Medische informatica

Les 1 Intro
Prof. Dr. Frederik Questier

G: Evidence based medicine: methodologie
van wetenschappelijk onderzoek
F: Wetenschappelijk denken en informatica
B: Wetenschappelijke Lijn 1

Medische
Informatica
2

Medische Informatica: onderwijsteam

Sven Van Laere

– Marc Nyssen

– Frederik Questier

Mijn contactinformatie

Forum @ PointCarre vak

Voorkeur contactwijze!

fquestie@vub.ac.be

Wanneer privacy gewenst is

http://questier.com

Kantoor op campus Jette: lokaal D135

Wat is er fout aan deze e-mail?
From: Isabel86@hotmail.com
To: frederik@questier.com
Subject:
Hoi,
wanneer kan ik mijn examen komen inkijke?

Register now for Microsoft Hotmail and receive 1GB of free storage

Goed voorbeeld
From Isabel.Janssens@vub.ac.be
To: Frederik.Questier@vub.ac.be
CC: Karine.Hellemans@vub.ac.be
Subject: Inkijken examen medische informatica
Geachte professor,
Ik had vorig semester een 9 voor uw vak Medische Informatica in eerste bachelor
geneeskunde. Graag leer ik uit mijn fouten en daarom zou ik graag mijn examen inkijken.
Kan dit en wanneer zou dit passen voor u?
Mijn lesrooster vindt u op
http://locus.vub.ac.be/1onevenjr/studsetGF_onevenjr_Geneeskunde_1B.html
Hartelijke groeten
Isabel Janssens
Rolnummer 500001

PointCarré forum

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INHOUD ?
AANPAK ?
VISIE ?

Onderwijs is niet het vullen van een vat
maar het aansteken van een vuur

Can machines learn?
A. computers can only do what
they are programmed for
B. computers can learn

19

s

Source: Pew Research Center, survey 2012
2015: “72% of internet users say they looked online for health information within the past year.”

Com

(Me
d

put

ical

er

(Sc
ien
) I
ce)
nfo
?
rma
tics
?

29

Computer?
broadest definition
anything that computes
=
anything that
transforms information
in a purposeful way

30

Computer Science?
Misconceptions!
The study of computers
The study of how to write computer programs
The study of the uses and applications
of computers and software

31

Computer Science?
Definition
The study of algorithms, including:
their formal and mathematical properties
their hardware realizations
their linguistic realizations
their applications
32

Algorithm
Step-by-step method for accomplishing some task

Sequential operations
Conditional operations
Iterative operations
33

Algorithm
Medical Decision Tree

34

Importance of algorithms?
If we can specify
an algorithm to solve a problem,
we can automate its solution

35

Computer Science?
Other definition
The study of the theoretical foundations
of information and computation
and of practical techniques
for their implementation and application
in computer systems.
36

(medical) informatics
is the science of
(medical) information,
the practice of
(medical) information processing,
and the engineering of
(medical) information systems.

37

"Medical Informatics studies

the organization of medical information,

the effective management of information using computer technology,

The field explores techniques for

and the impact of such technology on medical research, education,
and patient care.
assessing current information practices,
determining the information needs of health care providers and
patients,

developing interventions using computer technology,

and evaluating the impact of those interventions.

This research seeks to optimize the use of information

in order to improve the quality of health care, reduce cost, provide
better education for providers and patients,
and to conduct medical research more effectively."

Definition by Stephen B. Johnson, Columbia University.

38

Related fields

Medical informatics

Health informatics

Healthcare informatics

eHealth

mHealth

Biomedical informatics

Biomedical engineering

Telemedicine

Bioinformatics

...
39

How old is the oldest computer?
– years
– decennia
– centuries
– millennia

40

First calculation devices?
Abacus (counting frame) Sumerian 2400BC
Shown examples: Chinese Suanpan and Japanese Soroban

41

150-100 BC
The Antikythera Mechanism

Video: Lego Antikythera Mechanism

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLPVCJjTNgk

42

1614: John Napier
invents logarithms

43

1620-1630:
William Oughtred invents slide rule

44

1642: Blaise Pascal invents
mechanical calculator

45

1801: Joseph Marie Jacquard
invents “Jacquard loom”

46

Punched cards: input for
computer programming and data

47

1837-1871: Charles Babbage
designs the “analytical engine”

Could have been the first modern computer

Steam powered

Digital

Store (memory)

Arithmetical unit, the "mill" ~ CPU

Input (programming and data) via punched cards

Output via printer, curve plotter and bell

Programming language with loops and
conditional branching
48

1843: Ada Lovelace
writes first computer program

Translates an article about
Babbage's analytical engine
Adds annotations and the first
computer program
“First programmer”
1980: Programming language
Ada named after her
49

50

51

52

Eniac
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

53

Eniac
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

54

Parallel developments
Some ignored, some secret

55

Collosus (UK 1944) breaking German secret messages

56

"I think there is
a world market for
maybe 5 computers."
Thomas J Watson,
President of IBM
1943

57

"It would appear that we have reached the limits of
what it's possible to achieve with computer technology,
although one should be careful with such statements,
as they tend to sound pretty silly in five years."
Prof. Dr. John von Neumann, 1949

Von Neumann architecture 1947
58

"Computers in the future
will weigh no more than
1.5 tons"
Popular Mechanics
1949

59

Vacuum tubes
(used to switch or amplify electrical signals)

60

What is a computer bug?
What is debugging?

61

62

Grace Hopper

Found first computer bug,
1947
Worked at Harvard on the
Mark computers
Invented first compiler
“(Grand)mother” of COBOL,
(COmmon Business-Oriented
Language), 1959
63

Ferranti Mark I (UK 1951)
First commercial general purpose electronic computer

64

Univac I = UNIVersal Automatic Computer
First US commercial computer 1951

65

Transistors
(used to switch or amplify electrical signals)

66

Magnetic core memory

67

68

Computer mouse, 1963,
Douglas Engelbart

69

Integrated circuits
or microchips

70

Relationships Among Transistors, Chips, and Circuit Boards

71

72

Chip evolution

Small Scale Integration SSI (1965)
Medium Scale Integration MSI
Large Scale Integration LSI (1976)
Very Large Scale Integration VLSI (80's)
Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI)
Wafer-Scale Integration (WSI)
System-on-a-Chip (SoC or SOC)
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC)

73

1964 MEDLARS
Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System
→ 1971 online Medline → 1993 Internet PubMed

74

1970s: mini-computers

75

“CT-scan”?

76

1971 first Computed Tomography (CT) applied on patient
by Nobel prize winner Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
(9 hours calculation time)

77

Xerox Alto,
1973

WIMP

Windows

Icons

Menus

Pointing Device

Ethernet

Not commercialized
78

79

Micro-computers
Altair 8800, 1975

80

81

Xerox Star interface 1981

82

Personal computers
IBM PC 5150, 1981

83

"640kB should be enough for anyone"
Bill Gates, President Microsoft 1981

84

Home computers
Commodore 64, 1982

85

Commodore 128, 1985

86

IBM Simon Personal
Communicator
1994
First smartphone
avant la lettre

87

88

Super computers nowadays

IBM Blue Gene
Simulation of 1% of human cortex
Near real time model of the electrophysiology of the human heart

89

90

91

92

93

bits en bytes?

bit = binary digit : 0 of 1

byte = typisch 8 bits (Frans: 'octet')

Met 1 byte kan men 1 uit 2^8 = 256 karakters
weergeven

Afkortingen:

bit → bit (maar in de praktijk vaak b)

byte → B

32-bit versus 64-bit computers?

rechtstreeks aanspreekbare geheugen adressen

32-bit = 2^32 = 4GB

64-bit = 2^64 = 16EB of 4 miljard keer meer

Source: http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/32-bit-and-64-bit-explained.htm

Predicted in 1965:
The number of transistors on integrated circuits
doubles approximately every two years

98

99

Software is getting slower more rapidly
than hardware becomes faster?

Martin Reiser 1991

Niklaus Wirth's law 1995

"The hope is that the progress in hardware will cure all
software ills. However, a critical observer may observe
that software manages to outgrow hardware in size and
sluggishness."
"Software is getting slower more rapidly than hardware
becomes faster."

David May's law 2011

“Software efficiency halves every 18 months,
compensating Moore's Law.”
100

Hard drive capacities
evolved in similar way

101

102

103

2045 Technological Singularity?

104

105

Start of transhumanism?
106

[Innovations connected to IT, tend to have exponentional growth.]

107

Are we living in a computer simulation?

108

109

110

Current research topics

111

Current research topics

112

Current research topics

113

This presentation was made
with 100% Free Software

No animals were harmed