# Data Interpretation

What is DI

Data Interpretation (DI) is the mathematical equivalent
of Reading Comprehension.
It deals with the understanding, organising and
interpreting of the given data so as to arrive at
meaningful conclusions
‘Data’ refers to facts associated with quantity.
‘Interpretation’ means perception, a view point, or an
understanding
‘Data Interpretation’ in GRE is concerned with
examining a comprehensive set of data relating to
some quantities.

Success in DI
Success in DI depends on

Your calculation prowess and

Your ability to understand the question correctly

Ability to understand what the graph represents.

In most cases, DI is just the use of common sense !!!

Spend 15-30 seconds in the beginning to assimilate and make sense of the chart. get a good sense for what the variables are and how they relate to one another. It will be mentioned that the graphs are not drawn to scale. notes. . Make sure that you read all the information around it. Before you tackle the questions. legends provided with the graphs. Read the captions. graph or table.Some tips ● ● ● ● The DI section is not only about solving the questions accurately but also solving them quickly. You will be required to read data from the graphs and tables and then address the question that has been presented to you. however they are quite accurate and you may pick up approximate values by studying the graphs carefully.

Have a fair knowledge of reciprocals. This will help you develop understanding of methods you can apply to solve questions faster. It will ensure that the Questions in GRE do not come as a surprise to you.Some tips The following will be helpful ● ● ● Be familiar with the mathematical tables of numbers (at least till 20). . Exposure to diversity of question types is a must. equivalent percentages and decimals Squares. Cubes and Square roots of standard numbers Practice a variety of questions to become comfortable with different types of problems.

It will helps you to understand your strengths and weaknesses.● ● ● Be very thorough with the basics of all arithmetic topics like Profit. . Take the review tests in these sessions and analyse your performance. Loss. The incorrect questions will help a lot in identifying where you tend to go wrong. Percentages. Make sure you have completed the Learning sessions of the above topics in the Arithmetic and Algebra module. basic number theory and formulas. Ratios.

Tips for quick computation .

this method needs practice to perfect. Also try doing mental calculations and minimise the use of pen and paper. You will have to learn this through trial-anderror and practice. Again. Approximation is the best tool to arrive at answers quickly but using it is an art. . Eliminating those will make it easy to select the right answer. Check to see if the question asks for an approximation. If so. Often you can arrive at the correct answer by the process of elimination.● ● ● Learn short-cut methods that work for you. you can safely estimate numbers by rounding off. For some questions you may find that some of the given options are pretty far-fetched.

you are bound to make silly mistakes. otherwise you'll distort the value of the fraction. Try to build up your speed slowly so that it peaks up on your GRE. round the numerator and denominator in the same direction (either up or down). Whenever you try to calculate faster than your comfort zone speed. try to predict the result without performing actual computations or with very little calculations . When possible.● ● ● When rounding off fractions.

then the answer must be greater than 100 percent ii. you must try to solve the questions using approximations. Here are two most widely used short cuts in DI: i. quadrupling to 300 per cent and so on. and the question asks: of what percent is quantity X of quantity Y. Short cuts: One must use shortcuts to save time while calculating. tripling is equivalent to an increase of 200 per cent.● ● Calculations: Instead of wasting time in doing lengthy calculations. Doubling the value of variable is equivalent to an increase of 100 per cent. Remember that if quantity X > quantity Y. .

.6 We know that ¼ of 100 is 25.6 = ¼ x 97.6% of 25 ( 97.● iii.6) which is same as (25/100) x 97.6% of 25 ) is same as ( 25% of 97.6 can be approx 24. So ¼ of 97. A% of B = B% of A Example if we need to determine 97.

Pitfalls to be avoided .

These are i. Variable: Don't confuse "change in the value of variable (production /sales /profit etc)" with "percentage change in the variable". On the other hand. ii.● The catch: There are certain traps in the DI questions which one must understand in order to counter them.). percentage change is given by  % age change = (V2 – V1) x 100% V1 . Units: Never ignore the units given for the variables (in million dollars. Sometimes the answer choices are arranged in such a way that there is always a strong possibility to pick up the wrong one if one does not consider units. in thousands etc. You must understand that a change in the value is just the difference between the new and old value.

Classification of Graphs .

Units of measurement may also be given for calculations.Classification ● ● ● The questions in DI can be broadly classified as Tables. A title that tells you what that table encompasses. subtitles. Grand total figures could be provided in the table itself or separately. If you do not interpret the data correctly. Remember to carefully read all titles. TABLES: In this type of question the data is arranged systematically in rows and columns with captions/headings. Graphs. . you might end up in incorrectly solving all the questions on that data. and notes/footnotes.

Tables ● Example: the following table shows the averages of five batsmen over the period of five years. .

Read the question carefully and analyse the possible answer before calculation. caption and unit of measurement. especially the title. remember to: a. Most of the questions only call for an approximate answer and it may be possible to round off. Spend time understanding the table. .Tips on Tables While solving questions based on tabulated information. b. thus saving time and effort c. Make sure to express your answer in the correct units. Don’t waste time browsing through the data. If the units of measurement in the question and given answer do not match then conversion is required.

Cumulative Bar Graph ● d. you only get an approximate idea of data. Line Graphs ● c. the graphs are more vivid in depicting trends like growth. So. They can be of various types ● a. Pie Graph ● e. graphs give you a pictorial representation.Classification on Graphs ● GRAPHS: Unlike tables that depict data precisely. Bar Graphs ● b. decline and plateaus. However. Combination Graph .

It is possible to use the approximation method to hasten the calculation i. you can assume 41 to be 40.Bar Graphs ● ● Bar Graphs: Bar graphs use two axes for representation of data. . A common difficulty is that the bars don’t always have numbers on them and you have to figure out what the value is by matching up the bar with the Y-axis. In the example below.e. the Xaxis denotes the year and the Y-axis shows the average runs scored.

An Example .

The different parameters are stacked over the other for a particular year. .Stacked Graph ● ● ● Stacked Graph/Cumulative Bar Graph: In this type of a graph. When you add the percentages. This ‘stack’ can be expressed in percentage as well. in one year. it will add up to 100. the bar carries information of more than one parameters.

An Example .

most vividly. .Line Graph Line Graphs: In the example below. trends like growth and decline over a period of time. the various lines represent the players and their average scores. Line graphs show.

An Example .

6 degrees . hence the name.Pie Graph ● ● ● Pie Graph: The pie chart is a pie like representation of data. Remember that one percent = 3. In the graph below. the entire ‘pie’ is broken into percentages adding up to 100%.

we observe that the graph is given for only one year .An Example Here in Pie chart.

graph or table. put your finger directly against the computer screen and keep it there until you're sure you're looking at the right part of the right chart or graph. line.Combination Graph ● ● Combination Graph: Combination graphs combine data of one graph with that of another. . This is the main cause of incorrect responses in GRE Data Analysis. These may look intimidating initially but can be tackled if taken one at a time and are rather easy. To avoid this blunder. it's remarkably easy to inadvertently grab your data from the wrong graph. In gleaning data from a chart. bar. point your finger to the data you want. etc.

com Also show your workings. . It'll help your SFA to evaluate you better.Work on the following problems and send back your solutions to your SFA at support@greedge.

245.700 \$1.400 \$1.629.400 \$2.Worksheet .200 \$2.000 \$3.Easy Year Number of students enrolled Number of Faculty members Ratio of students to faculty Average Faculty Salary Tuition Per student Total Faculty salaries Income from Tuition 1960 1970 1980 1490 1600 1.360 \$28.000 \$3.790 -- 166 160 -- 10:1 11:1 -- \$ 14.200.086.000 -- .000 -- \$4.

What was the number of faculties in the year 1980? 3. was the ratio of students to faculty is good? 4. What was the Income from tuition gained by College R in 1980? 2. In which year. What was the total amount of faculty salaries at college R in 1970? 1. What was the average salary received by a faculty in the year 1960? .Worksheet – Easy (Level 1) 1.

The increase in tuition per student from 1970 to 1980 was approximately how many times as great as the increase from 1960 to 1970? A. 5/6 C.Worksheet – Easy (Level 2) 1.3 times C. 2 times B. 2/3 . 2. 0. 8/9 1/5 B. The number of students enrolled in 1960 was approximately what fraction of the number enrolled in 1980? A. 3 times D. 1/3 E. 2/3 D. 3% times E.

If the increase in the number of students enrolled from 1950 to 1960 was half the increase from 1960 to 1970. what was the student enrolment in 1950? 2. If the total amount of faculty salaries in 1980 was paid from tuition income.Worksheet – Easy (Level 3) 1. approximately how much of each student's tuition was used to pay faculty salaries? .

000 Pure Breed ROPE COUNTY All ASPCA registered Dogs Total = 50.Worksheet .Medium Distribution of the ASPCA registered dogs by breeding for two counties Pure Breed GREEN COUNTY All ASPCA registered Dogs Total = 30.000 .

More mixed bred dogs are regd with ASPCA in Green country than in Rope county II.Which of the following statements can be inferred from the graphs? I. In Rope county twice as many companion dogs are regd as toy dogs A. III only III only D. 9000 B. 54 E.How many more pure bred dogs are regd. 60 3. 44 D. 22 B. 11000 C. I & II & III B.For Green county and Rope county combined approximately what percent of all dogs registered With ASPCA are mixed breed? A. with ASPCA in Rope county than in Green County? A.Medium 1. 17500 2. 13000 D. 34 C. I & III only E. III. More rare bred dogs are in green county than in Rope county. II only C. 15000 E. II & .Worksheet .

28 B.How many more terriers are registered with ASPCA in Rope county than in Green county? A. 3850 C. 30 C. E.3000 D.54 .40 D. 2850 B. 2400 E.6250 5.The toy dogs registered with ASPCA in Rope county are approximately how much percent more than that of those registered with ASPCA in Green county A.52.Worksheet .Medium 4.

Hard Total Enrolment Student Allocation of All Contributions .Worksheet .

500 D. 0 B.What was the increase. 100 D.250 C. 75% E.200 B.What was the total number of students enrolled at College R in the fall of 1979? A. 50 C. 7% B.Hard 1.650 E.By what percent did the number of part-time students enrolled increase from the fall of 1979 to the fall of 1980 ? A. in the number of fulltime students enrolled at College R from the fall of 1976 to the fall of 1977? A. 80% 1. if any. 150 E. 42% C.Worksheet . 200 .700 2. 66 2/3% D.

if 12% of the amount of contributions allocated to scholarships and operational expenses was allocated to heating costs.000 C.000 5.000 C.Hard 4.667.000 . \$ 1.000 B. \$250.000 D. In the 1978-1979 school year.000.000.000 E.\$205. \$967. \$10.000 D. \$ 9.000. Approximately what was the total amount of contributions to College R from the year 1978-1979 school year through the 1980-1981 school year inclusive? A. approximately how much was NOT allocated to heating costs? A.000 B.Worksheet . \$ 176. \$2. \$ 9.000 E. \$25.