51.

If two 8-pole dc machines of identical armatures are wound, one with lap winding and the other
with wave winding, then
(a) wave-wound machine will have more rated current and more voltage
(b) lap-wound machine
will have more rated voltage and more current
(c) lap-wound machine
will have more rated voltage and less current
(d) wave-wound machine will have more rated voltage and less current
52. If the applied voltage to a dc machine is 230 V, then the back emf, for maximum power
developed,
is
(a) 115 V
{b) 200 V
(c) 230 V
(d ) 460 V
53. A dc shunt generator has full-load voltage regulation of 10% at rated speed of 1000 rpm. If it is
now driven at 1250 rpm, then its voltage regulation at full load would
(a) be more than 1091
(6) be less than1091
(c) remain unchanged
(d) be 12.5%
54. Two dc machines A and B, using the same conductor material, have armature circuit resistances
of 0.4 Q and 1.2 Q respectively. Of the two machines,
(a) A is bigger than B for the same current rating
(b) A is bigger than B for the same voltage rating
(c) B is bigger than A for the same current rating
(d) both are of the same size for the same current rating
55. A 10 kW, 230 V, dc shunt machine has four terminals brought out through four leads. For this
machine
(а) both the windings have thin leads
(б) both the windings have thick leads
(c) armature winding has thin leads whereas field winding has thick leads
(d) armature winding has thick leads whereas field winding has thin leads
56. There are two 2-pole dc machines. Main field axis of machine A is horizontal and that of B is
vertical. It is preferable to purchase
(a) machine A
(b) machine B
(c) any of the two machines
(d) none of these
57. A compound dc generator is delivering full load current at a terminal voltage of 230 V. Its
series-field winding gets short circuited. If its terminal voltage
1. becomes more than 230 V, it is overcompounded generator
2. becomes more than 230 V, it is differentially compounded generator
3. becomes less than 230 V, it is overcompounded generator
4. becomes less than 230 V, it is differentially compounded generator
5. becomes less than 230 V, it is level compounded generator
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 4, 5
(6) 2, 3, 5
(e) 1, 4
(d) 2, 3
58. DC generators are usually designed to develop armature voltages not exceeding 650 V because
of the limitations imposed by
(a) field winding
(6) armature winding
(c) commutator
(d) starters
59. In a dc series generator, the terminal voltage with increase in load will
(a) decrease
{b) increase gradually and then stay at rated voltage
(c) increase to rated voltage and then may decrease
(d) remain nearly constant
60. Consider the following statements :
For a level compounded dc generator to run at constant voltage, the series field mmf must
effectively compensate
1.
armature reaction mmf
2. armature resistance drop
3. brush contact voltage drop

Which of these statements is/are correct ?
(a) 2 alone (b) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3
{d) 1, 2 and 3
61. A separately-excited dc machine, having an armature resistance of 2 ohms was working on a
220 V supply and drawing 10 A armature current from the source when the supply voltage
suddenly dropped to 200 V. Assuming that the field circuit source voltage remained unaffected,
how will the armature current of the machine react to the change ?
(a) It will initially rise to 11 A and then settle down to 10 A
(b) It will fall momentarily to 9.09 A and then slowly attain 10 A
(c) It will reduce to zero first and then settle back to 10 A
(d) It will remain unaffected by the change and continue to be 10 A
[7.A.S.,
1994]
62. Under which of the follo*.ving conditions is a dc motor provided with compensating winding
used ?
1. Wide range of speed control above normal
2. Wide range of steady load variation with no speed control
3. Wide range of rapid variation in load
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
Codes:
(a) 1* 2 and 3
(6) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 2
(d) 1 and 3
{I.A.S.,
1993]
63. The following statements relate to compensating winding (CW) and interpole winding (1W ) of a
dc machine :
1. CW neutralizes the armature reaction under a pole pitch
2. IW is connected in series with armature circuit
3. IW produces mmf in the commutating zone only
4. CW mmf is directed along the brush axis
5. Mmf produced by IW is equal to armature mmf
From these, t he correct statements are
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
(b ) 1, 3, 4, 5
(c) 2, 3, 4, 5
(d) 2, 3, 4
64. If the speed of a dc motor increases with load torque, then it is a
(a) series motor
(b) permanent magnet motor
(c) differentially compounded motor
(d ) comulatively compounded motor
65. If the field of a dc shunt motor gets opened while the motor is running, then the
(а) speed of motor will be reduced
(б) motor will attain dangerously high speed
(c) armature current will drop
(d) armature will oscillate about original speed as the mean speed
66. A dc cumulatively compounded motor delivers rated load torque at rated speed. If the series field
is short-circuited, then the armature current and speed will
(a) both increase
(6) both decease
(c) increase and decrease respectively
(d) decrease and increase respectively.
U.A.S., 1994]
67. A cumulatively compounded dc motor delivers rated load power at rated speed. If the series field
is short-circuited, then
(a) both armature current I a and speed OJm increase
(b) I a remains constant but m m increase
(c) l a increases and to,,, decreases
(d) both decrease
68. A 240 V dc series motor takes 40 A when giving its rated output at 1500 rpm. Its resistance is
1.
3 O. The value of resistance which must be added to obtain rated torque at 1000 rpm is
(o)6Q
(b) 5.7 Q
(c) 2.2 O
(d) 1.90
69. A dc shunt motor is running at 1200 rpm when excited with 220 V dc. Neglecting the losses and
saturation, the speed of the motor when connected to a 175 V dc supply is
(a) 750 rpm
(b) 900 rpm
(c) 1050 rpm
(d) 1200 rpm

[I.E.S., 19951
39. In a loaded' dc generator, if the brushes are given a shift from the interpolar axis in the direction
of rotation, then the commutation will
(a) improve with fall of terminal voltage V t
(b) deteriorate with fall of V*
(c) improve with rise in V*
(d) deteriorate with rise in V t
40. In a loaded dc motor, if the brushes are given a shift from the interpolar axis in the direction of
rotation, then the commutation will
(a) improve and the speed falls
(b) deteriorate and the speed rises
(c) deteriorate and the speed falls
(d ) improve and the speed rises
41. In a dc machine, the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction is due to
(а) component of armature mmf along field axis
(б) non-sinusoidal nature of armature mmf
(c) magnetic saturation in half of the field pole
(d) uneven air-gap length
[I.A.S.,
1995)
42. Which of the following factors improve commutation in a dc machine ?
2.
High contact resistance of brushes
3.
High inductance of the coils undergoing commutation
4.
Shifting of brushes in the direction of rotation for a generator and in the opposite direction
for a motor
5.
Narrow width for the commutation bars.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
Codes:
(a) 1, 2, and 3
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2 and 4
43. In a dc generator operating on load with its brushes on the geometrical neutral axis (ONA), the
magnetic neutral axis (MNA) is shifted in the direction of rotation.

Now, if the brushes are given a lead of 90° (electrical), then the MNA will
shift forward by 90°
(6) shift forward by more than 90°
(c) shift forward by less than 90°
(d ) coincide with the GNA [I.A.S., 1996]
44. The volt-ampere equation for a long-shunt compound motor is given by
(a) V t = E a +I a r a
(b) V t = E a + I a (r a + r s )
( c ) V ( = E a -l a r a
(d)V t = E a +l a r a +I L r s
45. Consider the following statements about commutating poles which are fitted on most large dc
shunt motors :
'
1. The commutating poles are placed in the geometric neutral plane and their number is usually
equal to the number of main poles
2. The winding on the commutating poles is connected in series with the shunt-field winding
on the main poles
3. The polarity of the commutating pole must be that of the next pole further ahead
4. The commutating poles neutralize the reactance voltage produced in the coil undergoing
commutation.
Of these statements,
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
(b) 1 and 4 are correct
(c) 2, 3 and 4 are correct
(d) 1, 2 and 4 are correct
46. Consider the following statements :
Interpoles in dc machines
1. reduce armature reaction effects in the interpolar region
2. have the same dimensions as main poles
3. have their windings connected in series with the armature
4. have same number of turns as the armature
5. have the polarity same as that of the main pole ahead in a motor
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 3 and 5 (c) 1, 2, 3 and 5 (d) 1 and 3
47. Consider the following statements :
1. Interpole windings are connected in series with armature winding
■■
2. Polarity of interpoles must be the same as that of the main poles in advance
3. Distortion of the main field under the pole shoes is not affected by the use of interpoles
From above, the correct answer is
(a) 1 and 2
(6) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1 alone
48. The introduction of interpoles in between the main poles improves the performance of a dc
machine, because
(a) the interpoles produce additional flux to augment the developed torque
(b) the flux waveform is improved with reduction in harmonics
(c) the inequality of air-gap flux on the top and bottom halves of the armature is removed
(d) a counter-emf is induced in the coil undergoing commutation
{/AS.,
1997]
49. In dc machines,
1. reactance voltage is proportional to armature current
2. reactance voltage is proportional to core length
3. reactance voltage is due to self-flux of the coil undergoing commutation
4. armature-cross flux is neutralized by interpolar flux
5. interpolar mmf is more than armature mmf in the interpolar zone
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(b) 1, 2, 5
(c) 2, 3, 4
. (d ) 1, 3, 5
50. The interpoles in dc machines have a tapering shape in order to
(a) reduce the overall weight
(b) reduce the saturation in the interpole
....
(c) economise on the material required for interpqles and their windings
(d) increase the acceleration of commutation
' ..
.
(a)

22. A 230-V dc series generator is driven at its rated speed. The no-load voltage across its armature
terminals would be
(a) 230 Y
(6) somewhat more than 230 V
(c) somewhat less than 230 V
(d) 6 V
23. A short-shunt cumulatively-compounded dc generator builds up a voltage of 220 V at no load at
rated speed. If it is operated as a differentially compounded generator, other things remaining
the same, it would build up
(a) 6 V
(b) 220 V
(c) more than 220 V
(d) somewhat less than 220 V
24. A belt-driven cumulatively-compound dc generator is delivering power to the dc mains. If the
belt snaps then the machine will run as a
(а) cumulative compounded motor in the same direction
(б) differentially compounded motor in the same direction
(c) cumulative compounded motor in the opposite direction
(d) differentially compounded motor in the opposite direction
25. In a dc machine,
1. physically, the brush axis is along the direct axis
2. physically, the brush axis is along the interpolar axis
3. schematically, the brush axis is along the direct axis
4. schematically, the brush axis is along the quadrature axis
5. armature mmf is directed along the brush axis
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1, 4, 5
(b)
1, 3, 5 (c) 2, 3, 5
(d ) 2,
4, 5
26. The direction of generated emf in the armature coil of a dc
machine is
1. the same asthat of the current in a generator
2. the same asthat of the current in a motor
3. opposite to that of the current in a generator
4. opposite to that of the current in a motor
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 3
( 6)
2, 3 (c) 2, 4
(d) 1, 4
27. The counter (or back) emf in a dc machine is
1. the same as generated emf in a dc motor
2. proportional to field flux and armature speed
3. not the same as generated emf in a dc motor
4. inversely proportional to field flux
5. proportional to number of armature conductors
6. constant from no load to full load
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 5
(6) 2, 4,5, 6
(c) 2, 3, 6
(d) 3, 4, 5
28. A 220-V dc machine has an armature resistance of
1
il
If the full-load current is 20 A, the difference in
the
induced voltages when the machine is running as a
motor
and as a generator is
(a) 20 V
(6) zero
(c) 40 V
{d) 50 V
29. The external load characteristics of a dc generator
at
rated speed is assumed to be lines; and is as shown
in
Fig. C.62. The load circuit comprises only
Fig. C.62.
resistance.

30, A separately-excited dc motor has an armature resistance of 0.5 Q. It runs off a 250 V dc supply
drawing an armature current of 20 A at 1500 rpm. The torque developed for an armature current
of 10 A, for the same field current, will be
(a) 15.28 Nm
(6) 15.92 Nm
(c) 15.6 Nm
(d) 16.55 Nm
31. A bipolar dc machine with interpoles has a main-pole flux of 0 per pole and an interpole flux of
0, per pole. The yoke of the machine is divided into four quadrants by the main-pole axis and
the commutation axis.
The flux-distribution in the quadrants will be
( a ) ^ (0 + 0J in all the four quadrants
( b ) | (0- 0,) in all the four quadrants
( c ) I (0 + 0,) in two diametrically opposite quadrants and | (0 - 0, :) in the remaining two
quadrants
( d ) ~ (0 + 0,) in two adjacent quadrants and ~ (0 - 0() in the remaining two quadrants
32.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
33.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
34.
(a)
(c)
35.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(a)
36.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(a)

[/.AS., 1996]
The residual magnetism of a self-excited dc generator is lost. To build up its emf again
the field winding must be replaced
the armature connection must be reversed
the field winding connection must be reversed
field winding must be excited by low voltage dc supply
[7.A.S., J993J
The armature mmf of a dc machine has
triangular space distribution and rotates at the speed of armature
trapezoidal space distribution and is stationary in space
stepped distribution and rotates at the speed of armature
triangular space distribution and is stationary in space
The flux is maximum in the following part of a dc motor :
pole core
(b) under the interpole
under leading pole tip
(d) under trailing pole tip
The armature mmf in a dc machine is
stationary with respect to field poles
stationary with respect to armature
rotating with respect to field poles
rotating with respect to armature
From these, the correct answer is
1, 4 (b) 1, 3
(c) 2, 3
(d) 2, 4
The type of dc generator used for arc welding purposes is a
series generator
shunt generator
cumulatively compounded generator
differentially compounded generator
37. The magnetic circuit of a dc shunt generator with negligible armature resistance and brush
contact voltage drop remains unsaturated when it delivers full-load current at rated
terminal
voltage. The brushes are kept in the interpolar axis and speed is maintained constant. When
the load is switched off, the terminal voltage would
remain the same
(6) increase
(c) decrease
{d) become zero
[/.A.S., 19931
38. Fig. C.63 shows the cross-section of a 2-pole dc machine. Corresponding flux density and
mmf
waveforms will be

D.C . MACHINES
1.

In dc machines, the armature windings are placed on the rotor because of the necessity for
(а) electromechanical energy conversion
(6) generation of voltage
(c) conuuuU.^(d) development of torque
2. In dc machines, the field system has to be proviueu
machines
wherein it could be on any member, because
• (a) it reduces field structure iron losses
(б) it gives more uniform air-gap flux distribution
(c) commutator action is not possible otherwise
(d) dc machines are comparatively low rating machines.
[I.A.S.,
1996]
3. In dc machines, the space distribution of air-gap flux density wave at no load is
(a) sinusoidal
(c) co-sinusoidal (c) flat-topped (d) rectangular
4. A commutator in dc machines can
1,
provide half-wave rectification
2. provide full-wave rectification
3. ; convert ac to dc
4. convert dc to ac
5. provide controlled full-wave rectification
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 2, 3, 4
(b) 1, 2, 3
(c) 2, 3, 5
(d) 2, 3, 4, 5
5. In dc machines, the space waveform of the air-gap flux distribution affects
(a) torque but not the voltage
(b) voltage but not the torque
(c) both the torque and voltage
(d) neither the voltage nor the torque
6. In dc machines, the field-flux axis and armature-mmf axis are respectively along
(a) direct axis and indirect axis
(6) direct axis and interpolar axis
(c) quadrature axis and direct axis
(d) quadrature axis and interpolar axis
7. The brush-axis of a bipolar dc motor is rotated by 90°. The effect of this rotation on the back emf
E[, and the torque developed T d would be such that
(a) both and T d are unchanged
(b ) Ef, is zero, but T d is unchanged
(c) Ef, is unchanged, but T d is zero
id) both Ef, and T d are zero
[/.A.5., 1995}
8. Five cells are connected in series in a row and then four such rows are connected in parallel to
feed the current to a resistive load of 1.25 Si. Each cell has an emf of 1.5 V with internal
resistance
of 0.2 ft. The current through the load will be
(a) 3.33 A
(b ) 23.33 A (c) 5 A
(d) 1 A
9. Consider the following statements regarding the magnetization characteristics of a dc generator:
1. It represents the variation of field flux with field current.
2. Variation of open-circuit terminal voltage with field current is independent of speed
3. It is non-linear from zero to rated field current
4. It helps to determine the critical f i e l d resistance a t a g i v e n s p e e d
5. It always starts from the origin
Which of these statements are
correct ?
(a) 1 and 4
(6) 1, 2 and 5
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 3 and 5
10. A dc shunt generator builds up to a voltage of 220 V at no load while running at its rated speed.
If the speed of the generator is raised by 25% keeping the circuit conditions unaltered, then the
voltage to which the machine would build up will
(a) not change and remain at 220 V
(b) increase to 1.25 times 220 V
(c) increase to value lying between 220 V and 1.25 times 220 V
(d) increase to a value greater than 1.25 times 220 V.
I/.A.S.,
1995]
11. The armature core of a dc machine is laminated to minimise
(a) hysteresis loss
(b) eddy-current loss
■ (c) mechanical loss
(d) temperature rise

(a)

DC machines

Synchronous machines

Induction machines

P,S

Q, T

R, U

12. The commutator segments of dc machines are made up of
(a) brass
. (6) copper .
(c) hard-drawn copper
(d) copper alloy
13. Consider the following statements regarding dc machines :
1. Possible resistance of shunt-field winding is 1 Q
'■
Z. Possible resistance ofleFifek-field winding is I Q
.,,
_
^
3. Electrographite brushes are used for 230 V, 10 A machines
4. Copper-graphite brushes are used for 230 V, 10 A machines
5. Possible armature-circuit resistance is 1
Q
From these,
theC.59.
correct statements are
Fig.
Fig. C.60.
(a) 1, 4
(b ) 2, 3, 5
(c) 2, 4, 5
(d) 1, 3,5
i B =atJ1500
m sin (cut
14. A 4-pole dc generator runs
rpm. -The frequency of current in the armature winding is
(a) 25 Hz
(b) 50Vi)
Hz
(c) zero Hz
(d) 100 Hz
15. In normal dc machines operating
full-load
conditions, the most powerful electromagnet is
i c = I m sinat(orf
+
(а)
field winding
The rotating
mmf would be directed along the axis of phase C when co< equals
(б) armature winding
(C,
W
W
(c) interpole
winding
6
T
3
(d)
and
windings together

[GATE,
79. interpole
Following
arecompensating
some of the properties
of rotating electrical machines :
1990]
P Stator winding current is dc, rotor winding current is ac
16. AQself-excited
shuntcurrent
generator
fails
to build
up, current
becauseis dc
Stator winding
is ac,
rotor
winding
1R. the
field
circuit
is
open
the armature circuit is open
Stator winding current is ac, rotor winding current 2is. ac
3.S the
residual
magnetism
absent
Stator
has salient
poles is
and
rotor has commutator 4. the direction of rotation is wrong
T Rotor
andis sliprings and stator is cylindrical
From
these, has
the salient
correctpoles
answer
U Both
stator and rotor
(a)
3 only
(b) have
1, 3 polyphase
(cj windings
1, 2, 3 and 4 (ef) 1, 2 and
DC machines, synchronous machines and induction machines exhibit some of the above proper3
ties as given in the following table. Indicate the correct combination from this table :
17. A dc shunt generator builds up 230 V when driven in clockwise direction. In case it is driven in
1
anticlockwise direction, other things remaining unchanged, then the voltage build up is
(a) 230 V
(b) somewhat less than 230 V
(c) somewhat more than 230 V
(cf) not possible
18. A separately-excited dc generator, running at rated speed, has 6 volts across its armature
terminals with no field current. When field winding is excited with one ampere, the voltage
builds up to 250 V at no load. In case field current is reduced to zero, with the speed remaining
unaltered, the armature terminal voltage would be
(a) 6 V
(b) less than 6 V
(c) more than 6 V
(d) zero
19. A dc shunt generator, when driven without any excitation, showed an open circuit voltage of
12 V. When the field winding was excited, the voltage dropped to zero. It happened because
(а) field resistance was higher than critical resistance
(б) there was no residual magnetism in the field circuit
(c) field winding was wrongly connected
(d) there was a break in the armature circuit
20. A dc shunt generator having a shunt field of 50 O was generating normally at 1000 rpm. The
critical resistance of this machine was 80 SI. Due to some reason, the speed of the prime-mover
became such that the generator just failed to generate.
The speed at that time must have been
(a) 1000 rpm
(b ) 800 rpm (cj 625 rpm (d) 500 rpm
21. A dc shunt generator, when commissioned after a major repair of the field system, failed to build
up voltage. It was because
(a) field resistance was higher than critical resistance
(b) field system lost residual magnetism
(c) field winding was wrongly connected
(d) there was a break in the armature circuit

0)

Q, U

(c)
(d)

(a)
(b)
(0
(d)

P.S
R, S
Stator surface ABC
forms

P, T

R, S

R, U

Q, T

North pole

Q, U
P, T
Torque is
Stator surface
Rotor surface abc Rotor surface cda
forms
CDA
forms
forms
South pole
North pole
South pole
Clockwise

South pole

North pole

North pole

South pole

Counter-clockwise

North pole

South pole

South pole

North pole

South pole

North pole

South pole

North pole

Counter-clockwise

Clockwise

l.(c)
8. (d)

2- (a)
7. (b)

3. (c)

4. (5)

5. (a)

8. (6)

9. (c)

10. (d)

[GATE, 2003)

ANSWERS

[GATE, 2003]
80. When stator and rotor windings of a 2-pole
rotating electrical machine are excited,
each
would produce a sinusoidal mmf
distribution
in the air-gap with peak values F s andF r
respectively. The rotor mmf lags stator
mmf
by
a space angle 8 at any instant as shown in
Fig.
C.61. Thus, half of stator and rotor surfaces
will form one pole with the other half
forming
the second pole. Further, the direction of
torque acting on the rotor can be clockwise
or

68. In rotating electrical machines, the insulation temperature limit for class B type is
(a) I05°C . lb) 130°C
(c) 150°C
(d) 180°C
69. The duty cycle of a motor is as under :

The continuous rating of the motor suitable for above motor-load application would be
(a) 20 kW
(6) 16.4 kW
(c) 14.14 kW
(d) 15.81 kW
70. A machine attains a temperature rise of 60% of its final temperature rise in one hour. Its heating
time constant is
(a) 1.0914 hr
(b) 0.9163 hr
(c) 0.513 hr
(d) 1.9581 hr
71. In a 3-phase induction motor, if the angular speed of the stator feld is o> and the actual angular
speed of the rotor is co,. and the stator induced emf is given by e s = Ni(o K ws . tj). sin (ot, (N\ =
stator
turns per phase), then the rotor emf with N 2 as the rotor turns /phase will be (K ws = stator
winding factor and K wr = rotor winding factor),
( a ) e r = N 2 m K wr ■ < j » - s i n <M
( b) e r - N 2 c o , . k wr 0 s i n t
(c) e r = N 2 ( c o — cor) K wr • <j> • sin (oet - co,.) t (d ) e T = N 2 (co + co,.) K wr tj) sin (co + co r)
t
11. (b)
13.synchronous
(c)
14. {d)
15. (d)
72.12.In(a)hydrogen-cooled
machines
(6)
(c)
16. (6)
18.machine
{b )
(c) atmospheric 20.
1. 17.pressure
inside the
is more19.than
pressure
25. (a)
21. (d)
(d)
(a)
(batmospheric
)
2. 22.pressure
inside the23.
machine
is less24.
than
pressure
26. (a)
29.more
(d) than that of30.
(d)
28. (d)
3. 27.heat-storing
capacity
of hydrogen is
air(6)
31. (c)
(a)
33. (c).
34. (6)
35. (d)
4. 32.
windage
\
80.
(c) loss decreases
36. (b )
37.5.(6) fire-hazard inside
38. (a) the machine
39. (of)
40. (b) hydrogen content is more than
is minimized because
41. (a)
45. (a)
42. (c)
43. {d)
44. (b)
46. (6)
47. (a) 70%.
48. (c)
49. {d)
50. (d)
51. (d)
52. {d) From these, 53.
54.is(b)
55. (a)
the (6)
correct answer
57.2,(a)
56. (d)
58. {d)
59. (c)
60.
. (a)
3, 4 and 5
(b)(b)
1, 3, 4 and 5
65.
61. (d)
62.(c)(a)
64. {d)
1, 3 and 5 63. (a)
(d) (6)
1, 4, and 5
66. (c)
67. (b}
68. (b)
69. (c)
70. (a)
71. (c)
72. (d)
73. (c)
74. (rf)
75. (e)
79. (a)
76. A —$ 2, B — C —> 4, D —i
77. (d)
78. (6)
> 3,
1.
. Load : 20 kW
■ - 10 kW
Rest
Duration : 120 s

120 s

60s

List 1

List II

(7^pe of load torque on motor)

(Applications)

A. continuous loads

1. punch press

B. pulsating-loads
c. ■ impact loads

2. sluice gates

D. short-time loads

4. reciprocating pumps

Codes:

3. centrifugal pumps

A
(a)

1

B
2

C

D

3

4

74 The worst type of load on a supply system is
(a) rolling mill load
(6) pumping load
(c) motors in paper mill
(d) arc furnace load
[I.E.S.,
2002]
75. List I represents the different types of electric motors, whilst list II gives some of their characteristics.
2
1
(b) '
3
4
......(O
List I

4

1

2

1-■
List II

4

2

3

(d) ,

3

:

A.

DC series motor

1. constant speed

B.
C.

DC shunt motor
3-phase induction motor

2. high-starting torque

D.

Synchronous motor

4. lower-starting torque

3. fairly constant torque

5. pulsating torque
6. very poor stability

Use the following codes to choose the correct answer:
Codes. A

BC

D

(a) 1

34

1

( 6) 1

23

5

(c) 2

14

6

(d ) 4

31

2
the right-side
Match the items in the left-side column with the most appropriate item in column
Power losses
Dependent upon
A
No-load rotational loss
1. Square of load
.
B.
Hysteresis and eddy-current losses 2. Rotor rotation
C.
D
.

Brush contact loss
Stray load loss

3. Value of flux
4. Load

From these, the correct answer is
(a) 2 alone ’
(6) 3 alone (c) 1, 4
■ • id) 2,3
52. A 3-phase star-connected winding is fed from symmetrical 3-phase supply with their neutrals
connected together. If one of the three supply lines gets disconnected, then the revolving mmf
wave will have a
(а) constant amplitude, but subsynchronous speed
(б) varying amplitude, but synchronous speed
'(c) constant amplitude, but supersynchronous speed
' (d) varying speed and a speed'fluctuating around the synchronous speed
'53. IfFj is the constant amplitude of fundamental rotating mmf wave, then for the space harmonics
. of order 6 k + 1 (where k = 1, 2, 3 ...), the harmonic mmf wave is of
(а) constant amplitude and stationary in space
(б) constant amplitude and rotates along
(c) varying amplitude and rotates along F\
(d) constant amplitude and rotates against Fj
54. The fifth harmonic mmf wave, produced by 3-phase currents flowing in 3-phase balanced winding, rotates with respect to the fundamental field (N s ==' speed of fundamental mmf wave) at a
speed of
(a) ~Ns

( b ) f 2VS

(0

(d)|iV,

55. The seventh harmonic mmf wave, produced by 3-phase currents flowing in 3-phase balanced
winding, rotates with respect to the fundamental field (N s = speed of fundamental mmf wave)
at a speed of
(a)^Ns
(b ) l N s
(c ) ~ N s

56. In a dc machine ; Z, P, I a and a are respectively the number of conductors, number of poles,
armature current and number of parallel paths. The peak value of fundamental component of
armature mmf wave is
, ,8f Z_ la
Zh
(a)
n (_ 2 P ' a
Pa
A. k
4 'Z_L
2P a
N2PA
57. In a rotating machine,
1. ARB■ sin (lot - a) C
is —>,
the backward
rotating
Ans.
D ->
mmf
77. The
balanced
2. sinusoidal
R ■ sin adistributed
is the standing
mmf3-phase windings shown in Fig. jC.59 are supplied with
balanced
3. R • 3-phase
sin (tat currents
+ a) is .the backward rotating
iA - sin (cot - Ve)
mmf
R • ( , 5JCmmf"
4. R sin (sit cos a is• stationary
cB = J„Immf
sm cot-y
5. R cos cos a is 'stationary
=
h 4i sin
(of + mmf
%)
6.
R ■ sin (0)t + a) is pulsating
standing
(cl) 1, 4, 6
From these,
thedistribution
correct answer
is
58. Chording
and
of armature
windings in rotating machines
the inangular
in start
(at =mmf
— the
value of angular position 8 of the rotating mraf F with
1. At
result
reduction
of air-gap
harmonics
2. respect
need more number of turns for a given voltage
3. to
result
in A
anaxis
increase
in the number of effective turns (6 ) %
phase
will be
4. (a)
result in the requirement of less copper in the overhang
Ve in the reduction of slot harmpnies
5. (c)
result
From
these,
the correct
answer3-phase
is
78. Sinusoidal
distributed
balanced
winding shown in Fig. C.60 is supplied with balanced
(a) 1,2,5
(b) 1,3,4
(0 2,3,5
i d ) 1, 2,4
3-phase currents:
'
,
i A ^I m sin (ast + Ve)

59. A 3-phase, 4-pole, 50 Hz squirrel cage induction motor has stator bore diameter of 0.5 m. If its
stator is cut and laid out flat, the speed of travelling field (take JT = 3.2) is
(a) 20 m/s
(6) 30 m/s
(c) 40 m/s
(d ) 50 m/s
60. Consider the principle that the torque in a rotating machine is proportional to peak of stator
mmf (Fs), rotor mmf (F r ) and the angle between them (5), Following statements relate to
F s , F r and 8 in different machines :
1. 8 is fixed in dc machine.
2. F s is fixed in dc shunt machine
3. 5 is variable in induction machine

4. F r is fixed in synchronous machine
5. F r is variable in dc machine
6. F r is fixed in induction motor
7.
Resultant of F s and F r is fixed in synchronous motor.
Of these statements :
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are correct
(b) 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 are correct
(c) 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 are correct
(d) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 are correct
61. Output rating of
1. induction motors is in h.p.
2. acmotors isinkW
3. ac generators is in kVA
4. dcmotorsisinkW
5. synchronous motors is in kVA
6. dc generators is in kVA
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1, 3, 4, 5
(6) 1, 2, 3, 4
(c) 2, 3, 4, 6
(d) 2, 3, 4
62. If<j>m is the maximum value of flux due to any one phase, then resultant flux in 2-phase and
3-phase ac machines would respectively be given by
(а) <j>m and 1.5 <j>m; both rotating
(б) <J)m and 1.5 4>m ; both stand still
(c) <t>m , standstill and 1.5 § J n rotating
(d) 1.5 and 2§ m ; both rotating
63. In all rotating electrical machines, electrical torque is developed when relative speed between
stator field and rotor field is
(а) zero
(б) equal to rotor speed
(c) equal and opposite to rotor speed
{d) dependent upon the type of electrical machine
64. No-load rotational losses in electrical machines consist of
(a) Friction and windage (Fand IF) losses
(b) stator core, F and IF losses
(c) rotor core, Fand IF losses
( d ) no-load core, F and IF losses
65. Consider the following statements regarding efficiency of electrical machines :
1.
Efficiency should be calculated by measuring output and input •
2.
Efficiency is maximum when constant losses = variable losses
3.
Electrical machines are designed to have maximum efficiency at full bad
4.
Electrical machines are designed to have maximum efficiency at near about full load
5.
Efficiency should be calculated by measuring the losses
6.
Efficiency is maximum when constant losses -x (variable losses)
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 3, 6
(b) 2,4,5
(c) 1,2,3
(<2)4, 5,6
66. If Pj be the iron loss and P 0 be the ohmic loss on full load, then which of the following conditions
has to be satisfied to obtain maximum efficiency at 3/4 full load ?
( a ) P 0 = 3 P/4 (b) P a = 4 P/3(c) P 0 = 1 6 P / 9 (d) P 0 = 9 P ; / 1 6
67. For estimating the power rating of an electric derive, its losses can be considered to be proportional
to
(a) power

2

(b) (power)

3

(c) (power)

(d ) torque

increased total generated emf
saving in winding copper
,
From these, the correct answer is
''•
(a) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 (6) 1, 2, 6
(c) 1, 2, 4, 6
(d) 1, 3, 4, 6
31. A 3-phase machine has integral slot winding with fundamental distribution factor A rfl. For slot
harmonics, the distribution factor is
(a) less than k d l
(6) more than ^
(c) equal to k d x .
(d) depends upon the number of slots and poles
32. Consider the following statements : ■
1. breadth factor for third harmonic is more than that for fundamental kji
Z-kd3<lldi
3.
kfa may be less or more than ^ depending upon the number of slots and poles
6.
7.

4.

coil-span factor for third harmonic &p3 > k p i (coil-span factor for fundamental)

5.

kp$ < kpi

6.

kp3 may be less or more than depending upon the number of slots and poles.

From these, the correct answer is
(a)2,5
(6)1,4
(c) 3, 6
(d) 1, 3, 4, 6
33. In order to minimise both fifth and seventh harmonics, the coil-span in three-phase ac machines
must be
■*


(a) 144°
(b) --th of pols pitch
(c) “th of pole pitch
(d) 120°
o
34. A synchronous machine has full-pitch coils having coil-span of 12 slots. For eliminating third
harmonic, the coil-span should be
(a) 6 slots
(6) 8 slots
(c) 9 slots
(d) 10 slots
35. Machine A has 60° phase spread and machine B has 120° phase spread. Both the machines have
uniformly distributed winding. The ratio of distribution factors of machine A to machine B is
(a) 0.866
(6)1.1
(c.) 1.55
(d) 1.155
36. The emf generated in an alternator depends upon
1. speed
2. maximum flux per pole
3. series turns per phase
4. phase spread
- 5. coil-span
6. type of alternator
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
(6) 1, 3, 4, 5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6
(d) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
37. A 3-phase alternator is wound with a 60 degree phase spread armature winding and develops
300 kVA. If the armature is reconnected utilizing all the coils for single-phase operation with a
phase spread of 180 degree, the new rating of the machine is
(a) 100 kVA
(6) 200 kVA
(c) 250 kVA
(d) 300 kVA
38. A 3-phase alternator is wound with a 60 degree phase-spread armature winding and develops
300 kVA. If the armature is reconnected utilizing all the coils for two-phase operation, the new
rating of the machine would be
(a) 282.8 kVA (6) 259.8 kVA (c) 200 kVA
(d) 173.2 kVA
39. The armature of a single-phase alternator is completely wound with T single-turn coils distributed uniformly. The. induced voltage in each turn is 2 ¥ (rms). The emf of the whole winding
is
(a) 2 T volts
(6) 1.11 T volts (c) 1.414 T volts (d) 1.273 T volts

[GATE, 19981

40. The armature of a star-connected alternator is uniformly wound with T coils, each coil having
N full-pitched turns. The generated emf per conductor is 2 V (rms). The per-phase emf is
(b) — NT
(d) — NT
(c) — NT
(a) - NT volts
volts
volts
n
n
volts
41. A 6-pole alternator with 36 slots carries a 2-phase distributed winding. Each coil is short-pitched
by one slot. The winding factor is given by
, , cot 15°
cot 15°
. , cot 15°
(<0cot 15°
<») 4 ■
{a )
v-/ 2 V2
6
~3ir
42. The chording angle for eliminating 5th harmonics should be
(a) 30°
(b) 34°
(c) 36°
. (d) 35° .
.
'
43. If Ei, E$ and E 5 are respectively the rms values of fundamental, third and fifth harmonic voltages
generated in each phase of a star-connected alternator, then the line voltage is
(a) 3
'
(6) V3 Vif+ E I + E 5
(c) 'IS +jgf
'
(d).V3^sfTIf
44. In a 3-phase ac machine, phase emf is and output is Pj for a narrow-spread, whereas phase
emf is JE2 and output is P2 for a wide-spread. Here E1( U2, P^ and P2 are related as under :
(a) Ei~E 2 ; P1 = 1.15P2
(i)
= 1.15 ; Pr= 1.15 P2
(c) E2 = 1.15 E x; Pj = 1.15 P2
(d) £2 = 1.15 Ej; P2 = 1.15 PL
45. Mmf produced by one AT-turn coil carrying a current i is
(a) rectangular of amplitude

46.

47.

48.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
49.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
50.
(c)
51.
1.
2.
3.
4.

(b) trapezoidal of amplitude

Ni

(c) rectangular of amplitude Ni
(d) trapezoidal of amplitude Ni
Peak value of fundamental component of mmf produced by one AT-turn coil carrying a current i
(b) - Ni
[a) — •
u
(c) — Ni
Ni
n
K
A winding of 20 full-pitched series turns, distributed over a band of 60° under each pole, carries
a current of 3A. The winding produces a uniform current sheet of density (in ATs per electrical'
rad.) of
180
, , 90
(a)
{C)
T
A sinusoidal current sheet in a rotating electrical machine has peak value along q-axis. The peak
value of sinusoidal mmf would be
in phase with current peak
90° lagging the current peak
90° leading the current peak
may lag or lead depending upon the type of machine
A uniformly distributed winding on the stator has three full-pitched coils, each coil having N
turns and each turn carrying a current i. The mmf produced by this winding is
sinusoidal in waveform with an amplitude 3 Ni
sinusoidal in waveform with an amplitude 3 Ni/2
trapezoidal in waveform with an amplitude 3 Ni
trapezoidal in waveform with an amplitude 3 Ni/2
The armature mmf wave in a dc machine is
(a) sinusoidal and depends on the speed
(b) square and independent of speed n
triangular and depends on speed
id) triangular and independent of speed
The armature mmf wave in a dc machine is triangular and
rotates with respect to stator
is stationary with respect to stator
rotates with respect to armature
is stationary with respect to armature

4. chorded coils require more conductor
material
5..in chorded coils, coil span < 180°
electrical
6. in chorded coils, coil span may be less or more than 180° electrical.
From these, the correct statement is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
. ■ (6) 1, 2, 3, .5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6
(d) 2, 3, 5
12. If B p = peak value of sinusoidal flux-density wave, L- armature core length, D - armature
13. '.Flux per pole, $ • B p ■ LD 2. Average- flux-density,
B av = — • J3_
3
4. B„ - BB
3 . < { > — p - BpL D
-h P
P(j)
_£J>
5.
=
6. B n „ =
ji DL
nr l
From these, the correct answer is
to) 1,2, 5
[6)2, 3,5
(c) 2, 3, 6
(d) 3, 4, 5
14. The belt factor is defined as the ratio of
(а) arithmetic sum of coil emfs to the phasor sum of coil emfs
(б) phasor sum of emf per coil to the arithmetic sum of emf per
coil
(c) phasor sum of coil emfs to the arithmetic sum of coil emfs
{d) phasor sum of coil emfs to the per phase voltage
15. A fraction-pitch winding is used to reduce
1. amount of copper in the winding
2. size of the machine
3. harmonics in the generated emf
4. cost of the machine
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(6)1, 2, 3
(c) 2, 3, 4
(d) 1, 3, 4
16. The pitch factor, in rotating electrical machinery, is defined as the ratio of resultant emf of a
(a) full-pitched coil to that of a chorded coil
(6) full-pitched coil to the phase emf
(c) chorded coil to the phase emf
(d) chorded coil to that of a full-pitched coil
17. For a 3-phase uniformly distributed and narrow-spread winding, the distribution factor is
(o) 0.9
(6) 0.955
(c) 0.827
(d) 0.97
18. The armature winding of a 2-pole, 3-phase alternator for each phase is distributed in a
number
of slots per phase. The rms value of the voltage per phase is less than the rms value of the
voltage
per coil multiplied by the number of coils in series because the
(а) rms value of the voltage in different coils of the phase is different
(б) equal rms voltages in different coils of the phase has mutual phase difference
(c)
value alternator
of the induced
voltage
different
coils
of the phase
are different
18. Amaximum
3-phase, 4-pole
has 48
stator in
slots
carrying
a 3-phase
distributed
winding. Each
coil of the winding is short chorded by one slot pitch. The winding factor is given by
cos 7.5
cot 7.5
,,
1
, d„ cot 7.5
(g) —;-7~
(b) —“
(c) —JTW7
( )
16
8 sin 7.5
16
8
19. The windings for a 3-phase alternator are :
1. 36 slots, 4 poles, span 1 to 8
2. 72 slots, 6 poles, span 1 to 10
3. 96 slots, 4 poles, span 1 to 21
The windings having pitch factor of more than 0.97 are
(a) 1 and 2 only (6) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
20. Consider the following statements regarding the design of distributed armature winding in a
3-phase alternator :
21. It reduces the phase-belt harmonics
22. It increases the utilization of the armature iron and copper

1.

It increases rigidity and mechanical strength
of the winding
>-ANSWERS'
2. It reduces copper in the overhang of the
winding
Which of these statements are correct ?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 (6) 2, 3 and 4 (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
23. If the dimensions of all the parts of a synchronous generator, and the number of field and
armature turns are doubled, then the generated voltage will change by a factor of
(a) 1
(6)2
(c}4
id) 8
24. Two 3-phase ac generators are such that one has twice the linear dimensions of the other. The
field windings of each are excited to give identical sinusoidal air-gap flux density waveform. Both
have the same number of stator slots and identical winding patterns. The conductors per slot in
big generator is If times that of the smaller one. The value of K to get equal no-load voltage at
same frequency is
(a)8
<6)4
(c)|
(<*)|
(d) of iron and conductor materials, are
. (d) transformers
■ . 3.of
(e)the same type,4.using
(d) the same' 5,
25. 2Two
grade
10. (b); but the linear dimensions of one are
to work
and
7.designed
(c)
■ 8.at
(e)the same flux 9.
(b)current densities
of(a)
the other in' .all
The ratio
of kVA ratings of the two transformers
12two
. (c)times those13.
14.respects.
(6)
15. (a)
. (a)
17,closely
(a) . equals 18. (d)
19. (d)
20. (c)
18.
22.
(d)16
(a)
(c)(b)
4
(d)(c)2
•;
21 (a)
23.(6(C)) :8^ 24.
' 25.
.26. (c)
For eliminating
nth(a)harmonic from29.the
in the phase of a 3-phase alternator, the
■ 26.
27. (b)
■' 28.
(d)emf generated
' 30. (d)
chording
angle; should
be
.. . 34. (d)
35. (a)
31. (d)
32.
(d)
33. (d) ■
40, (c)
36. (c)
37. (6)
38. (b)
39. (d)
(a) n x full-pitch (a)
(6) — x full-pitch
41. (6) - ■' ■ ' -42. (e)
■ 43.
' -44. id)
45. (c)n
46. A -»3, £ ! —> 4, C —1, D —> 2, (a)
. -48. (d)
(c) - x full-pitch
(d) - x full-pitch
47.
n
n
27. For eliminating nth harmonic from the emf generated in one phase of a 3-phase alternator, the
coil-span (pitch of the coils) must be
1. (a)
6. (a)
11 ■(d)

(a) — — x full-pitch

(6) ——- x full-pitch

n

n

(c) —~ x full-pitch
(d) x full-pitch
n+l

n ■f 1
28. For eliminating 5th harmonic from the phase emf generated in an alternator, the coil-span in
terms of full-pitch (or pitch fraction) would be
(a)|
(6)|
(c,f
«f..
29. In 48 slot, 4-pole, 3-phase alternator, the coil-span is 10. Its distribution and pitch factors are
respectively
(a) 0.9717, 0.966
(6) 0.9822, 0.9814
(c) 0.9577, 0.9814
(d) 0.9577, 0.966
30. In an alternator, frequency per; revolution is equal to ■
(a) number of poles
)
(6) twice the number of poles
(c) speed in rps
(d) number of pole-pairs :
31. A 6-pole machine is rotating at a speed of 1200 rpm. This speed in mechanical rad/sec and
electrical radians per sec is respectively
'' .
(a) 40 k, ^
32.
1.
2.
3.
4.

(6) 120 71,40 k

(c) 20 x, 60 it
id) 40 it, 120 it
The short-pitch winding for an alternator gives
improved waveform of the generated emf per phase ,
reduced value of self-inductance of the winding
increased rating of machine
reduced tooth ripples


*
1

40. Four electromagnetic
rotating machines
are shown in Fig.
C.57. These are
labelled 1, 2, 3 and
BASIC CONCEPTS
OF ROTATING
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES
4. 1. (1?:
; Sangle"S
: stator)is defined as the angle between
The rotor
torque
EMT is produced in Figs.

(a)
( b)

(c)
(d)

RT is produced in Figs.

(a) stator
field
1, 3,
4 axis and resultant field axis
3,4
(b) rotor field axis and resultant field axis
1, 2, 3, 4
1. 3,4
(c) stator field axis and rotor field axis
1, 2,field
3 • axis and mutual field axis
1, 3,4
(d) stator
1,
2,
3
1. 2, 3
2. The interaction torque depends on
1. stator field strength
2. rotor field strength
3. torque angle §
4, sinS ...
5. cosS - / n .. .
-From these, .the correct answer is .
•■
.■
■.
(a) 1, 2, 4
( b ) 1,2,5
(c) 1, 2, 3
(d) 1, 2 . .. '■
..
..
Fig. €.57.
3. Armature winding is one in which working'
(a) flux
is produced
by field current
'
(b) flux
is produced
by the
working
These
machines
may produce
electromagnetic
torque (EMT),
reluctance
torque
(RT)
or bothemf
EMT
(c) RT.
emf is produced by the working flux
(d) emf is produced by the leakage flux
and
4. Large
are constructed
with
armature winding on the stator because
Use synchronous
the followingmachines
codes to choose
the correct
combination
1
stationary armature winding
'
Codes:
1. can be insulated satisfactorily for higher voltages 2. can be cooled more efficiently
3. would lead to reduced slip-ring losses
4. would .have no slot harmonics •' •
5. would have reduced armature reactance
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(6) 1, 2, 3, 5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
5. A pole pitch in electrical machines is
(a) = 180° electrical
(c) > 180° electrical
6,

7.
8.
9.

10.

(d) 1, 2, 4, 5
(b ) = 180° mechanical
(d) < 180° electrical

For a P-pole machine, the relation between electrical and mechanical degrees is given by
_2
4
(s) 0 e / ec — p • 0mec/t
(b) 8 e / ec — — ^ 8 mgc f l
P
P
(c) 0mecA ~ ~ 2 ’ ®e/ee
(d) ®elec = Tj"' 0/neeA
A coil consists of
(a) two conductors
(6) two coil-sides
(c) two turns
(d) four turns
One turn consists of
(a) two coil-sides
(b)
twoconductors
(c) four conductors
(d) four coil-sides
In ac rotating machines, the generated or speed emf
(a) is in phase with the working flux <p
(6) leads <j) by 90°
(e) lags ^ by 90°
(d) lags <J> by 180°
A winding is distributed in the slots along the air-gap periphery
1.
to add mechanical strength to the winding
2.
to reduce the amount of conductor material required
3.
to reduce the harmonics in the generated emf
4.
to reduce the size of the machine
5.
for full utilization of iron and conductor materials

From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 3, 4, 5
(d) 1, 2, 4, 5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 5
(d) 1, 3, 5
11. Consider the following statements about the chorded coils :
1. chorded coils reduce the magnitude of output voltage
2. chorded coils lead to reduction in harmonics
3. chorded coils give better generated emf waveform

reducesmagnetic
to half relay, armature is in open position.(d)
doubled moves towards the
26. In(c)
a simple
As gets
the armature
46.
on the
side with
thef emost
appropriate
figureB gonand
thef eright
yokeMatch
underthe
theitems
influence
ofleft
magnetic
force
, air-gap
flux density
varyside
as under :
(a) B g increases and f e decreases
(fe) Both decrease
■ (c)
' Both increase
Torque
id) B g decreases and f e increases
(a)
(fe)

27.3 In an electric machine, if4L = slot length and D = slot depth, then slot leakage flux is proportional to

(c)

(c) D/L
id)
(fe) LD 4
1(a) LD
D
1
2
28. In an electric machine, if Z = conductors per slot and W = slot width, then the slot leakage flux

id)

3

2

A. Only reluctance torque is developed
is proportional to
{d)
(a)Z/W
(fe)ZW
(c)f
YW
29. Singly- and doubly-excited magnetic systems are respectively :
(a) loud-speakers and tachometers
B.
torque
(fe)Electromagnetic
synchronous motors
andalone
moving-iron instruments
is developed
(c) dc shunt
machines and solenoids
(d) reluctance motors and synchronous motors
30. Reluctance torque in rotating machines is present when
1. air gap is not uniform
2. C.
reluctance
seen by stator mmf varies with rotor movement
No torque
is
3. reluctance
seen by rotor mmf varies with rotor movement
develope
4. reluctance
seen by the working mmf varies with rotor
d
41. A parallel-plate
capacitor has a capacitance of 10 pF. If the linear dimensions of the plates are
movement
doubled and distance between them is also doubled, then new value of capacitance would be
(a) 10From
pF these, the correct answer is
(6) 20 pF
(a) 51,pF
2, 3, 4 (fe) 4 only (c) 2, 3
{d) 40
2, 3,
(c)
(d)
pF4
D. BothElectromagnetic
electromagnetic torque
and reluctance
torques
incharged
rotating
electrical
machinery
is present
42. 31.
Aareparallel-plate
capacitor
is
and
then
the
dc
supply
is disconnected. Now the plate
developed
when is allowed to decrease due to force of attraction between the two plates. As a
separation
(a) air gap is uniform
consequence
(fe) stator winding alone carries current
2. charge on the plates remains constant
. charge
on thealone
platescarries
increases
(c) 1rotor
winding
current 4. capacitance C remains constant
3.
capacitance
C
increases
(d) All
bothpractical
stator and
rotor windings6.carry
current
32.
electromechanical
energy
conversion
devices
make use of the magnetic field rather
potential
difference
decreases
5.than
potential
difference
the electric
field increases
as the coupling
medium.
This
is because
8.
energy
stored
increases
ANS
. energy
A —>, stored
B —C —D—>
7.(a)
electric fielddecreases
systems present insulation difficulties
these,
the
correct
answer
ismore dielectric
47. From
Twoelectric
conductors
are
carrying
and return
current
of +magnetic
/ and - I loss
as shown
Fig. power
C.58. The
(fe)
field
systems
haveforward
loss
than the
for theinsame
(a)
1,
3,
6
(6) 2, 4,
magnetic
H 8at point(c)
P is
2, 3, 6, 7
(d ) 2,4, 5, 8
rating field
of theintensity
machine
A parallel-plate
capacitor
is charged
the dc
is disconnected.
The plate(c) 43.
in electric
field systems,
for normal
electric and
fieldthen
strength,
the supply
stored energy
density is high
separation
(d) in magnetic
field systems, for normal magnetic flux density, the stored energy density is high
thentotal
increased.
Between the
plates,
+i
(e) isThe
electromagnetic
torque
developed by a motor may-ibe expressed in a
1. electric-field
is unchanged©
2. flux density decreases
general formintensity
as
0
3. potential difference decreases
4. energy stored increases
From these, the correct answer is
y
(a)
1, 4of the following are
2, 4 and third terms on the right-hand
Which
represented by the first, (b)
second
(c)
2,
3,
4
Fig. C.58. (d) 1, 3, 4
side of this equation ?
A parallel-plate
to a torque
dc source. Now the plates are allowed to move a
1. 44.
Accelerating
torque capacitor is connected
2. Damping
{b)
small
i d* 4. Load torque
(a)3. Friction torque
ltd'
displacement
under
the
influence
of
force
of
attraction
Select the correct combination using the following codes<*2
: h*between the two plates. As a result
1. J charge on the plates increases
2. charge on plates remains constant
(C)
[GATE,
Third
term [C] 2003}
Codes:
3.2^ energy stored increases
4. energy stored remains
constant
Second term
First term
5. electric-field intensity is unchanged
6. flux density increases
48. AFrom
parallel
plate
has an iselectrode area of 100 mm 2, with a spacing of 0.1 mm between
these,
thecapacitor
correct answer
the
The dielectric between the plates is air with
permittivity of 8.85 x 10'12 F/m,
(a) electrodes.
2,4,5
(6)2,a 3,6
The
charge
on
the
capacitor
is
100
V.
The
stored
energy
in
the
capacitor
is
(c) 1, 3, 5
(d) 1, 3,
6
(a)8.85pJ
) 440 pJ these plates is also doubled but
45. Area of two parallel plates is doubled, distance(6between
( c ) 2capacitor
2.1 nJ
(d) 44.3 n J
[GATE,
2003}voltage is kept constant. Under these conditions, force between the plates of this capacitor

33. The general expression for the instantaneous value of the torque of dynamo-electric machine
is
given by
\ 1 O DLX ^ . , , l l dM
T
+ l 2~
^LJ + 2^
dL 2
where ij and t2 are stator and rotor currents respectively
d 0
Lx and I2 are stator and rotor windings’ self-inductances respectively
M is the mutual inductance between stator and rotor windings and 0 is the angular
displacement
of the rotor.
- For a synchronous machine (cylindrical rotor), the torque is given by only the third term of the
equation, because
(a) the average value of (ij)2 and (t2)2 each is zero
(fe) the first and second terms cancel each other
dLx dL-i
dLx/d 0 (ij)
(c)
7?and d? w positivesign and rfiPde=^5
(d) Lj and L 2 do not vary with respect to 0
34. A rotating electromechanical energy conversion device has uniform air gap. If 5 is the space angle
between the axes of stator field and rotor field, then the average torque developed is proportional
to (A and B are constants)
(a) A sin 8
(6) A sin 25
(c) A sin 5 +£ sin 2 5
(d ) 8
35. An electromechanical energy conversion device has cylindrical stator but salient-pole rotor. If
8 is the angle between the stator field and rotor field, the average torque developed is
proportional
to (A and B are constants )
(a) A sin 8
(6) A sin28
(c) A sin 8 + B sin 28
(d) 8
36. An electromechanical energy conversion device has cylindrical stator but salient-pole rotor Rotor
is not excited. If 8 is the angle between stator field and rotor-long axis, then average torque
developed is proportional to (A and B are constants)
( a ) A sin 8
(fe) A sin28
(c) A sin 8 + B sin 28
(d) zero
37. In an electromechanical energy conversion device, both stator and rotor have salient-pole configuration. Stator carries a winding but rotor is made from ferromagnetic material. If 8 is the
space angle between the stator-field axis and long-rotor axis, then the average torque developed
is proportional to (A andf? are constants) :
(a) A sin 8
(6) A sin 28
(c) A sin 8 + B sin 28
(d) 8
38. Four singly-excited electromagnetic structures are shown in Fig. C.56 and labelled I, II, III and
IV {R : Rotor ; S : Stator),

1
and 4
1
and 2
The reluctance
torque can be developed in
(a)
2 I and
andIV
3 (fe) II and III (c) III and IV (d) III alone
3
and 4

(b) to decrease the stored energy at constant flux
(c) to decrease the coenergy at constant mmf
(d} to decrease the stored energy at constant mmf
[GATE,
1992 ]
15. The developed electromagnetic force and/or torque in electromechanical energy conversion systems acts in a direction that tends to
1. increase the coenergy at constant flux
2. increase the coenergy at constant mmf
3. decrease the stored energy at constant mmf
4. decrease the stored energy at constant
flux
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 2, 4
(b) 1, 3
(c) 2, 3
(d) 1, 4
16. Electromagnetic force or torque developed in any physical system tends to
1. decrease both field energy and coenergy at constant current
2. increase both field energy and coenergy at constant current
3. increase the permeance
4. decrease the inductance
5. decrease current at constant flux linkages.
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 2, 3, 5
(b) 1, 3, 4
(c) 1, 3, 4, 5
(d) 1, 3, 5
17. Avpfiysical system of electromechanical energy conversion consists of a stationary part creating
a magnetic field with electric energy input and a moving part giving mechanical energy output.
If now the movable part is kept fixed, the entire electrical energy input will be
(a) stored in the magnetic field
(b) stored in the electric field ;
(c) divided equally between the magnetic and electric fields
(d) zero
18. An electromagnetic relay has linear magnetic circuit. If the armature moves slowly to shorten
the air gap, then
1.

mechanical work done, W me c h = ^ (electrical energy input, W e{ e c )
2

- Wmech

=

W de c

3.

field energy stored, Wfj d = ^ W de c

4.

W fl d = W me ch
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(b) 1, 2, 3
1, 2, 4
(d) 1, 3, 4
A magnetic relay has linear magnetization curve at its open and closed positions. If the armature
moves slowly from open to closed position, then electrical energy input to the relay
gets stored in the magnetic field
gets converted into mechanical work
gets divided equally between the magnetic and electric fields
gets divided equally between magnetic field and mechanical work
Consider the following statements relating to the singly-excited electromechanical system of Fig.
C.54.
Here i and \j/ are current and flux linkages of the coil respectively, x is the position of the
armature
from a reference.
1. Magnetic stored energy decreases with increased value of x

(c)
19.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
20.

2.

Force on the armature acts in a direction to increase
x
3. Electromagnetic force is equal to the rate of
decrease of stored magnetic field energy with
displacement at constant flux
4. Force is equal to the rate of increase of coenergy
with displacement at constant current
Of these statements
(а) 1, 3 and 4 are correct
(б) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
(c) 2, 3 and 4 are correct
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

Fig. C.54
[I.A.S., 1995]

21. When a transformer winding suffers a short-circuit, the adjoining turns of the same winding
experience
1. an attractive force
2. a repulsive force
3. no force
4. an attractive force proportional to currents
5. a repulsive force proportional to currents
6. an attractive force inversely proportional to distance between adjoining turns
7. an attractive force directly proportional to distance between adjoining turns
8. a repulsive force inversely proportional to distance between adjoining turns
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1, 4, 6
(6) 1, 4, 7
(c) 3
(d) 2, 5, 8
22. Consider the following statements :
The force per unit length between two stationary parallel wires carrying (steady) currents
1. is inversely proportional to the separation of wires
2. is proportional to the magnitude of each current
3. satisfies Newton’s third law
Of these statements
(a) 1 and 2 are correct
(b) 2 and 3 are correct
(c) 1 and 3 are correct
(d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
23. Magnetic flux density at a point distant R due to an infinitely long linear conductor carrying a
current I is given b]'
I
(d) B = V.I2
(a) B = 2 p n R (b)B = JLL
(c)B = JLL
2R
2KR
2
TC R
24. The energy stored in the magnetic field of a
solenoid
30
cm long and 3 cm diameter wound with 1000 turns
of
wire carrying a current of 10 A is
(a) 0.015 joule
(6) 0.15 joule
(c) 0.5 joule
(d) 1.15 joule
25. In Fig. 0,55, a free rotating permanent magnet R
lies
between the poles of a stator. If dc supply is
connected
to the terminals AB, the rotor will
{a) start rotating

ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION PRINCIPLES
1. An electromechanical energy conversion device is shown in Fig, C.52. The instantaneous value
of armature induced emf, bus bar voltage and armature current are respectively e, v and i.
T e , T a and w,. represent external torque, armature
developed torque and angular velocity of shaft
respectively. Assume that the given directions of
parameters in the given figure are positive. If the
device is working in generating mode then
(a) all parameters will have the positive direction
'(b) e, v, T e and w r will have negative direction and
others will remain in positive direction
(c) T a and i will have negative direction and others
Fig. C.52
will remain in positive direction
(d) T e and w r will have negative direction and others will remain in positive direction.
If Wfij = field energy stored, then magnetic force developed in a singly-excited linear magnetic

2.

3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

4.

system is given by
a w nd (y, X)
, saturation may, or may not, be neglected
1 •£ = dx
d wm ( d ,
fe~~
saturation is included
x)
3.£ = +
dx
saturation is included
d
( F,
4.£ = +
x)

saturation is neglected.
dx
From these,
the(t,correct
answer is
9 Wf,d
X)
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(6) 2, 3
(c) 2, 3, 4
(d) 1, 2, 4
A coupling magnetic field must react with
electrical system in order to extract energy from mechanical system
mechanical system in order to extract energy from mechanical system
electrical system in order to extract energy from electrical system
mechanical system in order to extract energy from electrical system
both electrical and mechanical systems for electromechanical energy conversion
electrical or mechanical system for electromechanical energy conversion.
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (b) 1, 4, 5
(c) 2, 3, 6
(d) 2, 3, 5
In a magnetic system, if \|/ = flux linkages, then
1. field energy stored, + co-energy, WpJ = ~ f - i
2 Wp d + Wpj = \}/ i

j

d..W fl d + W fl d ' = Ft
5 - Wfl d + Wpj ~~Li 2
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 3, 4
(6) 2, 3, 5
(c) 1, 3, 4, 5

(d) 2, 3, 4

«*. 131.
For electromechanical
conversion
is essential
that coupling
magnetic
fieldside :
Match the items onenergy
the left-hand
side process,
with the itmost
appropriate
item on the
right-hand
reacts on
( a ) electrical system
(b ) mechanical system
(c) both electrical and mechanical systems
\ d ) electric or mechanical system
Type
Application
6. In the magnetic circuit of\ Fig.
C.53, the coil is excited by
a current I. Choose the 1.correct
statement
the folA. Power transformer
Thyristor
firing from
circuits
lowing :
Distribution
transformer
2.
Impedance
matching
B.

( a ) Most of the magnetic energy will get stored in the air

gap
. _ ' 3. At different city
€. Pulse transformer
( btransformer
) Most of the magnetic
energy
will get
stored in the
Audio-frequency
4. localities
At
generating
stations
D.
iron
core
( c ) The magnetic energy stored will be stored almost
equally in the iron core and the air gap
( d ) All the magnetic energy will be stored in the iron
Magnetic stored-energy density in iron is given by

8. The energy stored in a magnetic field is given by
■ 1-

2. | t f R l 3. |( m m f ) 2 R

From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(6)1, 2, 3
(c) 1, 2, 4
( d ) 1, 3,
9. A
4 linear magnetic circuit has flux linkages of 1.2 Wb-turns when a current of 10 A flows through
its coil. The energy stored in the magnetic field of this coil, in Joules, is
(a) 12
(6) 6
(c) 1.2
( d ) 24
10. The electromagnetic force and/or torque, developed in any physical .system, acts in such a
direction as to tend to
( а ) decrease the magnetic stored energy at constant mmf
(б) decrease the magnetic stored energy at constant flux
(c) increase the magnetic stored energy at c o n s t a n t f l u x
(d) increase the magnetic stored energy at constant current
11. The electromagnetic force, developed in any physical system, acts in such a direction^ to tend
to
by
(а) decrease the coenergy at constant mmf
'xy
(б) increase the coenergy at constant flux
(c) decrease the coenergy at constant flux
( d ) increase the coenergy at constant mmf
12. The electromagnetic torque, developed in any physical system and with magnetic"saturationneglected, acts in such a direction as to tend to
(a) decrease both the reluctance and inductance ■
l b ) increase both the reluctance and inductance
( c ) decrease the reluctance anti increase the inductance
( d ) increase the reluctance and decrease the inductance
N —
13. Electromagnetic force and/or torque, developed in any physical system, acts in xsuch a direction
as to tend to
(а) increase both the field energy and co-energy at constant current
(б) increase the field energy and decrease the co-energy at constant
current
(c) decrease both the field energy apd co-energy at constant current
- (d ) decrease the field energy and increase the co-energy at constant current. '
14. The developed electromagnetic force and/or torque in electromechanical .energy conversion sys1
tems act in such a direction that tends
x'
(a) to increase the stored energy at constant mmf .
.

(a) 86.7%

(6) 88.26%

(c) 88.9%

{d) 87.8%

ANSWERS
3. (6)
4. (6)
5. (c)
8. (c)
9. (c)
- 10, (a)
13. (a)
14. (a)
15. (b)
16. (a)
17. (c)
18. (6)
19. (c)
20. (c)
;R = 10JCI
21. (c)
22. (a)
23. (c)
24. (b)
25. (d)
26. (6)
27. (b)
28. (c)
29. (a)
30. (c)
31. (d)
32. (c)
33. (a)
34. (a)
35. (c)
36. (b)
37. (a)
38. (c)
39. (6)
40. (d)
41. (a).
42. id)
43. (6)
44. (c)
45. (a)
47. (6)
48. [d)
49. (a)
50. (6)
46. (d)
132. Which of the following statements are incorrect ?
52. (c)
53. (6)
54. (b)
55. (d)
51. (d)
1. Maximum voltage regulation of a transformer occurs at leading power factor
56. (a)
57. (d)
58. (a)
59. (a)
60. (d)
2. C.51
Voltage
regulation
of a transformerThe
is the
maximum
when load power-factor (lagging) angle
138.
shows
three
windings
61, (c)
62. (Fig.
6)
63. (6an
) ideal transformer.
64. (a)
65. (c) , 3 of the transformer are wound
has the same value as the angle of equivalent impedance
1,
66. (b)
67. (a)
68. {b)
69. (a)
70. (6) 2 1. A resistor of 10 Q is connected
3. Voltage regulation of a transformer at zero power factor is across
alwayswinding-3.
zero
Winding-1 is
71. (c)
72. (a)
73. (as
6) shown. The 74.
(6ratio
)
(c) is
on the same core
turns
: N% 75.
■ N%
4.
Voltage
regulation
of
a
transformer
can
be
negative
at
leading
power
factor
=
400
Z0°,
the supply current
76. (6)
77. (a)
78. (d)
79. (a)
80. (6)
4:2:
81. (b)
82. (tf)winding-2.
Select83.
thecapacitor
(a)
correct answer
84.
using
(c) the
85. (e)
below :
across
A
of reactance
2.5codes
Q is given
connected
86. (a)
87. (d)
(c) V, ac supply.
89. (6
(e) -j 10) A
connected
a .400
If) the supply90.voltage
Codes:across 88
91. (6)
92. (d)(a) 1 and 3 93, (a)(b ) 2 and 3 94. (a)
) 4 95. (c)( d ) 110and
phasor
) A4
[GATE, [ I . A . S . ,
(e)&2(6and
96. (d)
97.
98. (c)1 9 9 3 }
99. (c)
100. (6)
is (a)
given by
2003]
101. (c)
102
.
(d)
103.
(c)
104.
(d)
105.
(c)
(a)
133.
(- 10
When
+jf 10)
a short-circuit
A
test is conducted on a single-phase
(6) (- 10 - transformer, 30% of the rated voltage
106. (a)
107.
(a) is required
109.current.
(a)
110
loadfactor
and unity
powertofactor.
The short-circuit
power
is found
be 0.2. The
(e) (lO+y
10) A108.to(c)allow full-load
id). ((d)
10-/ full
112. (a) percentage
113.(6)
114.
115. (a)
111. (a)
regulation at UPF
is (d)
117.(6) (a) 30 118. id) (6) 29.5 119. (c)(c) 15
120. (c)(d) 6
116. (d)
IIA.S.,
122. (a)
123. (d) 1993) 124. (6)
125. (6)
121. (d)
127.
(6)A bank of
128.
(d) identical single-phase
129. (6)
130. 11
(6) kV/230 V transformer is used to provide
126. (c)
134.
three
250 kVA,
131. A 4, j3 -> 3, C 1,2) ->400
2 V low-tension
132. (a) supply from
133. all
(d)kV, 3-phase134.
(d)
sub-station.
The effective kVA rating of the bank
135. {d)
136. (c) will be 137. (d)
138. (d)
139. (d)
(a) 250
(b ) 250 ^3
(c) 500
( d ) 750
(/.AS.,
1994]
135. A transformer designed for operation of 60 Hz supply is worked on 50 Hz supply system without
changing its voltage and current ratings. When compared with full-load efficiency at 60 Hz, the
transformer efficiency on full load at 50 Hz will
(a) increase marginally
(b) increase by a factor of 1.2
(c) remain unaltered
(d) decrease marginally
136. The voltage regulation of a large transformer is mainly influenced by
(а) no-load current and load power factor
(б) winding resistances and load power factor
(c) leakage fluxes and load power factor
137. Fig. C.50 shows an ideal single-phase transformer. The primary and secondary coils are wound
on the core as shown. Turns ratio (Ni/N 2 ) = 2. The correct phasors of voltages E\, E 2 , currents
1 1 ,1 2 and core flux <j> are as shown in
(a) Fig. (a)
(b) Fig. (6)
(c) Fig. (c)
(d) Fig. (d )
[GATE,
2003} 4E1
*E,
El
1. id)
6. (d)
11. {d)

2. ( 6)
7. (6)
12. (d)

h k E2
h

•'E2
hk
.(p

Fig (a)

<p.
Fig-(b)
TE2

|E2
Fig(d)

Fig(c)

„ Vi-V2

(c) —i7 K, —^ if

(<*)

+

V1+V2as an autotransformer across
107. A 400 V/100 V, 10 kVA, two-winding transformer is reconnected

a suitable voltage. The maximum rating of such a transformer could be
(a) 50 kVA
(b) 15 kVA
(c) 12.5 kVA
(d) 8.75 kVA
108. An autotransformer having a transformation ratio of 0.8 supplies a load of 10 kW. The power
transferred inductively from the primary to the secondary is
(a) 10 kW
(b ) 8 kW
(c) 2 kW
(d) zero
109. A single-phase transformer has a rating of 15 kVA, 600 V/ 120 V. It is reconnected as an
autotransformer to supply at 720 V from a 600 V primary source. The maximum load it can
supply is
(a) 90 kVA
(b) 180 kVA
(c) 15 kVA
(d) 18 kVA
110. In an autotransformer of voltage ratio and V^ > V2> the fraction of power transferred induc-

tively is
Vl
V l -V 2
Vi-V2
(d)
(c) V
(a)
+
Vl
x
Vi + Vo
V 2 voltage ratio of 0.7. The transformed and conducted
111. A 10 kVA step down autotransformer has
[GATE, 2003]
kVA can be respectively
(a) 3, 7
(6) 7, 3
(c) 5, 5
(d) 3.5, 6.5
112. A supply of 100 V can be obtained from a source of 300 V, by means of a two-winding
transformer
or an autotransformer. The ratio of weights of conductor material in the autotransformer with
respect to two-winding transformer is
(a) 1:1.5
(6) 1.5 : 1
(c) 3 : 1
(d) 1: 3
113. In an autotransformer of voltage ratio V1/V2 with Vi > V2, the conducted power in terms of total
power is
V,-V,
V 1-V 2
Vi
V2
(d) V 2
(c)
(6)
(a) Y2
v[
114. A 20 kVA, 2300 V/230 V, two winding transformer is to be used as an autotransformer to give
2300 V/2530 V. Its rating will be
(a) 200 kVA with conducted kVA = 20
(6) 200 kVA with conducted kVA = 180
(c) 220 kVA with conducted kVA = 20
(d) 220 kVA with conducted kVA = 200
115. Single-phase supply of 220 V, 50 Hz is to be obtained from 400 V, 50 Hz source. The ratio of
weight of conductor material in a two-winding transformer to that required in an autotransformer
is
(a)f
(b)± (Off
id) 2
116. A 400 V/200 V transformer has a full-load voltage regulation of x p.u. at 0.8 pf lagging. If this
transformer is used as an autotransformer with voltage rating 400 V/6G0 V or 200 V/600 V, then
its voltage regulation would be
, x 2x
XX
. 2x x
2x 2x
(i)
>“>3 '3
T-3
wyy
“i’T
117. An autotransformer has V1; 7X as input quantities and V2,1 2 as output quantifies with
V2 < Vj. The VA conducted from input to output is
( a ) V 11 2
(b)V 2 I l
(c)V l I 1 -V 2 I 2
( d ) (Vi- Vjlt
118. An autotransformer has V 1 , a s input quantities and V2,1 2 as output quantities with V2 < Vj.
The VA transformed from primary to secondary is
1
(a) Vi l 2
(6) V27j
(c) ViIi~V 2 I 2
(d)(V1-V2)71

PE

3
940
Electrical Machinery
119. The efficiency of a 100 kVA transformer is 0.98 at full as well as half load. For this transformer
2. itload,
has to
at full
thehandle
ohmiclow
lossvalue of currents
(a)3.isitless
thanaccessible
core loss for repairs
(6) is equal to core loss
is easily
(c) 4.
is itmore
than
core
loss
(d) none of the above
requires less insulation
120. A 40 kVA transformer has a core loss of400 W and a full-load copper loss of 800 W. The
From these, the correct answer is
proportion
(a) 1, 2, 3,
(b) 2,
3, 4
(d) 1, 2, 3
of full-load
at 4maximum
efficiency
is (c) 1, 2, 4
50% a transformer
(6) 62.3%'
(c) 70.7%
(d) the
100%
93.(a)When
winding suffers
a short circuit,
adjoining turns of the same winding
experience
121. Consider
the following statements about induction regulators :
an attractivewindings
force are needed in single-phase induction regulators (IR).
1. (a)
Compensating
(b) a repulsive force
2. (c)In single-phase
IR, secondary induced voltage E 2 is in phase with the applied voltage Vj.
no force
may be attractive
or repulsive
depending
upon the current directions
3. (d)
In single-phase
IR, magnitude
of E
2 remains constant with the rotor movement.
94. The relative current directions through the primary (P) and secondary (S) of a 1-phase trans4. In 3-phase
IR, magnitude
E 2 varies
with
position. side, are indicated in the various crossformer connected
to aofresistive
load
onrotor
the secondary
sectionalIR,
views
Fig. C.49.
Whichwhen
of these
5. In 3-phase
E 2 isgiven
not ininphase
with except
0 =are
0° correct
or 180°.representations ?

122.

(c)
(d)
123.

(c)
(d)
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.

From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1 , 3 , 5
(6)2, 3, 4
(c) 1, 2, 4
(d) 1 , 2 , 5
P
In a tap changer, the voltage at
consumers
terminals is kept within the prescribed limits by
3
varying the
3s
(а) ratio of turns between primary
and secondary windings
(б) frequency
flux density in the core
'
angle between the magnetic axes of the primary and secondary windings
A single-phase induction regulator is a constant-voltage input transformer to obtain smooth
variation of the output voltage by varying the
(а) ratio of turns between primary and secondary windings
(б) frequency
flux density in the core
angle between the magnetic axes of the primary and secondary windings
A line voltage regulator is to be used in a 1-phase, 200 V, 5 kVA system to keep the voltage
constant for voltage variation within ± 10%. The rating (in kVA) of the voltage regulator is
(a) 0.05
(6) 0.5
(c) 5
(d) 50
A 3-phase induction voltage regulator needed to regulate 100 kVA between the voltage limits
1200 and 800 V has a rating of
(a) 10 kVA (6) 20 kVA (c) 5 kVA ■
(d) 30 kVA
A 3-phase delta-star transformer has secondary to primary turns ratio per phase of 5. For a
primary voltage of 400 V, the secondary voltage would be ,
(a) 2000 V
(6) 80 V
(c) 3464 V
(d) 80 V3 V
A 3-phase star-delta transformer has secondary to primary turns ratio per phase of 5. For a
primary voltage of 400 V, the secondary voltage would be
(a) 3464 V
(6) 1154.7 V (c) 2000 V
(d) 46.2 V
A 3-phase delta-star transformer has secondary to primary turns ratio per phase of 5. For a
primary line current of 10 A, the secondary line current would be
(a) 2 A
(6) 3.464 A
(c) 1.633 A
(d) 1.155 A
A 3-phase star-delta transformer has primary to secondary turns ratio per phase of 5. For a
primary line current of 10 A, the secondaiy line current would be
(a) 50 A
(6) 86.6 A
(c) 3.464 A
(d) 150 A
In transformers, the noise orhum is produced primarily due to
(a) improper tightening of core laminations
(6) magnetostriction
(c) tank walls
(d) loose bolts etc.

A

sE

3

99. Two transformers of identical voltages but of different capacities are operating in parallel. For
satisfactory load sharing,
(а) impedances must be equal
(б) per-unit impedances must be equal
X
(c) per-unit impedances and — ratios must be equal
K
X
(d) impedances and — ratios must be equal
(e) Two transformers of different kVA ratings working in parallel share the load in proportion to
their ratings when their
(f) per unit leakage impedances on the same kVA base are equal
(g) per unit leakage impedances based on their respective kVA ratings are equal
(h) ohmic values of the leakage impedances are inversely proportional to their ratings
(i) ohmic values of the magnetizing reactances are the same.
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1,3,4
(b) 2, 3
(c) 2,3,4
(d) 1,4
[GATE,
1992]
100. Transformer operating in parallel will share a common load in the best possible manner if
(а) the leakage impedances are proportional to their respective kVA ratings
(б) the leakage impedances are equal
(c) per unit leakage impedances are equal
(d) per unit leakage impedances are proportional to their respective kVA ratings
(c)
(b)
101. The (a)
necessary conditions for parallel
operation of two 1-phase
transformers is thatid)
these sho
uld
Fig. C.49.
3. voltage regulation
have the same
95. Short-circuit test on a single-phase transformer gave the following data :
1. polarity
2. kVA rating
ratio
30 V at 50 Hz, 20 A,pf = 0.26.lag
4.
efficiencies
5.
voltage
ratio
s.c. test
performed
on 30
FromIfthese,
theiscorrect
answer
is V, 25 Hz, then short-circuit current
(b)
at a pf < 0.2
(a) 1,(a)
2, decreases
3, 4, 5, 6 at a pf < 0.2
( 6) 1
, 2,increases
5, 6
at a pf > 0.2
at a pf > 0.2
(c) 1,(c)
5, increases
6
(d) (d)
1, 3,decreases
5, 6
test onoperation
a single-phase
gave
the following
:
102. 96.
For Open-circuit
successful parallel
of twotransformer
single-phase
transformers,
thedata
essential
condition is that
230 V at 50 Hz, 2 A, pf = 0.2 lag
their
If open-circuit
test is performed
230 V, 45 Hz, then
no-load
current
(a) percentage
impedances
should beon
equal
(6) turns
ratio
should be exactly equal
(a) decreases
pf > 0.2 connected
at a pfbe
< equal
0.2
(c) polarities
mustatbea properly
(d) {b)
kVAdecreases
ratings should
(c)
increases
at
a
pf
>
0.2
(d)
increases
a pf < 0.2
103. Two transformers operating in parallel have different quality of their atleakage
impedances. For
97.
When
test on a transformer is performed at 25 V, 50 Hz ; then drawn current ‘J\ is
a load
pf ofshort-circuit
0. 8,
a lagging
(f>less
the test
(а) atboth
would pf-angle
operate atofpfs
0.8 is performed at 25 V, 25 Hz and the drawn current T 2 is
1. Ifthan
(б) atboth
wouldpf-angle
operate at
than 0.8
a lagging
ofpfs
<J>more
2, then
(c) both (a)
would
at the
same pfs
Z2 >operate
and <t>
(6) I2 < h and <b < <h
2 <
(d) one would operate at pf > 0.8 and the other at pf < and
0.8
l 2 > I x and
<j>2 > <f>,
(d)turns
1 2 < ratio
h hhave
> h impedances of (0.5 +J 3) Q. and
104. Two (c)
1-phase
transformers
with equal

(0.6 +j 10) Q with respect to the secondary. If they operate in parallel, how will they share a load
of
kW
at 0.8 pf lagging
?
98.100
Two
transformers
to be operated
in parallel have their secondary no-load emfs E a for transformer
(a) 50
\ (b )more
62 kW,
38 E
kW
A kW,
and 50
E bkW
for transformer B. As E a is somewhat
than
b , a circulating .current ! c is
(c) 78.2 kW, 21.8 kW
(d) 85.5 kW, 14.5 kW [I.E.S., 1992]
established at no load which tends to
105. A single-phase transformer, with kVA rating
E a -E ±K, has voltage rating of Vj/Fg. This transformer
::
'
Fr+F2 .
(a) boost both E a and E b 2 + z
can be connected as an autotransformer
to get
ea
ebtwo possible voltage ratings of — a n d
F2
E a -E ±
FI + F2
———• The respective
are
with I c = kVA ratings as an autotransformer
+
Z_ea
V1
'.‘In
£eb

(b)+ F, FJ +boost
Fi
FO E a and buck E bE -E
a
±
(a) . .l ~K, ..........
2ea
with I c =
+5't
E b -Eg^
(c) buck E a and boost E b

, F1 + F2 V, + F2

69.

220 V, 50 Hz transformer with 0.35 mm thick laminations has eddy-current loss of 120
watts
which is two-third of the total loss at no-load. If this transformer is built with 0.7 mm thick
laminations and is worked from 110 V, 25 Hz, then total no-load loss would be
(a) 150 W
(b) 510 W
(c) 200 W
(.d ) 45 W
70. A transformer, fed from an alternator at 230 V, 50 Hz, has eddy-current loss of 50 W and
hysteresis loss of 100 W. If the speed of the prime-mover driving the alternator drops to
80% of
its previous speed, then eddy-current and hysteresis losses in the
transformer would respectively be
(a) 40 W, 80 W (6) 32 W, 80 W (c) 32 W, 64 W
(d) 40 W, 64
W
71. Two windings of a transformer are indicated by terminals
AB and CD as shown in Fig. C.47. When a voltage of 100 V is
Fig. C.47.
applied
across AB with BD short-circuited, a voltage of 200 V appears
72. In question 71, if voltage appearing across terminals
AC
is
100 V with input to AB as 100 V, then the turns ratio
from
CD to AB is
(o) 2
(b) 1
(c) 2 or 1
(d) 3 or 1
73. A 400 V/2Q0 V/200 V, 50 Hz, three-winding
is
(a) 0 Vtransformer
(6) 400 V
Fig. C.48.
(c) 600 V
(d) 800 V
A

74. A transformer has leakage impedance of z e = r e +jx e . Its maximum voltage regulation occurs at
a power factor of
(c) —
(d)— leading
Za
lead
75. A transformer has leakage impedanceing
of z e = r e +j x e . Zero voltage regulation for this
transformer
occurs at a pf of
r
r3
xe
r
(a) x— leading (b) z— lagging (c) —
leading
(d)
~ leading
Z
z
(a) ~ leading

(b)— lagging

e

e

e

e

76. A 1-phase transformer has p.u. leakage impedance of 0.02 +j 0.04. Its regulation at pf 0.8
lagging
and 0.8 leading are respectively
(a) 4%, 0.8%
(6 )
4%,-0.8% (c) 2.4%,-0.8% (d) 4%, -1%
77. A 10 kVA, 400 V/200 V, 1-phase transformer with a percentage resistance of 3% and percentage
reactance of 6% is supplying a current of 50 A to a resistive load. The value of the load voltage
is
(a) 194 V
(b) 390 V
(c) 192 V
(d) 196 V
78. In a transformer, r e <i + j x 2 = equivalent leakage impedance z e 2- Its maximum voltage
regulation
is equal to
(a) re2 at ~ lagging pf
(6) x e2 at ^ lagging pf
e

Ze2

(c) z e o at — leading pf
z

e2

z

e2

(d) z e 2 at ~ lagging pf
Z

e2

79. Full-load voltage regulation of a power transformer is zero when power factor of the load is near
(a) unity and leading
(6) zero and leading
(c) zero and lagging
(d) unity and lagging

80. A 5 kVA, 250/125 V, 1-phase transformer has leakage impedance of (0.02 +j 0.8) p.u.. Its value
in ohm referred to h.v. side is
(a) 0.2 + j 0.8
(b ) 0.25 +j 1
(c) 0.02 + j 0.08 (d) 0.0625 + j 0.25
81. -The voltage regulation of a transformer is given by
Eo — Vo
Eo — Vo
Vo — Eo
Vz-E 2
(d)
(«) -V-1
(b)
«0 —T 1
82. The voltage regulation of a transformer at foil-load 0.8 pf lagging is 4%, Its voltage regulation
at full-load 0.8 pf leading
(a) will be positive
(b ) will be negative
(c) may be positive
.
(d) may be negative
83. The voltage regulation of a transformer depends on its
1. equivalent reactance
2. equivalent resistance
3. load power factor ■
4.
transformer size
5. load current
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 3, 5
(6) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (c) 1, 2, 4, 5
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4
84. The voltage regulation of a transformer at foil load and 0.8 pf lagging is 2.5%. The voltage
regulation at foil load 0.8 pf leading will be
(a) - 2.5%
(6) zero
(c). - 0.9%
(d) 2.5%
85. In Sumpner’s test on two identical transformers having rated frequency f
(a) both the primaries and the regulating transformer should be fed from voltage sources of
frequency f
(ib ) both the primaries and the regulating transformer may be fed from voltage sources at
frequencies different from f
(c) both the primaries should be fed from voltage source at frequency/'but regulating transformer
may be fed at a frequency different from f
(d) both the primaries may be fed from voltage source at a frequency different from f but
regulating transformer should be fed at f
86. The efficiency of a transformer at full load 0.8 pf lag is 90%, Its efficiency at foil load 0.8 pf lead
will be
(a) somewhat less than 90%
(6) somewhat more than 90%
(c) 90%
(d) 91%

88.

89.

90.
(c)

87. Transformer maximum efficiency, for a constant load current,
occurs at
(a) at any pf
(b ) zero pf
leading has leakage impedance of 1 +J 4 Q and 3 +j 11 Q for its primary and
One transformer
windings respectively. This transformer has secondary
(a) h.v. primary
(b) medium voltage primary
(c) l.v. primary
(d) l.v. secondary
Transformer at no-load behaves like
(a) a resistor, pf = 0
(b) an inductive reactor, pf = 0.2 lagging
(c) a capacitive reactor, pf = 0.2 leading
(d ) an inductive reactor, pf - 0.8
lagging
In a transformer, the tappings are provided on
(a) h.v. side at one end of the winding
(6) l.v. side at one end of the winding
h.v. side at the middle
(d) l.v. side at the middle
(ci) In transformers, the windings are tapped in the middle
(cii) to avoid the radial forces on the windings
(ciii)to eliminate the axial forces on the windings
(civ)to reduce the insulation level of the windings '
(cv) to provide a mechanical balance to the windings
(cvi) In transformers, tappings are provided on the h.v.
(cvii)side because
it has larger number of turns which allow smoother control of
output voltage

51, If supply frequency in a transformer is doubled
(a) hysteresis loss also doubles
(b) eddy-current loss doubles
(c) iron-losses double
(d) hysteresis loss decreases
52, A 50 Hz transformer having equal hysteresis and eddy-current losses at rated excitation is
operated at 45 Hz at 90% of rated voltage compared to rated operating point, the core loss under
this condition
(a) reduces by 10%
(b) reduces by 19%
(c) reduces by 14.5%
.
{d) remains unchanged
fGATE ,
1998]
53. For the purpose of analysis, exact equivalent circuit of a transformer is usually replaced by an
* approximate equivalent circuit. In doing so, errors introduced due to winding ohmic loss and
core loss are of differential nature. Due to this, the analysis by approximate equivalent circuit

gives fairly satisfactory results. Under the circumstances, which one of the following statements
is correct in respect of losses referred to approximate equivalent circuit as compared to exact
equivalent circuit ?
(а) This accounts for somewhat greater primary winding ohmic loss and less core loss.
(б) This accounts for somewhat less primary-winding ohmic loss and more core loss.

(c) This accounts for somewhat greater secondary-winding ohmic loss and less core loss.
(d) This accounts for somewhat less secondary-winding ohmic loss and more core loss.
54. In a 1-phase transformer, the magnitude of leakage reactance is twice that of resistance of both
primary and secondary. With secondary short-circuited, the input pf is
(o)

4

(6)

{C)

4

¥

(d )

3
High leakage-impedance transformers are used for applications such as
(a) power distribution
(6) electric toys
(c) fluorescent lamps
(d) arc welding
56. In an ideal transformer shown in Fig. C.45,
(a) V'1 = aV2,/2 = -a/1
(6) V 2 = a V v l 2 = - a 7j
( c ) F i = e V 2, l 2 = i l 1
(d)V i = aV 2 J 2 ^~^l l
55.

2

1
Fig. C.45.

57.

In an ideal transformer shown in Fig. C.46

(a) F1 = ay2,/2=-a/1

Fig. C.46,

(b) V 2 = aV 1 ,l 2 = -aI 1
(clV^aV^Ai,
( r f ) F 2 = n V 1J 2 — i ? !
58. When compared with power transformer, a distribution transformer
has
(a) low %age impedance and high I 2 R loss to core-loss ratio
(.b ) high %age impedance and high I l R loss to coredoss ratio
(c) high %age impedance and low I 2 R loss to core-loss ratio
(d) low %age impedance and low I 2 R loss to core-loss ratio
59. Following statements are made regarding the open-circuit test on a 1-phase transformer :
1.
It is performed on l.v, side
2.
It is performed at rated current
3.
It helps in the calculation of equivalent leakage impedance

Appendix—C
937
.... 1 1 s-------—----------—- -------- 4.
It is performed on h.v. side
5.
It is performed at rated voltage
6.
It gives magnetizing current and core loss
7.
It helps in the determination of voltage regulation
8.
It gives turns ratio
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 5, 6, 8
(b) 2, 4, 6, 8
(c) 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
(d) 5, 7, 8
test on a 1-phase transformer :
1,
60. Following statements are made regarding the short-circuit
1. H.V. side is short circuited
2. It is performed at rated current
3. It gives the core loss
4. L.V. side is short-circuited
5. It is performed at rated voltage
6. It gives ohmic loss on the side instruments are connected
7. It helps in the calculation of voltage regulation
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 1, 2, 6, 7
(6) 2, 3, 4, 7
(c) 4, 5, 6, 7
(d) 2, 4,7
61. A 10 kVA, 400/200 V, single-phase transformer with 10% leakage impedance draws a steady
short-circuit line current of
(a) 50 A
(b) 150 A
(c) 250 A
(d) 350 A
62. While performing the open-circuit and short-circuit tests on a transformer to determine its
parameters, the status of the low-voltage (L.V.) and high-voltage (H.V.) windings will be
such
that
(а) in O.C., L.V. is open and in S.C., H.V. is shorted
(б) in O.C., H.V. is open and in S.C., L.V. is shorted
(c) in O.C., L.V. is open and in S.C., L.V. is shorted
(d) in O.C., H.V. is open and in S.C., H.V. is shorted
63. A multimeter, for measuring resistance, is connected to one terminal of primary and the other
terminal of secondary. The multimeter reading would be
(a) zero
(b ) infinity
(c) zero or infinity
(d) equal to the resistance of the windings
64. For given base voltage and base volt-amperes, the per unit leakage impedance of a transformer
is x. What will be the per unit leakage impedance of this transformer when the voltage and
volt-ampere bases are both doubled ?
(a) 0.5 x
(b) 2 x
(c) 4x
(d) x
65. At 50 Hz operation, a single-phase transformer has hysteresis loss of 200 W and eddy-current
loss of 100 W. Its core loss at 60 Hz operation will be
(a) 432 W
(b ) 408 W
(c) 384 W
(d) 360 W
[I.E.S.,
1995 ]
66. The hysteresis and eddy-current losses of 1-phase transformer working on 200 V, 50 Hz supply
are and P e respectively. The percentage decrease in these losses. when operated on a
160 V, 40 Hz supply would respectively be
(a) 32,36
(6)20,36
(c) 25,50
(d) 40,80
[I.E.S.,
2001]
67. In a transformer, eddy-current loss is 100 watts which is half of the total core loss. If both the
thickness of laminations and frequency are increased by 10%, the new core-loss would be
(a) 256.41 W
(6) 231 W
(c) 267.41 W (d) 242 W
68. A 220/115 V, 25 Hz, 1-phase transformer has eddy-current loss of 100 W which is half of the.
no-load loss at rated applied voltage. If this transformer is used with primary connected to
440 V, 50 Hz mains, the total no-load loss would be

35. A 220/440 V, 50 Hz, 5 kVA, single-phase transformer operates on 220 V, 40 Hz supply with
secondary winding open-circuited. Then
( a ) both eddy-current and hysteresis losses decrease
( b ) both eddy-current and hysteresis losses increase
( c ) eddy-current loss remains the same but hysteresis loss increases
(id ) eddy-current loss increases but hysteresis loss remains the
same
36. The hysteresis and eddy-current losses of a single-phase transformer working on 200 V, 50 Hz
supply are P h and P e respectively. The percentage decrease in these, when operated on a
160 V, 40 Hz supply are
(a) 25,
32, 50
36
(b ) 20,
(c)
{d)
40, 36
80
37. For a single-phase transformer, r e = total equivalent resistance, x e = total equivalent leakage
reactance, P c = core loss. The load current at which maximum efficiency occurs is

38. The maximum efficiency for a transformer occurs at 80% of full load. Its core loss is P c and
ohmic
Pc

loss is Poh- For this transformer, the ratio is
(c) 0.64
(a) 0.8
(b) 1.25
(d) 0.8944
39. Frequency of the supply voltage to a transformer at no load is increased but the supply voltage
is held fixed. With this
(1) eddy-current loss remains constant but hysteresis loss increases
(2) eddy-current loss remains constant but hysteresis loss decreases
(3) magnetizing current increases but core-loss current decreases
(4) both magnetizing and core-loss currents decrease.
From these, the correct answer is
(a) 2, 3

(b) 2, 4

(c) 1, 3

(d) 1, 4

core loss will
(а) decrease and magnetizing current 7m will increase
(б) increase and I m will also increase
(c) remain constant and I m will also remain constant
( d ) increase and l m will remain constant
41. A 4 kVA, 400/200 V, 1-phase transformer has leakage impedance of 0.02 + j 0.04 per unit. This
leakage impedance in ohms, when referred to h.v. side is
(b) 0.2+jOAQ
(a) 0.8 + j 1.6
{d) 1 + j 2 Q
SI
(c)the0.08
42. As
load +
on aj transformer is increased, the core losses
Ideal
(a)
decrease slightly
transformer
(b)
increase slightly
Ao(c)
remain constant
(d)
may decrease or increase slightly
upon the nature of load.
depending
43. For the system shown in Fig. C.44, the phase relation of current I with respect to the voltage is Bo(a) zero
(b) 90° lead
Fig. C.44.
( c ) 9 0 ° l a g (d) 180°

44. Two transformers X and Y with identical ratings and dimensions have 0.8 mm and 1.2 mm thick
laminations respectively. If R c and X m are the magnetizing branch parameters in the equivalent
circuit, then
(a) R c values in both are likely to be equal, but X m of X is likely to be higher than X m of Y
(b) X m values in both are likely to be equal, but R c of X is likely to be higher than R c of Y
(c) X m values in both are likely to be equal, but R c ofX is likely to be lower thani?c of Y
(d) R values in both are likely to be equal, but X m of X is likely to be lower than X m of Y
45. If the applied voltage of a certain transformer is increased by 50% and the frequency is reduced
to 50% (assuming that magnetic circuit remains unsaturated), the maximum core flux density
will
(а) change to three times the original value
(б) change to 1.5 times the original value
(c) change to 0.5 times the original value
(d) remains the same as the original value
46. In a transformer, low-voltage winding is placed near the core in case of concentric windings so
as to
1. reduce the leakage flux
2. reduce the insulation requirement
3. reduce the risk of voltage shock in case of insulation breakdown
4. reduce the core loss
5. reduce the total conductor
material
From these, the correct answer is
(а) 1, 2, 3, 5
(6) 2, 3, 4, 5
(c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(d) 2, 3, 5
47. Can a 50 Hz transformer be used for 25 Hz, if the input voltage is maintained constant at the
rated value corresponding to 50 Hz ?
. (a) Yes. Since the voltage is constant, current levels will not change
(б) No. Flux will be doubled which will drive the core to excessive saturation
(c) No. Owing to decreased reactance of transformer, input current will be doubled at load
(d) Yes. At constant voltage, insulation will not be overstressed.
48. Voltage applied to the primary of a transformer is kept constant but its frequency is decreased.
Under this operation,
(a) magnetizing current increases but core-loss current decreases
(b) magnetizing current decreases but core-loss current increases
(c) magnetizing current and core-loss current both decrease
(d) magnetizing current and core-loss current both increase
49. In a transformer, if primary leakage impedance is neglected, then
magnetizing current lags the applied voltage Vj by 90°
core-loss current lags Vl by 90°
exciting current lags V1 by 90°
core-loss current is in phase with
exciting current lags Vj by about 80°
magnetizing current lags Vx by about 80°
From these, the correct statements are
(a) 1, 4, 5
(6) 3, 4, 6
(e) 1, 4
(d) 1, 2, 6
50. A transformer secondary is connected to pure resistive load. The power factor on the primary
side will be
(a) near about 0.95 lead
(c) zero
(6) near about 0.95 lag
id) unity
c

{a)x
(c) x 2

B.
C.
D.

o
II

A.

2

son
(d)
d is negative
6. c For
^is positive,
7.the
<obehaviour
V|~ fluxofisaccw.
r = and
understanding
transformer, the following laws may be called for
21. In12.
an oil-filled
transformer,
oil
is
provided
for
From above, the correct answer is 2. Newton’s second law
1
. Lenz’s
(a)
coolinglaw (a) 1, 2, 5
(b) )3,insulation
(6
4, 5 law
4.
3. Faraday’s
electromagnetic induction
(c) both
cooling law
and of
insulation
(d)Ohm’s
preventing
the accumulation of dust
(c)
1, 2, 6
(d)
3,
4, 7
6
.
Right-hand
grip rule
5.
Fleming’s
right-hand
rule
22. Transformers101.
coresInare
laminated
to
reduce
the network of Fig. C.41, the current in the 25 12 resistor
(a) eddy-current
From these,loss
the correct
answer is (b) hysteresis loss
will
be
(c)
both
eddy-current
and
id)41,
ohmic
(a) 1, 3, 4
(b) 52,
4, 5
(c)loss
1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (fe)
(d)
6
(a)
A3, hysteresis
A3, 4, loss
23.
laminations
in 2.5
a transformer
used to then
minimise
13. CRGO
In an ideal
transformer,
ifAK is someare
constant,
the
voltage V,
in terms of its
(c)
(dsupply
) zero (I.A.S.,
1993)
(a) eddy-current loss.
(b ) hysteresis loss
magnetizing
current
I
be
expressed
as
m can
102.
Match
List
I
with
List
II
and
select
the
correct
answer
(c) both eddy-current and hysteresis losses
(d) ohmic loss
jKfthe codes
using
below
: - jKf
24. (a)jKfI
In case of
transformer,
thegiven
no-load
current
in terms
of rated current is
(c) -jKf
I n the lists
n a power'(b)
(d)
(a) 10 to 20% (6) 2 to 6%
(c) 15 to 30% (d) 30 to 50%
25. If
is energised
from a can
square-wave
voltagefrom
source,
output
voltage
14.a transformer
In an ideal primary
transformer,
the impedance
one then
side its
to the
other
inJbe transformed
will be
(a) in direct proportion to square of tums-ratio
(6) in direct proportion to tums-ratio
k
(a)inzero
(b)tums-ratio
a sine wave (d) in inverse proportion to tums-ratio
(c)
inverse proportion to square of
kf
(c)
a
triangular
wave
(d)
15. Distribution transformers are designed atopulsed
have wave
26. (a)
The
primary
(220
V
side)
of
a
220/6
V,
50
Hz
transformer
connected
to 110 V, 60 Hz source.
core loss P c > full-load ohmic loss Poh
(b)P cis<P
oh
ThePsecondary
output voltage will be
(c)
(d) P c negligible as compared to Poh
c = Potl
(a)transformer
3.6 V
3.0 V two or(c)
V depending
(d) 1.667
16. A
has(b)
sometimes
more2.5
ratings
upon V
the use of
27. The
no-load
current
in a transformer lags the applied voltage
(a) the
cooling
techniques
(6) theby
type of windings
90° of core (b) about 75° (c) 0°
(d) theabout
(c) (a)
the type
(<£)
type110°
of insulation
17. In a transformer, exciting current is made up of two components ; namely magnetizing cdrrent
I m and core-loss current I c . With negligible leakage impedance drop,
both I m and
I c Nlag
supply
voltage
by 90° and secondary windings respectively. Its secon28. (а)
A transformer
has
N 2 turns
in primary
x and

) both I m and
l c are inxphase
with V\
dary-winding
reactance
referred to primary, is
2 £1, when
N 2 whereas I c is in phase with Vi
ic) I m lags Vi by 90°
(d) I m is in phase with V 1 but /c lags V* by 90°.
i
18. A transformer at no load is excited atNo
rated voltage. Now a cut is made in the transformer yoke
(d) xthe
2
thus creating a small air gap. With this,
transformer core flux
(a) will decrease and magnetizing current i m will increase
29. will
A 400/200
transformer
resistance of 0.02 pu on its l.v. side. This resistance when
(b)
remain V
constant
and lm has
willtotal
increase
referred
side
be
(c) as
well astol mh.v.
both
willwould
increase
(a) 0.02
(b ) 0.04
(c) 0.01
(d) 0.08
(d) as well as I m both will decrease
30. The leakage flux in a transformer depends
upon
List 1
19. If the(a)
secondary
winding
of the ideal
shown in the circuit of Fig. C.42 has 40 turns,
the applied
voltage
(6) transformer
the frequency
(Condition)
the
number
of
turns
in
the
primary
winding
for
maximum
transfer to the 2 & resistor will
(c) the
load
current
(d) the
flux it ispower
31.
The
useful
flux of a transformer
is mutual
1 Wb. When
loaded at 0.8 pf lag, then its mutual
be
(a) 20Rflux
(c) 80
(d ) 160
<2 'IlTC (b) 40
(a) may decrease to 0.8 Wb
(b) may increase to 1.01 Wb
(c) remains
constantIdeal
(d) may decrease to 0.99 Wb
it = 2 'IL/C
transform
32. If, inR>2<UC
a 8X1
transformer
P
=
core
loss
and
P
=
full-load
ohmic loss, then maximum kVA delivered
c
s
c
er
to the load
4A/Wat maximum efficiency is equal to rated kVA multiplied by

©
33. Two transformers of the same type, using the same grade of iron and conductor materials are
designed to work at the same flux and current densities ; but the linear dimensions of one are
two times those ofN,the
other in all respects. The ratio of kVA ratings of the two transformer
: Nz
closely equals
Fig.(bC.42.
Fig. C.43.
(a) 16
)8
(c) 4
(d) 2
20,
In
a
single-phase
transformer,
polarities
of
terminals
a
and
b
at
any
are shown
in the
34. A 3 : 1 transformer has impedance of (1 +j 5) £2 on the l.v. side andinstant
(9 + j 45)
Q on the
h.v. side.
Fig. total
C.43.equivalent
At the same
instant, at the h.v. terminals is
The
impedance
(a) (a)
c is 18
positive,
d is positive and flux is
+j 90 £2
(6clock-wise
) 2 +j 10 £2(cw)
(b) (c)
c is10
negative,
counterclock-wise
i\
+y 50 £2d positive and flux is {d)
8 +j 40 £2
------ J rvneilura and fliiv is r.W

1.
2.
3.
4.

Codes:

iV.:
i
to’

1

{-;
p
i
: lit
■SI1

i li .
j
U■
•- :
1•
if;
Iff; '
i 1 :■
he

rr

AB

C

D

(a)

12

3

4

0b )

14

3

2

(c)

32

(d)

34

1
1

4
2

ANSWERS
1. (b)
6. {a)

H. (c)
16. (b )
21.(6)
26. (a)
31. (6)
36. (6)
41. (d)
46. (a)
50. id)
55. (a)
60. (c)
65. (6)
70. (d)
75. (6)
80. (a)
85. (a)
90. (b)
95. (a)
100. (a)

2. (d)

7. (a)
12. (d)
17. (d)
22. (c)
27. (d)
32. (d)
37. (d)
42. (6)
47.
51. (c)
56. (c)
61. (d)
66. (a)
71. (6)
76. (b)
81. (6)
86. (d)
91. (5)
96. (a)
101. (d)

3. (c)
8. (a)
13.(c)
18. (6)
23. (b)
28. (6)
33. (c)
38. (d)
43. (c)

4. (d)
9. (6)
14. (d)
19. (a)
24. (a)
29. (c)
34. (c)
39. (d)
List
44.II(c)
(Transient
current
48.
(6)
52. (d)
53. (6)
response)
57. (d)
58. (a)
62. (6) Undamped oscillations
63. (c)
67. (c)
68. (c)
Damped oscillations
72. (d)
73. (c)
77. (a) Critically damped
78. (6)response
82. (d)
83. (6)
87. (a)
88. (6)
92. (c)
93. (c)
98. (d)
97. (c)
102. (a)

5. (d)

10. (d)

15. (d)

20. (a)

25. (b)
30. (a)
35. (d)
40. (c)
45. (6)
49. (6)
54. (c)
59. (6)
64. (6)
69. (d)
74. (c)
79. (d)
84. (a)
85. (a)
94. (d)
99. (c)

A.

AA

1.

current

928

s.

TRANSFORMERS
88. In the circuit shown in Fig. C.33,
if the power consumed by the 5 ft resistor is 10 W, then
Two power
windings of a transformer are designated as
primary
andofsecondary
factor
the circuitwindings
is
primary
(a) 0.8and h.v. windings
(b) 0.6
(c) 0.5
(d ) zero
secondary
anda l.v.
windings
or primary
and l.v.
windingsand an inductor as shown in Fig. C.34. At
89.
A part of
circuit
consists
of a resistor,
a capacitor
h.v. and
l.v. state,
windings
steady
Ir (t ) = 10 sin t and vr (t ) = 5 cos t. The rms value of the current through the
Two transformers A and B, having identical ratings, are to be designed with flux densities of
capacitor is
(c)^A
15V2A
1.2 T and 1.4 T respectively. The weight
of transformer{d)
A per
kVA would be
(a)^A
(b) Vl25 A
(a) less
than that of transformer
B
(b) more than that of transformer B
(c) equal to that of transformer B
(d) may be less or more than that of transformer B depending upon other parameters
3. In BA
power
L transformers,
10 Acore is made up of
(a) cast iron
(b) silicon steel (c) ferrite
(d) powdered alloy
4. Consider the following statements :
1. Air-core transformers are used in gate-triggering circuits of thyristors
50 cos cot
2. Cores made of soft-ferrite are used in pulse transformers
(
3. Air-core transformers are used in radio devices
4. Cores of powdered alloy are used in isolation transformers
From above, the correct answer is
Fig.
Fig. C.35
(a) 2, 3,Fig.
4 C.33. (6) 2, 3
(c) 1, 3,
4 C.34. (d) 2, 4
ForC.35
a given
areaammeters.
of transformer
cores are
90. 5.In Fig.
; A hcross-sectional
A 2 andA3 are ideal
If Ai core,
and Astepped
3 read 5 A and 13 A respectively,
used
reading of A2 will be
(a) to reduce the core loss
(d) (■86A} to(6provide
) 12 A more
(c) mechanical
18 A
strength to the core
unless the
actual and
values
of R, Cf'R
and
<o are specified.
(c)(d) toindeterminate
reduce the conductor
material
therefore
loss
(d)
theRLC
magnetizing
currentby a voltage -E sin (id, where LC ,
91. toInreduce
a series
circuit excited
6. In single-phase core-type transformers, LV and HV windings are arranged
CO as under
(a) L.V.
one core-limb,
H.V. on voltage
the other core-limb
(а) oncurrent
lags the applied
(b) half
near the
core
half L.V.
outside the H.V. on each limb
(б)H.V.
current
leads
theand
applied
voltage
(c)
and H.V.
winding
sections
are sandwiched
(c) L.V.
current
is in phase
with
the applied
voltage
(d)
L.V. near
theL core
and
H.V. outside the L.V. on each limb
(d) half
voltage
across
and C
arehalf
equal
7.92. AThe
400/200
V, 50ofHz
transformer
operates
a flux
density
1.2 T when
energised
from itssource
H.V.
response
a series
RLC circuit
fedatfrom
a fixed
rmsofvoltage
and variable
frequency
side.
For this transformer,
dimensions
of core
doubled
the number
of turns
are
is represented
graphicallylinear
in Fig.
C.36. Match
List are
I with
List IIwhile
and select
the correct
answer
halved
H.V.below
and L.V.
using on
the both
codesitsgiven
the sides.
lists : If this transformer is now connected to 800 V, 50 Hz on
its H.V. side, then its flux density would be
(a) 0.6 T
(c)
(d) 4.8 T
List I(b) 1.2 T
List3.6
II T
8. For core-type power transformers, both primary and secondary windings have circular coil
• sections, because this section
(a) is easier to wind
(b) requires minimum conductor material and, therefore, less I 2 R loss
(c) has the strongest mechanical shape
(id ) results in less core material and, therefore, less core loss
9. Transformer action requires a
(a) constant magnetic flux
(b) increasing magnetic flux
(c) alternating magnetic flux
(d) alternating electric flux
10. In a single-phase transformer, with subscripts 1 and 2 for primary and secondary windings,
(o) j£| N2 = 2?2 Ni and 7^
= 1% N2
(b) E^ iVj — JS2 N2 and 7j
— 72 1V2
!
(c) E x N 2 = E 2 N I and l x N 2 = 72 N x
(d) E x N x *= E 2 N 2 and I x N 2 = I 2 N x
11. The flux involved in the emf equation of a transformer has
(a) ms value (6) average value(c) total value (d) maximum value
'
1.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2.

B.
C.

BB
CC

2.

3.

impedance
capacitive reactance

D.

DD

4.

net reactance

5.
Codes

A

BB AA
\ /'K /S' 00
V ; Vx

inductive reactance
BC

D

/ —- Frequency

(o)

2

13

5

ib)

23

5

/(

(c)

1
1

23

4

,/fcc

id)

1

24

3

//

Fig. C.36.

||

f!

iv ^
II =

g:

93.
A
having
an
resistance
20WM2,
ishas resistance
80.Match
A
230function
V,voltmeter,
100
W
hasused
resistance
R Aside
and
230isthe
V,toof
200
bulb
R B . Here
71.
The
of bulb
a shunt
ininternal
the
millimeter
47.
the
waveforms
on
the
left
hand
with
correct
mathematical
description
listed on
con- theside
(a)
extend
range
the right-hand
: and increase the meter resistance
nectedthe
with
twoand
other
20 M
2 resistance
resistors across a 200 V, 3(b) extend
range
reduce
the
Waveforms
phase both the range and the meter resistance fit)
(c) decrease
(P) byi-uthe
(t- 1 )
mains as
in Fig.
C,37,The
reading shown
(d) decrease
theshown
range but
increase
the resistance.
(Q) (f +1) - u (t voltmeter will
72. In a fluorescent
tubehe
circuit, the function of ballast choke is to
1to
) Scott(а)(a)115.5
as the connections (bare
similarthe
preventVflicker
) improve
pf of the circuit
(R) t ■ u (l)
connection
(c) suppress the radio interference(d) provide momentary h.v. to establish the main arc
{S)(t
l)u(t) because it has
) 17.3.2
as the connection
are similar
Scott-connection
73. A(бVTVM
hasynegligible
loading effect
on thetocircuit
being +
checked
(T) (t-l) u(t)
crange
115.5
V
(a).(c)high
resistance
(10
f—HI-----------173.2
V range of 50 pA or less
(b)id)low
current
94. high
At resonance,
the parallel
of Fig. C.38 constituted
(c)
input resistance
of 11 Mcircuit
£2 or more
R
L
byinput resistance
(d) low
Q-... . ..
-HJO
ANSAr
an iron-cored
coilBulb
and aQcapacitor behaves like
Fig.
74.C.37.
A voltage source V with internal impedance R +jX is driving such aV load as to have maximum
--------0
power transfer. Power transfer to load is given by
Fig. C.30.
v
Fig. C.29.
=C
o
T_
(a)
82. At resonance,
reading of voltmeter X in(&)
Fig.2 C.30
R
R will be equal to

(a) V
(b) 2 V
(c)|v
(d) zero
{d)
■Rr
(c)
4R
R+X
C.27. in parallel with a capacitor C across an ac
83. A coil of resistance R and inductance L isFig.
connected
75.
For a At
sinusoidal
waveform, the ratio of average to rms value is
supply.
resonance,
, 2
2^2 is maximum
,,K
< , „ V2"• K
1. the,<0)
impedance
of the circuit
(i)
{ i)
^
~r c sRsf
2. the susceptance
of the circuit
is zero~r
>
3.95.76.
behaves
like
pure
resistance
value
R
Incircuit
the
circuit
shown
ina Fig.
C.27,
V 0 respectively
Inthe
the
circuit
of FigC.39,
currents
.4voltage
andof
f are

(a)
leads
current
I
by
90°
(
6
)
lags
current
I by 90°
4.
the
circuit
behaves
like
a
pure
resistance
of
value
(a) 16 A,:20A
'
(6) 32 A,.44 A
is in
phase
(c) (c)
32L/R
A,
34.2
A with I
(d)(d)
16leads
A, 28VAby some angle less than 90°
In theRLC
circuit
of Fig.
C.28,
voltage
V0.01
0
96. 77.
A
series
circuit
has
R
=
10
Q,L
=
1001,pF.
(a) 2,(а)4From
(b)
2, 4The Q factor of the circuit at
theI1,
correct
is 2, 3 H and C =(d)
leadsisthese,
current
by2 90° answer(c)
resonance
84. The
current
in
the
circuit
of
Fig.
C.31
is
(б)lags current I by 90°
(a)5rms
1.0
- of Ithe
0.316
(a)
A value
(by
6)periodic
10 A angle
■e(b)
(c)
15
A in Fig. (d) 50 A
lags
current
some
less
than
90°
48. (c)
The
wave
(t)
shown
0.1 current
— I by some angle less
(d)than
10 90°
(d)(c) leads
,97. Two loads of 10 kW each, are operating at a power factor 0.8 lagging (each). What is their
-jzn R C
power
?
ton
1. R a combined
> R b 2., Rg
>M
R factor
3. R a - 2 RB
4. R1B; 4- 2 R a
5. R a ~4R b .
a R
_JL
-------W
(a) 0.4 lag -WVV- -'■srar—
(b) 0.64 lag
From these, the correct
answer
is
-------1|- ■ .
(c) 0.8 lag
(d) 1.00
(s) 1, 3 (b)98.
2, 4Two loads, one of 20 kW at pf 0.8 lag
(c) and
1, 5other of 12 kW at (d)
1 only
pf 0.6
lag, are connected in series.
Z --IO£8
power factor would
be light
Qv
(b) not
200
81. In Fig. C.29, theTheir
bulb combined
will
(a)
0.8
lag
(
6
)
0.6
lag
(d)
light
at
regular
intervals
(a) light
1
(c) 0.7
(d) 0.711 lag
(c) give flickering
lightlag Fig. C.31.
99. A water boiler at home is switched -on to the ac mains supplying power
230 V/50 Hz. The
Fig.atC.28.
frequency of the instantaneous power consumed by the boiler is Fig. C.32.
78.( a )For
an ac circuit, v = V m sin (mt( b+)a)50and
0 Hz
Hzi -I m sin (at + P). The phase angle between voltage
85. The
the circuit
of Fig. C.32 is
(c)impedance
100 Hz seen by the source in .(d)
150 Hz
and
(a)
(4.54
-j
1.687)
Q
(
6) (4.54+ j 2.313) Q
100. A current
constantwaveforms
voltage butisvariable frequency ac source feeds
+j as
78)shown
Q
(d) (142.56
-j 82) Q by
L and(c)C(142.56
in parallel

a + P or
a - p in Fig.-C.40. The
(6)impedance
a - p or Pseen
-a
86 If the (a)
ac
voltage
the source is Z.wave, is corrupted with an arbitrary number of harmonics, then the overall
(c)P--aorP
+a
(d)a-P
waveform'differs
from its fundamental-frequency
component in terms of
1. voltage
Z is zero when f=0
(a)
thefigure
peak shown
values below, <)>=(6power-factor
) only the rms
values
In the
angle,
W= watts, VA = volt ampere and VAr =
2. 79.
Z only
is zero when/ = infinity
the average
values
(d) allTick
the three
volt-ampere
reactive
mark measures
the correct figure.
3. (c)Zonly
is
infinite when/=
0 for an ac circuit.
Fig. C.40.
87.
The
voltage
phasor
of
a
circuit
is
10
Z15°
V
and
the
current
phasor is 2 Z - 45° A. The active
1
4. Z is infinite when/=.infinity
and reactive powers in the circuit are
resonant
. 5.
(a) 10
W and frequency,
17.32 VAr cor = v.^,
(b) 5 W and 8.66 VAr
tl:
VA V2 VAr
W
(c) 200 W and 60 VAr ' VA
(d) VR
20 V2W and 10
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
I?
C.26 is
|

T

L

(a) ^f~A

«>/r.

(c)V|A

/

id) ^2 A

r

i

‘7l

T

""71

t

«<t)

49. The output of a linear system for a unit step input
given by t2 ■ e~t. The transfer function is given by
2s
(a)
(b) (s
(c)
(s + ir
s(S+ir
+ 1)3

id.

(a)~
s

s

(c) - -e~ Ts
s

(b) t ■ e
wfl*

53.

A series RLC circuit below resonant frequency is
(a) resistive
(6) capacitive (c) inductive
54. A series RLC circuit above resonant frequency is
(a) resistive
(6) capacitive (c) inductive

(d) none of these
(d) none of these

55. The phasor diagram for alternating quantities can be drawn if they
have
(a) cosine waves
(6) rectangular waves
square waves
56. (c)
Conductance
is
theC.20.
reciprocal of (d) triangular waves ■ - Fig. C.21.
Fig.
(a) inductive reactance
(b ) capacitive reactance
32. A 0 - 10 mA PMMC ammeter reads 4 mA in a circuit. Its bottom control spring snaps suddenly.
(c) resistance
(d) impedance
The meter will now read .nearly
57. (a)
Admittance
10 mA is the reciprocal of (6) 8 mA
(a)
reactance
{b )zero
capacitive reactance
(c) 2inductive
mA
(d)
(c) resistance
(d)length
impedance
33. The
insulation resistance of a cable of
of 10 kM is 10 MO, For a length of 100 kM of the
56. Asame
circuit
possesses
resistance
R and inductive
cable,
the insulation
resistance
will be reactanceX in series. Itssusceptance is given by
2
MO 2
(b
} 10 MO
((a)<100
a)X/Z
( 6) X/Z
( c)R/Z
( d ) R/Z
1 MO
(d) 0.1 MO power is given by
59. (c)
If F=
a + jb and 1 = c + jd, then the
r
^
(a) ac + a d
(b) a c + bd ( c ) 6c - bd
( d) be + ad
AnRLC
idealseries
voltage
source
will charge
ideal capacitor
60. 34.
For an
circuit,
current
at seriesanresonance
is
in infinite time
((6)
6) exponentially
(a) maximum
at lagging pf
maximum at leading pf
(c) maximum
instantaneously
(d)
of theatabove
(c)
at unity pf
(d) none
minimum
unity pf
InRLC
the series
circuit
shown
in Fig.
C.22, resonance
voltage across
61. 35.
For an
parallel
circuit,
current
at parallel
is C starts
increas- at leading pf
( a ) maximum
(6) maximum at lagging pf
ing whenatthe
dcpfsource is switched
on. Theatrate
of pf
increase of
(c) maximum
unity
(^) minimum
unity
1V
voltage value of unsymmetrical alternating quantity should be calculated over
62. The average
C.22.
across
the cycle
instant just after
the switch
at f =
(a) half
cycleC(6at) one
(c) two
cycles is closed
(d) (i.e,
completenumber
ofFig.
cycles
0+)
will
be
63. (a)
A permanent-magnet
moving coil
instrument
zero
" (b)
infinity can measure
v=jt
(a)
ac
(6) bothdw
dc and ac
(c) (a)
RConly
(dyl/RC
dw
(c) dc, only
(d) pulsating quantities only
. , dw
(c)moving
dv = —iron instrument can measure
64. A
dq
(d) dv =dq
(a) ac only
(6) both dw
dc and ac
dc only pulse of duration T and(d)magnitude
pulsating Iquantities
only transform
37. A(c)
rectangular
has the Laplace
65. A dynamometer type of instrument can measure
(а) ac only
(6) both dc and ac
(c) dc only
(d) pulsating quantities only
66. Rectifier type instrument can measure
(б) ac only
(6) both dc and ac
Fig. C.26.
(c) dc only
(d) pulsating quantities only
2
2
67. An electrostatic type of instrument is used for measurings (s +1)
(а) voltage in dc circuit
50. A second order system with no zeros has it poles located at - 3 + j 4 and - 3 - J4 in the s-plane.
(The
б) current in dc circuit
undamped natural frequency and damping factor of the system are
(c) voltage
in both
dc and ac circuits (6) 3 rad/s and 0.60
(a) 4 rad/s
and 0.75
(d) current
in both
dc and ac circuits (d ) 5 rad/s and 0.60
(c) 5 rad/s
and 0.80
68. The
Thecurrent
internalthrough
resistance
milliammeter
must be low
51.
the of
current
coil of a wattmeter
is for
i = 1 + 2 sin at amperes and the voltage
(a)
higher
) maximum
voltage
drop
across
across
the accuracy
potential coil is v = 2 + 3 sin 2 at volts. The(6wattmeter
reading
in watts
would
be the
meter
(a) 8.00
(6) 5.05
(c) 2.00
{d) 0.00
minimum
effect
on the
circuit
resistance
sensitivity
52. (c)
Three
resistors
of value
2K,5K
10 K are
connected
inhigh
series
and a 20 V dc supply is applied
69.
A voltmeter
must
have
very
highand
internal
resistance
so(d)that
it possesses
(a)
highthe
accuracy
(6) high-voltage
range
across
series combination. A voltmeter
of internal
resistance 10 K reads ¥t volts across the
(c)
loading
effect
the meter.statements is true ?
5 ifmaximum
resistor and
V2 across
the(d)
10minimum
K resistor.current
Whichthrough
of the following
70. A material whose resistivity
must be a
Vgis 0.4 Q metre Vo
v2
(a)
conductor
resistor
insulator
(d) semiconductor
(a) V,
= 2V2 (6) (&)
V \ = (c)
2
(0 V ###BOT_TEXT###lt;Y
(d) y i>Y

41.

A moving-iron voltmeter is connected across the voltage source whose instantaneous value is
v (t) = 5 + 10 cos (314 t + 30°)

The reading of the meter is
(a) 15 V
(b) 5 V
(c) Vl25 V
(rf)'V75 V .
'
42. If a capacitor is charged by a square-wave current source, the voltage across the capacitor is
(a) square wave
(b ) triangular wave
(c) step function
(d) zero
43. The current passing through a 10-ohm resistor of Fig. C.24 (a) has the waveform shown in Fig.
C.24 (6). The reading of the PMMC voltmeter connected across the resistor is
(a) 180 V
(6) 60 V
(c) 140 V
(d ) 120 V

M

ion

0----- *■ -WVW

-o

PMMC

(a)
Fig. C.24.

44. A voltage source with an internal resistance R s supplies power to load R L . The power delivered
to the load varies with R L as

45. A unity feedback system with open-loop
transfer function
9 across a Iff inductor for t> 0, with initial current
2
38* A voltage waveform v (t ) = G
12f(s)
is= applied
s (s +
through it being zero. The current 3)
through the inductor fori > 0 is given by
1. 12
hast natural frequency = 9
(c)
(b ) 241
2. natural frequency = 3
( c ) 1 2 t3
(d) At 3
3. damping ratio = 1/2
39.
A
current
input,
5
5
(t),
is
forced
through a capacitor C.
4. damping ratio = 1/6
The
From
these,vthe(t),
correct
is
voltage
acrossanswer
the capacitor
is given by
c
(a) 1,
(6) 52,\i(t)-C
3
St 3
(b)
(c)
(d) 2, 4
(c)|f1, 4
46. In the circuit of Fig. C.25, the inductor current and capacitor
40. A are
current
waveform
Fig. C.23
voltage
givenofatthe
a time
instant t.shown
At thisininstant,
the passes
through
current:
i and di/dt are respectively
a pure inductance of 3 mH. The instantaneous power, in
(a) + 5 A, - 500A/s
(6)- 5 A, - 500 A/s
watts,
Fig. C.25.
(c) 5 A, 500 A/s
(d) - 5 A, 500 A/s.
during 0 < t < 2 ms, is
(a) 25,0001
(6) 50,0001
M

-

R

R
~ww-

R

R

A

rr

R

£_JL-AMr- | AfVv— AVyV- -o
AAM
A*Wv
Fig. C.U.
Fig. C.10.
18. Resistance between terminals A and B of Fig, £.11
R
isAAAW
R l-'WA-y- -o
R
wfff
«!
0- -i —VAA""?
«|B
A
(c)R
-ww-

—WA19. Resistance between terminals A and B of Fig. C.12
is
(a)|B
(B)|I?
R
K I;
(c)«
I

R■

Fig.

20. The effective resistance between points A and B OF Fig C.13 IS
(a) 9 Q
(b) 12 £2
(c) 18 £2
( d ) 2 4 £2

Fig. C.13.
21. The voltage va,y* and VC3 across the capacitors in the drcuit shown in Fig. C.14, under
steady-state, are respectively
(a) 80 V, 32 V, 48 V
(b) 80 V, 48 V, 32 V
(c) 20 V, 8 V, 12 V
{d) 20V, 12V, 8V
22. Four resistances 80 £2, 50 £2, 25 £2 and R are connected in parallel. Current through 25 £2
resistance is 4 A. Total current of the supply is 10 A. The value of R will be
(a) 66.66 0
(6) 40.2512 (c) 36.3612
(d) 76.5612
23. W HEN a resistor I ? i s c o n n e c t e d to a current source, IT c o n s u m e s A power of 1 8 W.
When THE s a m e
R IS connected to a VOLTAGE source having the same magnitude
AS THE CURRENT source, the power absorbed BY R is 4.5 W. The
magnitude of the current source and the value of R are
( A ) ' I T S Aandll2
( b ) 3Aand2!2
(c) 1A and 1812
( d ) 6 A and 0.5 £2
24. In the circuit shown in Fig. C.15, the switch S is opened at
t = 0. Prior to that, switch was closed.
Fig. C.15.
Current i (t) at t - 0+ is
(a) | A
(b) ~ A
(c) | A
{d) 1A

25. The value of R m Fig. C.16 is adjusted so that power developed by the voltage source is zero.
The value of R is
(d) 0.667 Q
(o)0Q
(ft) 1.5 0
(c)6fi

Fig. C.16.

26.

Fig. C.17.

In Fig. C.17, the current through the ammeter is

(a)y^A
(6)0 A
, . 51
. I N 2.4 .
C
9^
^ 74^
27. A long uniform coil of inductance L henries and associated resistance R ohms is physically cut
into two exact halves which are then rewound in parallel. The resistance and inductance of the
combination are
(a) R and L
28.

(b) 2 R and 2 L

(c) ^ and~
(cOjand^
The current flowing through the resistor Ri in the given circuit of Fig. C.18 is
(a) 1A
(6) zero
(c) 3 A
(d) 5 A

Fig. C.18.
Fig. C.19.
29. All resistances in the circuit in Fig. C.19 are of R ohms each. The switch is initially open. What
happens to the lamp’s intensity when the switch is closed ?
(a) increases
(6) decreases
(c) remains the same
(d) answer
depends on the value of R. [GATE, 1992]
30. In the circuit of Fig. C.20, the power dissipated in the resistor R is 1W when only source T is
present and *2’ is replaced by short circuit. The power dissipated in the same resistor R is 4W
when only source ‘2’ is present and T is replaced by a short circuit. When both the sources ‘1’
and ‘2’ are present, the power dissipated in R will be
(a) 1W
(6) 3 W
(e) 4 W (d)
5W
31. Under steady-state conditions; the total power dissipated, the energy stored in the inductor and
capacitor in Fig. C.21 are respectively
(a) 25 W, 12.5 Wsr.12.5 Ws
(6) 50 W, 12.5 Ws, 25
Ws
(c) 50 W, 25 Ws, 25 Ws
(d) 100 W, 12.5 Ws, 25 Ws

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

The multiple choice questions given in this appendix pertain to general electrical-engineering
topics
and in particular, to the electrical-machinery topics covered in this book. Several questions have been
taken from competitive examinations like GATE, IES, IAS etc.
Out of the various alternatives given, choose the most appropriate answer.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

The resistance between the opposite faces of 1 metre-cube is found to be 1£L If its length is
increased to 2 metres, its volume remaining unchanged, then resistance between the opposite
faces of its length is
(a) 2Q
(b) 4 Q
(c)10
(d) 8 Q
Time constant for an RL series circuit is given by
( a ) R/L
(b) 1 /RL
( c ) RL
(d) L/R
Time constant for series RL circuit is defined as the time taken by the current to reach
(a) 36,8% of itsfinal value
(6) 36.8% of itsinitial value
(c) 63.2% of itsfinal value
(d ) 63.2% of itsinitial value
Time constant for RC series circuit is equal to
( a ) 1 /RC
(b) R/C
( c) C/R
(d) RC
A series RC circuit is suddenly connected to a dc voltage of V volts. The current in the series
circuit, just after the switch is closed is equal to
(a) z e ro
(b) V/RC
(c) VC/R
(d) V/R
A series RL circuit is suddenly connected to a dc voltage source of V volts. The current in this
circuit, soon after the switch is closed, is equal to
(a) zero
(b ) V/L
(c) V/R
(d) VL/R
A series LC circuit is suddenly connected to a dc voltage source of V *^ie current *n ^is
circuit at t = 0+, is equal to
(a) zero
(6) V/L
(c ) V/C
(d ) VL/C
In the network shown in Fig. C.l, the current through 11 Q resistor is
(a) \ A

( 6)

9D

9.

|A

(C)|A

(<*>|A

12 a

In the network shown in

Fig. C.2, the current through 4 Q resistor is

(a) 2 A
(6)1A
(C)|A
(d) 1.5 A
10. In the circuit of Fig. C.3, the potential of terminal
(a) B is higher than A by
5 V (6) A is higher than 15 by 5 V
(c) B is higher than A by 13 V (d) A is higherthan B by 13 V

Fig. C.4

11. The current through the galvanometer G shown in Fig. C.4 is zero. The current I s through the
source is
(a) 1 mA
(6) 2 mA
(c) 3 mA
(d) 4 mA
12. The time constant of the network shown in Fig. C.5 is
(a) 2 RC
(b) 3 R C
(c) RC/2
(d) 2 R C / Z
13. In the circuit shown in Fig. C.6, the current through R^is
(a) 2 A

14.
15.

(6) zero

(c) - 2 A

(d) - 6 A

The Thevenin’s impedance across the terminals AB of the network of Fig. C.7 is

(a)yfl (&)ya wfs (d)yO

In the bridge given in Fig. C.8, reading of the high-impedance voltmeter is

R
-vwv

R

----WW( b ) 6.66 V
(c) 4,20 V
(rf) 3.33 V
(a) zero
16. Resistance between terminals A and B of Fig. C.9 is
(a)
(6)|-R
(c)
(d)R
17. Resistance between terminals A and B of Fig. C.10 is
wfi;

( t ) |B

(d)R

R

4WV

-WV
R

Fig. 0.9.

(6) A balanced 3-phase delta-connected load takes 50 kW at a lagging current of 90 A when
connected to a 3-phase, 400 V, 50 Hz source. Find the circuit parameters per phase.
[Ans. (b ) R = 6.172 Q,L = 14.64 mH]
B.4. (a) Deduce the relationship between the phase and the line currents and emfs of a 3-phase
delta-connected alternator.
'(b) Three equal impedances, connected in delta, take a power of 30 kW when fed from 3-phase
source. If load impedances are-reconnected in star, find the new power taken by the load.
{Ans. (6) 10 kW]
B.5. Three star-connected impedances of 14-j 16 Q per phase are in parallel with delta-connected
impedances of 30 +j 24 Q per phase across a 3-phase, 400 V source. Calculate the line current, power
factor, power and reactive power of the combined load.
[Ans. 21.74 A, 0.9926 lag, 14950 W, 1828.915 VAr]
B.6. Three star-connected inductances, each of 1 H per phase, are connected in parallel with three
delta-connected capacitances, each of C farads per phase. This combination takes no current from
3-phase, 50 Hz source. Find the value of C.
[Ans. C = 3.3774 pF]
B.7. (a) Show by means of connection and circuit diagrams that sum of two wattmeter readings
measure the total power in a 3-phase, 3-wire circuit. Assume the load to be inductive in nature.
(6) Discuss what happens to two wattmeter readings in case load is capacitive in nature. Illustrate
your answer with a phasor diagram.
[Ans. (a) Wj = V L I L cos (30 - 6), W2 = V L I L cos (30 + 0)
(6) W| = V L I L cos (30 + 0), W2 = V L I L cos (30 - 8)]
B.8. (a) Show, with relevant connection and phasor diagrams that the power in a balanced 3-phase
circuit can be derived from the reading of two wattmeters.
(b) A 60 kW, 1100 V, 3-phase induction motor operates at full load efficiency 90% and pf 0.86.
Calculate the reading on each of the two wattmeters connected to measure the full-load input.
[Ans. (b) 44.756 kW, 21.918 kW]
B.9. (a) Explain the following terms :
r
Three-phase balanced supply, three-phase balanced load, three-phase balanced system, three-phase
unbalanced load.
(b) A balanced star-connected load of 10 +j 20 Q per phase is fed from 440 V, 50 Hz supply. The
phase sequence is abc (or RYB). Two wattmeters connected to read the total power have their current
coils connected in the a and c (or R and B) lines respectively. Draw the circuit and phasor diagrams,
derive the expression for each wattmeter reading and calculate the reading of each wattmeters.
[Hint. (6) Follow the Art. B.7. Here W x = V a b I a cos (30 + 0) and W 2 = V cb I c cos (30 - 0) etc.]
(Ans. (b) W x = V L l L cos (30 + 0), W 2 = V L I L cos (30 - 0); - 299.485 W, 4171.222 W]
B.10. (a) Prove that total power in a 3-phase balanced circuit is VIT V L I L cos 8 where the symbols
used have their usual meanings.
(b) Three identical impedances are fed from 3-phase balanced supply. Prove that power consumption
with impedances in delta = 3 x (power consumption with impedances in star)
(c) Power in a balanced three-phase load is measured by two-wattmeter method and it is found
that the ratio of two readings is 3 to 1. What is the power factor of the load if
■ (i) both the wattmeter readings are positive and
(it) one of the two wattmeter readings is negative.
[Ans. (c) 0.756 lag ; 0.27736
lagl
B.ll. (a) Sketch the waveform of three-phase voltages taking the voltage of phase ‘a’ maximum at
ciit = 0°. Write their expressions as a function of time.
(b) Three identical coils are connected in star to a 400 V, 3-phase supply and each takes 1600 W.
The power factor is 0.6 lagging. What will be the line current and total power if the same coils are
re-connected in delta to the same supply ?

If power is measured by two wattmeters with the coils in star, what will be their readings ?
[Ans. (6) 34.64 A, 14400 W ; 4247.65 W, 552.50
W]
B.12. (a) The resistance across any two terminals of a balanced 3-phase load is 2 Q. For a supply
voltage of 400 V, the line current is 80 A. Find power factor and per-phase parameters of the load
connected in (i) star and (ii) delta.
(b) Two wattmeters measure the input to a balanced star-connected load of L = 20 mH in each
phase. For a supply voltage of 400 V, 50 Hz, calculate the reading of each wattmeter and total power
taken from the source. Illustrate your answer with a suitable phasor diagram.
[Ans. (a) (i) 0.3464 lag, R = 1Q, X — 2.7083 Q (ii) 0.3464 lag, R = 3 Q, X= 8.124 Q
(b) Wi = 7352 W, W2 = - 7352 W, total power = 0]

= 2 V l L cos 30 cos 6 = 2 V I L • ~ ■ cos 0
L

L

W1 + W2 = ^3 ^ 4 cos 0 = total 3-phase power
Difference of two wattmeter readings, - W2 =
0)]

1^ [cos (30 - 0) - cos (30 +

...(B.14)

= V L I L [cos 30 cos 0 + sin 30 sin 0 cos 30 cos 6 + sin 30 sin 0]
...(B.15)
= 2 V L Il sin 30 sin 0 = V L I L sin
0
Eg. (B.15)_ V & f r a m e _W 1 -W 2
Eq. (B.14) V3 VW
cos 0 W x + W2
L 1 L- W
tan 0 = V3"Wi1 + 2
W2
Wi-W 2
1
Load power factor
= cos tan" • A/STW1 + w22

From above,
or

...(B.16)

It is observed from above that
(i) When 0 = 0°, load pf =1, power = 'Id V L l L , Wj =VlIl COS 30 = 0.866 V L I L . Also,
W 2 = 0.866 V L I L = Wj. Therefore, when both wattmeter readings are equal, load pf is unity.
W,
(ii) When 0 = 30, load pf = 0.866, power = 1.5 V L I L , Wj = V L 1^ and W2 = 0.5 V L 1^ - — This
shows
that when one wattmeter reading is double the other wattmeter reading, load pf is 0.866 lagging.
(Hi) When 0 = 60°, load pf = 0.5, power = 0.866 V L J L , Wj = 0.866 Vj, I L and W 2 .- 0. Therefore,
when
one wattmeter reads zero, other wattmeter records the entire power and load pf is 0.5 lagging.
(iv) When 0 > 60°, load pf < 0.5, Wj reads positive whereas W 2 reads negative. This shows that
when
one wattmeter reads negative, load pf is less than 0.5 lagging. Under such a condition, for noting down
(v) When 0 = 90°, load pf = 0, power = 0, Wj = 0.5 V L I L and W2 = - 0.5 I L . So when both
wattmeter
readings are equal but one is positive and the other is negative, the load pf is zero.
Note. Out of the two wattmeter readings, the higher reading is taken as positive and the other
reading as W 2 ; except when pf = 1.
E x a m p l e B . 6. Power input to a 3-phase induction motor is measured by twowattmeter
method.
For
supply mains of 1100 V, 50 Hz ; the two wattmeter readings are 85 kW and 35 kW
respectively.
Motor
efficiency is 0.85. Calculate power input, power factor, line current and shaft power of this
motor.
Solution. Wattmeter readings are Wj = 85 kW and W 2 = 35 kW.
.’. Power input to motor
= 85 + 35 = 120 kW
From (B.16),
or

^^^^1^0.7217

OK_ qC

0 = tan-1 (0.7217) = 35.82°
Motor pf = cos 35.82°
=
0.81
lagging
V3 x 1100 xI L x 0.81 = 120,000 W
/. Line current,
Shaft power

j_
120,000
* L 'fix 1100 x 0.81

77.76 A

= r| x power input to motor.
= 0.85 x 120 = 102 kW
E x a m p l e B . 7 . Two wattmeters connected to measure the no-load power input to a 3phase
induction
.
motor indicate 2000 W and 400 W respectively, but the latter reading is obtained after reversing the
connections to Us current coil. Find the no-load losses of 3-phase induction motor and its no-load

Solution. Here

W x = 2000 W, W2 = - 400 W

No-load losses of 3-phase induction motor = 2000 - 400 = 1600
W
0 =f||68.948°
From Eq. (B.16), tan 9 = V3~
±
= 2.598
No-load pf of 3-phase induction motor = cos 68.948° = 0.3592 lagging.
E x a m p l e B . 8. Two wattmeters are used to measure

the
power input to a balanced star-connected load consisting
of
C = 1 0 0 j x F in each phase. The load is fed from 3phase,
230
V,
50 Hz source. Calculate the reading of each wattmeter
and
the
total power input to the bad.
Solution. For the circuit diagram of Fig. B.13 consisting
of C as the load in each phase, the phasor diagram is drawn
in Fig. B.15. Here phase currents Ja,4 are shown leading by
Phase impedance,

Z

P

2nfC
10°
= 31.831 Q
p 2 n x 50 x 100

Fig. B.15. Phasor diagram pertaining
to
Example B.8.

Phase current,
„ 31.831 ° 4172 A
It is seen from Fig. B.15 that reading of wattmeter
is given by
Wi = Vac • Ia ■ cos (Vae, 4)
= 230 X 4.172 X cos 120° = - 479.78 W
R e a d i n g o f w a t t m e t e r, W 2 - V b c ■ I b ■ c o s (V b c , I b )
= 230 x 4.172 x cos 60° = 479.78 W ;
Power input to load =
+ W2 = 0. The result is as expected, since C consumes no power.
PROBLEMS
B.l.(a) Describe how three-phase emfs are generated in an alternator. From the waveform of
3-phase emfs drawn, sketch the voltage phasor diagrams at cot = 60° and at cot = 120°.
(6) A 3-phase delta-connected load, with an impedance of 8
6 Q per phase, is fed from
230 V, 50 Hz source. Find the phase current, line current, power factor, apparent power, active and
reactive powers of the load.
[Ans. (6) 23 A, 39.836 A, 0.8 lagging, 15870 VA, 12696 W, 9522
VAr]
B.2. (a) Distinguish between balanced and unbalanced three phase systems.
(b) What is phase sequence ? How can it be reversed for a'3-phase (i) genrator and (ii) load.
(c) Three load impedances, each of 8+j6Q, are connected in star and fed from 3-phase,
230 V, 50 Hz supply mains. Calculate phase current, line current, power factor, apparent power, active
and reactive powers.
(Ans. (c) 13.28 A, 13.28 A, 0.8 lagging, 5290.22 VA, 4232.177 W, 3174.133
VAr]
B.3. (a) Derive the relationship between the phase and the line values of emfs and currents in a
3-phase star-connected alternator.
■/ ' ,

30,000 = VFx 500 x 48 x cos 0
.-. Power factor, cos 9 = <5- 3
v3 x 500 x 48
sin 0 = 0.6922
Phase voltage, V p ii
ii

s 0.7217 leading (given)

V, phase current, l p =Ii = 48 A

Phase impedance, Z p --^ =

= 6.014 Q

Load resistance,
R p =Z p cos 0 = 6.014 x 0.7217 = 4.34 Q
When load current is leading, the other load parameter must be a capacitance.
X c = Z p sin 6 = 6.014 x 0.6922 = 4.163 Q

or

= 4.163 Q
r

or

_ 10

6

2nx 50x4.163 764.616 pF.

E x a m p l e B . 5 . T h ree star-connected impedances of 10 + j 15 Q per phase are in parallel
with three
delta-connected impedances of 12 -j 15 Q per phase across a 3-phase, 400 V supply.
(a) Calculate the total line current
(b) Calculate also the power factor, power and reactive power of the combination.
Solution. As stated earlier, it is more convenient to replace delta-connection by an equivalent
star-connection for solving such problems, and therefore, same is done here.
(a) In Fig. B.12 (a), star and delta connected loads are shown. Replacing per phase impedance of
A-connected load by an equivalent Y-connected
load of Z 2 ' per phase, we get Fig. B.12 (6), where
Z 2 ' = ~ l = 12 J 15 = 4 -j 5J = 6.4 Z- 51.34°
^3
3
Z 1 = 10 +j 15 = 18.03

and
Phase voltage,

Z56.310
V p = ^- = 230.95 V

(a)
(6)
Fig. B.12. (a) Pertaining to Example B.5 (b) equivalent single-phase circuit of Fig. B.12 (a).

Current I x and I 2 are shown flowing in impedances Z x and Z 2 respectively in Fig. B.12 (6).
,,Z,
230.95
1
Z x 18.03 Z56.310

= 12.81 Z-56.31° A

Therefore, phase, or line, current in Y-connected load = 12.81 A
230.95
j
= 36.086 Z51.340 A
2
Z{ 6.4 Z-51.34°

/
■*

L INE - CURRENT

IN

A-connected LOAD = 36.086 A AND its PHASE

36'086
CURRENT

= —= 20.835 A. •

line current of the combined load, l L = line current of Y-connected load, I x + line
A-connected load, 72
or
I L = 12.81 Z- 56.31° + 36.086 Z- 51.34°
- (7.106- j 10.66) + (22.54 + j 28.18)
= 29.646 + j 17.52 = 34.436 Z30.5820 A
Total LINE

CURRENT ,

CURRENT

of

7^, = 34.436 A

(6) Power factor of the combination = cos 30.582° = 0.861 leading.
Total power of the combination = Vjf 7^, cos 0 = VT x 400 x 34.436 x 0.861 = 20541.1 W
Here

sin 0 = 0.5086

Total reactive power

sin0
= V3 x 400 x 34.436 x 0.5086 = 12133.8 VAr

B.7. Measurement of power In three-phase Balanced Circuits

Power in a 3-phase circuit can be measured by two-wattmeter method. F IG . B.13

ILLUSTRATES THE
CONNECTION of

two wattmeters for THE
measurement of power in a 3-phase
star-connected balanced load. Load phase
voltages V a n , V b n , Vcn are shown as phasors in
Fig. B.14 and the corresponding phasor
currents
l a , I b , I c are drawn lagging the respective
phase
voltages by A p f angle 0.
■Wattmeter W J . C URRENT THROUGH its
coil

=

LA

Potential difference across the voltage coil
= v «= v f l n + ? f t C = v a n - v w .
Van

So reverse phasor V c n and add to phasor
to obtain ; this is shown in Fig. B.14.
Phase angle between and 7C = 30-0
Reading of wattmeter,

Fig. B.13. Measurement of
power by
two-wattmeter method.

W i = V g c • I a • COS (30 - 0)

Wattmeter W2. Current THROUGH its COIL = I b
Potential difference across its voltage coil
So reverse V c n and add it to V B N to get V&. as illustrated
in F IG . B.14.
For
a balanced
load, I V
I p = I L (line current)
a = land
b = 7IC=
Phase
angle between
bc
b=30 + 0

and
and

Fig. B.14. Phasor diagram
for
two-wattmeter method.
...(B.12)
...(B.13)

Reading of wattmeter W 2 = I b cos (30 + 0)
"h
Vaf , = V b c = = | V m | = V L (line voltage)
Wj = Vi l i cos (30 - 0)
W x "+ W
fcos(30
(30+-0)
W 22 == Vjr,
V L I1L LCOS
0)+ cos (30 + 0)1
-V J , 1 L [COS 30 cos 0 + sin 30 sin 0 + cos 30 cos 0 - sin 30 sin 0]