# Network Analysis and Synthesis

Chapter 3
Elements of Realizability Theory

Introduction
• In the last chapter we were concerned with
the problem of identifying the response given
the excitation and network.
• When we discuss about synthesis we are
concerned with the problem of constructing a
network given the excitation and response.
• The starting point for any synthesis is the
system function
H ( s) 

R( s)
E (s)

• The first step in synthesis procedure is
determining whether the system function can
be realized with a physical passive network.
• There are two considerations
– Causality and
– Stability

the impulse response of the network must be zero for t<0. • In other words. Causality • By causality we mean that a voltage doesn’t appear between any terminals in the network before a current/voltage is applied. h(t )  0 for t  0 .1.

2. . h(t)=e|t| • Is not causal because for t<0. hence. h(t)=etu(t) • Is causal because for t<0 u(t)=0. h(t) is not zero. h(t)=0.Example 1.

• If we delay h(t) by T. the network can be made causal by delaying the impulse response by a certain time delay. .• In certain cases. then h(t-T) will be causal.

• The Paley-Wiener criterion states that a necessary and sufficient condition for causality is    log H ( jw) w 1 2 dw   .• In the frequency domain causality is implied when the Paley-Wiener criterion is satisfied.

.• The physical implication of the Paley-Wiener criterion is that the amplitude response of a causal network can’t be zero over a finite band of frequency.

The Gaussian filter H ( jw)  e  w2 – Is not causal because    log H ( jw) w2  1 is not finite. The ideal low pass filter – Is not causal because it is zero for all frequencies w>wc.  w2 dw   2 dw w 1  .Example 1. 2.

The amplitude function 1 H ( jw)  w2  1 – Is causal because    log H ( jw) w 1 2  dw   w  1 2  1 2 dw   .3.

Stability • If a network is stable. | e(t ) | C1 0t | r (t ) | C2 0t • Where C1 and C2 are real. .2. positive and finite numbers. then for a bounded excitation e(t) the response will also be bounded.

then we get from the convolution integral and the above definition of stability  | r (t ) | C1  h( ) d  C2 0 • The above equation implies that the impulse response be absolutely integrable. .   h( ) d   0 • One important requirement for h(t) to be absolutely integrable is h(t) approach zero as t increases to infinity.• If a linear system is stable.

a simple L-C network has such an impulse response. lim h(t )  0 t  and h(t )  C all t .• Note that our definition of stability implies systems with sinwt impulse response are not stable because   sin wt dt   0 • However. we call them marginally stable if they satisfy the following criterion. • Since we don't want to call these systems unstable.

• This is because if we have a pole on the right hand side. eαt. • Hence.• Stability in the frequency domain implies that the system function should only have poles on the left had side of the ‘s’ plane or simple poles on the jw axis. our response will not be bounded. then the impulse response will have an exponentially increasing term. .

.• If there is a double pole on the jw axis. then the impulse response of the network will have a term tsin(wt). • This will not be bounded.

That is n  m  1 • If n  m  1 then there would be multiple poles on the s=jw=infinity.  b1s  b0 • Due to the requirement of simple poles on the jw axis.  a1s  a0 H ( s)  bm s m  bm1s m1  . the order of the numerator shouldn’t exceed the order of the denominator by more than 1.• If H(s) is given as an s n  an 1s n 1  ..... .

The degree of the numerator of H(s) can’t exceed that of the denominator by more than 1. . 2. H(s) can’t have poles on the right side of the ‘s’ plane.• To summarize. H(s) can’t have multiple poles on the jw axis. for a network to be stabile the following three conditions must be satisfied 1. 3.

moreover the poles on the jw axis must be simple. • The denominator polynomial of a system function H(s) that satisfies these criteria belongs to a class of polynomials called Hurwitz polynomials. . • In these section.3. we will discuss the properties of these types of polynomials. its poles must lie in the left side of the ‘s’ plane. Hurwitz polynomials • We mentioned in the previous section that in order for a system to be stable.

2. The real part of its roots must be negative or zero. P(s) must be real if s is real.  a1s  a0 • Then all coefficients an must be real and if si=α+jβ is root of P(s). . then α must be negative.. if P(s) is a Hurwitz polynomial given by P(s)  an s n  an1s n1  .• A polynomial P(s) is said to be Hurwitz if it satisfies 1. • As a result of these conditions..

. 2. P(s)=(s+1)(s2+3s+2) None of the roots lie on the right hand side of the ‘s’ plane. The polynomial Hurwitz because • •   is For real s P(s) is real.Example 1. The polynomial Hurwitz •  P(s)  (s  1) s  1  j 2 s  1  j 2 G(s)  (s  1)(s  2)(s  3) is not The root s=1 lies on the positive ‘s’ plane.

• This is readily seen by examining the types of terms P(s) can have P(s)  s   s   s       2 2 i Simple real pole i Simple pole on the jw axis 2 i 2 i Complex conjugate roots • The multiplication of these non negative coefficients can only give non negative coefficients.Properties of Hurwitz polynomial 1. . All the coefficients of the polynomial are non negative.

.2. The even and odd parts of P(s) have roots on the jw axis only. • If we denote the even and odd parts of P(s) as n(s) and m(s) P(s)  n(s)  m(s) • Then both n(s) and m(s) have roots on the jw axis only.

. 1 qn s .. 1 1 q3 s  1 q4 s  1 .  (s)  n( s )  q1s  m( s ) q2 s  • All the q’s are positive.3. The continued fraction expansion of n(s)/m(s) or m(s)/n(s) of a Hurwitz polynomial yields only positive quotient terms...

Example • Obtain the continued fraction expansion of F (s)  s 4  s 3  5s 2  3s  4 • Solution: n(s)  s 4  5s 2  4 and m(s)  s 3  3s – Since the order of n(s) is higher than m(s). we start with n(s)/m(s). .

n( s ) s 4  5s 2  4  m( s ) s 3  3s 2s 2  4  s 3 s  3s 1  s 3 s  3s 2s 2  4 1  s 1 s s 2 2 2s  4 1  s 1 1 s 2 2s  4 2 s 1  s 1 1 s 4 2 2s  s 1  s 1 1 s 1 2 2s  s 4 Note that all the coefficients of the quotients are positive .

Positive Real Functions • These functions are important because they represent physically realizable passive driving point immitances. – The real part of F(s) is greater or equal to zero when the real part of s is greater than or equal to zero. • A function is positive real if – F(s) is real for real s. that is F(σ) is real.4. That is .

the right half of the ‘s’ plane maps with the right half of F(s) plane. the real axis of ‘s’ plane maps with real axis of F(s) plane.• In other words. • In addition. • A further restriction is that F(s) be rational. .

Resistor 3. is positive real by definition.Example 1. Inductor 2. F(s)=K/s (K real and positive) is positive real because when s is real F(s) is real and when the real part of s is positive the real part of F(s) is also positive. F(s)=R (where R is positive real number). Capacitor F ( s)  1 1   j   j  *    j   j   j  2   2 . is positive real by definition. F(s)=Ls (where L is positive real number).

• The necessary and sufficient condition for F(s) to be a positive real function is – F(s) must have no poles on the right side of s plane. – Re (F(jw))  0 for all w. – F(s) may have only simple poles on the jw axis with real and positive residues. .

Example 1. . Is s2 positive 2 s  3s  2 s2 1 F ( s)   s  1(s  2) s  1 F ( s)  real function? – Its pole s=-1 lies on the left of s plane – No multiple poles on the jw axis – Its real part is  1  1  1  jw    Re ReF ( jw)   Re   2 2 1  jw 1  w 1  w     is always positive.

– The real part of F(jw) is 1  jw  1  ReF ( jw)   Re   2 2 w 2 2w this can be a negative number. For example for w=2. Is F (s)  ss 12 Solution: positive real? 2 F ( s)  s2 s j 2 s j 2    – No poles on the right hand side. – No multiple poles on jw axis.2. .

Exercise 3. Is F ( s)  s4 s 2  2s  1 positive real? .