A Scientific Review Article about Green Tea as an Effective

Antimicrobial for Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Escherichia
Mayramarie L. Flor, Dawn P. Gentolea, Jean-Mae Emmanuel Himagan &
Hanne Christele S. Parcia, Joyzy Faith Pimentel
BACKGROUND: One of the most
common infections caused by
Escherichia coli is Urinary Tract
infection which is also the most
common infection in Filipino
women. With cultural attributes of
people in our country, many
beliefs that Tea made from leaves
of plant can cure these infections
one of this is Green Tea as an
effective antimicrobial treatment
for certain diseases. With the
methods, assays and experiments
can prove that Green tea is one of
cheapest fighting armor against
Urinary Tract Infections.
CONTENT: Antimicrobial effect of
Green tea provides effective
curing in Urinary Tract infections
using methods that measures
antimicrobial activity in different
applications are use such as
inhibitory effect of green tea, and
synergistic ability of green tea
and other teas. We discuss this
clinical applications of these
methods in different strains of
E.coli . Concluding remarks and
future application are discussed.
discoveries of antibiotic targeting
bacteria, people will always
choose organic and less toxic cure
for diseases like green tea to treat

urinary tract infections. Large
improvements for accuracy and
precision related to the microbial
testing are done to prove the
effectiveness of certain drug. Yet
the easiest and cheapest way is
to invest in organic and non-toxic
substances as a source.
Properties of Green Tea for
Antibacterial Action against
E. coli
Tea is a widely-consumed
drink in the world in terms of
providing leisure and relaxation
given its affordable range of
around the world. Aside from
these though, it was later on
suggested to also be beneficial to
the health due to its antihypertensive effects contributing
to reduction of cardiovascular
properties, ultraviolet protection,
bone mineral density increase
and neuro- protection powers, as
well as promotion of oral health
and other physiological functions
consumption of green tea. On the
other hand, black tea is known to
have a wild range of beneficial
pharmacological effect, among

anti-diabetic.) are becoming less effective due to the growing worldwide problem of antibacterial resistance. antibacterial and antivirasic activity.capillaries. bone mineral density increase. Oolong tea is semi-fermented while black tea is fully fermented. an oxidation step (19). epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea (Camellia sinensis leaves) has been consumed since ancient times in China and has gained popularity in several other countries including India. it has antioxidant. sinensis undergo different manufacturing processes. trimethoprim– sulfamethoxazole. antifibrotic properties and neuroprotective powers. even death (20). coli. epicatechin (EC). which is a useful drug against UTI. and epicatechin (EC) (28). Green tea consists of catechins viz. It is known to possess preventive activity against cardiovascular diseases and some forms of cancer. anti-inflammatory. etc. and non-toxic. nitrofurantoin. antioxidant. epicatechin-32 . serves as a very important a source of alternative medicine. there is a growing need to explore newer antimicrobial compounds particularly from herbal extracts. Green tea extracts being a popular beverage consumed worldwide. immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities. which could be incorporated as adjuvant therapeutic agents in the treatment of such life threatening infections (21). antitumor. is unfortunately the same cause of various complex side effects and to a massive extent. Human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. Green tea is produced by steaming (Japan) or panning (China) to prevent catechin oxidation by polyphenol oxidase2. and the most common type of nosocomial infection. body weight control. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common type of infection found in any organ system. Green tea contains mainly flavanols or catechins of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). having hypocholestrolemic action and inhibiting the growth of implanted malignant cell. The strains of Escherichia coli that infect the urinary tract are categorized as uropathogenic E. Cephalosporin. Also. anti-inflammatory effect. The antibacterial agents that have been traditionally used to treat UTIs (Beta-lactams. fluoroquinolones. epigallocatechin (EGC). inexpensive. as well as promote oral health and other physiological functions such as antihypertensive effect. Green tea is prepared through an infusion of different processed leaves of a variety of an evergreen shrub Camellia sinensis while the black tea is prepared in a similar way except it undergoes fermentation. Teas of C. To combat the emergence and spread of multi drug resistant pathogens.

and epigallocatechin-3gallate (EGCG).6. Vibrio parahemolyticus.gallate (ECG).coli are facultative anaerobes in the normal intestinal flora of human and animal however pathogenic strains of these bacteria are an important cause of bacterial infections.9). leaves also contain flavonols.13). antibacterial resistance is a worldwide growing problem (12) E.coli S. vitamin C. epigallocatechin (EGC). Pleisomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas sobria failed to grow in tea normally consumed by Japanese people. EGCG.coli which were highly sensitive (5). E.11) . Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. these strains are the foremost cause of urinary tract infections as well as a major cause of neonatal meningitis. volatile flavor components (volatile oil). a main constituent of green tea polyphenol.7) catechins (found in green and black tea). S. long-term therapy may result in many side effects and cause selection of resistant bacteria (14) Recent reports showed that the use of plant extract may have synergic effect with some antibiotic against microorganism. dysenteriae more susceptible to 3 .aureus. Tea components also inhibit the growth of Vibrio choleras 01. Clostridium perfringens. Bacillus cereus.These antimicrobial activity of tea may refers to several chemical components found in tea like polyphenolic compounds (these make up some 30% of dry weight) and generally known as "tannin" which are chemically different from other plant tannin. minerals and alkaloid (caffeine) (5. salivarius. inhibits the growth of many bacterial species. Sub-MIC of black tea extract made S. volatile flavor components (volatile oil). body weight control. Bordetella pertusis and phytopathogen Eriwinia spp and Pseudomonas spp (6. leaves also contain flavonols. however. Studies on the antibacterial activity showed that extracts of tea leaves inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and E. bone mineral density increase and neuro-protection power.According to the reports of many researchers. nosocomial septicemia and surgical site infections (12.10. ultraviolet protection.8. Other polyphenols include flavanols and their glycosides [1]. Streptococcus mutans Shigella dysenteriae. has been reported to have great antimicrobial activity and also exhibits synergistic properties with other antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria (2-4) Recent studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some forms of cancer as well as promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect.7. vitamin C. the simplest compound in this class are the catechins (found in green and black tea). inhibits the growth of many bacterial species. minerals and alkaloid (caffeine) (5.

and on the basis of colony counts. 76% were susceptible at ≤3. The control strains varied. were susceptible at ≤2.Inoculated plates were incubated at 37oC for 48h. 2011). Each strain was tested three times (one strain was not susceptible at even 4.coli strains isolated from local urinary tract infections.0. and 4.5. Table 1 shows the MIC results for the 79 strains that were susceptible at ≤4. one being susceptible at ≤2. the MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of green tea extract to show an inhibitory effect on growth of the bacteria (no colonies detected). A 10−4 dilution of these suspensions was prepared..0mg/ml). 3.so the aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of sub-MICs doses of black and green tea water extracts and 25 kinds of antibiotics against two E.5 mg/ml.5 mg/ml.0 mg/ml.5. gentamicin.5 McFarland standard dilutions (equal to 1.chloramphenicol. 94% were Susceptible at ≤3. 40%. 2. Suspensions of 0. coli strains isolated from UTIs. 3.5 × 108 cells/mL) were prepared from bacterial cultures grown overnight in LB broth. using a value of 18% EGC as the content in total green tea polyphenols (Vuongetal.5 mg/ml. That makes the adjusted results as follows: 40% of strains tested were susceptible at a 4 . The green tea extract was shown to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of E.0 mg/ml (22).aureus (MRSA) (16) and enhanced effect of Japanese tea on inhibitory activities of antibiotic against MRSA (17) . methicillin and nalidixic acid and green tea have synergistic effect with levofloxacin against enterohemorrhagic E.0mg/mL) were prepared.5 × 103 cells). Experimental Application Antibacterial Action as Effectiveness of certain drug or extract to test for antimicrobial activity is measured by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Determination in which of the green tea extract was determined by agar dilution method. and 100 μL of dilution per plate was inoculated using a spread plate technique (plated concentration equals 1. The MIC results can be adjusted to reflect the EGC content. MHA plates that contained various concentrations of green tea extract (0.5 mg/ml and the other susceptible at ≤3.coli (15) Epicatechin gallate (found in black and green tea ) reduced the MIC of oxacillin and β-lactam in methicillin resistant S.

As compared to Green tea extracts.72 mg/ml (720 μg/mL).45 mg/ml (450 μg/mL). Ethanolic. Green tea and Black tea extracts have shown significant antibacterial activity with former being more effective than later.72 mg/mL. In future there is immense potential of clinical application of polyphenolic contents of tea extracts as adjuvant therapeutic agents to tackle the menace of growing antibiotic resistance.63 mg/ml(630 μg/mL). Table 1 shows the MIC data for total green tea extract and for the EGC component.aureus was found to be most susceptible to tea extracts followed by E. All Green tea extracts exhibited significant activity against E. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous.coli and P. The results of this study have shown that green tea can have an antimicrobial effect on E. Amongst Green tea extracts aqueous extract was found to be most effective while amongst Black tea extracts methanolic extract was most effective. 5 . which greatly contributes in the high antimicrobial property of the tea (24). Green tea is prepared through an infusion of different processed leaves of a variety of an evergreen shrub Camellia sinensis while the black tea is prepared in a similar way except it undergoes fermentation.coli ATCC 25923 higher than Black tea extracts. 18% susceptible at ≤0. 36% susceptible at ≤0. S. Green tea on the other hand is subjected to steaming after drying to inactivate the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. and 5% susceptible at ≤0. This is the first time that green tea has been reported to have this kind of effect.concentration of EGC at ≤0.aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Green tea The major difference between Green tea and Black tea is in their processing. an oxidation step catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase. It is our hope that these findings will encourage further studies on the antimicrobial potential of green tea and other plant components (22).aureus ATCC 25922 with Aqueous extract of Green tea exhibiting highest activity. All tea extracts have shown significant antibacterial activity against S. coli bacteria that cause UTIs. Methanolic and Acetone extracts of Green tea and Black tea was determined by Agar well diffusion method. this suggests that EGC might be a good inhibitor of bacterial growth. That is why green teas have significantly higher Catechin content than Black teas. Black tea extracts showed much lower activity against P. extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than Black tea extracts. The data also adds to the current information on the potential health benefits of green tea.aeruginosa. Since all of the strains tested (99%) were susceptible at a concentration of ≤0.54 mg/ml (540 μg/mL).

This could be attributed to the inability of higher concentration of tea extracts to diffuse through the Mueller Hinton agar medium. at lower concentration of 0.1mg/ml. antimicrobial activity for green tea extracts exhibited an inhibition against both E. Green tea extract from the TRFK 6/8 cultivar. The combination of green tea extract and penicillin G could be useful in management of emerging antibiotic resistant bacteria (25). there was no inhibition against antibiotic resistant E. green and black tea exhibited antimicrobial properties against antibiotic resistant E. coli isolate from UTI cultures during the year of Also there was an evaluation of green tea extracts interaction with some antibiotics. In addition. exhibited an antagonistic effect against antibiotic resistant E.coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC25923 at concentration of 0. aureus ATCC 26923. coli ATCC 25922 and S. Furthermore. 2016. However. green tea extract did not exhibit any inhibition against the tested antibiotic resistant bacteria.Hussein medical city patients during one month period 6 .05mg/ml.Results from the study of Mbuthia (25) on table 2. however. In conclusion to the study (25). it was also observed that the green tea extract from TRFK 6/8 cultivar exhibited a higher inhibition zone diameters as compared to penicillin G and its activity was comparable to that of gentamicin (Table 3). coli isolates are collect from urine specimens submit of selected Al. on increasing the concentration of green tea extract. Green tea extracts did not impair the antimicrobial properties of penicillin G but rather it enhanced its activity in synergistic manner. coli ATCC 25923 and S aureus ATCC 25923. a combination of green tea extract with penicillin G exhibited a synergeistic effect. coli ATCC 25923 when combined with gentamicin Figure 1. E. The bacteria strains use in this study are part of a research collection of E.

coli characteristic with were positive. To confirm the results the concentration of 90% was selected and redistributed on bacterial grown on Mueller Hinton agar and after incubation the number of grown colonies were counted for the aqueous and alcoholic extract at concentration of 90% for each of the green tea and green tea with lemon extracts.red reagent (IMVic test) these strains were tested by using sensitivity test and had undergone colony counting to check green tea and lemon extract effect. the green tea with lemon alcoholic extract shows the best results in elimination growing bacteria since only 6 colonies where grown comparing to the control that exceeded 900 colonies.1μm of the specimen and adding different concentrations of green tea and green tea with lemon extracts.coli the synergistic effects of antibiotic and the alcoholic and aqueous extracts in the concentration of 90% have been study and measured for the purpose of confirm or synergy the effect of each of the antibiotic in the termination of bacteria and the extracts as antibacterial and antioxidant to the side effects that caused by the antibiotic during treatment Two mechanisms was adopted in the result. indole test and methyl. After studying and measuring the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on E. the results showed that the best inhibitory concentration to inhibit the growth of bacteria were 90% for the alcoholic green tea with lemon extract in the same time the same concentration give the best inhibitory rate in the green tea aqueous extract. These methods are Gram stain kit. and this has a major role in reducing or termination of the bad side effects that comes with antibiotic when using green tea with lemon concomitant with antibiotic (27). The isolates are further processes by standard methods to identify as E.throughout November 2015. The results of confirmatory tests on the isolates that were taken from Al Hussein medical city patients with urinary tract infection for all the properties that E. and both showed the significant effect of alcoholic green tea with lemon extract at concentration of 90% in the present of antibiotic. 7 . coli isolates. Figure 2 The effects of the 90%Concentrations of green tea extracts After refreshing it on nutrient broth the fourth McFarland standard was taken and cultivate on Mueller Hinton agar by taking 0.

In conclusion. Green tea and Black tea extracts are known to exhibit significant antibacterial activity against pathogens causing UTI. this study like many other in vitro studies in support of the same topic conducted had proved. which could be seen as effective against microbes of interest. reconfirmed and consolidated the fact that tea extracts do have significant antimicrobial activity at varying concentrations against different bacterial pathogens. Urinary tract infections are not new in the society and is undeniably an ongoing challenge in the clinical world in terms of looking for effective medicines to lessen burdens brought by it without imposing the threat of antimicrobial resistance.Concluding Remarks An emerging threat of antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains is posing serious challenges to clinicians everywhere in the world. they are left with few options leading to newer interests to explore new antimicrobial compounds even from herbal extract products. which led to numerous studies to support this innovation. Author Contributions: All 8 . This study in addition had also shown that this antibacterial activity is dependent not only on the type of the tea product but also on different processing techniques involved in preparing tea extracts which determines the concentration of polyphenols particularly catechins responsible for this activity (24).

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