The Critical Component in Brewing

Yeast Health is the Most Important
Part of the Brewing Process

• There are roughly 950
compounds in beer that give it
its character.
• More than 400 of these are
produced by the yeast.

A Little History • Yeast was the last component of brewing humans understood. . • Reinheitsgebot had to be amended to include it.

Repitching began in the 12th Century . • Brewers knew yeast was important. but did not understand it.A Little History • It took Louis Pasteur in the Mid1800’s to demonstrate that fermentation is the result of yeast metabolism.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Complex Vacuole Nucleus Bud Scar Cytoplasm Cell Wall and Plasma Membrane Mitochondria .

fructose. sucrose. CO2 and flavor and aroma compounds are byproducts Alcohol CO2 Flavor & Aroma Compounds . and glucose into alcohol.Wort O2 N Minerals Conversion includes breaking down sugars (maltotriose. maltose.

• Results in anaerobic growth . yeast cells use their glycogen reserves and oxygen to optimize their membranes for permeability. • Yeast typically takes up all the oxygen in wort within 30 minutes of pitching.How Yeast Ferments Wort • When pitched.

from least complex to most: • Glucose • Fructose • Sucrose • Maltose • Maltotriose .Fermentation is NOT Egalitarian • Yeast consume sugars in a specific order.

.Conversion of Sugar to Alcohol • Two Primary Steps • Glucose to Pyruvate • Pyruvate to Alcohol • Anaerobic process • Yeast actually prefer aerobic metabolism—converts glucose using the mitochondria to H20 and CO2 because it produces more than 10X the energy.

and temperature control are crucial. .Fermentation Phases • Not distinct stop and start phases— they overlap • Lag Phase (0-15 hours) • O2 and nutrient uptake • Acclimation • Sterol and Amino Acid production • Pitching rate. O2 levels.

Fermentation Phases • Growth Phase (4 hrs.-4 days) • Cell count increases rapidly • Produce CO2 and alcohol • Stationary Phase (3-10 days) • Growth slows down • Yeast reabsorb diacetyl and acetaldehyde • Yeast flocculate .

Flocculation • Unique to Brewer’s Yeast due to selective pressure • Most Wild Yeast strains do not flocculate well • Zainasheff and White classify yeast: • High-begins in 3-5 days • Medium-begins in 6-15 days • Low-does not begin within 15 days • Yeast need calcium to flocculate .

Zymolectin Binding .

Zymolectin Binding Zymolectin Binding Lectin receptors bind to Mannan Ligands .

beer would be too bland. • Without any.Flavor/Aroma Compounds • Esters • Volatile compounds formed from organic acid and alcohol. . too much is overwhelming • Strain dependent • Ethyl caproate (apple) and isoamyl acetate (banana) are two of the most common.

Flavor/Aroma Compounds • Esters • 40+ different types that can be present • Desirable in most beers to keep below flavor thresholds • Proper temperature control is crucial .

Diacetyl • Butter/Butterscotch • Slightly detectable is OK in a few styles • Particularly problematic in high flocculating yeast • Also when fermentation temp crashes • Yeast can reabsorb if you drive fermentation .

Sulfur • Both Ale and Lager strains produce • More detectable in lagers because fermentation is less vigorous • Does not produce CO2 fast enough to drive it off as quickly .

DMS • Cooked corn flavor/aroma • If the DMSO is not effectively boiled off during brew day (Pilsner malt). the yeast reduce it back to DMS • 90 minute boil is usually sufficient to get rid of enough DMSO so that DMS is not detectable .

Sulfur Dioxide • Burnt match flavor/aroma • Healthy fermentation will drive it off .

Phenolic Compounds • Plastic/Band-Aid • Usually undesirable • Hefeweizen and Rauchbier are exceptions • Yeast that produces these have a Phenolic Off Flavor (POF) Gene • Most strains have been selected to not have this gene .

Liquid versus Dry Yeast • Dry: • Advantage: Cost • Disadvantages: • Drying process results in large % of dead cells and loss of sterols • Less viable .

Liquid versus Dry Yeast • Liquid: • Advantages: • Much greater viability • Less dead cells • Disadvantages: • Cost • More perishable .

Keys to Healthy Fermentation • Cleanliness and Sanitization • Wild yeast and other microbes produce off flavors • Close your system • Rack as little as possible • Temperature control • Proper yeast growth and metabolism prevent off flavors . calculator • Pitch your yeast within 10 degrees (F) of your wort temperature. . bigger batches.Keys to Healthy Fermentation • Proper Pitching Rates • Lagers: 1.75MM cells per ML per Degree Plato • Use www. • Invest in yeast propagation before all grain.5MM cells per ML per Degree Plato • Ales: 0.mrmalty.

Keys to Healthy Fermentation • Proper Yeast Nutrition • O2: 8-10 PPM • Shaking for 5 Minutes: 3 PPM • Injecting Pure O2 at 1L per minute for 60 seconds: 10 PPM • Aquarium Pump 30 minutes: 10PPM • Zinc • Not sufficiently present in wort • Servomyces is the most common .

) • Oxygenation –Aquarium Pump ($25-40) –Injection Kit ($45-60) .Yeast Propagation Equipment • Starters –2L or 5L Flask ($25-45) –Stir Plate and Stir Bar ($40-80) –DME ($10-15 for 3 lbs.


Jamil. Tobias.Resources • .wyeast. Fermentation Management (Presentation at NHC 2010). Yeast Nutrition (Presentation at NHC 2009). Neva. MN (June 2012) • • • • • • ( www. Greg. Yeast: The Practical Guide to Fermentation (Brewers Publications 2010) • Parker.mrmalty. www. Chris and Zainasheff. Presentation at Northern www.thebrewingnetwork. www.whitelabs.