EKONF.94hNF.

41

22 August 2002

Original: English

Eighth United Nations Conference on the
Standardization of Geographical Names
Berlin, 27 August-5 September 2002
Item 16 (a) of the provisional agenda"

WRITING SYSTEMS: ROMANIZATION
Principles of Romanization for Thai Script by Transcription Method
(Submitted by Thailand)

* E/CONF.94/1

PRINCIPLES

OF ROMANIZATION FOR THAl SCRIPT

BY TRANSCRIPTION METHOD

1 . INTRODUCTION
This romanization system for Thai had been revised by the Roya1 lnstitute and declared by
the governrnent of Thailand as the national standard romanization system on 14 September

2000. By this systern, the speech sounds are transcribed regardless of original spelling'
and voice tones e.g.

%..w~t=
chan,

w?: = phra, LL
h
f = kaeo

2. TRANSCRIPTION OF CONSONANTS AND VOWELS

-

2.1 CONSONANTS
THAl

ROMANIZED

CONSONANT

CHARACTER

EXAMPLE

NOTES:

INlTlAL

FINAL

k

k

ni = ka, un = nok

1. Phonetically h is the syrnbol for

kh'

k

%?I= k h o , !Y

= suk

ispirated sound ( sound followed

b = k h o , @;

= yuk

by a puíf of air when pronounced).

n
"I@C.IM

8 ~ =9 khong,a8l% = rnek rhus
9

ng

h that follows k p t behaves

Y I R= ngarn, WS$= song jccording to the following

ng

* One rnust bear in mind that Romanization of Thai in this case ernploys a transcription
method, nota transliteration rnethod. Thus, a tone mark, a diacritic rnark including a silencing mark,
and vowel length are completely ignored. lt means that one who can transcribe Thai words
muct correctly know how to read them orto pronounce them. There are many words that carry a
character/ characters) which is/ are not pronounced such as
silent), &flW,$

(am6 are silent), al!

filulasi (? is silent), wTMU (U is

is silent), ~Pd'Wfi; (RT are silent) and there are also

(
q

a number of words in Thai where a syllable with an intruding vowel [a] must be inserted such
as

dá.?asiuI [pratthana]

when pronouncing them.

(9 is silent and [tha] is inserted), and

%u? [rattana]

([tal is inserted.)

2

THAI

ROMANIZED

CONSONANT

CHARACTER

1

INITIAL

FINAL

ch2

t

w = chin,g?U?q = amnat
%s = ching,

?u = chin,

R% = khot , L

t

S
IS

NOTES:

EXAMPLE

¶3a

1

T (pronounced fl:

n

d

t

t

¿U

n

t

n

p represents

d

which is an

Unaspirated sound. Thus ph

8 = si, sw = rot
y??= yat, %?y= chan
in? = dika, ng = kot
fin.$, = bandit,

epresents U W 61 because they are
ispirated sounds. Therefore ph

4.

loes not represent
-

t represents

9

[el

which are

inaspirated sounds. Thus th
= pet

epresents

5 VI

61 9/1 fi because

dgu-i?=patima,

they are aspirated counds.

drlno] = prakot

!, Phonetically c should represent 9

[p11

th’

‘II 3 FI A II]

n t p 6 = krit

&?U = da¡, ~9%

t

because it is an

unaspirated sound ( sound without

-

Gv = cat

I W

n

lecause they are aspirated sounds

fnwi = raksa,

Y

k represents

kh represents

= sai

a18 = san, vlfl = thot

J

-

a puff of air when pronounced).

q? = sa, CIT = kat

?%?u

(pronounced T )

~ =Qchoe

ihonetic rules:

= ta, ?n = chit

vhich is an unaspirated sound and

~ I =
U than, 52 = rat

:h should represent

MUT~
= monthon

ire aspirated sounds, as observed

L ~
= thao,
I
TmU = wat

I Pali-Sanskrit, Cambodian,

ci19d = than, UID = nat

iindi, Bahasa lndonesia and rnany

%189= thong,

Ither languages. But Thai does not

dp

= bot

Q “o 6M

which

8s = thong, 8128= awut

)bserve this rule because it may be

d~vsídm= pranit,

:onfus.ed with the sound of c in

EISIFL~ = pran

lnglish which represents

6oei = no¡, q9d = chon

Thai. For example, if q p d and qrei are

or sd in

b

P

%U= bai, ~ I I=Ikap

)honetically written as con and cit,

P

P

Id

: in con rnay be pronounced FI and

Ph’

13

u? = p h a

= pai, u?d = bap

ws6= phong, &s“=

: in cit may be pronounced sd .
lap ‘herefore ch represents 9

3

THAl

ROMANIZED

CONSONANT

CHARACTER
INlTlAL

EXAMPLE

FINAL
&a611

= samphao,

8161= lap

ls9

p

JG = f a n g
41= fa, a354 = soep

m

hu=mam

-

UIU

n

%u = ron, wa = phon

n

8196= lan, @IW = san

=ya¡

4

ns91 = kila, ni99 = kan

-

9% = wai

-

MI = h a

= ha
-

aen = ok, en = ok

2.2 VOWELS
ROMANIZED
THAl VOWEL

a

,:B

EXAMPLE

CHARACTER

d:

NOTES

1, According to the old rules,

= pa,

g

5’u = wan,

thefour sounds, 8

?? (with final consonant),

~ i f a w= sap,

represented by the same sound, u

él1

u1 = ma

According to the new rules, in

(reduced form of a:),

are

,;

?? (without final consonant)

an

W S ~ M I = sanha, W9??6= sawan order to differentiate between Cj

61

am

$1 = ram

a, z

i

d

d

a,a,-e

ue’

2, oi

U

>él:,

e

Le

abi

(reduced form of LW)

d

5 = mi, um = mit

Gn = nuek,M% = me, é:l

represents 8
= thue

aa:

ae

aa@:

3.

2. According to the old rules ,

ga, are represents

= le,

= lae,

aa&

bbWG = saeng

and u e

the four sounds, 1,%4% Lsa

= Iu, ~f = r u

6 s = i e n g , m = ien

,E (reduced form of a@:),~él
,b@::,

and 8 3, u represents Cj

= khaeng,

;a%

by the same

sound, ua .According to the new
rules, to differentiate between
L&%

;

L%a and ,a% {a, ua

4

ROMANIZED
THAl VOWEL

h~:, - (reduced forrn of 1%)
1%En:,

EXAMPLE

CHARACTER
O

18:

NOTES
represents ,a,

= 10,W%J = iorn,

-¶/

sB

oe

b'iils:,

a4 (reduced forrn of Las:),

and uea

La = lo, L ~ I=:lo, ~ 6 . 1 8=~ iorn

represents %&b

b8s: = loe,

are diphthongs consisting of 4 or

aGh = ioeng,

ia

a,

since they

b%é~

(ue) and 8: or 87 (a).

bm = thoe

3. According to the new rules,

biu: = phie, b&lu = lian

al1 sounds ending with

L&n

uea'

-*,

ua

6%

a

are

represented by o ,¡.e. bsl, 819

= lueak

I

6%

69,

-9-( reduced form of 69 )

k ,6u, Iau, B l u

18,

= phua, a
k = mua,

lu = yai, 14 = iai, <u
'bwu = thai, a l u

Fsu, 9,au

1

= wai,

sai

ao

NI = rnao, 619= nao

qu = lui

Oi

Sau = roi, atlu = ioi

oei

,@u = loei

ueai

,%~u = iueai

uai

MQU= rnuai

io3

a9 = lio

eo

,k= reo, mia = leo

aeo

,bRlaa = phlaeo, bb%Ja = rnaeo

azua

iao

,8ua = liao

q (pronounced?) q l

rue

;IG,
q$

and

(eo) ,

(g + a )

thus ?a

N%J
= ruam

ai

(ao) , ~ 4 9

b%a

(

bbaa

L L B(aeo),
~

becornes io

bzu + a ) becornes iao.

* There is no Thai word with this vowel

P,

I

bbOa

Lb&,

6)(pronounceds)

ri

2

= ruesi

= rit

q (pronounced ba'iil)

roe

]na=roek

q, q1

lue

*,q181u= luesai

3. MORPHEME, WORD AND NOUN
3.1 MORPHEME is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. It may consist of one or more

syllables, e.g. U1 ( na), w" (thi), U l c (nathi), wF14 (iong), n% (kong ),fiQ.!nW (longkong),
U?%?

(nalika), U d d f l l á . (nanappakan), L i Q (chuea ),?I (ko), b6&4

(khrueang)

5

3.2 WORD may consist of one or more morphemes, e.g.

VI61 (na),:;6

(to) f$~b?!B

(luksuea),

T I U i (chanphi), dMVI?T (maha rat), d?:"II?"IIU (prachachon) SlqUdtkbi (rachupatham),

a f i u V I h ? q (aphimaha-amnat)
3.3 COMPOUND WORD consists of two or more rnorphemes. The combination rnay render new
or additional meaning, e.g. Qrib8B (luksuea), q l U i (chanphi), adMn?n (lomkrot)
3.4 COMMON NOUN
pl

3.4.1 GENERAL NOUN e.g. W?: (phra), np
i d (khon), b8a (suea),
Un (nok), 6Ulfi (tonmai), U:'Lh4

(rnamuang), 6
6: (to),

8ma"(sat) b b ~ a(rnaeo),

(witthayu), f l u b ~(banda¡),
v

% (wat), % (kang), 61UU (thanon) <499/ia"rSi (changwat), bdj"ld1(maenam), ~46f1?
(ongkon),
u¡I% (borisat)
3.4.2 GEOGRAPHICAL NAME is general noun describíng natural geographical
features,e.g. Q (phu) ,by1 (khao),

qbY1

(phukhao), w¿U (khuan),

BU

(doi),

v

WUdM (phanom),

bbdj"ld1(maenam), 6 l n f i B 4

fk(bueng), bnl:

(ko), w:b@

(lam khlong), %U (huai), V U B ~(nong),

(thale), 8.1VWq9/1? (mahasamut), bbM8u (iaem), d19 (ao) ;

or man-rnade geographical features, e.g. V¡'l&l

(tharuea), npdu (thanon) ?íQU

(coi), W Z W I U (saphan) : includíng political geography, e.g. d?:!,mfl (prathet),
<4V% (changwat),ilmB (arnphoe),LbWN(khwaeng),hua (tarnbon),

(muban)

3.5 PROPER NOUN is the name of particular person, place, or thing.
3.5.1 PERSONALNAME e.g. name , family names , title :
name of a king:

w ?:u 1mtlu L I h w 7:

,

L4lBEj.a TJ 9 w m,a 9" H b cpI%

His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej or
Phrabat Somdet Prachao Yu Hua Bhumibol Adulyadej
name of a crown:

Wub~qw?::bWwa¶¿al%~~lq
~UldMusu?la~ul~

prince / princess

Her Roya1 Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn or
Somdet Phra Theppharat Ratchasuda Sayarn
Boromaratchakumari

roya1 narne :

@dM L ~ 9 ~ n ? ~ w ~ : U l i 7 a 9 a 7 % l y ~ l w

(Sorndet Krom Phraya Damrongrachanuphap)
name conferred :

b41w ?U: 14%

by the king

(Chao Phraya Chakkri)

name, family name: U I U f4wiiIEl A¶¿9?9

6

(Nai Somchai Khonching )

3.5.2 PLACE NAMES AND ORGANIZATION NAMES e.g. organization, temple,
palace, school:
organization:

qla"""~dWniabbU9PIa~~~~~~fl
Foundation for the Welfare Crittled or
Munlanithi Khon Phikan Haeng Prathet Thai

nSMFlaaWI fl a

work unit :

The Revenue Department or Krom Sanphakon

?m Ipla9 L L ~ U

temple :

(Wat Duang Khae)

a9 @wGl

palace :

(Wang Sukhothai)
school :

TS9GUUFlleia?WUi7

(Rongrian Sattri Wítthaya)
3.6 TITLE is the word used before the proper name, e.g. royal rank,order of precedence,

ecclesiastical title ,rank and title.

~ a z ~ & a a a ~ Wd EmX ~N ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ < ~ T W &

royal rank:

Phrachao Worawongthoe Phra - ongchao Chunlachakkaphong
order of precedence:

s s ~ Q N L < l ~ f i m s ~ cha li q a

Momchao Suphattharradit Disakul
ecciesiasticai titie:

fiN&Ws:?Gi

Somdet Phrawannarat
RaRk:

-

b6lwazfl7os9M ?ífl&Nm;
Chaophraya Thammasak Montri

title:

WabBn LdSM

Bmgw1SnuW"

Phon - ek Prem Tinsulananda

3.7 BORROWED WORD is a foreign word written in Thai language. Borrowed words may be
common nouns, e.g. nQéiufhLmQf(computer), LmnhdQ~(technology), $m~Qfi(football), or
( Mediterranean), !Q%6M
proper nouns, e.g. LLd%k (Pacific), LM?L~[P~~~L~L%IU
;LUfi'k

(UNESCO)

(IBM),

4. HYPHENATION FOR SYLLABLE SEPARATION
In rnulti-syllable words , the final character of the preceding syllable and the initial
character of the succeeding syllable rnay cause reading arnbiguity. Therefore hyphen is
used for syllable separation according to the following rules:
4.1 Hyphen is jnserted yhen the final character of the preceding syllable is a vowel and the initial
character of the succeeding syllable is ng (9), e.g. fl81 = Sa-nga
4.2 Hyphen is inserted when the final character of the preceding syllable is ng(9) and
the ínitial character of the succeeding syllable is a vowel, e.g. fh~éls= Bang-on
4.3 Hyphen is inserted when the initial character of the succeeding syllable is a vowel, e.g.
WVFIIPI

= sa-at, ~ I F =
I sam-ang.
I ~

5. WORD SEPARATION

Each word is written separately, e.g.
f l n l ~ u ! m ~ ~ b ? ~ ~ n=
Bl
G19bbfí9fil

siuu'b.an$y

~

TFIieigqRl

Sathaban Thai Khadi Sueksa

=

Hang KaeoFa

=

Thanon ChokChai

=

So¡BunMa

However compound words and personal name proper nouns are not, e.g.
q3flbb"aFI (nu)

=

luksuea

QIU!

=

chanphi

m!d

=

rotfai

~aa92wbs1vb~usT~1=
ulieiiTn$iei

%m,lu

=

Luang Phairosiangso
Nai Chokchai Chitngarn

6. CAPITAL IZATION
6.1 The initial character of the proper noun and that of the preceding title are capitalized, e.g.

.

=

Nai Prida Yuyen

bGnsi$sg"uiqQ mQ9;

=

Dekying Urnbun Thongrni

h U h M Lfl?M?Q

=

Ran Ruam Soern Kit

<a6mfhttw~tw~Is

=

Changwat Kamphaeng Phet

ulei&nl.a~afita

6.2 The first character of the first word in each paragraph is capitalized, e.g.

~ ~ ~ F I ~ G ~ n n u ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n a l u ~ l b ~ ~ m l R .~. ~é ll sRl ~s nw~ sl !n ~l ~~ Rm~ ~u l~ En I R.
"Kho ha¡ thuk khon prasop khwam samret tarn pratthana da¡ sornrnai.. . tarn phutthaphasit
thi yok ma khang ton."

l ~ l 9 ~ u ~ ~

a
7. TRANSCRIPTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAME
Geographical name proper nouns are not translated ; general transcription rules are
applied instead. For example,
b"~168um19

=

Khao So¡ Dao (not So¡Dao Hill)

bbi&d?$n

=

Maenam Pa Sak (not Pa Sak River)

61PdPd4/iIWá'V

=

Thanon Tha Phra (not Tha Phra Road)

~niG+fs

=

Ko Si Chang (not Si Chang Island)

8. TRANSCRIPTION OF BORROWED WORD

8.1 Borrowed word which is a proper name is written as the original word, e.g.

uxw a?h6nw?6 Slf%

=

First Class Co.Ltd.

8.2 Borrowed word which is a part of proper name and not intended to be translated is
transcribed according to Thai pronunciation, e.g.

~6i?Eí9db9/10i~ia~nlabn~cá'bb~~~
=Satha ban Theknoloyi Kankaset Mae Cho
9. TRANSCRIPTION OF PUNCTUATION MARK
9.1 Word followed by "maiyamok"
=

Sji?EI8F.

1dZSsfi

(y) are written twice according to the reading rules, e.g.

tham boi boi
fa¡ mai fa¡ mai

.-

9.2 Words followed by "paiyannoi" (Y), shortening succeeding well-known word or words,
are written in full according to the reading rules, e.g.

nqsbwWY

=

Krung Thep Maha Nakhon

id á' m bn K I Y

=

protklao protkramom

YJWGlY

=

thunklao thunkramom

9.3 The second or later appearance of the same words with "paiyannoi" may be written
in full or in short forms, e.g.
n á ' ~ ~ á ' ~ f ? ~ ? ~ E l 9 á=
' Y Kromphraratchawangbowon

Sathanmongkhon

or Kromphraratchawangbowon.

9.4 The Word-YWWaldv is written in full as Phanathan. (WvUv:9rl'ld)
9.5 "Paiyanyai" (Yav) which may be read "la (av)" or "lae uen uen

as such, e.g.
P,

luma?RGbda$m~wn ua16 filmla alda1 "iY
p/

(bba~?h4y)" is written

9

= nai talat mi nueasat phak phonlamai namtan nampla la
or nai talat mi nueasat phak phonlamai namtan nampla lae u e n - u e n .
9.6 "Paiyanyai"

(%m)in the middle of the sentence is written "la thueng", e.g

W$Q611UZ:19/IW CC $9

il n "lQIei

= phayanchana thai si sip si tua mi ko la t h u e n g ho.

10. TRANSCRIPTION OF ABBREVIATION
10.1 Abbreviation of well-known and not too long word, which is read according to the
reading rules, is written as such, e.g.
9. abbreviated from <4%6m

= changwat.

3 , abbreviated from thbnB

= amphoe.

"o. abbreviated from

&'h

= chuamong.

u.

ulflnl

= nalika.

abbreviated from

W . W . abbreviated from

WWS6nn.O = phutthasakkarat.

abbreviated from Fá.9fieiu

á.?,

= rongrian.

10.2 Abbreviation of multi-compound-words, which may be too long, may be written either in

short or in full reading, e.g.
B R f . abbreviated from B % l ~ n á . % J ~ l=~ otoro
~ ~ or athipbodi krom tamruat.

LIB. abbreviated from

@huaeinlá.

= pho - o or phu - amnuaikan.

d . d . abbreviated from d I ~ n 9 1 9 a n ~ ~ n á . ~ % J ~ i s n i ~ ~ á . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i b b ~ ~ 9 " 6 1 ~

=sopocho

.

or Samnakngan Khanakammakan Kanprathomsueksa Haeng Chat.
11. TRANSCRIPTION OF NUMBER
Number is transcribed according to the reading rules, e.g.
E11V

=

si bat ha sip satang.

u

=

ha nalika.

a.Gj.6)

=

sam chut nueng chut nueng.

Gj:lE

=

nueng to song.

=

nueng buak nueng thaokap song.

=

nuengphan.

G.&O

O&.OO

~j

+ ~j = iii

Gjooo