Introduction

While the use of alternative and renewable energy technologies such as wind and
solar energy has become a hot topic in today’s society, other emerging technologies
are gaining exposure as well. Examples of “hot” emerging energy technologies
include: wave and tidal energy, algae and switchgrass biofuels, and clean coal
technologies.
A relatively new emerging area of renewable energy is hydrokinetics. Hydrokinetic
energy refers to energy that is the result of water movement such as tides and
currents. The constant motion of the ocean contains energy that can be used to
generate electricity.
Ocean wave energy technologies are just beginning to reach viability as potential
commercial power sources. While just a few small projects currently exist, the
technology is advancing rapidly and has huge potential for generating power. Like
most emerging energy technologies, wave and tidal technologies are currently more
expensive than traditional generating resources, but with further experience in the
field, adequate R&D funding, and proactive public policy support, the costs of wave
and tidal technologies are expected to follow the same rapid decrease in price that
wind energy has experienced.
Ocean Wave Energy
Ocean waves are a form of renewable energy created by wind currents passing over
the open water of the ocean. Improved methods of capturing the energy from ocean
waves has been a focus of recent research in alternative energy sources.
Where does wave energy originate?
-Differential warming of the earth causes pressure differences in the
atmosphere, which generate winds
-As winds move across the surface of open bodies of water, they transfer
some of their energy to the water and create waves
The amount of energy transferred and the size of the resulting wave depend on

the wind speed

the length of time for which the wind blows

the distance over which the wind blows, or fetch

Therefore, coasts that have exposure to the prevailing wind direction and that face
long expanses of open ocean have the greatest wave energy levels.

S. the technology has evolved to a phase where different concepts are being tested at a full scale. In 2013. 2) foundation or mooring keeping the structure and prime mover in place. There are many ways that such a system could be configured. or 270 terawatt hours per year. while at least one body interacts with the waves. there were more than a hundred projects at various stages of development. however. in which two or more bodies move relative to each other. There is a wide range of wave energy technologies. electricity consumption. Extracting energy from ocean waves is not a recent phenomenon. 2011). Bahaj. 3) the power take-off (PTO) system . local geography greatly influences the electricity generation potential of each technology. near shore. wave energy conversion devices must create a system of reacting forces. and the potential tends to be the greatest on western coasts. Wave energy resources are best between 30º and 60º latitude in both hemispheres. 2010. Nowadays.S. and commercial demonstrations are being deployed. as estimated by some recent reviews (Falcao. pre-demonstration phase. (A terawatt equals a trillion watts. coastline amounts to 2100 terawatt hours per year. How do we harness ocean wave energy? (Di ko na isasama sa PPT. Each technology uses different solutions to absorb energy from waves. off shore) Wave energy technologies consist of a number of components: 1) the structure and prime mover that captures the energy of the wave. Parang intro to sa ocean wave technologies) In order to extract this energy.) • Harnessing 20% of that total energy at 50% conversion efficiency would generate as much electricity as conventional hydropower currently provides – 7% of total U. and can be applied depending on the water depth and on the location (shoreline. • The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimates that the annual average incident wave energy off of the U. as researchers have been studying different concepts or solutions since the 1970s.Potential Worldwide potential for wave and tidal power is enormous. Ocean Wave Energy Technologies Wave energy converters (WECs) capture the energy contained in ocean waves to generate electricity.

Categories of Wave Energy Technology 1. moving up and down and thereby forcing the air out of the chamber and back into it. . Oscillating Body Converters 3. and 4) the control systems to safeguard and optimize performance in operating conditions. Overtopping Converters (Terminator) Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) Oscillating Water Columns are conversion devices with a semi-submerged chamber.by which mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. which is channeled through rotor blades driving an air turbinegenerator group to produce electricity. keeping a trapped air pocket above a column of water. This continuous movement generates a reversing stream of high-velocity air. Waves cause the column to act like a piston. Oscillating Water Columns (OWC) 2.

Some representative devices are: GreenWave (Scotland/ UK). Example Devices: Limpet: Mutriku: . the performance level is not high. A new generation of floating OWC integrated on spar-buoys are substantially increasing the power performance. 2014). moving past a turbine. Conversely. SI Ocean. 2012. Pico Plant (Azores/Portugal) and Wavegen Limpet (Scotland/UK) (Papaioannou. Oceanix (Australia). • The compressed air is forced into an aperture at the top of the chamber. although there are new control strategies and turbine concepts under development. The main advantages of these systems are their simplicity (essentially there are no moving parts other than the air turbine) and the fact that they are usually reliable. Mutriku (Basque Country/Spain). Ocean Energy Buoy (Ireland).Principle • As a wave enters the collector. which are notably increasing the power performance. the surface of the water column rises and compresses the volume of air above it. 2011. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). the air is drawn back through the turbine due to the reduced pressure in the chamber. • As the wave retreats.

. to increase the PTO performance and avoid certain issues with the mooring systems. shows some representative devices of oscillating bodies: the PowerBuoy of Columbia Power Technologies. etc.g. linear electric generators. They exploit the more powerful wave regimes that normally occur in deep waters where the depth is greater than 40 metres (m). A distinct technology has yet to emerge and more research. particularly with regards to their PTO systems. hydraulic generators with linear hydraulic actuators. In general. The advantages of oscillating body converters include their size and versatility since most of them are floating devices. piston pumps. e. the many different concepts and ways to transform the oscillating movement into electricity has given rise to various PTO systems. . needs to be undertaken. Figure 3. they are more complex than OWCs. In fact.OceanLinx Oscillating Body Converters Oscillating Body Converters are either floating (usually) or submerged (sometimes fixed to the bottom).

2011. Star (**Note: tapos ipplay yung video nung about sa OPT PowerBuoy tapos explain yung principle) . Pelamis (Scotland) and Wave (Denmark) (Papaioannou. SI Ocean. 2012. 2014).Oyster (Scotland). IRENA. Seatricity (Cornwall).

2011. 2012. The heave plate maintains the spar in a relatively stationary position. Key downsides include the low head (in the order of 1-2 m) and the vast dimensions of a full scale overtopping device. due to the height of collected water above the sea surface. spar. they spill over the top of a ramp structure and are restrained in the reservoir of the device. The rotary motion drives electrical generators that produce electricity for the payload or for export to nearby marine applications using a submarine electrical cable. Some representative devices are shown in figure 4: WaveDragon (Denmark). and heave plate as shown in the schematic to the left. which ensure that as waves arrive. et al. 2014). The relative motion of the float with respect to the spar drives a mechanical system contained in the spar that converts the linear motion of the float into a rotary one. The potential energy. SI Ocean. The PowerBuoy’s power conversion and control systems provide continuous power for these applications under the most challenging marine conditions. and WaveCat (Spain) (Iglesias. The spar contains space for additional battery capacity if required to ensure power is provided to a given application even under extended no wave conditions. is transformed into electricity using conventional low head hydro turbines (similar to those used in mini-hydro plants). The main advantage of this system is the simple concept – it stores water and when there is enough. 2011. This high performance wave energy conversion system generates power even in moderate wave environments. . and also usually reflecting arms. Overtopping Converters Overtopping converters (or terminators) consist of a floating or bottom fixed water reservoir structure. Papaioannou.Principle The PowerBuoy consists of a float. Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (Norway). IRENA. The float moves up and down the spar in response to the motion of the waves. lets it pass through a turbine.

so lots of people can get use from wave energy plants. Coastal cities tend to be well-populated. Variety of Ways To Harness : A final benefit is that there are a variety of ways to gather it. Unlike fossil fuels. 2. Renewable: The best thing about wave energy is that it will never run out. and pollution. and they can always be counted on. In today’s energy-powered world. a corn product. near the populated coastal regions. a source of clean energy is hard to come by. Current gathering methods range from installed power plant with hydro turbines to seafaring vessels equipped with massive structures that are laid into the sea to gather the wave energy. The waves flow back from the shore. Unlike ethanol. They require no input from man to make their power. just as quickly as people can discover them. 3. 4. waves are not limited by a season. . which are running out. in some places in the world. Environment Friendly: Also unlike fossil fuels. There will always be waves crashing upon the shores of nations. The energy from waves can be taken directly into electricity-producing machinery and used to power generators and power plants nearby. creating power from waves creates no harmful byproducts such as gas.(**Note: tapos ipplay yung video nung about sa Wave Dragon tapos explain yung principle) Advantages of Wave Energy 1. but they always return. Abundant and Widely Available :Another benefit to using this energy is its nearness to places that can use it. Lots of big cities and harbors are next to the ocean and can harness the power of the waves for their use. waste.

so wave energy is not the clean energy solution for everyone. 1. 3. But these are places that are major thoroughfares for cargo ships. wave length. it still creates hazards for some of the creatures near it. 7. Large machines have to be put near and in the water to gather energy from the waves. They require a consistent flow of powerful waves to generate significant amount of wave power. Landlocked nations and cities far from the sea have to find alternate sources of power. change the habitat of near-shore creatures (like crabs and starfish) and create noise that disturbs the sea life around them. clean and one of the preferred method to extract energy from ocean.5. These machines disturb the seafloor. Less Dependency on Foreign Oil Cos : Dependence on foreign companies for fossil fuels can be reduced if energy from wave power can be extracted up to its maximum. 6. recreational vehicles and beach goers. Wavelength : Wind power is highly dependent on wavelength i. Easily Predictable : The biggest advantages of wave power as against most of the other alternative energy sources is that it is easily predictable and can be used to calculate the amount that it can produce. Source of Disturbance for Private and Commercial Vessels : Another downside is that it disturbs commercial and private vessels. Disadvantages of Wave Energy But wait. 2. wavelength and water density. Some areas . Not only it will help to curb air pollution but can also provide green jobs to millions of people.e. there’s— more to it than just a source of clean energy. It is safe. wave speed. Effect on marine Ecosystem : As clean as wave energy is. wave power does not cause any damage to earth. No Damage to Land : Unlike fossil fuels which cause massive damage to land as they can leave large holes while extracting energy from them . Suitable to Certain Locations : The biggest disadvantage to getting your energy from the waves is location. 4. This means that government officials and private companies that want to invest in wave energy sources have to take into account and consider the needs of those they may be disturbing. The wave energy is consistent and proves much better than other sources which are dependent on wind or sun exposure. It has its drawbacks as well. cruise ships. and they have to be near cities and other populated areas to be of much use to anybody. wave energy is not a viable power source for everyone. Only power plants and towns near the ocean will benefit directly from it. There is also a danger of toxic chemicals that are used on wave energy platforms spilling and polluting the water near them. All of these people and vessels will be disrupted by the installation of a wave energy gathering source. Because of its source. Power plants that gather wave energy have to be placed by the coastline to do their job.

Noise and Visual pollution : Wave energy generators may be unpleasant for some who live close to coastal regions. • Near-shore technologies based on bottom fixed solutions. but other countries and regions are progressing fast. Next generation The next step for wave energy is to move from full-scale testing of individual technologies to the deployment of array and cost reduction measures. 6. The experience of piloting technologies at a real scale and then testing at sea. as yet no devices have been installed further than 6 km from shore or in deeper waters than 50 m — (JRC. often with terminal absorbers. has led to substantial redesigns of some of the devices to make them more robust and durable. reaching larger depths and higher waves — test facilities with 100 m water depth and 15 km offshore are planned. Although 67% of the current WEC concepts are floating. They must withstand rough weather. Components and areas that require further research include: . the next generation of WECs are expected to go further offshore. Furthermore. They look like large machines working in the middle of the ocean and destroy the beauty of the ocean. and only 19% are fixed (IRENA. 2013). *Europe is still the leading market for wave energy technologies. and 50 m in depth (Joint Research Centre (JRC) 2013).experience unreliable wave behavior and it becomes unpredictable to forecast accurate wave power and therefore cannot be trusted as reliable energy source. They also generate noise pollution but the noise is often covered by the noise of waves which is much more than that of wave generators. Existing wave test facilities are available for testing up to 5 km offshore. experience so far has mostly been with: • OWCs placed on the shoreline. • Offshore technologies at specific testing or pilot emplacements. 5. on natural cliffs or breakwaters. Weak Performance in Rough Weather : The performance of wave power drops significantly during rough weather. The current market for WECs The first generation wave energy systems are based on the previously described technologies and placed at the shoreline or near-shore emplacements (to avoid higher grid connection costs). 2014). This has meant the initial expectations in cost reductions and power performance have not been achieved.

. • New mooring systems for floating devices adapted to the wave energy needs from the oil and gas industry for increased safety and or better interaction with the converter. easy and low cost maintenance interventions. hydraulic or electric generators to increase the overall efficiency of the converters and the electric performance.g. and similar project development and permitting processes. and electrical connection issues (including grid and distribution codes). • Collaboration and synergetic research with the offshore wind industry to reduce the cost of common offshore grid infrastructures. • Optimization.• New materials to reduce the device’s weight and biofouling effects on the marine environment. and control systems of arrays. • Specific PTO systems e. • Underwater power connectors that allow easy underwater operability and quick. including assessments of hydrodynamic interaction. operation. . similar equipment and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices.