# Original Article

Performance analysis of a
variable-displacement vane-type oil
pump for engine lubrication using a
complete mathematical model

Proc IMechE Part D:
J Automobile Engineering
227(10) 1414–1430
Ó IMechE 2013
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DOI: 10.1177/0954407013491896
pid.sagepub.com

Dinh Quang Truong1, Kyoung Kwan Ahn1, Nguyen Thanh Trung1 and
Jae Shin Lee2

Abstract
Variable-displacement vane-type oil pumps represent one of the most innovative pump types for industrial applications,
especially for engine lubrication systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a complete and accurate mathematical
model for a typical variable-displacement vane-type oil pump to investigate its working performance. First, the detailed
theoretical model was built on the basis of pump geometric design and dynamic analyses. Next, numerical simulations
with the constructed model and experiments on the actual pump system were carried out to analyse the main power
loss factors in order to develop the complete model for high modelling accuracy. The estimated pump performance
using the complete pump model was finally verified by numerical simulations in comparison with practical tests.

Keywords
Lubrication, vane pump, variable displacement, flow rate, modelling

Date received: 6 September 2012; accepted: 18 March 2013

Introduction
Nowadays, the design requirements for engine lubrication systems, especially for vehicle applications, have
been oriented towards a general performance improvement, coupled with simultaneous reductions in the
power losses, the weights and the volumes. A fixeddisplacement lubricating pump driven by a rotating
component of the mechanical system is generally
designed to operate effectively at a target speed and a
maximum operating lubricant temperature. However,
the lubrication requirements of the machine do not
directly correspond to its operating speed. This results in
an oversupply of lubricating oil to most machines. To
secure operational safety in hot idling, these pumps are
oversized. Consequently, a low efficiency is obtained at
most operating speeds. A pressure relief valve is then
provided to return the surplus lubricating oil back into
the pump inlet or a reservoir to avoid over-pressure conditions in the mechanical system. As a result, a significant amount of the energy used to pressurize the
lubricating oil is exhausted through the relief valve.1,2
Subsequently, a potential trend for machine lubrication is the employment of variable-displacement vane
pumps as lubrication oil pumps. To vary the

displacement, there are two common approaches,
namely the use of a linear translating cam ring3–5 and
the use of a pivoting cam ring.6–9 In both cases, each
pump generally includes a ring, the movement of which
is controlled by a mechanism including a return spring.
The pump displacement control mechanism is normally
supplied with pressurized lubricating oil from the pump
output through an orifice. As the pressure increases,
the ring movement changes its eccentricity with respect
to the rotor centre-line, which in turn changes the pump
displacement. The return spring, which acts to resist the
hydraulic force acting on the ring, can be calibrated to
achieve the desired pressure regulation characteristics
of the pump. By employing this mechanism, overpressure situations in the engine throughout the

1

School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, University of Ulsan,
Ulsan, Republic of Korea
2
Material Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Republic of
Korea
Corresponding author:
Kyoung Kwan Ahn, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan,
Daehakro 93, Namgu, Ulsan, 680-749, Korea.
Email: kkahn@ulsan.ac.kr

To investigate the dynamic characteristics of vane pumps.2 also developed a variable-displacement vane pump for automotive applications by simulations and experiments. 1415 expected operating range of the system can be avoided.13 carried out both a theoretical analysis and a parametric study of the pressure distribution inside the variable-displacement vane pump as well as the forces and torques applied to the mechanism and the pump shaft. Ltd11 as displayed in Figure 1 was used for the investigation. The system phenomena such as the internal leakages from the pump chamber’s volumes. a variable-displacement vane-type oil pump made by MyungHwa Co. It can then be easily used to model any pump design. the actual pump performance can be estimated well by using this model. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the simulated pump performance. Tor vary the Figure 1. In another study. Giuffrida and Lanzafame10 derived a mathematical model for a fixed-displacement balanced-vane pump to analyse the theoretical flow rate through the cam shape design and the vane thickness.sagepub.1 carried out a study on a variable-displacement vane pump for engine lubrication. therefore. the complete model including the main power loss factors is performed on the basis of the theoretical model and experimental data (see the fourth section). it still results in an energy loss.Truong et al. very useful for achieving industry’s time-to-market goals. By using this model. A typical variable-displacement vane-type oil pump and model design A variable-displacement vane-type oil pump In this study. (b) internal structure of the pump. Kim et al. Second. As a result. This pump model employed differential equations based on four possible pressure distribution regions to enable detailed predictions to be made of the pump’s dynamic behaviour as the oil conditions and the circuit pressures vary. It can be considered as an indispensable step towards a deeper understanding of pump operation as well as for effectively implementing a pump displacement control mechanism to satisfy the urgent lubrication demands. From the above analysis. this paper develops an accurate and complete mathematical model of a typical variable-displacement vane-type oil pump. the theoretical model is meticulously constructed using a general method based on geometric and dynamic analyses of the pump (see the second section). Some studies related to this field have been made to investigate the pump performances. directly or indirectly. Although this series of pumps provides improvements in the energy efficiency over those of fixed-displacement pumps.com at University of Warwick on March 18. Although these studies provided interesting results. affected by the pressurized oil rather than by the changing requirements of the lubricating system. It is.11 investigated an electronic control variable-displacement lubrication oil pump through a simple mathematical model. the ideal pump characteristics can be readily investigated through numerical simulations (see the third section). Research vane-type oil pump: (a) outside view of the pump. the variable oil conditions such as aeration and viscosity. as well as variations in selecting the load spring were also analysed for their effects on the behaviour and performance of the oil pump. First. Staley et al. Karmel12. Downloaded from pid. In another study. a detailed analysis of the theoretical performance as well as a careful investigation of the power losses of a variable-displacement vanetype oil pump in order to derive an accurate model based on practical experiments were not considered. the location of the rotation centre and the porting plate integral with the casing or with the stator ring all have marked effects on the steady-state and dynamic performances of the pump. 2016 . Rundo and Nervegna14 pointed out that the stator ring geometry of variable-displacement radial pumps influences the performance characteristics of these units. Therefore. The reason is that the displacement control decision is. The type of stator ring motion (linear or rotational). Loganathan et al. Geist and Resh15 developed a detailed dynamic model of a variable-displacement vane pump to obtain a better understanding of how to improve the engine and the circuit efficiency of the engine oil as well as to assess the pump stability. development of a variable-displacement vane-type oil pump model is indispensable and can be considered a priority in order to investigate a pump’s working performance as well as to optimize the pump’s design structure.

1416 Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) Figure 2. The volume derivative dVuv ðai Þ=da of the chamber under the ith vane is computed as dVuv ðai Þ dlv ðai Þ = btv da da dlvi [ btv da Downloaded from pid. Subsequently. each vane stays at the end of the corresponding slot defined by the radius Rrv. Generally. . it is necessary to find the distance Or Ai [ ri and the corresponding angle bi . Figure 3 displays a volume variation analysis for the chamber under the ith considered vane corresponding to a small rotational angle da of the rotor. N i = 1. the centrifugal force effects and the return spring.com at University of Warwick on March 18. The analysis of an ith generic vane is carried out for the cross-section of the pump shown in Figure 2. the relations ri = qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 R2v + Or Ovi + 2Rv Or Ovi cos g i . . To determine the contact point Ai. the position of the ith vane can be defined as ai = a  2p ði  1Þ. a pump with N vanes is rigorously characterized by N pumping chambers between the consecutive vanes and N pumping chambers under the vanes. the total number of pumping chambers is 2N. thus. In the initial state. Points Or and Os are the centre of the rotor and the centre of the inner contour of the main ring respectively. Considering the small triangles OrOviAi and OrOviOs. because of the centrifugal effect. The rotor rotates with a constant velocity v. the vane contacts the inner surface of the main ring at point Ai at the current time. pump displacement. The eccentricity between the rotor and the ring inner surface is ec. Geometric analysis of a generic vane. . A variable-displacement vane-type oil pump model Vane movement analysis. the pumping chambers. which is presented by the angle gi . At the current angular position a of the rotor. . Point Bi is the intersection point between the tip arc and the centre-line of the vane. rotation of the main ring around the pivot pin is controlled by the pressurized oil itself in the control chamber through the orifice. the vane lift lv can be obtained as lvi = Or Bi  Rr = Or Ovi + Rv  Rr ð6Þ Theoretical pump flow rate analysis. . i = 1. Point Ai is far from point Bi. N ð2Þ  2  r + e2c  R2s bi = arccos i ð3Þ 2ri ec   ec sin ai gi = arcsin ð4Þ Rs  Rv qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Or Ovi = e2c + ðRs  Rv Þ2 + 2ec ðRs  Rv Þ cosðai + gi Þ ð5Þ can be obtained. 2016 ð7Þ . .sagepub. . N ð1Þ Figure 2 shows that. There are N vanes of thickness tv and radius Rv at their tip curves (centre point Ovi). .

the two ith and (i + 1)th vanes contact the ring inner surface at points Ai0 and A(i + 1)0 respectively. 2016 . ai + 1 Þ ð8Þ As depicted in Figure 4(a). After the small rotation da of the rotor. Downloaded from pid. which are different from the previous points Ai0 and A(i + 1)0.com at University of Warwick on March 18. the volume of oil entering into the chamber and the volume of oil being pumped out of the chamber between two consecutive vanes can be derived as (represented as Si1 in Figure 4(b))   dVbv in ðai . Analysis of the volume variation for a chamber under a generic vane. Next. this causes both the input volume and the output volume to be reduced by small amounts as indicated by Si2 in Figure 4(b). ai + 1 Þ  dVbv Figure 3.Truong et al. at the current time when the rotor is considered at the angle a. ai + 1 Þ = dVbv in ðai . the two ith and (i + 1)th vanes contact the ring surface at the two points Ai1 and A(i + 1)1 respectively. This volume variation can be computed as dVbv ðai . the volume variation for a chamber between two consecutive vanes (namely the ith and the (i + 1)th vanes) occupying the angular positions ai and out ðai . ai + 1 Þ = 12b r2i + 1 dbi + 1  r2i + 1 dui + 1 ð9Þ and Figure 4. 1417 ai + 1 [ ai + 2p=N respectively is analysed in Figure 4.sagepub. Analysis of the volume variation for a chamber between two consecutive vanes: (a) rotational analysis of two consecutive vanes. Based on this figure and from a simple calculation. (b) volume in–volume out analysis of a chamber between two consecutive vanes. Consequently.

Considering the oil chamber outside the ring through the control orifice (see Figure 1). Consequently. the factor du can be derived as dui = dbi  da ð11Þ From equations (8) to (11). the pressure is almost the same as the minimum pressure Pmin (the tank pressure) during the rotation angle ar 2 ½0. 2p of the rotor.sagepub. the length of which is Rrot and the angle is uOs0  du. ai + 1 Þ v fsgn½dVbv ðai . Let us define the angle difference between the pole axis and the centreline Op Ost as cst . C21 and C31 respectively (Figure 5(b)).com at University of Warwick on March 18. The effect of this pressure region on the ring is represented by the angle range as 2 ½as10 + as20 .1418 dVbv Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) 1 out ðai . The second region within the arc C20 C30 (where the arc radius increases or decreases very slowly (near the maximum value Rs + ec_max) gives the precompression for the oil chambers. The pressure is then almost the same as the maximum pressure Pmax (the outlet pressure). Two coordinate systems have been used. Therefore. In this case. as10  [ ½0. a1 Þ  1g 2 da ð13Þ Analysis of the rotation of the main ring Force due to the pressurized oil inside the main ring. the profile of the pressure distribution on the ring’s inner surface within one rotation of the pump (Figure 5(a)) can be divided into three regions. the rotor contacts the inner contour of the ring at point C10 and the centre point of the ring inner contour is at point Os0. The first region within the arc C10 C20 (where the arc radius presents a positive gradient (with the minimum value Rr at C10)) relates to the suction zone. In this research pump. Based on the pump’s working principle at the initial position of the ring. ai + 1 Þ = 2b  2  ri dbi  r2i dui ð10Þ respectively. ai + 1 Þ  1g 2 i=1 da + 1 dVbv v ðaN . 3. corresponding to the rotation angle ar 2 ½ar10 . aC20 . the pole of which is located at the centre point of the inner contour of the ring and the axis points to a point on the ring at which the ring contour is closest to the rotor. Then the total moment acting on the ring caused by the pressurized oil inside the ring to make it rotate around the pivot pin can be computed as X ð aC2t MOp oil inside = Rrot sin (cst + as ) Pmin bRs das ð a0C3t +  Rrot sin (cst + as ) aC2t ðPmax  Pmin Þ ð 2p +  as  aC2t + Pmin bRs das aC3t  aC2t Rrot sin (cst + as ) Pmax bRs das aC3t ð15Þ 1. 2p.where the factors r and db can be obtained from the section on the vane movement analysis. aC30 . The pressure Force due to the pressurized oil outside the main ring (through the control orifice). For a small rotation du of the ring around the pivot pin Op. The effect of this pressure region on the ring is represented by the angle range as 2 ½as10 . the trajectory Ost of the centre point Os when the ring is rotated around the pivot point Op is determined as a rotating vector. as10 + as20  [ ½aC20 . the eccentricity between the rotor and the ring is a maximum (ec_max = Rs–Rr) in the initial state of the main ring. 2p [ ½aC30 . The effect of this pressure region on the ring is represented by the angle range as 2 ½0. the relationship between the input flow rate and the output flow rate during a small rotation du of the ring can be expressed as Qinflow  Qoutflow = Vout dPout boil dt ð16Þ where Qinflow and Qoutflow are the input flow rate and the output flow rate computed from Downloaded from pid. The three regions of pressurized oil are then repositioned so that points C10. the ideal theoretical flow rate of the vane pump can be computed on the basis of equations (7) and (12) as Qth ðaÞ = N 1 X dVuv ðai Þ v fsgn½dVuv ðai Þ  1g 2 i = 1 da N 1 X + 1 dVbv ðai . The third region within the arc C30 C10 (where the arc radius decreases with the same gradient as in the first region) relates to the delivery zone. a1 Þfsgn½dVbv ðaN . ar10 + ar20 + ar30  [ ½ar10 + ar20 . ar10  ðar = a + pÞ of the rotor. increases from Pmin (the tank pressure) to Pmax (the outlet pressure). 2016 . The initial coordinate Os0 of point Os is easily determined as Op Os0 = Rrot \HOp Os0 = uOs0 ð14Þ Consequently. ar10 + ar20  of the rotor. C20 and C30 are moved to points C11. the centre point of the ring’s inner contour is moved from point Os0 to point Os1. the three pressure regions can be completely determined. and a polar coordinate system. 2. namely a Cartesian coordinate system positioned at the rotor centre (OrXrYr). corresponding to the rotation angle ar 2 ½ar10 + ar20 . During the operation. the eccentricity makes the ring’s inner contour similar to a cam contour if Or is considered as the centre point. the volume derivative of the chamber between the vanes is finally obtained as  dVbv ðai . ai + 1 Þ b = r2i + 1  r2i da 2 ð12Þ Finally.

From equation (22). the coordinates of Gi are finally calculated as Downloaded from pid. the boundary of the oil chamber is the polygon AitA(i + t)tMN. Analysis of the pressure distribution inside the main ring: (a) the pressure distribution at the initial position of the main ring.com at University of Warwick on March 18. the centre mass of this oil chamber can be represented by m ð m2a4b + j= m4a respectively. The centrifugal force of this chamber is presented by a vector Fcen positioned at the chamber’s mass centre Gi. The total moment acting on the ring’s outer surface caused by the pressurized oil to make it rotate around the pivot pin can be obtained as (Figure 6) X mð1b MO p oil outside = Op O1 sin m Pout bR1 dm SAit Ait MN where Wl and Q are the mass centre of the Ait Ait MN block and the mass centre of the Ait Ait Aði + 1Þt block respectively and = 12ðbi  bi + 1 Þðri + 1  ri Þ mð3b SAit Ait MN = MN3Ait N Op O3 sin m Pout bR3 dm mð2b By using a simple calculation. (b) the pressure distribution after a small rotation of the main ring. and consider that the oil density is distributed uniformly in all the chamber volume. 1419 Figure 5.sagepub. As shown in this figure. The centrifugal force generated by an oil chamber between each two consecutive can be obtained. Therefore. 2016 . sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 Qinflow = Cor Aor ðPmax  Pout Þ roil ð17Þ and Qoutflow =  ð m1b   Op O1 du sin m bR1 dm   Op O3 du sin m bR3 dm m  ð m1a3b m ð m3a2b +   Op O2 du sin m bR2 dm   Op O4 du sin m bR4 dm ð18Þ vanes is first analysed in Figure 7. and where Vout is the outside chamber volume and dPout is the pressure derivative. the relations Op O2 sin m Pout bR2 dm m2a  ð21Þ = ðbi  bi + 1 Þðri  Rr Þ m3a  ð20Þ SAit Ait Aði + 1Þt = 123Ait Ait 3Aði + 1Þt Ait m1a + = G i W1 Gi Q SAit Ait Aði + 1Þt j ri + ri + 1  2Rr 3 + 2j ri  Rr + 1+j 3 + 3j 2 3 3 + 2j bi  bi + 1 UM = 3 + 3j 2 Gi U = mð4b Op O4 sin m Pout bR4 dm ð19Þ m4a ð22Þ Force due to the centrifugal effects of the vanes and the oil volumes between the vanes. Let us divide the chamber volume AitA(i + t)tMN into a rectangular block Ait Ait MN and a triangular block Ait Ait Aði + 1Þt .Truong et al.

(b) pressure analysis in the outside chamber. ð24Þ mi = SAit Ait Aði + 1Þt + SAit Ait MN broil Rðmi Þ = Or Gi for an oil chamber under each vane. Or Gi [ ar ðGi Þ [ ar ðAi Ai + 1 MNÞ 3 + 2j bi  bi + 1 +p = bi + 1 + 3 + 3j 2 ð23Þ where mi and R(mi) are defined as follows: for an oil chamber between two consecutive vanes. Analysis of the pressure distribution outside the main ring: (a) motion analysis of the main ring. 2016 ð25Þ . Downloaded from pid.1420 Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) Figure 6. Figure 7. The centrifugal force of an object of mass mi travelling in a circle of radius R(mi) around the rotor centre can be computed as (Figure 8) Fcen ðmi Þ = mi v2 Rðmi Þ Figure 8.sagepub. Or Gi = Rr + Gi U ! ! \ Or Xs .com at University of Warwick on March 18. Analysis of the centrifugal force generated by the volume of an oil chamber between two consecutive vanes. Analysis of the effect of the centrifugal force on the rotation of the ring.

From Figure 5. 47. Parameter settings for the pump model. 120 °C mm mm mm mm — mm mm mm mm kgf/mm kgf mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm N/m2 kg/m3 1/°C mm2/s 24 13 27.4 3 10–4 4200.5 10 4 0.5 28 9 2.5 3 109 852 6.8992 80.91 ð27Þ hv 2 The total moment acting on the ring caused by the centrifugal forces of N vanes and N oil chambers is derived as X MO p =  cen N X Fcen ðmi Þ cos½dðmi Þ Op Mi i=1 ð28Þ where Fcen ðmi Þ is obtained from equations (24) to (27) and where Op Mi and dðmi Þare obtained from Op Mi = qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 Op Or + R2 ðmi Þ  2Op Or Rðmi Þ cos½ar ðmi Þ + cr  ð29Þ and from ( ) Op Or p dðmi Þ = + arcsin sin½ar ðmi Þ + cr  2 O p Mi Lubrication oil.Truong et al. 100 °C.15 48. the moment generated by the spring force can be computed as MOspr =  Fspr Op H cosðuC Þ ð31Þ where Op H is a constant obtained on the basis of the distance Op C0 and the angle uC0 defined when the ring is at the initial position. 40 °C.9.06 29.599 4. Force of the compression spring. Fspr is derived as ð32Þ Fspr = Fspr0 + kspr xspr where . for a vane. SAE 5W-20 ð30Þ respectively. i.544 30. 5. mi = tv hv brsteel Rðmi Þ = lvi + Rr  Component Factor Units Value Pump geometric design Rr Rrv Rs b N tv hv dor Cor (ISO 5167) kspr Fspr0 Op H HC0 Op O1 Op O2 Op O3 Op O4 R1 R2 R3 R4 boil roil at 15 °C loil noil at –30 °C. ð26Þ and. 8.e.7 24 38. 1421 mi = tv ðRr  Rrv + lvi  hv Þbroil Rr  Rrv + lvi  hv Rðmi Þ = Rrv + 2 Table 1.25 5 5 1.75 38. uC = uC0  du.15 15 33.

Second.1 ms for all the simulations. The sampling time was set to 0. an analysis of the flow ripple was carried out on the theoretical pump model in the free-load condition. With the counterclockwise rotation of the rotor shaft. Figure 9 then displays an analysis of the first four consecutive vanes as well as the volume derivatives generated by these vanes in this case. and the delivery port was also linked again to the oil sump without any restrictor to return the pump’s output flow directly to the oil sump.sagepub. The parameter settings for the pump model were obtained from the designed pump geometrics. the speed of which was tested up to 4000 r/min. The flow ripple result is then plotted in Figure 10. as shown in Table 1. Consequently.5% flow ripple. the rotation of the ring is defined by summing all the moments acting on the ring around the pivot point according to X X €= Iring u MOp oil outside MOp oil inside + X ð34Þ + MOp cen + MOspr Numerical simulations and theoretical pump performance analysis For the simulations. the pump model was tested in the free-load condition. The pump speed and the discharge pressure were kept at constant values of 500 r/min and 1 bar respectively. the eccentricity was kept at a maximum value and the working speed was set to a constant speed of 1000 r/min.   xspr = Op H tanðuC Þ  tan uC0 ð33Þ Finally. This ripple was due to the variation in the oil chambers between the vanes and under the Downloaded from pid. In this case.11 First. In this condition. This figure shows that the pump’s output flow rate contained approximately a 61. the suction port was connected from the oil sump.com at University of Warwick on March 18. the volume derivatives of the chambers under these vanes and of the chambers between these vanes generated by the vane lifts were analysed in Figure 9(b) and (c) respectively. the vane movements were obtained as shown in Figure 9(a). 2016 . the pump was operated by the engine.

(c) analysis of the volume derivative between the vanes. as analysed in Figure 9.com at University of Warwick on March 18. vanes. in the actual vane pump system. friction and incomplete filling effects. The flow–pressure characteristic shows that a higher working pressure causes a smaller pump displacement. or a smaller pump flow rate. Third. the pump model was tested in the case when the pump delivery port is connected to a load component before returning to the oil sump. In this case. In other working conditions where the ring position is adjusted. the ripple problem is also caused by some power loss factors such as leakages. (b) analysis of the volume derivative under the vanes. Finally. the ripple problem is also caused by the pressure ripple as well as by the forces generated during the pump operation. the pump model was investigated at different pressure settings and different pump speeds in the freeload condition. Theoretical analysis of the pump flow ripple at maximum eccentricity and a speed of 1000 r/min. Figure 10. Furthermore. As a result. The theoretical steady-state flow– pressure characteristic was then obtained as depicted in Figure 11.1422 Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) Figure 9. 2016 . the load was simulated by employing a variable-flow restrictor (an orifice valve) which could allow a flow Downloaded from pid. Theoretical performance of four consecutive vanes: (a) analysis of the vane lifts. The reason is that the significant increase in the force acting on the ring due to the pressurized oil outside the ring (see the section on the force due to pressurized oil outside the main ring (through the control orifice)) subsequently causes the eccentricity of the rotor and the inner contour of the ring to decrease. the pump flow rate is decreased and becomes zero when the centre of the inner contour of the ring coincides with the centre of the rotor.sagepub.

The results prove that the pump has sufficient ability to adjust automatically the displacement with respect to each working condition. an accurate estimation of actual pump responses in comparison with the theoretical values is indispensable for carrying out pump performance analyses before manufacturing. the moment components acting on the main ring when the pump was operated at 4000 r/min are analysed as shown in Figure 13. the sum of the generated moments around the pivot pin was not sufficiently high to make the ring rotate. The results were then obtained as plotted in Figure 12. 2016 . Therefore. at low speeds such as 1000 r/min and 2000 r/min. The pump performance in these cases can be seen clearly in Figure 12 with the dash-dotted blue and solid black curves. Only when the speed was increased as in the cases of 3000 r/min and 4000 r/min.com at University of Warwick on March 18. the pump Downloaded from pid. 1423 Figure 11. Theoretical steady-state flow–pressure characteristic. The lubrication oil used for these experiments was the SAE 5W-20 series. This high pressure level created a moment around the pivot pin sufficiently large to rotate the ring. which were allowed to pass fully through the orifice valve.sagepub. For the experiments. To represent real lubrication conditions. This is because the low speeds gave correspondingly low delivery flow rates. Figure 12. Experimental analysis and complete model development When designing a hydraulic pump in general and a vane-type oil pump in particular. Theoretical analysis of the moments acting on the main ring at a speed of 4000 r/min. As a result. rate of 135 l/min corresponding to a pressure drop of 10 bar over this valve. To make clear how the main ring operated. The simulations were performed with three different pump speeds while the valve area opened was set to 80%. the eccentricity between the rotor and the ring was constant in the initial state (maximum eccentricity) (the lowest plots in Figure 12). which consequently caused a large rise in the delivery pressure. It can be seen that. The delivery pressures in these cases were then quite low (the middle plots in Figure 12).Truong et al. However. Figure 13. the fixed-flow restriction valve presented in the third section was employed. the eccentricity was automatically changed to the new steady-state position to adjust to an appropriate delivery flow. Experimental analysis Experiments were made with the researched vane pump to investigate the actual performance of the pump. the volumetric efficiency is one of the most important factors in evaluating the pump performance. did the pump deliver a flow that was over the capacity of the restrictor. Theoretical pump performance in the fixed-load condition.

the pump performance is affected by many factors. as investigated in the previous section. (c) power loss due to friction. which is the leakage between the oil chamber and its previous chamber due to a clearance zl4 [ zl3 and which is given by Downloaded from pid. the leakage flows are investigated for only the chambers between the vanes. Analysis of the leakage flow in a generic chamber between two consecutive vanes. Leakage flow due to the pump design. The experimental results were then obtained as shown in Figure 14. This leakage is proportional to the pressure difference and is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid in the regions where internal leakage dominates. Internal leakage is generally caused by the pressure distribution within the pump and the clearances associated with the pumping chambers. (d) power loss due to the incomplete filling effect. From this figure. The working temperature during these experiments was controlled to be constant at 120 °C by using a thermoregulating system. ai + 1 Þ  Pmin  12hoil ðRr  Rri Þ ð37Þ (d) Ql4. ai + 1 Þ  Pmin  12hoil ðRr  Rri Þ ð35Þ where hoil is the dynamic viscosity of oil.com at University of Warwick on March 18.sagepub. Figure 15 then displays this analysis with a generic bz3l1 ½Pðai . There are eight leakage flows as follows (the detailed definitions of the leakage flows are presented in Appendix 1): Ql1. The reason for this is the loss of power during operation of the system. ai + 1 Þ = ðjai  ai + 1 jRri  tv  zl1 Þz3l2 ½Pðai .1424 Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) Figure 15. which is the leakage between the inner area of the rotor and the oil chamber due to a clearance zl1 and which is given by (a) Ql1 ðai . Actual performance of the researched vane pump. ai + 1 Þ  Pmin  12hoil ðRr  Rri Þ ð36Þ (c) Ql3. it can be seen that the actual pump flow rate is greatly different from the theoretical flow rate. which is the leakage between the inner area of the rotor (defined by the radius Rri \ Rr) and the oil chamber due to a clearance zl2 and which is given by Ql2 ðai . ai + 1 Þ = tv z3l3 ½Pðai . which is the leakage between the inner area of the rotor and the oil chamber due to a clearance zl3 and which is given by Ql3 ðai . speed was varied from 0 r/min to 4000 r/min in steps of 500 r/min while the valve area opened was set to 60%. the main factors are as follows: (a) leakage flows due to the pump design. (b) variation in the flow due to changes in the temperature and pressure. 2016 . Figure 14. chamber between two consecutive vanes represented by the angles ai and ai + 1. (b) Ql2. Because the volumes of the chambers under the vanes are extremely small in comparison with those of the chambers between the vanes. ai + 1 Þ = Complete model development based on power loss analysis In fact.

an equivalent laminar flow rate Qeq of oil through a long cylindrical pipe.com at University of Warwick on March 18. In the ideal pump. (c) friction between the pump shaft and the bearings. Since the leakages Ql7 and Ql8 are neglected.16 To evaluate the effects of the temperature and the pressure on the pump flow rate. (d) friction between the ring. (b) friction between the pump shaft and the oil seals. (h) Ql8. only the friction between the vane tips and the inner contour Downloaded from pid. to eliminate the error in evaluating the flow variation due to the changes in the temperature and the pressure. is used. ai + 1 Þ i=1 ð41Þ to evaluate the flow rate loss. hence the total leakage flow of an oil chamber between two consecutive vanes is obtained as where loil is the volumetric temperature expansion coefficient. Power loss due to friction. ai + 1 Þ Ql4 ðai .Truong et al. which is the leakage between the oil chamber and its previous chamber due to a clearance between the front side of the vane (the vane tip) and the inner contour of the ring. Hence. which is the leakage between the oil chamber and its next chamber due to a clearance zl5 [ zl3 and which is given by Ql5 ðai . only the derivative of the flow rate caused by these factors is used according to out ðai . Rs) due to a clearance zl6 and which is given by Ql6 ðai . ai + 1 Þ  DQleak roil0 ½1 + loil ðT1  T0 Þ½1  ðPmax1  Pmax0 Þ=boil  ð44Þ ð40Þ (g) Ql7. rotor and vanes and the pump cover. ai + 1 Þ  Pðai1 .sagepub. the edges of the vane tip contact the inner contour of the ring in most cases owing to the pressurized oil in the chambers under the vanes and the centrifugal forces. ai + 1 Þ  Pmin  12hoil ðRse  Rs Þ with hoil ðtÞ = noil ðtÞroil ðtÞ where noil ðtÞ is the kinematic viscosity of oil. the actual driving torque of the pump is larger than the ideal torque by an amount called the frictional torque Dt according to DQleak ðai . and the oil density is derived from its defined value at time t = 0 as roil ðtÞ = roilt = During the operation. ai + 1 Þ = ½jai  ai + 1 jðri + ri + 1 Þ=2z3l6 ½Pðai . which is the leakage between the oil chamber and the area outside the ring (defined by the radius Rse . which is given by Dth = Qth n ð47Þ t act = t th + Dt ð42Þ ð48Þ or Dt = t act  Qeq ðtÞ = ð45Þ Because of the friction problem. ai + 1 Þ  6 X DQTP ðtÞ [ Qeq ðtÞ  Qeq ðt  1Þ   p R4eq DPðtÞ DPðt  1Þ  = 8 Leq hoil ðtÞ hoil ðt  1Þ Qli ðai . It is clear that the flow rate of oil through a passage increases with increasing oil temperature and decreasing oil pressure due to the reduction in the oil viscosity. the driving torque tth without energy loss is derived from t th = Dth ðPmax  Pmin Þ 2p Variation in the flow due to the changes in the temperature and pressure. ai + 1 Þ = 2Ql4 ðai . ai Þ 12hoil tv ð39Þ Ql6. The equivalent flow rate can be computed using Poiseuille’s equation 4 p Req Pmax ðtÞ  Pmin 8 hoil ðtÞ Leq ð46Þ where Dth is the theoretical displacement of the pump. the friction factors are known to be the following: (a) friction between the vane tips and the inner contour of the ring. Among the friction factors mentioned above. An approximation is necessary when obtaining the equivalent flow rate for the pump flow rate. 1425 lvði + 1Þ z3l4 ½Pðai + 1 . ai + 1 Þ = 12hoil tv ð38Þ (e) Ql5. of radius Req and length Leq. ai + 1 Þ = (f) lvi z3l5 ½Pðai . T0–Pmax0 is the initial temperature minus the initial maximum pressure and T1–Pmax1 is the final working temperature minus the final maximum pressure. 2016 . ð43Þ Qth ðPmax  Pmin Þ n ð49Þ In the researched vane pump. ai + 1 Þ = DQleak in ðai . which is the leakage between the oil chamber and its next chamber due to a clearance between the vane tip and the inner contour of the ring. ai + 2 Þ  Pðai .

Analysis of the frictional force between a generic vane and the inner contour of the ring. the total frictional torque between the vanes and inner contour of the ring is given by t frv = N X t frv ðai Þ ð54Þ i=1 In other words. the frictional torque added to the driving torque of the pump is derived as Dt = t frv + t fr0 Figure 16. of the ring is varied corresponding to the variations in the the working pressure and the pump speed while the other friction factors can be considered to be constant values during pump operation (Figure 16).1426 Proc IMechE Part D: J Automobile Engineering 227(10) Hence. the pump flow rate lost owing to this friction factor can be evaluated as DQfrv ðtÞ = n 2pt frv Pmax  Pmin ð55Þ Finally. The frictional force Ffrv between a generic vane (defined by the angle ai = ari  p) and the inner contour of the ring is computed as Ffrv ðai Þ = xf½Fv + Fuv cen ðai Þ + Foil cen ðai Þ .

The total pump flow rate lost owing to all the friction factors is computed as DQfric ðtÞ = DQfrv ðtÞ + DQfr0 oil ðai Þ = Pðai Þbtv ð51Þ where Dar=s ðai Þis the angle difference between the direction of the forces Fv cen ðai Þ. Foil cen ðai Þ and Fuv oil ðai Þ and the direction perpendicular to the tangent of the ring at its contact point with the vane tip and is given by Dar=s ðai Þ = ar ðai Þ  as ðai Þ ð52Þ From equation (50). Dar=s ðai Þ g oil ðai Þ cos ð50Þ In this equation. x is the kinetic frictional coefficient between the vane and the ring in the lubrication condition. These factors are derived using equations (24) and (27) and equations (24) and (26) respectively. Fv cen ðai Þ and Foil cen ðai Þare the centrifugal force of the ith vane and the centrifugal force of the oil chamber under this vane respectively. rotor and vanes and the pump cover. In this study. which is the sum of frictional torques due to friction between the pump shaft and the oil seals and bearings and due to the friction between the ring. the frictional torque between a generic vane and the inner contour of the ring can be calculated as . This factor is determined from the actual performance of the pump. the values of this coefficient were determined from the work by Inaguma17 and by the cubic spline interpolation method. Fuv oil ðai Þis caused by the pressurized oil in the chamber under the considered vane and is given by where t fr0 is the constant frictional torque.

The resistance of fluid flow through the suction ducts of the pump at the operating speed is too high. 1. subsequently generating the pressurized oil as described in the section on the force due to the pressurized oil inside the main ring. Power loss due to the incomplete filling effect. t frv ðai Þ = Ffrv ðai Þ cos Dar=s ðai Þ ri ð53Þ ð57Þ where DQfr0 is the lost flow corresponding to the constant frictional torque tfr0 . 3. the pumping chambers have sufficient time to fill their volumes before connecting to the delivering port. in the defective filling condition at high working speeds. The final factor that reduces the actual pump flow rate can be considered as the incomplete filling effect of the pumping chambers with oil. It is probable that this incomplete filling effect increases at higher rotational speeds of the pump. Subsequently. It is normally a function of excessive flow restriction in the flow path to the pump at a specific shaft speed of the pump. 2. There is an undesired presence of an excessive amount of air entering the suction fluid. the flow Downloaded from pid.sagepub. known as cavitation and aeration problems. Fuv ð56Þ The pressure existing at the pump intake port is too low. The major causes of the incomplete filling of the working chambers which occur when it is communicating with the suction port are as follows. In the ideal working condition. On the contrary. 2016 .com at University of Warwick on March 18. a large amount of fluid is proportionally passed through the feed ducts and the distribution of the intake valves of the system.