B.E.

FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM)

O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4

Nanoscience
Introduction
Nanotechnology is an advanced technology, which deals with the synthesis
of nano particles, processing of nano materials and their applications. "Nano"
in Greek means dwarf. One nanometer is equal to one-billionth (1nm = 10 -9m)
of a meter. Nano-materials are 5,000 to 50,000 times smaller than the
diameter of a human hair. The Nano scale involves the range from
approximately 100 nm to 1 nm.
The application of Nanotechnology has opened new avenues of research in the
world of science and engineering in almost every field, from medicine to
fabrics. Nanotechnology is basically the technology involved in the designing
and manufacturing of engineering and functional systems at the sub-atomic
or sub-molecular level. Nano science is a. product of nanotechnology. As the
word indicates, Nanoscience is the branch of science dealing with the issues of
Nanotechnology. Nanoscience can be defined as the field of science that
deals with atoms, molecules and other objects which; vary in terms of
nanometers.
The nano structured materials may be metals, alloys, ceramics, or biological
materials. Generally the nano structured materials exhibits greatly altered
properties (like physical, chemical, and mechanical) when compared with their
normal bulk materials having same chemical compositions. The surface area
effects, quantum effects dominate the optical, electrical and magnetic
properties dramatically. For ex. the nano gold particles exhibit 100

l

'*

coefficient of absorption of light, while the bulk gold particles glittering effect
is only due to their reflection properties. Metals with grain size of 10 nm are
as much as seven times harder and tougher than their ordinary counterparts
with grain size of 100 nm.

Ms. Swati Thakre, (Lecturer| GNIEM)

1

B.E.FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM)

O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4
8.2 | Engineering Physics
8.1 Classification of nano materials
The classifications of nano structured materials are based on the cry stall in« grain
size and shape. The different forms of nano materials are zero, one, two and
three dimensions.
I)

Zero dimensions: nano scale in three dimensions: for ex. nano particles,

precipitates,
colloids , quantum dots, fullerenes, dendrimers etc.
Nano particles are often define as particles of less than 100 nm diameter that
exhibit new size dependent properties compared to larger size particles of the
same material. They can also be arranged in layers on surfaces. The nano particles
of semiconductor are known as quantum dots.
Fullerenes : A fullerene is a molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of
a hollow sphere, ellipsoid or tube. Spherical fullerene are also called buckyballs,
and cylindrical one are called carbon nano tubes or bucky tubes. Fullerene are
similar in structure to graphite, but they may contain pentagonal rings. The first
fullerene discovered was buckminster fullerene Ceo.
Dendrimers: They are spherical polymeric molecule, formed through a nano scale
self assembly process.
II)

One dimensions -

nano scale in one dimension

: such as thin films

or surface
coating.They are used in silicon integrated circuit industry as many devices rely
on thin
films for their operation.

II ) Two dimensions - nano scale in two dimensions :

nano wires and nano

tubes, biopolymers etc.
Nanowires : When two lengths of three dimensional nanostructure is of nano
dimension then the structure is known as nano wire. Nanowires are ultrafine wires
or linear arrays of semiconductor, formed by self assembly. Semiconductor nano
wires (made up fo Silicon, gallium nitride and indium phosphide ) have remarkable
optical, electronic and magnetic properties).

B.E.FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM)

O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4

B.E.FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM)

O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4

Carbon nano tubes are found in 1985. The molecule discovered was named as C^.
Its
composition was similar to the graphite atom which was already present but this
was

a

new composition because it has better properties than graphite. The famous
Japanese
researcher Sumio Lijima discovered carbon nanotubes were double layered tubes
having
diameter about 30 nm and were closed from both the ends. Biopolymers such as
DNA
molecule off er a link between

nanotechnology and biotechnology.

IV) Three dimensions- Equiaxed nanometer sized grains (bulk structure)

8.2 Reasons for the difference in material properties by applying
nano scale
j
Increased relative surface area of nano material and quantum effects can change
or enhance properties such as reactivity, strength, and electrical properties.
Surface Area: The nano particles have greater surface area per given volume
ratio compared with larger particles. It makes material more chemically reactive.
As growth and catalytic chemical reactions occur at surfaces, the given mass of
material in nano particle form will be much more reactive than the same mass of
larger particles. In some cases the materials that are inert in their larger form are
reactive when produced in their nanoscale form. This affects their strength or
electrical properties.
Nano materials have relatively larger surface area when compared to the same
volume
or mass) of the material produced in a larger form. Let us consider a sphere of
radius 'r'.
?
4 3
Its surface area = 4n r . Its volume = - n r
Therefore surface to volume ratio
- n r3
r

It makes . its surface area to volume ratio increases.B.E.FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM) O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4 Thus when radius of sphere decreases. Hence a greater proportion of atoms are found at the surface compared to those inside .

8. Quantum effects: When the atoms are isolated the energy levels are discrete. 8. As growth and catalytic reactions occur at surfaces . The inter atomic spacing decreases with size. the nanomaterial are more reactive than the same mass of material made up of larger size particles. the energy levels splits and bands are formed Nano materials represents intermediate stage.3 Comparison of properties of nano material with bulk Physical properties: When we reduce the size of bulk material to nano particle size . 8.B. This effect is called Quantum confinement. When the dimension of potential well is of the order of de Broglie's wavelength (i. electrical and magnetic behavior of material. within few tens of nanometer) energy levels of electron change. the decrease Melting point (K) . When the material is of sufficiently small size typically of 10 nm or less. it affect the optical. When very large number of atoms are closely packed to form a solid. The change in inter particle spacing and the large surface to volume ratio in particles ha\ e combined effect on material properties Variations in the surface free energy Size A° change the chemical potential.E. This affects the melting point of the Meltin g p< material.1). the melting point of Fig.e.1 Au n decreases with size and at very small sizes isfaster(Fig. the surface area increases Hence surface to volume ratio increases . This changes the surface pressure and results in a change in the inter particle spacing.4 I Engineering Physics material more chemically reactive.FIRST YEAR (SECOND SEM) O p t i c a l F i b e r & N a n o s c i e n c e |Unit-4 8. For ex.

[ An electronic device consists of materials in which an optical absorption band can be [ •troduced or existing band can altered by passage of current through the materials or by the application of electric field. They are similar to liquid crystal display (LCD). the variation in geometry and structure have a strong effect on catalytic properties. As energy IB related to wavelength. This limit is significantly enhanced in small sizes. Pt containing 2 to 60 atoms can absorb up to eight hydrogen atom per metal atom. It has been shown that small positively charged clusters of Ni. Pd . The •esolutions. 2) It is well known that most metals do not absorb hydrogen. .This shows that small particles are useful in hydrogen storage devices in metals. quantum effects come into play irhich limits the energies at which electrons and holes can exist in the particles. and even among those that do . For ex: 1 ) The reactivity of small clusters has been found to vary by orders of magnitude when the cluster size is changed only a few atoms. Hence nanomaterials such as tungstic oxide gel are used . Thus particular wavelength can be made to absorb or emit by controlling their Wire. The linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tailored by •nntrolling the size and dimensions of such particles. Optical properties Optical properties are among the most fascinating and useful properties of nano materials and have been extensively studied using a variety of optical spectroscopic techniques. contrast of these devices depends upon the tungstic acid gel's wain size.Chemical properties The large surface to volume ratio . Gold nano spheres of 100 nm appears orange in colour while 50 nm nano spheres !^>pear green in colour. If the semiconductor particles are made small enough. brightness. hydrogen is typically absorbed dissociatively on surfaces with a hydrogen to metal atom ratio is of one. The number of absorbed atoms decreases with increasing cluster size. the optical properties can be finely tuned with the size of particles.

We know that the resistance of material is due to scattering of conduction electrons with vibrating atoms and impurities and hence a the mean free path or scattering length. including symmetry-breaking. The density of states of conduction electrons is strongly affected when the dimensions of the material changes from bulk to quantum dots. When the size of solid is of the order of mean free path or de Broglie wavelength] of electrons or holes which carry current. When the dimensions of solid are comparable to] mean free path the scattering probability decreases and hence the electrical properties] changes. Thus small moment (An) \ x^^ Ni ^^^^ ——^ particles are more magnetic than the ^^~^~~^^^~~~~~-~ bulk material. Co and Fe(Fig. . In nanoceramics and magnetic nanocomposites the electrical conductivity increases with reduction in particle size whereas in metals conductivity decreases. electronic structure of the system changes] completely. charge transfer and magnetic interactions. The magnetic moment of cobalt having particle size 2nm number exhibited 20 % higher value than that Coordination Fig. This is mostly due to surface / interface effects. (For ex.2 of bulk.6 I Engineering Physics Electrical Properties The electrical properties depends upon the size. Magnetic properties Magnetic nanoparticle show a variety of unusual magnetic behavior when compared withj the bulk material.25).) It has been observed that as the coordination number decreases . 8.8. ferromagnetism of buk materials disappeared and transfers to super paramagnetism in the nanometer scale due to huge surface energy. the '' \ Fe magnetic moment increases in case of ° \ Bulk magnetic \ V Ni.8.

scratch resistance. fracture toughness. fatigue strength and are modified. The nano phase material are also termed as super plastic materials. which enhances the strength. Lithography. Mechanical properties : Most metals are made up of small crystalline grains. self assembly etc. 8. It has been observed that magnetism is special to small sizes and disappears in clusters containing more than 80 atoms . such as extensive tensile deformation without cracking or fracture. Reduction in grain size lowers the transition temperature in steel from ductile to brittle. Gas phase agglomeration.Manotechnology | 8. For ex : nanocrystalline nickel is as strong as hardened steel. In case of nano materials .7 Nano-particles of even nonmagnetic solids are found to be magnetic. In top down method . which results in an increase in the strain rate. many mechanical properties such as hardness.Bottom-up approach- Chemical precipitation. If these grains are nano scale in size . 1 .Top-down approach .Mechanical alloying. since they exhibits all -common micro structural features of super plastic materials. Therefore the nano particles can be synthesized in two broad ways namely. At small sizes the clusters becomes spontaneously magnetic. Erosion 2. top-down (producing very small structures from larger pieces of material. the interface area (grain boundary) within the material greatly increases. It is . . the bulk solids are dis-assembled into finer pieces until the particles are in the order of nanometer. Because of nano size. the occurrence of super plastic temperature is decreased due to decreases in grain size .4 Synthesis of nano materials As the application of nano materials are diverse hence one has to select the appropriate method for synthesis of nano materials to suit their requirement. elastic modulus.) and bottom-up approaches(to arrange themselves into atom by atom or molecule by molecule). In the bottom up approach different materials are synthesized by assembling the atoms or molecules to form the nano materials.

.Various methods of vapour phase deposition involves : evaporation .g Engineering Physics essential to produce an optimized novel nano structured material for potential applications. In view of this . etc. sputtering . The classification of these techniques is as follows : Techniques Method 1 Physical Mechanical : High energy ball milling Lithigraphy Machining process Physical vapour deposition 2 Chemical method 3 Biological Chemical vapour Plasma Enhanced Colloids Sol gel deposition vapour deposition Inverse micelles Using biomembranes DNA Enzymes 4 Hybrid 8. in addition to the existing techniques like physical. chemical and biological and hybrid techniques are also developed. glow discharge .g. shape and chemical composition of a nano structured material is controlled . In this method the size.5 Electrochemic al Chemical deposition vapour Micro emulsion Some Specific methods of synthesis of nanomaterials I) Vapour phase deposition (Physical method: Bottom up approach ) This is the method of depositing thin films by condensation of a vaporized form of a material onto various surfaces under high vacuum condition. RF sputtering.

Thus solgels are suspensions of colloids in liquids that keep their shape. Pulse laser deposition : In this method . The suspension that keeps its shape is called gel.Evaporation: A evacuated chamber is filled with inert gas. II) Sol gel process (Chemical method ) The sol gel process is the wet.The starting material from a chemical solution leads to formation of colloidal suspensions known as Sol. The starting material is .3). The atoms or molecules in the ionized form hit the target material and knock out the surface atoms. The evaporated atoms or molecules are allowed to condense on a cold finger which is cooled externally by liquid N2. This method is typically used for the synthesis of metal oxides where the typical precursors used are the metal alkoxides and metal chlorides(Fig.8. particularly metal oxide nano particles. The sputtering is achieved by two different method namely DC voltage and RF voltage . The sol gel technique is a long-established industrial process for the generation of colloidal nano particles from liquid phase. The nano particles on cold finger are scraped and then collected . that has been further developed in the production of advanced nanomaterials and coatings.the proportion of constituents stoichiometric is not maintained in the final products .chemical technique. Therefore it is advisable to use this method for deposion of stoichiometric products.e. The thermal treatment (firing/calcination) of the gels leads to further poly condensation and enhances the mechanical properties of the products. high power pulse laser ablates the material from the target into a vapour and allowed to deposit on substrate. the materials will dissociate before evaporation and hence . The knocked out atoms are deposited on the second Solid surface known as substrate. chemical solution deposition technique used for the production of high purity and homogeneous nano materials . The removal of the atoms from the target is known as erosion. This method is more suitable for non conductive materials or high melting materials. i. Sputtering : In case of compound materials . the material to be deposited is electrically vaporized. An inert gas like argon is incident on the target material.

The .processed with water or in alkaline solvent .

3 Sol gel synthesis of nano particles The sol can be further processed to obtain the substrate in a film . It can be used in ceramics processing and manufacturing is an investment casting material. can be introduced in the sol and end up uniforms dispersed in the final product. either by dip coating :-spin coating. such 1$ organic dyes and rare earth metals. The colloid system composed of solid particles dispersed in a solvent contains particles of size from Inm to 1 mm .8.10 Engineering Physics material undergoes a hydrolysis and poly condensation reaction which leads to formation of colloids .8.3). or cast into a container with desired shape or powders by calcinations. The sol-gel approach is a cheap and low-temperature technique that allows for the firve control of the product's chemical composition. The schematic diagram of the synthesis using sol gel method is shown in figure(8. The sol is then evolved to form an inorganic network containing liquid phase (gel) . Even small quantities of dopants. or as a means of producing very thin films of metal oxides I . I calcine m ) \ Dehydrat Veaction dipping cpf e 8%o 8 Aerogel cP Rapid L surfactant organic suspension 'O Xerogel 1 I t^DO calcine calcine Thin film coating Powder Dense ceramic Fig.

energy. chromatography) technology. The main advantages of sol-gel techniques .for various purposes.g. medicine (e. Sol-gel derived materials have diverse applications in op: . (bio)sensors. electronics. space.g. controlled drug release) and I separation (e.

certain mass of the substance liberated at one electrode gets deposited on the surface of the other. In many liquids called electrolytes (aqueous solutions of salts .). platinum nickel. resulting in the formation of a large number of small nuclei. acids etc. It is very popular. highly flat and uniform. versatility. They offer unique opportunities for access to organic-inorganic materials. inexpensive. when current is. it is possible to deposit even a single layer of atoms. Ball milling can be used to prepare a wide range of elemental and metal oxide powders. gold can be produced by electro deposition. By controlling current and other parameters. increasing temperature results in an increasing amount of deprotonated molecules. and that deprotonation of coordinated water molecules is greatly accelerated with increasingly temperature. allowing easy shaping and embedding. It is well known that most polyvalent cations readily hydrolyse. simple. to produce such metal oxides colloide . In principle. In this method small balls are allowed to rotate around the inside of drums and then fall on a Solid with gravity force and crush the Solid into non crystallites. IV) Electrodeposition Electrodeposition technique is used to electroplate a material. Thus hydrolysis reaction should proceed rapidly and produce an abrupt supersaturation to ensure a burst of nucleation . V) Forced hydrolysis The simplest method for the generation of uniformly sized colloidal metal oxides is based on forced hydrolysis of metal salt solutions. This films exhibits favorable electrical properties. passed through two electrodes immersed inside the electrolyte.Manotechnology [ 8. nucleation of metal oxides occurs. Ill)Mechanical Grinding (Ball milling): (Physical method: top down method ) It is a typical example of top down method of synthesis of nano materials. Since hydrolysis products are intermediates to precipitation of metal oxides . The film thus obtained are mechanically robust. When the concentration far exceeds the solubility .11 for the preparation of materials are low temperature of processing. eventually . one just needs to age the hydrolysed metal solutions at elevated temperatures. Nano structured films of copper .

p g84 Microwave dielectric heating not only enhances the rate of formation. The use of microwave (MW) methodology is readiy scalable to larger reaction volumes. amount of water and ammonia. In this method the reaction rate and particle size were strongly dependent on the Solvents. the reaction time.12 Engineering Physics leading to the formation of small particles. of InP. allows faster reaction times. Microwave-assisted process is a novel technique. This principle is used for the formation of " silica spheres. removes the need for high-temperature injection. precursors. and suggests a specific microwave effect may be present in these reactions. dispersity nanoscale been prepared via precursors direct rather the solvent. it also enhances the material quality and size distributions. and near CdSe heating convective over of heating have the of . InGaP. microwave than thermal gradient industrially synthetic Synthesis mono molecular suffering important methodology high-quality.8. VI ) Microwave and combustion method Applied I power I alcnl I leal Microwave reactor methodologies are unique in their ability to effects. The reaction rates are influenced by the microwave field and by additives. the applied power. and temperature CdSe nanocrystals prepared in the presence of a strong microwave absorber exhibit sharp excitonic features. used for rapid and controlled processing of advanced ceramic materials. be scaled-up providing improvement convective without a in potentially nanocrystal methods. Many researchers used . InGaP and InP are rapidly formed at 280 °C in minutes. The final quality of the microwave-generated materials depends on the reactant choice. yielding clean reactions and mono disperse size distributions that require no size-selective precipitation and result in the highest out of batch quantum efficiency reported to date of 15% prior to chemical etching.

microwave-assisted method for different types of ceramic materials . In the microwave heating process. heat .

and cylindrical one are called carbon nano tubes or buckytubes. in the form of a hollow sphere.Nanotechnology | 8.6.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) Carbon nanotubes are smallest molecule of graphite carbon with outstanding characteristics.6 Some special 1 Fullerene 8. Fullerene are similar in structure to graphite. Furthermore. This microwave assisted flash-combustion process is simple and inexpensive due to energy savings and shorter processing times.6. 8. 8. They are considered to be the most strongest molecular structure which are known for their excellent electronics characteristics and because of that they are having high involvement in the industrial and commercial applications. Microwave-flash combustion technique is the modified combustion technique and is reported for the synthesis of Ni -Zn ferrite nano powders in which the combustion process takes place by heating the reactant mixture using the absorption of microwaves. Spherical fullerene are also called bucky balls.1 Fullerene: nano materials : 2 CNT 3 Zeolites 4 Graphene A fullerene is a molecule composed entirely of carbon. but they may contain pentagonal rings. .13 is generated internally within the material instead of originating from external heating sources and hence is fundamentally different from other heating processes. the synthesized powder is generally more homogeneous. ellipsoid or tube. The first fullerene discovered was buckminster fullerence C6o in 1985. and the uniformity and yield are high.

Specific terms are used to represent nanotubes classes according to the arrangements. The famous Japanese researcher Sumio Lijima discovered the fullerene related carbon nanotubes in 1991.14 Engineering Physics Historical Background Carbon nano tubes are found in 1985. Structure of cabon nanotubes effect Nanotubes have complex structure with sp2 bonding. 2 The second one is known as "Zig Zag" and it has high symmetry.1 The first one is known as "armchair". They form a sequence of layer when seen together.8. Fullerenes played vital role in discovery of carbon nanotubes. Its composition was similar to the graphite atom which was already present but this was a new composition because it has better properties than graphite. The nanotubes are classified as . 3 The third is known as the "Chiral" which mean two mirror . attached to its neighbors similar to the graphite atom. They were double layered tubes having diameter about 30 nm and were closed from both the ends. The molecule discovered was named as C 6o. Each of its atoms is forms. Later on 1990 it was proposed that C6o composition can be produced easily with the help of arc evaporation setups in all the laboratories. It has dual particles in its structure which is divided into three classes.

The antibody along with nanotubes is attracted to the proteins by the cancer cell in the body and nanotubes absorb laser beam killing the bacteria of tumor. Their electrical resistance changes randomly when existing molecules are attached with other carbon atoms. Nano carbon tubes have many unique properties which makes them superior than another nano structures discovered.15 Properties of cabon nanotubes 1. Another useful characteristic of carbon nano tubes is their easy penetration in the cellular structures such as membrane. Some of the developing applications are listed below. 2.Nanotechnology j 8. The above properties of carbon nanotubes are very useful for developing many extra ordinary machines in today's world. They play like an antibody that is provided by the chicken. Applications of carbon nano tube Carbon nanotubes have diverse properties to be used in several work area. 3. This property of carbon nanotubes in building high performance sensors that can detect chemical vapors in the air. The most dominant property ofnano carbon tubes is their highest strength and stiffness in weight ratio. For example NASA space craft centre is using carbon nanotubes to lighten the weight of their space crafts. 2) Wind Mill Blades: Nano tubes are also used in the wind mill blades because of their . Carbon nanotubes also have unique and outstanding electronic properties. 1) Breast Cancer Tumor Destruction: Nanotubes are used to destroy the breast cancer tumors. They look like smallest needles so it's a possibility that they can function like a needle in cells. medical researchers are utilizing the properties to directly deliver drugs to the infected area from cancer treatment.

.they are used on many structural applications like garments. Although space elevators requires other strong efforts to get into action but carbon nanotubes plays vital role in the functioning and structure of space elevators.low weight it produce more electricity at faster rate. 3) Due to extra ordinary mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes . sport gears and jackets and also in space elevators.

4) 8. The very first carbon nanotube integrated memory circuit was developed in 2004. which makes best for the ultra capacitors. Nanotubes transistors are used which can be operated at room tempertaure and have the ability to get automatically switch on or off. Specific formula is used which is prepared from carbon nanotubes and fullerenes which empowers the Solar batteries. these bucky balls traces electrons and prevent them to flow further then add sunlight to the entire structure and transmit it to the terminals of the Solar batteries. Fullerenes are also known as carbon bucky balls. One thing which is lacking is the involvement of other technology in the constrcution of electrical circuits. With the help of carbon nano tube electrode the spaces may be minimized to a certain size which improves the storage capacity and perform conduction more efficiently. 5) 6) Capacitors : Nano carbon tubes have the property to store electrical flow in them. The activated and concentrated charcoal used in ultra capacitors has many tiny spaces of different sizes. which create together a huge surface to store electric charge. the electrode surface is not available for storing charge in it because they have hollow spaces which are not compatible with the requirement of charge.16 Engineering Physics 4) Electronics circuits: Nanotubes are also used in manufacturing and arrangments of electrical circuits. 5) Solar cells : Nanotubes are also used in Solar cells. This charge is quantified into different charges further such as electrons. . and elementary charge.

3 Zeolite (crystalline microporous material) 8) Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with open framework structure of three dimensional tetrahedral units generating a network of pores and cavities having molecular dimensions. such as separations.6. density and velocity measurements in the field of physics etc. There are about 34 naturally occurring and about 100 synthetic type Zeolites. These materials are widely used in applications. 7) 8. ion . catalysis. frequency distribution of radio signals.6) 7) Other applications: There are many other applications in which carbon nanotubes are used such as mechanical memory elements. bullet proof jackets and scratch free surfaces. electric conduction films. kinetic energy controlling.

nano-sized zeolite crystals have received attention due to their unique physicochemical properties. which are arranged so as to form supercages that are large enough to accommodate spheres with 1.9) "sjanoie< imiiiu^y •.4 Graphene 13) The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov " for ground breaking experiments graphene". Therefore. It is generally recognized that particle size of zeolites have a significant influence on the catalytic performance. The basic structural units for zeolites Y are the sodalite cages. As the particle size decreases. 10) exchange and adsorption due to their unique properties such as molecular sieving. acidity. 12) 8. adsorption capacities. which made them promising catalytic materials and adsorbents.6. high thermal stability. Among the zeolites used in industrial scale. shape selectivity and ion exchange. there is an increased ratio of atoms at or near the surface relative to the number of atoms on the inner part of the crystal. It is the main component of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst at a volume above 100. 11) Nanocrystalline zeolites are zeolites with discrete. ratio of external to internal number of nano crystalline zeolite atoms increases rapidly. regarding the two-dimensional material .000 tons/yr like refining processing in petrochemical industries . particularly in reactions involving the external surface and controlled by a diffusion process. Recently.2 nm diameter. The primary application for Y zeolites has been in catalytic cracking of petroleum into gaSoline range hydrocarbons. Nanocrystalline zeolites have higher external surface areas and reduced diffusion path lengths relative to conventional micrometer-sized zeolites. zeolite Y (or faujasite) including ultra-stable Y zeolite (USY) is the most widely employed materials. uniform crystals with dimensions of less than 100 nm that have unique properties relative to conventional micrometersized zeolite crystals.

The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm.14) Graphene is an allotrope of carbon. whose structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp:-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. who described singlelayer carbon foils in 1962. Graphene is most easily .

18 Engineering Physics 16) visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds.335 nm.15) 8. It's also 97. charcoal. Texas's Graphene Energy is using the film to create new ultra capacitators to store and transmit electrical power. the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule. carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Two University of South Florida researchers reported techniques to enhance and direct its conductivity by creating wire-like defects to send current flowing through graphene strips. Companies . 1) 18) Graphene is one of the strongest.3 percent transparent. flash-like storage memory. Graphene is the basic structural element of some carbon allotropes including graphite. 17) The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is about 0. lightest and most conductive materials known to humankind. 23) Energy Storage: 24) The energy applications of graphene are also extraordinarily rich. which means that a stack of three million sheets would be only one millimeter thick. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0. 20) Applications of Graphene 21) Super-Dense Data Storage: 22) A Rice University team in 2008 created a new type of graphene-based. more dense and less lossy than any existing storage technology. The crystalline or "flake" form of graphite consists of many graphene sheets stacked together. but looks really 19) cool under powerful microscopes.142 nanometers.

Much of the emerging research is devoted to devising more ways to produce graphene quickly. cheaply and in high quantities. .currently using carbon nanotubes to create wearable electronics clothes that can power and charge electrical devices are beginning to switch to graphene. which is thinner and potentially less expensive to produce.

Nano sized iron oxide is in lipstics as a pigment. in sunscreens. they behave like Heisenberg's relative particles. In other words. flexible. Nano amplification and chip . 30) The remarkable properties of graphene could lead to the development of technology such as super-fast computers. with an effective resting mass of zero. light-sensitive graphene could improve the efficiency of Solar cells and LEDs. graphene could replace rare and expensive metals like platinum and indium.25) Nanoiecnnoiogy 26) Optical Devices: Solar Cells and Flexible Touch screens 27) Graphene has the ability to conduct light as well as electricity. photo detectors and ultrafast lasers. ceramic as super plastics. nano membrane used in water purification. carbon nano particles are used as a filler in reinforce car tires etc. the same properties that makes graphene such an efficient medium for storing and transmitting energy also demonstrate something fundamental about the nature of the subatomic universe.) 32) 8. 28) High-Energy Particle Physics : 29) In pure science. Because graphene is effective only two-dimensional.7 Application of nano materials in Engineering 33) Material Technology :Nano magnets used in MRI technique. electrons can move through its lattice structure with virtually no resistance. 31) (Electrons squeezed through two-dimensional grapheme have neither mass nor volume. In particular. flexible mobile phones and even transparent planes among other things. graphene makes possible experiments with high-speed quantum particles . performing the same tasks with greater efficiency at a fraction of the cost. In fact. Strong. as well as aiding in the production of next-generation devices like flexible touch screens.

.embedding is used for building semiconductor devices which can even maintain and neutralize the electric flow. Now engineers are using integrated nano circuits in their silicon chips to reduce the size of the processors.

tagging of DNA and DNA chips. Nano pixelation of these devices make the picture feel real. fabrication of ionic batteries etc. When hydrogen is around then they get swell to show the presence of gas. Similarly frequency modulation in audio devices can be now digitized to billionth bit of signals. low voltage field emission displays etc. They are used to break down the acidic compounds in the air to neutralize vaporization. 38) Automotive industry: In automobile engineering nano science plays important role in making brakes of the vehicle more efficient and soft and for improving the liquids of the disc brakes. Brighter colors. coating system.the . They are used to find out the presence of fat hydrogen especially in nuclear plants. controlled drug delivery 37) Energy storage: It improves fuel economy. 40) Medicine: Nano particle is coated with a peptide that binds to a cancer tumor to reduce the tumor effect to the nervous system of the infected body. 39) Chemical industry: Fillers for paint system. Silicon nano particles increase the storage capacity and battery power of energy cells. light emitting phosphors.20 I Engineering Physics 35) Information Technology: As data storage.34) 8. magnetic fluids etc. Protective nanopaint for cars are made that resist water and dirt. Resistant to chipping and scratches. 36) Biomedical : Artificial heart valves. in optoelectronic devices. enhanced gloss to cars all these advancement came into being when nano science stepped into field. Iron nano particles are used for cleaning up the carbon polluted water. hydrogen storage devices. nanoscience is also used for making engines stronger and reliable.Gold nano particle are used to maintain the volatile liquids at room temperature. switchable adhesives. In ttie world of automobile industry. They are used to deliver drugs to . Resolution of display devices is getting better day by day with the help of nanotechnology. useful in magnetic refrigeration.

they are used for improving the scanning ability of the scanning device .various parts of body for life saving purpose.Iron oxide nano particle . 41) Iron oxide nano particle are used for magnetic resonance through out the world.

offering increased power but not at the expense of weight. Tennis and golf are traditionally two of the main sports that embrace new technology. Nano particles in the form of arsenic are used for cleaning up the waters from the wells. Preservative reactions and more refined food color can be produced. Nano particles also have the ability to destroy the cancer cells in the body in the form of UV rays. 48) sports industry : Nanotechnology is being applied to many areas of sport. In the world of competitive sport even the most minimal changes in equipment can make all the difference between winning and losing. 49) Golf club manufacturer has invested heavily in nanotechnology in recent years.42) are used for magnetic resonance through out the world. Silver nano particles are used to kill the bacteria from garments and silk materials 46) Cosmetics industry : Now a days nano particle cream is available that is suitable for every skin type and protect the rashes and damaged skin afrom getting infected. Nutritive value of eatables can also be improved. they have started adding nanosize silicon dioxide crystals to their racquets. Fungus does not affect the skin in the presence of nano particles on skin. Beauty care and make up products with high quality can be produced according to the skin tone and type of the skin 47) Food industry : Food products can be prevented well with the help of nanotechnology. they are used for improving the 43) / scanning ability of the scanning device Crystalline nano particles which arc also known as 44) Quantum dots care also used to find the cancer disease in the body. 45) Textile industry: Zinc oxide nano particles are used for protective wood coatings and used in textiles and plastics materials to ensure reliability. .

50) rarticularly nanometal coatings.have recently produced golf balls with nanoscale coating to reduce 53) ng' and allow a truer contact with the club. The nanometals have a crystalline structure. they are four times stronger. producing shots that do not go further. A 52) rts company . and although 51) they are hundreds of times smaller than traditional metals. but 54) do travel straighten .

Essence of a material can be extracted now. These signals include secondary electrons (that produce SEM images). and a 2-dimensional image is generated that displays spatial variations in these properties. and crystalline structure and orientation of materials making up the sample. backscattered . The SEM is also capable of performing analyses of selected point locations on the sample. This approach is especially useful in qualitatively determining chemical compositions. spatial resol of 50 to 100 nm).OOOX. data are collected over a selected area of the surface of the sample. Areas ranging from approximately 1 cm to 5 microns in width can be imaged in a scanning mode using conventional SEM techniques (magnification ranging from 20X to approximately 30. It is a microscope that uses electrons instead of light to form an image.22 | Engineering Physics 56) Application in construction: Nanotechnology make construction and engineering safer. The signals that derive from electron-sample interactions reveal information about the sample including external morphology (texture). 59) In most applications. building materials can create unbreakable bonds when molecular treatment is given to them. 57) 8. cheaper and reliable. and crystal orientations. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens. and this energy is dissipated as a variety of signals produced by electron-sample interactions when the incident electrons are decelerated in the solid sample.55) 8. Refining of elements and materials is highly powered by nanotechnology. chemical composition. crystalline structure.8 Scanning Electron Microscope 58) SEM is one of the most widely used techniques used in the characterization of nanomaterials and nanostructures . 60) Fundamental Principles of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 61) Accelerated electrons in an SEM carry significant amounts of kinetic energy.

X-rays).electrons (BSE). and heat. photons (characteristic X-rays that are used for elemental analysis and continuum (cathodoluminescence—CL). visible light . diffracted backscattered electrons (EBSDthat are used to determine crystal structures and orientations of minerals).

65) Electron ^H Electron Gun Beam 66) 67) Fig. for rapid phase discrimination).5 2) T O 3) S c a 4) Backs coffered. Electron 5) " •""• ™"~ 3econ clary 6) ^Electron * Detector 7) Sta 8) im . As the excited electrons return to lower energy states. X-ray generation is produced by inelastic collisions of the incident electrons with electrons in discrete orbital's (shells) of atoms in the sample. Secondary electrons are most valuable for showing morphology and topography on samples and backscattered electrons . Thus. x-rays generated by electron interactions do not lead to volume loss of the sample.8.23 Secondary electrons and backscattered electrons are commonly used for imaging samples. that is. characteristic X-rays are produced for each element in a mineral that is "excited" by the electron beam.62) 63) Nanotechnology | 8.are for illustrating contrasts in composition in multiphase samples (i. so it is possible to analyze the same materials 64) repeatedly.e. they yield X-rays that are of a fixed wavelength (that is related to the difference in energy levels of electrons in different shells for a given element). SEM analysis is considered to be "nondestructive".

Because the SEM uses electromagnets rather than lenses. Once the beam hits the sample. 76) 77) Because the SEM utilizes vacuum conditions and uses electrons to form an image.6. and secondary electrons and convert them into a signal that is sent to a screen similar to a television screen. which allows more of a specimen to be in focus at one time. All non-metals need to be made conductive by covering the sample with a thin layer of conductive material. which is held within a vacuum. The SEM also has much higher resolution .8. 71) .Secondary electrons 9) Incident 72) Auger electrons 73) Sample 74) 75) 10) Primary backscatt ff^—"^ v Fig.24 | Engineering Physics 69) The scanning electron microscope has many advantages over traditional microscopes. the researcher has much more control in the degree of magnification. as well as the actual strikingly clear images. which focus the beam down toward the sample. so closely spaced specimens can be magnified at much higher levels. All of these advantages.. This produces the final image. backscattered electrons. All metals are conductive and require no preparation before being used. 70) The electron beam follows a vertical path through the microscope. make the scanning electron microscope one of the most useful instruments in research today. All water must be removed from the samples because the water would vaporize in the vacuum. The SEM has a large depth of field. The beam travels through electromagnetic fields and lenses. . electrons and Xrays are ejected from the sample.68) 8. . This is done by using a device called a "sputter coater. Detectors collect these X-rays." . special preparations must be done to the sample.

The STM can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air. the structure of a surface is studied using a stylus that scans the surface at a fixed distance from it. 80) 8. tip being formed by one single atom. The argon ions knock gold atoms from the surface of the gold foil. With very high resolution.) is brought very near to the surface to be examined.25 The sputter coater uses an electric field and argon gas. The sample is placed in a small cfcamber that is at a vacuum. Information is acquired by monitoring the current as the tip's position scans across the surface. 83) When a conducting tip(extremely sharp.9 Scanning Tunneling Microscope 81) The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a type of electron microscope that shows three-dimensional images of a sample. The resulting tunneling current is a function of tip position. Individual atoms are much smaller than that . and various other liquid or gas ambient. applied voltage. individual atoms within materials are routinely imaged and manipulated.just a few nanometers in diameter. water. making the atoms positively charged. In the STM. and the local density of states (LDOS) of the sample. These gold atoms fall and settle onto the surface of the sample producing a thin gold coating. The resolution of such a microscope is limited by the wavelength of light. Argon gas and an electric field cause an electron to be removed from the argon. 82) Ordinary microscopes focus light which is emitted (or reflected) from objects. The argon ions then become attracted to a negatively charged gold foil. a bias (voltage difference) applied between the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum between them.78) 79) Nanotechnology I g. and is usually displayed in . A scanning tunneling microscope is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) relies on two physical principles. Microscopes which employ visible light cannot resolve features smaller than about 500 nm. 1 Quantum tunneling of electrons across a potential barrier and 1 The piezoelectric effect. and at temperatures ranging from near zero Kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius.

excellent vibration control. as it requires extremely clean and stable surfaces. sharp tips. .image form. STM can be a challenging technique. and sophisticated electronics.

These include photon scanning microscopy (PSTM).8. y scanner. but it is also possible to fix organic molecules on a surface and study their structures. and computer.26 | Engineering Physics 85) The components of an STM include scanning tip.84) 8. though gold is also used. which measures electric potential across a surface. this technique has been used in the study of DNA molecules. which uses an optical tip to tunnel photons.7 Schematic view of an STM 89) The STM works best with conducting materials. Scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP). coarse sample-to-tip control. Tungsten tips are usually made by electrochemical etching. which uses a ferromagnetic tip to tunnel spin-polarized electrons into a magnetic sample. 86) -Tunneling x 87) 13) Control voltages for voltage \ 11) 14) Tunneling Distance control 12)88) 88) 15) tip 16) tj 88) nr eli ng el ec tr Fig. For example. spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). . and platinum-iridium tips by mechanical shearing. and atomic force microscopy (AFM). in which the force caused by interaction between the tip and sample is measured. 90) Many other microscopy techniques have been developed based upon STM. The tip is often made of tungsten or platinum-iridium. piezoelectric controlled height and x. vibration isolation system.

physical and chemical properties of 8. What are carbon nano tubes? How are they produced ? 9.Explain .Why do nano particles exhibits different properties ? 95) 3.What are important applications of nano materials in various field ? . What are the different methods of preparation of nano material? 11.91) Nanotechnology 92) Questions 93) l.27 nanoparticles vary with their size ? 96) 4.What are applications of nano structured particles in engineering? 12.What is meant by nano ? What are nano materials ? 94) 2. the classification of nano material ? 97) 5. 7. What are fullerenes ? 8. Explain the difference in top -down and bottom-up approach needed for nano synthesis.How are optical. What are the different methods of synthesis of nano material ? 98) 6. What are different types of carbon nano tubes ? What are their properties ? 99) 10.