INTRODUCTION

TO
BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT)
SYSTEM
Hemant Tiwari
Freelancer, Traffic & Transportation Engineer
Project Coordinator, National College of Engineering
Email: hemu.ioe@gmail.com

Features of Kathmandu Valley:
• Rapid Population growth & Haphazard urbanization
• Around 8 lakhs vehicle registered between 2005-2015 with almost
50% in Kathmandu
• 93% of vehicles registered are private, largely motorbikes (73%)
Public transport vehicles constitute only 3% of total vehicles fleet
• Mode share of total trip of Kathmandu (JICA, 2011)

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Expanding Kathmandu Valley

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( JICA, 2011)

3

Traffic Condition in Kathmandu Valley:

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EXPANSION FOR WHAT???

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Is Widening a Solution??

Road space will never catch up with vehicle population.
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PUBLIC
TRANSPORTATION
AN
VIABLE SOLUTION
TO
CONGESTION
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INTRODUCTION
TO
BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) SYSTEM

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BRT SYSTEM
• BRT is a high-quality bus based transit
system that delivers fast, comfortable,
and cost-effective urban mobility
through the provision of segregated
right-of-way infrastructure, rapid and
frequent operations with less delay at
station.

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Features of BRT System:









Segregated bus ways i.e. exclusive lanes
Less Frequent Stops
Comfortable and secure Station
Adequate capacity
Bus Signal Priority
Head way (Time) based schedules
Integration with other mode.
Low-emission vehicle technologies
Pre-board fare collection and fare verification
Access for emergency vehicles
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Exclusive Bus lanes

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Signal Prioritization

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Access between platform & vehicle floor

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Access to other mobility system
Bicycle parking

Park and ride facilities

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Pre board fare Collection & verification
Smart Card System

Fare verification

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Provision of Zebra crossing, Elevated bridge and underground
tunnel

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Control System

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Design Parameter
• Average Speed
• Capacity
• Stopping Bays
• Service Frequency (veh/hr)
• Vehicle Type
• Load Factor
• Dwell Time
• Corridor Capacity (pphpd) = Vehicle Capacity (passenger/ vehicle)
* Service Frequency (vehicle/ hour) * Load Factor (LF) * Number of
Stopping Bays
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Major Component of BRT Planning:
I. Project preparation
II. Operational design
III. Physical design
IV. Integration
V. Business plan
VI. Evaluation and implementation

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Benefit from BRT system
• Reduction in Congestion
• Less Delay, Increase in speed
• Increase in comfort level
• Environmental Impact

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Aesthetic Appearance & Congestion
Before

After

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Increase in Speed

Ganding BRT system

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Example of environmental contribution

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GLOBAL BRT STORY

Curitiba BRT System
• Capital and largest city of the state of
Parana of Brazil
• Population: 1,760,500 in 2010 with
growth rate of 3.8% in last 20 years
• The system, termed the Rede Integrada
de Transporte (RIT – Integrated
Transport Network)
• Operated by a fleet of 114 bi-articulated
vehicles of capacity 270 passengers (57
seats).
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IMPROVEMENTS
• Car traffic decreased by 30% while the population
increases three times in a twenty year period.
• Curitiba has the largest downtown pedestrianized
shopping area in the World.
• Curitiba is a city where 99% of inhabitants want to
live.
• The success of Curitiba derives from a mix of political
leadership, innovation, pragmatism, technocracy and
continuity.
• Curitiba-1st city in Brazil to organize bus operation in
catchment areas and 1st in the world to implement
full BRT system
• Jamie Lerner: “Every city can be transformed in 3
years”
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http://www.citiesforpeople.net/cities/curitiba.html

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Bogota BRT SYSTEM
• Bogota (capital of Columbia) with population of 7.3 million.
• 95% of road network was used by 8,50,000 private vehicles
which only transported 19% of Bogota’s population.
• For automobile reduction several administrative and fiscal
measures have been taken. The most relevant is a city wide
restriction for 40% of the automobiles according to plate
numbers during the peak hours. For public transportation, the
city initiated TransMilenio.
• Bogota’s TransMilenio BRT started from 18 Dec 2000 on PPP
model
• Public Transportation in Bogota was described as low quality
with high crashes.
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Implementation & Operation
• Initially new BRT system operated without fare for 20 days.

• Sufficient support for implementation by Politician, Finance,
Technical team as well as traditional Transport Industry.
• Centralized control.
• Trunk line services are provided with articulated buses for 160
passengers each.

• Feeder buses(capacity up to 80 passenger) are assigned to
routes in the periphery, mostly inhabited by low income
population. These routes are fully integrated to trunk lines using
terminal stations.
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IMPROVEMENTS:
• Crashes: A reduction of 92% in fatalities and 75% in injuries
resulting from traffic crashes
• Travel Time: Increase in speed from 15kmph(avg.) to 26 kmph and
reduced travel time by 32%.

• Equal opportunity access: Trunk system is fully accessible for users
with disabilities, elderly, youngsters and pregnant women. About 1%
of the users (63,000 persons per day) is among these categories of
users.
• Quality and Consistency: Satisfaction polls show that 49% of the
users find the system very good and another 49% find the system
good.
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Before and After Study

• TransMilenio BRT change
the structural system of
transportation in Bogota.
• The project changed from
a well defined, but very
general,
idea
to
commissioning in 36
months.
• “A developed country is
not a place where poor
have cars. It's where the
rich
use
public
transportation.”
(Enrique Peñalosa)

Source: Booz Allen Hamilton - Dario Hidalgo, 2004.

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Ahmadabad BRT SYSTEM
• Population =6.5 Million
• Area = 466 Sq Km
• 2 Million Vehicles
- 2 wheelers:- 73 %, 3 wheelers:- 70,000
• Addition of 400 vehicles everyday.
• Bus trips:- more than one million per day.
• Has six ring roads and 17 well developed radial roads.
• Average trip length 5.5 Kms
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Improvement on Public Transit
• Improvement in travel Speed:- Peak hour speed, 24 Km/hr.
Compared to previous 16 Km/hr.
• Mixed traffic speed also matching to BRT.
• Dependable Service/Reliability: Over 95 % of services are on time
(+/- 90 Seconds)
• Safety: Major Reduction in the crashes.
• Mode Shift: Modal shift from car users, motorcycle users and three
wheelers which composed of 50 % of BRT users.
• User Satisfaction: BRT got an average rating of 8.9 out of 10 in the
23rd month of operation
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DELHI BRT

• Capital City of India

• Vehicle Population- 6 Million (2008 AD)
• Total Road Length: 31,183 Km (2008 AD)
• In the last 18 years, the road length
increased by 17 % while the number
of vehicles increased by 212 %

• 5.8 Km long BRT service introduced in
2008

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Glimpse of Delhi BRT

• The Parliamentary Standing Committee
of India on urban transport has formally
announced that despite the “potential
benefits of BRTS”, it has been a failure in
the Capital.
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CAUSES OF FAILURE:





They Built in the wrong place.
Failure in planning level.
Service not reliable.
Lack of physical facility.
Lack of enforcement.
Worst scenario:- Considerable increase in traffic accidents. (40 %
increase in accidents/crashes)

• BRT system is not a solution itself. Transportation planning is
more crucial thing.
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CHOICE OF MASS RAPID TRANSIT

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STUDY ON BRT
IN CONTEXT
OF
NEPAL
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INTRODUCTION TO BRT IN KATHMANDU RING ROAD
( BE Level Study, 2011)

Project Team:
Hemant Tiwari (Team Leader)
Anup Dhakal
Amrit Kafle
Hari Prasad Sapkota
Dharma Ratna Chitrakar
Jagadish KC
Anil Marsani (Supervisor)

 Analysis of Speed And Delays
• No. of observation = 38
• Average Journey Speed = 12.12 Km/hr
• Average running Speed = 20.16 Km/hr
• Average Journey Time = 2 hour 14 minute 40 sec
• Average Running Time = 1 hour 20 minute 57 sec
• Total Delays = 53 minute 43 sec.

• Cause of Delay: Total of 68 station with average
of more than 40 station per trip, no specified
station, monopoly of driver
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Service frequency
Passenger patronage:
• Clockwise peak & off peak hour = 4240 & 2996
• Anticlockwise peak & off peak hour = 3702 & 2794
• Total no. of passenger per day = 93,972
Direction

Time

Service Interval (min)

Clockwise

Peak

Clockwise

Off Peak

2.86

Anti Clockwise

Peak

2.31

Anti Clockwise

Off Peak

2

3

• Bus required considering both direction = 62
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Birgunj Pathlaiya BRT Study (Under Department of Road)
Service Frequency and Headway corresponding to Articulated BRT Buses
Service Frequency (veh/hr)
Towards Birgunj
Peak

Off

Hour

Hour

7

Towards Pathlaiya

Peak Peak

5

Headway (min)

Hour
8

Off

Towards Birgunj

Peak Peak

Hour

Hour
6

8.5

Off

Towards Pathlaiya

Peak Peak

Hour
12

Hour

Off

Peak

Hour

7.5

10

Service Frequency and Headway corresponding to Standard BRT Vehicles
Service Frequency (veh/hr)
Study Team:
Hemant Tiwari
Aashish Gajurel
Anup Dhakal
Amrit Kafle

Towards Birgunj

Towards Pathlaiya

Headway (min)

Towards Birgunj

Towards Pathlaiya

Peak

Off Peak Peak

Off Peak Peak

Off Peak Peak

Off Peak

Hour

Hour

Hour

Hour

Hour

16

Hour

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17

12

Hour
3.75

5.5

Hour
3.5

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5

Final outcome of Birgunj Pathlaiya Corridor
Design Speed = 30kmph
Length of Corridor = 23 km
Time required to travel the corridor = 46 minute
No. of Station = 14 excluding Two Terminals
Effective Stop Time at Station = 30 sec
Total Delay at Intersection = 7 minute
Total of Acceleration & De-acceleration time at Station = 20 sec
Total time lost during acceleration and deceleration = 5 minute
Total designed Journey Time = 58 minutes
Low Floor Bus (LFB) having total of 4 doors, 2 each for entrance and
exit.
• Vehicles will have EURO V, diesel engine with maximum speed of 80
Kmph.









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BRT proposed in Tilottama
Municipality, Rupandehi
during MTMP Planning.

Study Team:
Hemant Tiwari
Prabesh Ghimire
Ojesh babu Malla
Guru Dutta Adhikari
Yogesh Purna Shrestha

BRT Route:
Route: I
Length of 20.01Km and passing through East – West Highway, Madhrani,
Kuwari, Pradipnagar, Jagritinagar Chowk, Buddha Chowk, Ashaban,
Shanitban, Manigram, Purano Bato, Manglapur, Madaha, Supauli, Tikuligadh
and Narsingadh
Length of 20.68 Km and passing through East – West Highway, Madhrani,
Kuwari, Pradipnagar, Jagritinagar Chowk, Buddha Chowk, Ashaban,
Nauwakatti, Keulani, Jahada, Bhalwari, Parsawal, Puranobato, Madaha,
Supauli, Tikuligadh and Narsingadh.
Route: II
12.61Km, Proposed Tilottama Ringroad. The road is of length 12.61 Km and
goes through route of Tilottama Ringroad, Harpur, Ganeshpur, Manglapur,
Siddhartha Highway, Tulsipur, KarahiyaWard Office, Karahiya Village, Semara,
Bebara, Kanchibazar, and Kerwani VDC.

Cross Section Proposed at Tilottama

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New Technology: Transit Explore Bus or TEB

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THANK
YOU!


Walking, Cycling & Public Transportation

ATLEAST

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