowns and process failure
losses with the cooperation of production people
(AM) and quality people(QC).
Zero is a beautiful number!

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1.5 Better understanding of the Maintenance Issues

Total number of
breakdowns

In general, one third of


breakdown comes from lack of
basic conditions.
Another one third of them can be
PM
avoided if AM step 1 step 3 are
Including
carried out rigorously with well
human organized inspection of natural
deterioration.
errors
AM
The rest can be tackled by PM
step 1 step 3. Once we establish
a PM calendar, we understand
Lack of the
what we have to do with the
basic
equipment.
conditions
To manage these three issues economically, we must be smart
enough, which requires the followings :
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A clever thief will find customers first


and then steal.
A poor thief will steal first and then look
for customers.

18

(1) Machine classification into AA, A, B and C.


Note : Classification of machine, areas and/or issues into
AA, A, B and C differs depending on the subject,
i.e., AM, PM and QC and their countermeasure
level i.e., reactive, preventive and proactive levels.

Reactive

Money (loosing)

Preventive

Proactive

Risk (probability x possible loss in money)


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(2) Machine ledger with component classification into A, B


and C.
A : When this component breaks down, the
equipment breaks down.
B : Even if this component breaks down, its impact
is limited.
C : BM can be a good solution without problem.

(3) Measuring time between two consecutive breakdowns


 Initial failure

-- design weaknesses manufacturing


errors, installation errors, poor maintenance

 Chance failure -- human errors


 Wear out failure -- professional maintenance

20

F a ilu r e
ra te
C hance
f a ilu r e
p e r io d

S ta rtu p
f a ilu r e
p e r io d

S p e c if ie d
b re a k d o w n
ra te

U s e fu l
lif e

W e a r- o u t
f a ilu r e
p e r io d

R e d u c t io n o f
f a ilu r e
th ro u g h
m a in t e n a n c e

C a te g o ry

S ta rtu p
f a ilu r e

C hance
f a ilu r e

C ause

D e s ig n /
m a n u f a c t u r in g
e rro rs

O p e r a t io n a l
e rro rs

W e a r- o u t

T r ia l r u n s a t
a c c e p ta n c e a n d
s ta rtu p c o n tro l

P ro p e r
o p e r a t io n

P r e v e n t iv e a n d
m a in t a in a b ilit y
im p r o v e m e n t

C o u n te rm e a su re s

W e a r- o u t
f a ilu r e

M a in t e n a n c e P r e v e n t io n

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(4) Breakdown analysis


-- Reactive
-- Preventive : take countermeasures against similar problems.

(5) Easy C I L
C : Eliminate contamination
I : Quick inspection
L : Central lubrication system

22

(6) Visualization

In a world class plant, there is a system which


makes it possible to highlight any abnormality
visually in such a way that anybody can recognize
it as a problem.

23

When some part, if it breaks, has a risk of creating a huge damage, then it
must be placed to expose it to human eyes such that its anomaly can be
detected quickly enough even if such placement looks ugly. (eg. The
rupture of hoses, breakdowns of cables)

Check for
scratches,
cracks, dirt,
etc.

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(7) From BM, TBM (AM & PM calendars) to the optimum


maintenance (combination of BM, TBM and CBM)

25

Damages and Countermeasures


Damage of bearings

Wear on the outer rim

26

Damages and countermeasures

Condition of wear

Cause

Countermeasures

Wear occurred on the


sliding surface
(collar surface, roller
surface or pocket
surface of a retainer)
Wear occurred on the
rim or rolling surface

In appropriate or
insufficient lubrication
oil

Review lubrication
method or lubrication
oil
Improve sealing
devices
Thoroughly clean
around the bearing

Invasion of foreign
body
Inappropriate of
insufficient lubrication
oil

Damages and countermeasures


Damage of bearings

Satin finished surface of the outer rim

Damages and countermeasures


Damage of bearings

Satin finish surface of the inner rim

Damages and countermeasures

Condition of wear

Cause

Impression like satin


Main minute foreign
finish surface occurred body get in
on the rim or rolling
surface

Countermeasures
Thoroughly wash
around the bearing
Improve the sealing
devices and prevent
foreign body from
invasion

Damages and countermeasures


Damage of bearings

Wear on the edge of the roller

Damages and countermeasures


Damage of toothed gears

Excessive Wear

Damages and countermeasures

Classification

Phenomenon

Cause

Deterioration of tooth
surface wear

Although wear does


not look serious from
outside, actually the
tooth surface is
chipped away

(1) In spite of the load


imposed on the tooth
and the roughness of
the tooth surface, oil
film is very thin. Thus
the effect of lubrication
is almost none, which
causes severe metal
contact repeatedly.
(2) The existence of
minute abrasive foreign
body may also be the
cause of the wear.

Damages and countermeasures


Damage of toothed gears

Scratching

Damages and countermeasures

Classification

Phenomenon

Cause

Deterioration of tooth
surface : wear

Deep and linear


scratches appear
parallel to the sliding
direction of tooth
surface.

(1) Solid foreign body


with the diameter
bigger than the
thickness of the oil film
between two tooth
surfaces gets in.
(2) The surface of a
tooth is scratched
against its opposite
tooth surface with a
built in foreign body.

Damages and countermeasures


Damages of the chains

Insufficient oiling

Damages and countermeasures


Damages of the chains

Insufficient oiling

Damages and countermeasures

Symptoms/conditions
of damages

Anticipated cause

The wear takes place


Insufficient oiling and
at a part of the chain.
uneven oiling condition
The chain is elongated
and thus that part does
not bend smoothly.
The pin with lubrication
oil is worn out, and the
one without lubrication
oil shows adhesion
wear.

Countermeasures
Periodically supply the
lubrication oil with
proper viscosity.

Shop floor is a mirror.

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Simplification

30 min.

Level 1 ( Checking by the check list )

40

Level 2 ( Visual management )

10 min.

41

Level 3 Concentration ( no need to walk )

2 min.

42

Level 4 Easy recognition ( no need to have a check list )

30 sec.

43

Level 5 No need to check


Instantly
( If something goes wrong, immediate alarm by light and sound )

44

Visualization for the checking route

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Seven steps of professional


maintenance

Phase 4

Step 7
Step 6

Phase 3
Step 5
Phase 2

Phase 1

Step 2

Step 1

Build a predictive maintenance system


(trend
management)

Build a
periodic
Step 4
maintenance
Countermeasures system
Step 3 against weak
points
Establishment of the machine and
lengthened equipof
ment life
maintenance
standards

Maintenance
cost
management
Establishmen
t of
a planned
maintenance
system

Reverse
deterioration
(breakdown analysis)

Elimination of forced deterioration


and prevention of accelerated deterioration

Reactive

Preventive

Proactive
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Revealing potential defects


Number of breakdowns does not decrease

Visible
breakdowns

Potential defects
Prevention of
breakdowns at the
similar process through
horizontal expansion

Potential defects have been revealed

47

Flow Diagram for Preventing Recurrence of Unexpected Failures


Trouble input card

Unexpected
Failure

CMMS

Relevant workplace

Daily/monthly
failure reports

NO
Dealt with locally

Maintenance
department

YES

Restorative action

Emergency action

Emergency action

Restorative action

Action to
restore operation

48

Flow Diagram for Preventing Recurrence of Unexpected Failures


Prepare quick
failure report

Service input card

Unexpected failure
report form
CMMS
Section
responsible

Machine history
ledger
Maintenance
calendar

Regular maintenance meeting


(investigate recurrenceprevention measures)
Budget action

NO

Equipment budget
appropriation

YES
Instigate recurrenceprevention measures
of the failure

Instigate recurrence-prevention
measures of the similar failure
in other areas
Prepare
action report

Service input card

Recurrenceprevention
action report form

Filing
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1.6 Various Maintenance Activities


Periodic
inspection
Production

AM :
Autonomous
maintenance

Periodic replacement
and lubrication

Daily cleaning
and inspection

Action
Prompt abnormality
detection

Patrol checking
BM :
Breakdown
maintenance

Request
Regular maintenance
meetings

Recurrence
prevention

Action

Year-round servicing
(maintenance calendar)
Maintenance

TBM :
Planned
maintenance

CBM :
Predictive
maintenance

Mid-term/long-term planned
maintenance (equipment renewal)

Condition, monitoring of
vibration, corrosion, etc.

MP design
Planning/
Design

MP :
Maintenance
prevention

Early management

Figure : Maintenance system

50

B M, TBM and CBM


1.7 BM, TBM and CBM
The degree of deterioration

Replacement after a certain period


Limit

Many breakdowns occur as


shown in this area.

p.d.f.

BM

Time

Figures show a short life span


spread over a wide range
characteristic of accelerated
deterioration. If periodic
maintenance is applied under
these circumstances,
maintenance cycles will be
short and probably ineffective.

Time
Replacement period ( I )

Figure : Reduction of the range of equipment lifespan by phase


51 1

Components Lifetime
22 analyzed machines
Before restoration

After restoration
Replaced parts

Replaced parts

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
%

100
80
60
40
20
0

Frequency distribution

month
Accumulated failures

Over-lifetime probability

11 2 23 34 45 5 6 6 7788 99101011
11 121213
13

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
%

100
80
60
40
20
0

Frequency distribution

month
Accumulated failures

Over-lifetime probability
Specified for
replacement
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 52

TBM

TBM

Breakdown
occurs !
Replaced before a
breakdown occurs

Too early replacement

Few b

Loss is liable to take


place since replacement
cycle is determined from
the safety side.
Danger of abnormal
wear takes place.

period ( I )
Replacement period ( II )

53

CBM

CBM

Replacement period ( III)


Replacement period ( II )
Replacement period ( I )
Breakdown

The degree of
deterioration

Restore

Forced
deterioration

Predict

Natural
deterioration

Established standard value

Check

Check
Predictive
maintenance

Most economical
because the part
can be utilized up to
almost the wear limit.

Time

p.d.f.

Depending on the
diagnosis technique,
there is a risk of
making a diagnosis
error.

Time
Replacement period ( I )

Periodic maintenance

Replacement period ( II )

Predictive
maintenance

Replacement period ( III )


Non-periodic replacement based on predicted life

54

55

1.8 Production Department Activities


1.Preventing deterioration:
Correct operation preventing human errors
Correct adjustment preventing process defect (quality defects)
Basic housekeeping (establishing basic equipment conditions)
cleaning, lubricating, and tightening
Early prediction and prompt detection of abnormalities forestalling
failures and accidents
Keeping maintenance records feeding back information for
recurrence prevention and maintenanceprevention design

56

2.Measuring deterioration:
Daily inspection patrol checks and five-senses checks during
operation
Periodic inspection part of overhaul inspection during plant
shutdown or shutdown maintenance

3.Predicting deterioration:
Minor servicing emergency measures when abnormal conditions
arise and simple parts replacement
Prompt, accurate reporting of failure and problems
Assistance with repairing unexpected failures
57

1.9 Maintenance Department Activities


(1) The key player in equipment maintenance
(2) Support for autonomous maintenance
(3) Research and develop new maintenance technologies
(4) Prepare maintenance standards manuals
(5) Build systems for keeping maintenance records, handling
maintenance data, and measuring results
(6) Develop and use failure-analysis techniques and implement
measures to prevent the recurrence of serious failures
(7) Assist equipment design and development departments (participate
in MP design and early equipment management activities)
(8) Control spares, jigs, tools and technical data

58

1.10 Professional Maintenance Activities

Professional maintenance activities

Improving maintenance
technology and skills
Professional maintenance skills
Equipment repair skills
Inspection and measurement
skills
Equipment diagnostic
techniques and skills

Improving equipment
Autonomous maintenance
support
Planned maintenance (7 steps)
Corrective maintenance
Maintenance prevention
Predictive maintenance

New maintenance technology


Figure : The twin activities of professional maintenance
59

1.11 Structure of Planned Maintenance


What equipment?
Classify machines into different categories based on priority
from the viewpoints of cost deployment(reactive stage) P, Q, C,
D, S and M.(preventive stage)

What part?
Practical approach

: Step by step approach by A.M. and P.M.

Theoretical approach : FMEA, FTA, PPA, RCM, etc.

What type of maintenance ?


BM, TBM, CBM?

Make maintenance standard


Make maintenance standards based 5W1H questions.

Maintain equipment in a planned way


Maintain equipment based on maintenance standards
with the maintenance calendar.
60

1.12 How to Select a Proper Maintenance Method


(1) Flow Chart Based on Production Output, etc.
Unknown and life
variation is big
Deteriorated part and
deterioration speed

NO

Possible

Big

NO
Equipment
damage

YES
Equipment
damage

Equipment
damage

Small

TBM

NO
Small

Influence of
production
output

YES

Big

Influence of
production output

Trend
management

Known and life


variation is small
Influence of
production
output

Not
possible

BM

Big

Small

Big
Equipment
damage

Big

CBM

Small

IR

BM

TBM

IR
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(2) Based on a Technical Viewpoint


Selected part
Is life guaranteed until the next overhaul?

Is there any
source of forced
deterioration?

NO
Is there any source of forced deterioration left?

YES

YE
S

YES

NO
Is life reasonably long?

NO

Restoration
&
Improvement

Restoration &
Improvement

NO

YE
S

Life extension
NO
(corrective maintenance)

Is life stable?

YES

Is the deterioration pattern recognizable?

YES

NO

Are there measuring methods of


the selected parameters of the
deterioration?

NO

IR

TBM

Study of the
deterioration
pattern

YES

CBM
Searching
parameters

Daily maintenance
62

1.13 Planned Maintenance System Showing the Contents of


Work
Professional
maintenance

PM

Professional
maintenance

CBM
Autonomous
maintenance

BM

Complete shutdown
maintenance

TBM
Autonomous
maintenance

Planned
Maintenance

Planned servicing
Periodic servicing
Periodic inspection
Periodic checking

Professional
maintenance
Autonomous
maintenance

Partial shutdown
maintenance

Periodical checking
Daily checking and servicing

Continuous monitoring

Alarm
Trend
monitoring

Periodic diagnosis

Interlocks

Opportunity maintenance

Daily checking and diagnosis


Detecting signs of abnormality

OSI
SDI

OSI: On-stream inspection


(non-destructive inspection
during operation)
SDI: Shut Down Inspection
(inspection during shutdown)

CM
63

Works planning and schedule control (WSB, PERT/CPM, maintenance


calendar, shutdown maintenance plan)
Change control for equipment and processes
Drawings and documentation control
Maintenance cost control system
Maintenance information management system
Maintenance standards
Project management, works quality management, safety management
Support system
Support technology

Lubrication control
Spare parts control
Fixed-assets control
Measurement technology
Non-destructive test technology
Equipment diagnostics
Materials deterioration control technology
Erosion control technology
Corrosion control technology
Material damage analysis technology
Material skills training

Specific engineering
technology

Servicing standards
Professional maintenance standards
Autonomous maintenance standards

64

1.14 Classification and Allocation of Maintenance Tasks


Activity

Target

Technique

Normal
operation

Daily
maintenance
Maintenance
Activities

Prevent
Deterioration

Measure
Deterioration

Restore Deterioration

Correct Operation

Correct adjustment

Cleaning expose and deal


with flaws

Lubrication

Tightening

Check deterioration and


condition of use daily

Minor Servicing

Overall
Equipment
Effectiveness
(At least 85%)

Periodic inspection (testing)

Periodical Servicing

Maint.

Periodic checking
Periodic
maintenance

Prod.

65

(-Continued)
Preventive
maintenance

Trend inspection

Medium-interval and long-interval servicing

Breakdown
maintenance

Prompt rapid detection of abnormalities,


prompt action and reporting

Recurrence prevention
Emergency repairs
Simplification

Improve
Reliability

Load Reduction

(Corrective
maintenance)

Improve control
precision

Improvement
Activities

Development condition monitoring


equipment and techniques

Improve
Maintainability

Improve inspection work

Improve servicing work

Improve servicing quality

66

Activities to prevent deterioration

Preventive M.

Normal operation
Autonomous
maintenance

Cleaning
Lubrication

Number
of
incident
s

Tightening

The main role of


the production
department

Temperature control
Vibration and sound
control

Techniques
for
prolonging
equipment
life
(precision,
reliability)

Minor repairs
Minor improvements

Techniques
for
predicting
equipment
life

Activities to measure deterioration

Operational inspection
Planned
maintenance
Condition-based M.
Time-based M.

Predictive M.

Activities to restore and improve


equipment

Equipment diagnosis
Disassembly inspection
Predictive maintenance
Maintenance prevention
Preventive repairs

Servicing, repair,
improvement

The main role of


the maintenance
department

Sporadic repairs

Restoration
and costreduction
techniques

Improvement maintenance

Figure. Share of Maintenance Tasks Between Production and Maintenance

67

1.15 Economic Justification of PM System

(-ve)

Aggregated cost

Cash
outflow
($)
Heavy cash outflow
during downtime
and repair

Costs of single Breakdowns

Continuing cash outflow


during recovery

0
0
Time/usage (hours)

Typical cash flow diagram illustrating the cost of lost production.

68

Typical cost of deterioration in plant condition

(-ve)

Increasing consumption
of fuel, spares, etc.
Cash
outflow
($)

Extra cost due to


knock-on effect
Steady cost of fuel,
spares, etc.

Plant in good condition

Condition deteriorating

0
Time/usage (hours)
69

Typical cost of a preventive maintenance strategy

Increasing cost as
major components
begin to fail

(-ve)

Cash
outflow
($)

Cost of routine planned preventive


maintenance

Increasing wear on
moving parts
Plantas new

0
0

Time/usage (hours)
70

Typical potential savings produced by use of PM monitoring

(-ve)

Potential
saving

Cash
outflow
($)

Aggregated running costs

Likely running cost if PM


eliminates stoppages

0
0
Time/usage (hours)
71

Typical cost of Implementation

(-ve)

Installation of PM
system

Cash
outflow
($)

Pay off cost of PM


implementation

Routine operation of PM system

0
0
Time (hours)
72

Typical overall cash flow from an investment in PM.


(-ve)

Cost of Installing PM
Cash
outflow
($)
Break even point

0
0

Cash
saving

Net cash flow

Potential savings from PM

(ve)
Time/usage (hours)

73