The Foundation Day of Roman "Coloniae

Author(s): Arthur M. Eckstein
Source: California Studies in Classical Antiquity, Vol. 12 (1979), pp. 85-97
Published by: University of California Press
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. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the colonia dated officially from that moment.T."6 Professor Salmon's hypothesis may very well now become 85 This content downloaded from 185.44. in turn.5 Recently."4 Mommsen's hypoth esis received quick acceptance. while simulta neously the groma (the surveying instrument used for distributing the land allotments) was finally removed.1 The question to be considered in the following paper is:what action in the long sequence of actions necessary for the legal and practical founding of a colony did such a "birthday" commemorate and celebrate?2 The standard answer to this question has been that of Mommsen. in effect.94 on Fri. this census. which followed the first colonial census. along with a copy of the lex colonica. This day was.78. . we know a few of them. "These formalities terminated the colonization procedures . the "birthday" of the colony.ARTHUR M. ECKSTEIN The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae Roman colonies traditionally commemorated a definite day of the year as the day of their founding. He asserted that the "Griindungsact" performed by the traditional com mission elected by the Tribal Assembly to oversee the founding of a colo nia consisted of the performance of the first colonial lustrum (purifica tion ceremony). occurred after all the land allotments within the territorium of the colony had been distributed to the colonists. Salmon has proposed that the "birthday" of a Roman colonia commemorated the day when theforma (the detailed map of the land allotments distributed within the colony) had been set up in the town forum by the colonial commissioners. E. however.3 "Das Datum der Colonie griindung entspricht der Datirung des Lustrum.

removal of the groma machine-cf. these passages make it very likely that the day celebrated as the founda tion day of a Roman colonia was neither the day of the original colonial lustrum. along with the Grom. a vital correction. The foundation day. Put another way.102. p.102. Junius Nipsus). immediately after sacrifices and the taking of auspices had been performed at the site. 1.86 Arthur M. If this is so.9 In the nature of things. however. however. and the day later celebrated as the day of the founding of the colonia. more importantly.44. including Cicero himself. the day officially commemorated as the "birthday" of a Roman colonia occurred only at the very end of the long sequence of actions necessary for its founding in a real and practical sense.78. nor the day on which theforma and the lex colonica had been set up in the colonial forum and the groma removed. However.8 Salmon unfortunately fails to specify the ancient evidence behind his own conception of the official founding ceremony. Yet there is no necessary connection here between one of the final acts of the colonial commissioners following the physical set tlement of the colonists on the land. that one of the last ac tions in the practical establishment of a colonia was the setting up in bronze of the colonial forma and the lex colonica. Junius Nipsus. As for Cic. immediately upon their arrival from Rome at the prospective site of the colony). 295 Lachmann. makes no such connection. De div. (M. 1. of the standard explanations for the foun dation day. references found in a variety of ancient authors. rather. Vett. De div. the passage will require detailed examination. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is certainly true. commemorated the day on which the boundaries of the original colonial town-site had been marked out and established marked out and established by the ritual plowing of a furrow around the town-site according to the archaic prescriptions of the Etrusca disci plina. and not (as both Mommsen and Salmon would have it) at the very end of that process. Eckstein standard. Mommsen's conception of the official founding ceremony was based on Cic. a passage which implies that a lustrum was held before the deductio of a colonia. it would be best to proceed by first examining the rather large number of other ancient references to the foundation ceremony. then we would have ama jor revision. In my opinion. the official founding occurred only at the very end of the practical and actual process of establishing the colonists on the land. this would mean that the foundation ceremony for a colonia occurred at the very beginning of the actual process by which the colonists were physically settled on the land (in fact. We would also have something of an insight into the grip This content downloaded from 185. who is our sole source for the setting up of theforma and the lex colonica and the removal of the groma.7 In either of these two conceptions of the official founding of a colony.94 on Fri.

the Parilia. . First.7. Plut. April 21 was conceived of as the day upon which Romulus marked out the boundaries for the future town of Rome in accordance with Etruscan ritual: he plowed a furrow around the pro posed town-site. It has been important to establish the precise nature of what was celebrated at the Parilia festival for two reasons.94 on Fri.Roma. 1. where a gate was planned. using the plowing ritual.The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae 87 that traditional ceremonies (as opposed to practical realities) could have on the Roman mind. The found ing of Rome. 1. tuo-ibid.806: natali . the day of the Parilia festival. One may add that they were well aware that the ritual. urbem / et genitor Mayors Vestaque mater. urbis origo / venit-ibid. 21 April. we know. a plow drawn by a white steer and a white cow.73: cf. Rom. in all this he acted under the advice of Etruscan priests. Hal. "augural" founding of Rome preceded the ac tual physical settlement of the city.87. 12. Juppiter. Particularly note worthy is the prayer given Romulus by Ovid as the poet depicts Romulus plowing the furrow: condenti. Rom.87.--Dion.44. 3My point is only that the Romans in the historical period clearly believed that Rome had been founded by Romulus according to the pre cepts and rituals of the Etrusca disciplina.2.87." April 21 was considered. cum con dita Roma est-Ovid Fast. Ovid Fast. Hal. /I 7.24.3. the founding of Rome itself. twice. condita urbs-Livy 1. 12. 1. 6 'Po6)Xog zi/v 'Pcunrlv tc6Xtoa--Lydus 4.. John Lydus. . ades (Fast. 4.801. Dion. tuo). These ritual actions performed by Romulus were considered to constitute the founding of the city. 7.821ff. p.2). 4. .3. and that this ritual founding was what they celebrated every 21 April. the Parilia bears a prima facie resemblance to the founding days which. . Dion.6. 4. as the festival of ITKlriCTS KTilq--Diod. using a plow with a special bronze blade. Ovid Fast. and were celebrated as such on the day of the Parilia festival (. Diod. Plut.10 Let us begin discussion with the one founding about which we have the most detailed information.78.12 The issue here is not the historicity of the Romulus legend as com pared to the true circumstances (whatever they were) of the founding of Rome. 11. like the founding of a Roman colonia. 4. Hal.6. Ann. fi KTicn. he lifted the plow out of its furrow and carried it. 124Wunsch). natali.827-828). De mensibus 4. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .). the dies natalis of the City (cf. . Tac. were This content downloaded from 185. the building of real walls and real houses supposedly followed the ritual founding by Romulus-the act celebrated on 21 April (cf. 807-808. who were present (cf. 806.Roma. What action was commemorated and celebrated at the Parilia? Our sources are explicit.73. was commemorated and celebrated on a specific and particular day of the year-in this case 21 April. liter ally.

novam condet (Isidore). Thus.. our ancient evi dence is abundant. p. And the plowing of the furrow oc curs urbis condendae causa. to which the Cato passage is ap pended as a commentary by Servius..44. Moreover. Orig.). as with urbes in general. 392 Lindsay. 1. 4. Eckstein celebrated by Roman coloniae. Cato the Elder fr. ).13. Hal. coloniae were considered a specific group within the category of urbes precisely because. "primigenius sulcus.v. TroTO Tri.88. The evi dence is abundant that the aratrum ritual was performed at some point during the establishment of coloniae. What is especially noticeable here is the direct connection frequently stated between the plowing ritual at new towns and expressions indicating their formal foundation. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . cum con deretur nova civitas (Serv. Varro LL 5. quod item conditae ut Roma . it seems to me.143. 5." ibid.2.88 Arthur M. 15. .Sncplap6aEco T ZVX)pitov Ev Romulus) 'Poaiogol TO oiKlCTatoi n6OXecovnapapgvet (1.2). the ancient evidence makes it clear that the same plowing ritual by which Romulus was supposed to have formally founded Rome also occurred during the establishment of coloniae.755.19. ut ideo coloniae nostrae omnes in litteris antiquis scribuntur urbes. qui urbem . Festus. is that the official founding of novae urbes by the Romans consisted precisely in the ritual of the aratrum (plow)-just as did the official founding of Rome itself. Isid. Astr. This conclusion is important for while urbes as a category is vague and general. in nova urbe condenda (Festus). our discussion-because coloniae were considered to be a specific group within the category of urbes (cf.2). esp.555. according to Varro.. As Dionysius of Halicarnassus puts it: 4 06o (the founding of Rome by ?60o. Second. 18 Peter-the most detailed account we have of the plowing ritual. The obvious conclusion to draw here. the plowing ritual is performed by conditores enim civitatis (Cato). Quod item condi tae ut Roma . Sat.. shorter accounts at Virg.: here we approach the heart of the matter. 270 Lindsay."4 But more specifically. after describing the plowing ritual:.88. "sulci. and (more importantly) was associated in the Roman mind precisely with the formal founding of coloniae.. s..212." Macrob. Manil.94 on Fri. p.v. so too with coloniae in particular the evidence is abun This content downloaded from 185. cf.78. uniform and specific about this (cf. Dan. s. Dan. 5. Serv. Aen.143). Dion. A wide range of authors indicate that the plowing ritual was used whenever the Romans in general founded novae urbes. [Aelius Donatus?] on Aen. the plowing ritual was performed in their founding (LL 5. 4. cum conderentur urbes (Macrobius). for the connection between the founding ceremony at Rome and the later founding ceremonies of new towns founded by the Romans.

it is clear that for Donatus. the fourth-century A.44. It is surely significant for us that when Cicero here thinks of the founding of a colonia. oppida condebant inLatio Etrusco ritu multi. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for now. what comes to his mind This content downloaded from 185..D. there is other evidence to support the obvious implica tions of Varro's statement. . Cicero's reference to the vexillum here has to do with the march of the new colonists to the colonial site.'s The obvious conclusion to draw here is that a colonia was considered officially condita (or deducta) following the conclusion of the aratrum ritual-just as was the case with Rome itself (cf.16 explains the origin of the word porta as deriving from the fact that the coloniae conditor et deductor. there is the remark at Cic.The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae 89 dant that the aratrum ritual was closely associated in the Roman mind precisely with the official founding of the town. where Cicero excoriates Antony for having completely refounded the colonia of Casilinum on an enlarged scale. the Parilia festival.. the point to note is that in this passage Cicero clearly conceives of the aratrum ceremony as the ceremony connected with colony-founding once the colonists had indeed arrived at the colonial site (ut aratrum cir cumduceres . item conditae ut Roma). .1 Whatever the value of the etymology. carried the plow over the places planned for the gates into the town. taken alone. Aelius Donatus. thus porta derives ab aratro portando. Second. in stead of simply adding the new colonists to the existing colonial rolls as adscripti (a complete and ceremonial refounding naturally enhanced Antony's prestige): Tu autem insolentia elatus omni auspiciorum iure turbato Ca silinum coloniam deduxisti. when per forming the aratrum ritual. as for Varro. The passage just cited from Varro. .'8 and will have relevance later. the plowing ritual was conceived of as something directly con nected with the conditus or deductio coloniae. 2. grammarian and literary critic. ut vexillum tolleres. (103) ab hac perturbatione religionum advolas.). in his commentary on Terence's comedy Adelphoe (at line 583).. ut aratrum circumduceres . First. etc . Varro adduces Aricia and Rome as specific examples of such towns founded in this ritual manner-and then adds that Roman coloniae are founded in this same manner (colo niae nostrae . . Antony's corruption of this ritual for his own political ends iswhat Cicero primarily means by omni auspiciorum iure turbato and perturbatione religionum. is practically decisive here: after a detailed description of the plowing ritual by which in previous times . . quo erat paucis annis ante deduc ta.94 on Fri.102. Moreover. .78. discussed above). Phil.

the text from which Mommsen originally deduced his idea that a lustrum coming late in the establishing of a colonia consti tuted its formal founding. We must therefore now turn our attention to Cic. Now. 295 Lachmann-who mentions the aes fixum and the removal of the groma. Junius Nipsus-Grom. 1. or the setting up in bronze of theforma and the lex colonica.102.90 Arthur M. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that piece of evidence would then have to be weighed against all the other evidence we have adduced indicating that the aratrum ritual was considered by the Romans to be the formal founding of a colonia.20 It isworth pointing out that even ifMomm sen's interpretation of this passage were correct. 14). itwould still only con stitute one piece of evidence. the foundings of urbes novae. 86) that Salmon's hypothesis has little an cient evidence behind it (solely. Similarly. it seems.44. that ritual was considered the formal founding of the City. and im plies that the founding days celebrated yearly by Roman coloniae com memorated the day upon which that original plowing ceremony had taken place. I think a strong case can in fact be made that Mommsen may have misinterpreted Cicero's meaning. Vett. However. above.' The ancient evidence so far presented tells uniformly and strongly in favor of the idea that the plowing ceremony was conceived of by the Romans as constituting the formal founding of Roman coloniae. and of coloniae in particular (item conditae ut Romae). was the archetype of the subsequent foun dings of Roman towns. Eckstein is the aratrum ceremony first and foremost-as was also precisely the case with Varro and Aelius Donatus. p. We have seen that the founding of Rome. Yet the orthodox scholarly position here is that the founding day of Roman coloniae commemorated amuch later event in the actual process of setting up a colony: either the performance of the first colonial census and lustrum following the physical settlement of the colonists on the land (soMommsen). p. and that the Parilia specifically commemorated (according to all our sources) the performance of the aratrum ceremony by Romulus. are universally associated by our sources with the plowing of the ritual furrow around the prospective town-site. we have already seen (above. but does not connect these events in any way with the formal founding of the colonia). De div. and the removal of the groma machine (so Salmon). this seems further evidence of the close asso ciation in Roman minds between that ceremony and the existence of coloniae. one may observe the fre quency with which the aratrum ceremony is depicted on the coins of coloniae (cf.94 on Fri. n. In De divinatione 1. in the course of discussing the proper This content downloaded from 185. celebrated every year at the Parilia festival. Finally.102.78.

24 To me. and fol lowing this purification of the "army" it was led back to Rome behind the vexillum. agr. Cicero remarks: in lustranda colonia ab eo qui eam deduceret.23 Moreover. censor populum lustraret.44. 1. Phil.21Mommsen assumed that this lustrum followed a census taken at the colonial site once all the colonists had been finally settled on their allotted land. Certain ritual elements contained in the two lustra with which Cicero at De div. In both cases.78. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In other words. De leg. in the censorial lustrum the censor(s). was a symbol of co lonial foundation (cf. this procedure looks intriguingly like the taking of the census of male Roman citizens by the Roman censors before the censors performed the cen sorial lustrum and conducted the march sub vexillo. 3 Clark). therefore. Plut. following the lustrum which followed the cen sus. In Pis. Cicero here certainly connects the deductio of a colonia with the deduc tor's performance of a lustrum or lustratio (that is. and the men on that list were divided into economic/military classes (cf.22 The march under the censorial vex illum occurred. before the colonists even set out on their march to the new colonial site. CG 11). p. the ritual purifica tion of a body of people by means of the suovetaurilia sacrifice.102. assembled the new exercitus centuriatus quinquennalis on the Campus Martius.102 compares the colonial lustrum do not support Mommsen's idea that the colonial lustrum occurred at the colonial site. followed later (at the other This content downloaded from 185. Cicero by no means itmay well specifies where or when the colonial lustrum took place-and be that the lustrum took place at Rome. 2. it iswell known that the men entrusted with themanagement of the founding of a colony drew up a list of colonists before the colonists ever left Rome. a special standard. in fact the vexillum. First. It is striking in this context that the colonists destined for a new co lonia marched out from Rome to the prospective colonial site also under a vexillum. there the lustral sacrifice was performed. Cic. having completed the drawing up of the new list of Roman male citizens. 2. Ascon. possibly in connection with a sacred fire). like the aratrum.The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae 91 conduct of ritual sacrifices in order to ensure a good outcome.86. there seem to be significant parallels between the quinquennial censorial procedure at Rome and the preliminary procedure for the establishment of a Roman colony. we have the drawing up of a list of male citizens on a military/economic basis. et cum impera tor exercitum. bonis nominibus qui hostias deducerent eligebantur. at the very end of the settlement process. However.94 on Fri.

25 This hypothesis concerning the actual place of the colonial lustrum in the sequence of actions leading to the official founding of a colonia is supported by what we know of the other type of lustrum mentioned by Cicero at De div. much time could elapse between the mustering of the coloni. Given this situation. 1. it is tempting to assume that the colonial lustrum occurred just before the colonists departed Rome for the new colonia (perhaps it even took place on the Campus Martius itself). That is.92 Arthur M. The characteristics which mark the military lustrum are therefore further evidence for the place of the colonial lustrum in the sequence of prelimi nary colonial procedure. the ceremonial purifica tion (lustrum) of the newly constituted town population occurred be tween the original drawing up of the list of members and the latermarch to the colony sub vexillo-just as. I think. what is striking here is the element of ritual purification of a body of people involved in a major endeavor just before they start out on that major endeavor-for that is what uniformly occurs with the military lustrum.28 for the march to the new colonia. there occurred a review and enumeration of the troops available to him.78. it is just that in the one case the "army" marches back to Rome.2 Our sources also sometimes indicate that before this military lustrum was performed by the army commander.102. and also before the undertaking of such im portant actions as a long and uncertain march. inmil itary formation (sub vexillo). 1. while in the other case itmarches off to a new colonia.. somewhat resembled the census procedure. One may add that when Cicero wrote De div.94 on Fri. Eckstein end of the procedure) by a ceremonial march sub vexillo. that. the censorial lustrum occurred between the original drawing up of the list of Roman citizens and the later march back to Rome sub vexillo. sometime following which (everyone is agreed) the colonia was officially founded. then depending on the distance of a new colonia from Rome. their subsequent lustrum-and the date of their first arrival at the colonial site. The resem blance here between what we know of the military lustrum and the concept of the colonial lustrum proposed above is. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it occurs just before the newly enrolled and enumerated colonists set out from Rome. in censorial procedure. in 46 B. it is an easy hypoth esis to suppose that in the colonial procedure. But if this is so. clear: for in the above concept of the colonial lustrum ceremony. or a major offensive.44. Roman commanders-in chief are known to have carried out ceremonial purifications of their ar mies just before their departure from army winter quarters for the start of the summer campaign. he must have been well aware of the sequential rela tionship between the performance of the military lustrum and the star This content downloaded from 185. of course.102-the military lustrum.C.27 For our purposes.

seems to us more "practical. for in 51 he had personally performed the lustrum for his own army at its base at Iconium on the Anatolian Plateau-before starting out the next day to defend Cilicia and Cappadocia from the Parthians (Ad Att.The Foundation Day of Roman Coloniae 93 ting out on a major military undertaking. and about the ac tual preliminary colonial procedures in particular. that the founding day of Roman coloniae commemorated the day upon which (the new colonists having arrived at the colonial site sub vex illo and sacrifices having been made and the omens taken) one of the colonial commissioners ritually plowed a sacred furrow around the pro posed colonial town-site. and their characteristic relationship to the starting out on a new and major enterprise. it was the march to that home and the formal founding of it (the colonial lustrum)." before that "army" marched off (inmilitary formation) to start on a new and impor tant endeavor: for the exercitus centuriatus quinquennalis. that. 5. Mommsen was probably incorrect to use De div.102. I suppose.78. following all the prescriptions of the antique Etrusca disciplina.20). itwas the undertaking of some major military operation (the mili tary lustrum). 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . because in essence their basic procedures.29 Iwould conclude that itwas only natural for Cicero tomention the three types of lustra together at De div. it was the next five years at Rome (the censorial lustrum). which has tended to see some action by the colonial commissioners at the very end of the actual. Each lustrum ceremony purified a body of people grouped together as an "army. On the contrary. and that the day when this census and lustrum were completed constituted the foun ding day of the colonia. what information we have about the character of lustral ceremonies in general. Indeed.44. and for the body of colonists destined for a new home. Therefore. for a Roman army in the field. I pro pose.94 on Fri. divided into economic/military classes). physical settlement of the colonia as signalling its official founding. and was then followed by the performance of a lustrum of the new colonists before they set out on their new and major enterprise of founding a colony.102 as evidence that the first colonial census and lustrum occurred at the very end of the physical settlement of the colonial site itself. 1." Yet all This content downloaded from 185. combines to suggest that the first colonial census occurred at Rome (when the colonial com missioners drew up their list of colonists. This has not been the orthodox scholarly opinion. were so similar. 1. how could colonists depart from Rome for the settling of a new home in a far away (and in early times often dan gerous) place without first making certain that they had won the favor and support of the gods by being purified in a lustrum ceremony?30 The general conclusion to draw from the above discussion is.

De div. University also provided initial encouragement. I have considered the founding procedures of those founding procedures and ceremonies) to be the same and coloniae Latinae. Varro (or t6okctS) as if LL 5. Pro Sest.32 University of Maryland NOTES This paper owes its origin to a stimulating discussion with Professor Robert C.13. 5.v. p. E. my own. of course. Roman Colonization under the Republic (London 1969) 26.44. The responsibility for any errors of fact or argument is. Gell. 12 and CG 11. 1. and ceremonies for both coloniae civitates (and the implications civium Romanorum or coloniae 18 Peter. The Ro mans were a people of tradition. C. Salmon's pletion Salmon. who handles the problem of the foundation day by simply quoting Mommsen. and they also believed in the vital importance of that ritual for the future of any other new foundation: for the point of the plowing of the sacred furrow was precisely to gain the protection of the gods for the new settlement.7). Salmon makes no mention of colonial foundation (supra n. Placentia: cf. 153 Lachmann.94 on Fri. p. Punic War. R6misches Staatsrecht". 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3 Clark. Iwish to express here my gratitude to these scholars. for cf. 20. p. in REL 10. Eckstein 94 our ancient evidence points to the aratrum ritual as the founding act of a colonia.143. Sealey and Erich S. the per "Die Etruskische 15 (1909) IlI. T." in RhM). of religion. (supra n. Rom. now A. p. the relevant texts seem to use the words no distinction in this respect were made (cf. of the plowing formance ritual. 6) receives the special approbation 48 (1970) 612. On the lustrum or lus see infra p. Mommsen. Cf. For the taking of the auspicia. Gruen. s. Kornemann. tratio ceremony. Disciplin. 3. Mommsen (supra n. 1. 8. 1.9)." coll. Cato the Elder fr. "Two Notes on the Chronology of the Outbreak of the Second dation.87. 6. useful collection study also presents 3-7. Plut. Ad Att. N. 577-578.31 For the Romans. 3) 638 n. Professor a modification of Mommsen's ideas in that it emphasizes the com represents set of actions as the requirement for the official of the colonia. 5. 16. Professors An earlier of Berkeley. 19-26). E. in his discussion lustrum at all. Wilson in Gnomon 43 (1971) 584. J. Raphael version Robert S. Hyginus Gromaticus 9. In Pis. Brundisium: 5 August (Cic. 2:1 (Leipzig 1887) 636-638. RE 4." Goteborgs Thulin. 358 Lindsay). Dion. Knapp. 2. of the of California at Berkeley. and of A. Saticula: 1 January (Festus. 3) 638 n. in all probability. Throughout. "coloniae. of the paper was read by Professors T. cf. This content downloaded from 185. They believed that Rome it self had been founded according to the aratrum ritual. Naturally. 0. M. and none (now that we have closely examined Cic. And this makes sense. 4. Hogskolas Arsskrift does not specifically address of whether the ritual plowing constituted the question the official act for a Roman he seems to take it for granted foundation that it does (Thulin's town-although an extremely of the ancient evidence for the plowing ritual).2. see infra.78. Salmon's Richard account of J -C. Bononia: 28 December forthcoming (Livy 37. J. 7.57. Aul. T. in founding of colonial foundation of Mommsen's (pp.102) points in a different direction.14). 31 May (Ascon. with Madvig's emen 4. Eckstein. Broughton and Agnes Kirsopp Michels. that was the utmost in practicality. of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: they providedmuch useful comment. Mommsen 5. 131. hypothesis of a different fact. 91 and n. 88.Arthur M. Hal.

Books 1-5 (Oxford 1965) 179. A. qua intra fines and Bruns. 10) 163ff. p. religionis introrsum iactam vocabant et fossam (hoc faciebant unde exculpserant urbis principium. De Lingua Latina. Romische in general. Divus Julius to the foundation rites of the Etrusca 19711 185 and n. Schilling. 1 (London Grueber.44. below). Of the three studies with the question of the official that have been concerned specifically of Roman does not mention the ritual plowing at all (supra n. festival Religionsgeschichte. finds it ob (Princeton of Urban Form thropology Italy and the Ancient World vious that the plowing of the ritual furrow was the most important part of the foundation ceremony he correctly points to it the new town was "fully constituted". R.The FoundationDay of Roman Coloniae 95 Varron. des Collart. on Livy 1. col. On the Parilia Miillers Handbuch Roma condita. et annote. et ideo coloniae nostrae quare et oppida quae prius erant circumducta ut Roma: et ideo coloniae et urbes omnes in litteris antiquis scribuntur urbes. relevant to his main subject. eo usque auspicia aratro ab orbe et urvo urbes. Publ. with n. Feriae coronatis omnibus. FIR. Dilke. erit). postea 16. however). . on Vprro LL 5. ritual constituted the actual ceremonialfoundation of a Roman plowing city. We therefore have a rather odd scholarly situa position of modern tion. 5) col.44. Rykwert disciplina. "Romulus 13. For anthropological parallels cf. qui quod erat post murum. quod intro pomerium murum. 127 (ch.3. on Terence that appear under the name Aelius Donatus This content downloaded from 185. Cf. and Parilia. tauro et 15. coloniae. cf. traduit. 27 and plates 9-10. 14. (pre-Julian). 353-356. Mommsen founding the ritual plowing but believes Kornemann that Momm 624-639). W. de la Fac. The Commentary Roman Land Surveyors is even less clear on this point (it is an issue (Newton Abbot 1971) 31-32. de l'Univ. on the Fasti Antienses Maiores 12. 2. Weinstock. Livre V. terram sulcum ut causa die auspicato). H. REL 38 (1960) 182-199. ponuntur. a . Note also Parilia. cf. est at colonia Capua) evidence: CIL x. Plut. other scholars the founding in other contexts have hinted at (or even pointed of the plowing ritual for the founding of to) the importance Roman towns. M. R.94 on Fri. refers to the plowing ritual as the an augurally constituted city" (in the sense that "the area so defined marked "demarcating limit of the auspicia but Professor Ogilvie does not indicate whether he believes that the urbana"). but seems unaware that he stands in opposition for a Roman some dard scholars on this question. 11. 5. 1960) 87ff. 26 with n. it is ignored by Mommsen (supra n. K. town.143. to reason and my knowledge. but the "demarcation of fields within officielle" he does not refer to the ceremonial of coloniae themselves by such rites. that the aesfixum and the removal of the groma 6. been done before. in Latio Etrusco ritu multi. Roma condita. tum. 122 (1954) p. p. Ixxiii of the Lex coloniae Genetivae Juliae-ne the aratrum aratro circumductum colonial coins depicting ritual. 573) mentions sen's lustrum constituted act (col. quod item conditae conduntur.143: Oppida condebant vacca. On the development of the Romulus I'elu et Remus legend. and Salmon (supra n. in fact. J. Cic. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions are. 27 and plates 9-10) but believes constituted act (ibid. The qui fiebat commentaries orbis. dic postmoerium et circum Romarn. esp. pp. CG 11. Latte. 3. (supra n. Ogilvie. Kornemann tions on this question to present explicitly the full case for the problems with the posi connected and Salmon-something that has not. Republic ritual of the aratrum (London 1910) pp. 6) 24. The Idea of a Town: The An only peripherally in Rome. refers to fasc. Rykwert. On the other hand. 24 with n. and Salmon discusses the founding the ceremony (supra n. cippi pomeri stant et circum Ariciam urbanafiniuntur. 3) 624-639. le reprouve". the official of Roman ritu.78. .102 (discussed (discussed below). Caesaris qua aratrum ductum inscriptional . The performance is accepted by the colonial commissioners (supra by Kornemann (supra n. Ad. cf.3825 (iussu imp. id est iunctis bobus. 6) 153. 237. A founding on Livy. 577). A. 0. Texte etabli. on two Augustan calendars (S. 5:4 (Munich der Altertumswissenschaft. 17 and 93. commenting the territory of coloniae by means of religious rites.. (supra n. 1976) 65. Varro LL 5. 573 and Salmon n. de Strasbourg. Donat. fossa interiore et muro aratro essent circumagebant muniti. Lettr. 4). [Oxford on Ter. 31). Phil. colonies Etrusco founding taken by Mommsen. for the numerous 2 in the British Museum Coins of the Roman 1910) pp. p. and that following of the ancient evidence to the stan for this. without specifically noticing how much this conflicts with the standard discussions of such This state of things is all the more foundings.

lists of colonists cf. Note that as with the censors to have per so too one of the colonial commissioners appears procedure. with the text of the com sage appears on Adelphoe line 583 as it appears inWessner. A Dictionary of Roman Coins. 10) 66-67. s. Kornemann (supra n. P. 572. ed.. 246: Lystra Imperium (Cambridge also appears on the coinage of the Augustan coloniu 248-249. 1. ubi civitatis aditus relinquendi imprimat 18.86. p. Republican and Imperial (London 1889/Hildesheim 1969). but rather simply superimposed on an of a colonia which was not established fully existing already city-a phenomenon and of the Late Republic especially the Early Empire. 5-6. n. Grant. xlvii. been exclude the possibility that some version in Spain. Wessner. A." sonally carried Phil. sunt.. ceremony (supra.102). Donatus mentary Jerome. the sources began. Praef. on Ter. Commen tur Terenti. H. p. We have no direct evidence concerning the founding ceremonies for this latter type of colony (as to the great opposed of direct variety testimony we have for coloniae founded on virgin sites). et deductor. 2. by Kornemann in Roman Colonies: Livy 34. 177. "lustrum. at the other end of the Mediterranean. Ogilvie to it here at De div. "lustratio. the ceremonies ritual appear for colonies on for the coinage of Caesaraugusta true. C.44. R. Ad. We therefore cannot know for certain if (or towhat extent) such founding ceremonies differed from on virgin sites. But it is striking that images of the plowing established the coinage and early Augustan of such Triumviral coloniae as Lampsacus. 75. Galsterer. It looks as if the censors the gates of Rome. the vexillum on the march 23." or an exercitus was involved the purification as essentially the same whether the populus ceremony discuss the colonial does not specifically (Comm. 2034.v. 265. 3) 412-413.v. 572. agr. Stevenson. 1. 17. even ceremony was performed one cannot 1971) to have plow seems Casilinum: Cic. cf. Berve. next note'. the Roman Citizenship careful 25. (supra lustrum from the march commissioners before up by the colonial "Latins (supra n. From Parium. Aeli Donati. 24) 18 believes that in contrast to the original drawing This content downloaded from 185. s. For the sake of simplicity. Wessner. also his "Lustrum Condere.93: censor exercitum quinquennalem urbem ad vexillum ducere debet. 177. (supra n. believes of the Etruscan ritual in every respect except the building founding for coloniae involved 2. Therefore. Smith and F. 3. E. reference . The (supra n. Phil. of sacred fire as a distinctive of the cen stresses the importance characteristic 10) p. sulcos. cf. Salmon (supra n. 5) col. 6) 24. On the lustrum or lustratio cf. Supra n.v.102). Ogilvie's discussion at Comm. one of them carrying col. Stadtwesen auf der iberischen Halbinsel Untersuchungen same holds the former 27 and n. with (Berlin of the aratrum in already existing communities (note that a real placed in Antony's of the already colonia "re-founding" existing Thulin that a Roman colony sent to an (supra n. conditor line 583: Porta autem vacca et tauro.94 on Fri. 250. 106. in general. On Rome and led the new "army" back to Hiilsen. 5. to Auctoritas and Patrae: cf. solely because of Cicero's passing in Imperial times. symbol of Roman of colonial coinage also has a bearing on the question of the ceremonies the founding surrounding on a virgin site. p. M. pp. 24. Madden. the term have used the term lustrum for the purification ceremony throughout. p. 6) 24. Cf. 42. RE 13. 120).102). Vives y Escudero. 5) col." constituit cum centuriato lustrare et in 22. 2. of the colonists to the new colony (Cic. The aratrum ceremony cf. Varro LL 6. As it is put by S. "aratrum:" "the plough was a distinguishing in allusion to the [aratrum] ceremony. La moneda 2 (Madrid 1926) plate Salubda: hispanica zum romischen H. R. 638 n. Ogilvie sorial lustrum in particular JRS 51 [19611 37-39) but he accepts (cf. quod eo loco coloniae ne quo urbem designat. known to have existed p. Rykwert at the ancient city of Berytus: established plates 33 and 34. aratrum. 5) col. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions up of a colonial list at . However. 1 (Leipzig 1902). the personally cf. Eckstein combination of other scholia with the actual work of Donatus himself. Salmon (supra n. city followed 20. 21. RE 13. Donat. De leg. this particular pas to be the work of Donatus himself (cf. was the teacher of St. Mommsen n.78. was more and more replaced by lustratio (cf." The evidence colonies. notes the individual names while the colonists were still in Rome (but cf. W. Smith. Kornemann in the censorial the vexillum: drawn assembled of enrolling Smith (supra n. 1946). s. subiunctis ab aratro portando dicta est.Arthur 96 M. 19. 2. col. lustrum. 10) 15." JRS 44 (1954) 18-19. xlv-xlvii. already existing new walls. 571. 2055). Cf. 147. suspendit manu.

Mattingly. On the chronology. M.The FoundationDay of Roman Coloniae 97 a formal census at "the newly-founded is similar there later occurred Rome.7). that would is using the verb deducere not in its general sense of "to plant a col of "to lead out colonists technical (and just as common) meaning CIL v. If so. F. colony.52 (Loeb)..25 and ony. Thus. De rep. Kornemann (supra n. in this technical on the ceremonial meant sense of "to lead out" colonists march from precisely de taken by A. Primus. but he does not specifically (it is a subject only peripheral to his main interest. Cicero's Letters on Livy 23. celebrating of the aratrum to the end of the second appears on coins of the Emperor cf. RE 13.). 1. 13 Jun 2014 00:13:21 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 4 (London complete 1940) with .143).88). Cic. R. after describing . of course. modiana. div. in Cn. it is clear that taking thought Cicero meant! as taking it in its and technical sense is at least as plausible seems to have done. (hocfaciebant the aratrum ritual in detail: the et essent muniti remarks of Thulin die auspicato) muro cf.102 in the general sense of "to plant a col 5. 6 (1920) 283 (on De div. Studies at that the phrase ab eo qui earn deduceret The situation is somewhat by the possibility complicated what De div.000 infantry (in 19 legions) and (App. agr. (literary and epigraphical) col. cf. and for those of the troops he left behind north of Spain.). there are many other ex even further. For an enormous gold statue bull and cow. S.D.C.102 in its limited sense. Empire in Rome in the British of Commodus Museum as conditor. (LL 5. followed thage. Pease. For the manifold ancient references cf.15. H. Univ. but he may have been thinking of Cicero's reference at De div. Salmon (supra n.) 73. since Cicero would then be the above argument strengthen of the colonists from Rome sub vexillo.. 5) col. some 20. Bailey. the position colony in Lang. and 2.App.42. 1.C. BC 4. when Brutus and Cassius had crossed from Asia into Europe and TOv cTpaTObv ^eT6rouCIV the resulting 80.102 may itself be a gloss (Pease. persist on the coinage ritual persevered: images of the ceremony century A. Livy 26. utfossa more 32. The original conceptual unity between the (practical) of a Roman of it before major military is army and the (sacral) purification mustering operations stressed by Berve (supra n. and the march (Kaca0pavTce 6E that some sort of enu tary lustrum are very brief and totally lacking in detail. CIL x. The of coloniae tradition down religionis causa (supra n. before he performed a lustrum and crossed the Vul Sempronius turnus). cf.: of the advance on New Car of a lustrum and the beginning by his performance for the figures of Scipio's in the army. (Loeb). 1. One of the last of Rome as colonia Com the refounding Commodus. 2.v. 11) 119. they halted 27. Livy 23.35.C. at De div. s. 27) 226 (commenting 30. Generally. we have been reduced to conjecturing Rome to their new Divinatione Liber an unknown deducere scholiast at De div. 15.867 = ILS 1990. 1. De leg.26 (the listing of the units Ann. Smith does not appear to regard Mommsen census at the colony as the basis of the foundation the (hypothetical) itself (as ceremony state what act he believes did constitute that ceremony does). Shackleton toAtticus 3 (Cambridge." ony" then amples). Scipio. Moore If. Hulsen. 209 B. Mass. ibid. 1.102 is is the very connection That the verb deducere that.2501 = ILS 2460.102).102 In any case. 10) 15. Ad Att. Domitius Corbulo's the army before he performed and set off for Armenia. 29.1.35. Cicero here but precisely in its more to a colony" [from Rome] (cf. 5. however. as Mommsen general 31. cf. "lustratio. D.3 2. Cf. on De 1..5 assembled (the new slave volunteers by Ti. id atTiv: 4. on Cic. Suet. Salmon (supra n.102 to the colonial lustrum.000 cavalry were then ritually purified by a lustrum performed by the commanders our sources on the mili to Philippi began. 19 (the gathering together of the remnants of the Roman army in Spain by P. Dio (Xiph. Tulli Ciceronis is. in fact. 1968). Caes. however). Coins of the Roman nos.3.78. 751.D. at Sinuessa Gracchus lustrum 62 A." in 42 B. 846.5 on Caes.26.44. Iber. on Ad Att.. 2035. 6) 153. H. BG 8. Edwards 28.14. 2056-2057.20.89). Pol. 1. but the assumption meration of the army preceded the purification of that army is often an easy one to make: cf. BC 1. Tac. to the military 26. 2. 10. in 215 B. Smith cites no supporting ancient evidence.20). and by Latte (supra n. Caes. This close con is probably why of the army and the military between the mustering lustrum ceptual association modern translators are sometimes as "to review the army:" tempted to translate lustrare exercitum cf. lustrum directly with the departure the colonial connecting I have suggested. 21) coll. and Lit. 825.6." His position in some respects to that of Mommsen. 81. Mommsen must have taken deducere at De div. Thus Varro. Shackleton Bailey (supra n. lustrum.94 on Fri.4. G. This content downloaded from 185. cf. 6) 24. . cf. J. 572. of I1l.