1. Atoms are composed of 3 subatomic particles: electrons, protons, and neutrons.

The protons and neutrons are located in the dense center of the atom called the nucleus,
while the electrons orbit the nucleus at different energy levels in “electron shells”.
2.
atom

The smallest unit of an element that still
has the chemical properties of that
element.

elements

Substances that cannot be broken down
into simpler substances.

ion

Atom or molecule with a positive or
negative charge.

isotope

Atoms of the same element with a
different number of neutrons.

molecule

The smallest unit of a compound that still
has the chemical properties of that
compound.

3. Elements are the substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances, while
an atom is the smallest unit of an element that still has the chemical properties of that
element. Molecules are atoms chemically bound to other atoms, taking on new chemical
properties. Molecules that are composed of more than one element are compounds.
4. The Periodic Table shows...
Atomic number

Number of protons/determines the type of
element

Atomic mass

The weighted average of the mass of all
the isotopes of an element

Element Symbol

Ex: C for Carbon, Fe for Iron

Number of electrons (in neutral atom)

= to number of protons in a neutral atom
Valence electrons can be
calculated/determined by location in
periodic table

5. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

6. Chemical reactions are the only means in which living organisms can form new
molecules used for cell growth and maintenance. Chemical reactions also cause a change
in energy which can be used to do work, stored, or released.
7.
Covalent bond

A bond in which valence electrons are
shared between atoms in order for them to
achieve stability (8 valence electrons for
most, 2 for Hydrogen)

Polar covalent bond
(does this only occur when hydrogen is
one of the atoms?)

A covalent bond in which valence
electrons are shared unequally, giving
some atoms a slightly negative charge and
others a slightly positive charge.

Ionic bond

A chemical bond due to the attraction
between oppositely charged ions due to
the transfer of electrons.

Hydrogen bond

The weak attraction between a slightly
positive hydrogen atom of one molecule
with a slightly negative atom of another
molecule.

8. Chemical bonds are the sharing, transferring, or attraction of valence electrons
between atoms.
9. Slightly positive hydrogen atoms of one water molecule are attracted to the
slightly negative oxygen atoms of another water molecule. The hydrogen is given a
slightly positive charge and the oxygen a slightly negative charge, because the larger
oxygen atom attracts the electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms causing them
to spend more time with the oxygen atom (shared unequally).
10. 3CO2 - 3 is the coefficient and tells how many of the molecules directly to its right
there are, C and O are chemical symbols and stand for the elements Carbon and Oxygen.
2 is the subscript and it tells how many of the atoms directly to its left there are in a
molecule. (There are 3 Carbon Dioxide molecules, each made of one carbon atom and 2
oxgyen atoms.)
11. Products yield ( → ) reactants
12. The law of conservation of matter states that matter is neither created nor
destroyed during chemical reactions. This is why the number of each atom must be the
same on both side of the yield sign.
13. Ionization is when non-ionic atoms or molecules are converted into ions. In water,

ionization occurs when one hydrogen-oxygen bond breaks and the hydrogen atom
separates from the other oxygen and hydrogen atoms, however, leaves its electron. This
forms one H+ ion (a proton) and one OH- ion. The H+ ion usually bonds with other water
molecules forming H3O+ ions.
14. (and #16) pH stands for parts Hydrogen and describes the concentration of H+ and
OH- ions in solution. Solutions with a greater concentration of H+ ions are acidic (pH 06), while solutions with a greater concentration of OH- ions are basic (pH 8-14), and
solutions with an equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions are neutral (pH 7). pH is a
logarithmic scale from 0-14, meaning when a substance has a pH of 4 it really has a
concentration of 10-4 grams of H+ ions/liter (and a corresponding concentration of 10-10
grams of OH- ions/liter). This means that a substance with a pH of 4 is actually 10 times
more acidic than a substance with a pH of 5.
15. pH helps regulate chemical reactions within cells. Organisms must maintain a
stable pH to survive. For example, human blood has a pH of 7.4 and death is likely to
occur if it drops below a pH of 6.8 or increases above a pH of 8.0. A pH imbalance is
often an indicator of failed kidney function.
16. Slips of paper (litmus paper) treated with special indicators are used to determine
the pH of common household items. They turn a specific color based on the pH of the
substance. A scale can then be used to determine the pH of the substance based on the
color that the strip turned.