Journal of Scientific BORA

& Industrial
et al :Research
Vol. 69, August 2010, pp. 639-642


Wear and tear analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine using karanja
biodiesel (B20) after 512 hours
Dilip Kumar Bora*, L M Das and M K G Babu
Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India
Received 23 November 2009; revised 19 May 2010; accepted 24 May 2010
This study presents effects of biodiesel blends namely B20K fuel (80% diesel + 20% Karanja biodiesel) on single cylinder
diesel engine performance and lubricating oil under two long duration endurance tests of 512 h. SAE grade 15W 40 engine oil
was used for both the tests. Experimental results indicated that engine can be safely operated with B20 fuel, without significant
changes in engine power, fuel economy and lubricating oil properties.
Keywords: B20K, Long term endurance test, Lubricating oil

India imports nearly 70% of fossil fuel, which by
2010 is likely to increase to 82%1. India has great
potential for production of biodiesel from non-edible
oilseeds. In India, 80 million ha of wastelands, available
in rural and economically underdeveloped region, has
large scale biodiesel production and enormous potential
for employment and development of these areas. India
is producing 6.7x10 6 tonnes of non-edible oils 2-6
(Madhuca indica, Mesua ferrea L., Linum usitatissimum,
Pongmia pinnata, Oryza sativa, Shorea robusta,
Calophyllum inophyllum, Gossypium herbaceum,
Jatropha curcas, Azadirachta indica, Schlelchera trijuga,
Ficus elastica). Biodiesel results in substantial reductions
of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), carbon monoxide
(CO), and particulate matter (PM). It is considered a clean
fuel since it has almost no sulphur, no aromatics and has
11% built in oxygen, which helps in complete
combustion. Its higher cetane number improves ignition
quality even when blended with diesel fuel7,8. Neat
methyl esters (B100) of rapeseed, soybean, sunflower,
tallow and other fats and oils can be used as diesel fuel
with little or no modifications of existing diesel engine.
This study presents wear and tear analysis of a single
cylinder diesel engine using B20K fuel (80% diesel and
20% karanja biodiesel) under two endurance tests
of 512 h.
*Author for correspondence
Present address: Jorhat Engineering College, Jorhat- 7, Assam, India

Experimental Section
Two diesel engines were used to assess engine and
oil performances using B20K fuel. Engines [Kirloskar
single cylinder (DAF 8), four stroke, vertical, air cooled,
direct injection] had following specifications: bore, 87.5
mm; stroke, 110 mm; compression ratio, 17.5:1; speed,
1500 rpm; brake power, 8/5.9 bhp/kw; displacement
volume, 779.704 cc; and injector opening pressure, 200
bar. Engines were operated for 512 h with test fuels to
inspect effect of long term engine operation on engine
wear, both by physical dimensioning and lubricating oil
analysis. Two similar new engines were completely
disassembled and subjected to dimensioning of various
parts and then subjected to long term endurance test on
20% biodiesel blends and petroleum diesel respectively.
During this test, each engine was run for 32 cycles
(each of 16 h continuous running) at rated speed as per
IS: 10000, part viii, 19809. SAE grade 15W 40 engine
oil was used for both tests. Lubricating oil samples were
collected from engines after every 150 h and immediately
analyzed to obtain wear result. Test cycle for long-term
endurance test used load (% of rated load) and running
time (h), respectively, as follows: 100, 4; 50, 4; 110, 1;
100, 3; 50, 3.5. Test cycle used for load idling was zero
and running time, 0.5 h.
Results and Discussion
A comparative study was done on performance of
engine oil using both diesel and B20K as a fuel on the
basis of results obtained in the tests. Physico-chemical

640 J SCI IND RES VOL 69 AUGUST 2010 Table 1—Fuel properties of karanja biodiesel (B100K) and karanja biodiesel blend (B20K) Sl No. %wt Cetane no. % 70 60 B20K 50 Dies el 40 30 0 100 200 300 400 500 Operating time.891 0.. 1—Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with time 80 Smoke opacity. %wt Ash content. Biodiesel blend (B20K) 4 0 145 4.6 1 -3 70 3.3 (Cetane index) BSFC. °C Kinematic viscosity40°C .hh Fig.8544 0. °C Flash point. 2—Variation of smoke opacity with time 600 .004 No 1 0.25 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Operating time.hh Fig.08 0.01 No 1 Nil 50. Properties Biodiesel (B100K ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cloud point. %wt Copper strip corrosion100°C . 3 h Moisture.016 0. °C Pour point.014 < 0.534 0.005 57.3 0.4 0.35 B20K Dies el 0. cSt Relative density15°C Carbon residue. kg/kWh 0..

Viscosity at 100°C indicated that extent of lowering of viscosity of lubricating oil is less in case of B20K fuelled engine compared to diesel fuelled engine.3 cSt) for 15W40 lube oil during engine operation on B20K blend as well as diesel. 12. Difference in change in viscosity of lubricating oil using diesel and B20K as fuel is found negligible and B20K does not affect oil viscosity and is able to maintain its viscosity throughout the test. which enhanced its complete burning as compared to diesel.5 cSt. valves. piston.022 cSt). viscosity value for all fuels was 13.BORA et al : EFFECT ON DIESEL ENGINE OF KARANJA BIODIESEL AFTER 512 HOURS 641 14 Kinematic K in e m a ticviscosity. viscosity variation did not exceed the limits (lower limit.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Lub oil usage time. rings. whereas for 512 h engine operation. 3—Variation of kinematic viscosity with time of using lubricant Iron concentration. upper limit. valve guides. 16.5 12 1 1 . 4—Variation of iron concentration with time of using lubricant properties of karanja oil methyl ester (B100K) and its blend (B20K) were determined (Table 1). rust and crankshaft. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) trend (Fig. 10-2% 40 30 B2 0 K 20 D ie s e l 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Lub oil usage time.5 13 B2 0K D ie s e l 1 2 . Lower levels of iron concentration indicate low rate of engine wear in case . Conclusions BSFC for B20K is found slightly higher than diesel due to lower calorific value of B20K than diesel.cScSt t 1 3 . Smoke density from engine fueled by B20K is lower than engine fueled by diesel at 512 h of running (Fig 2). 1) indicates performance of engine for both fuels. BSFC in case of B20K is slightly higher than diesel due to lower calorific value of B20K than diesel.2 cSt followed by diesel (12. may be because of lower fuel dilution (Fig. It was monitored that lubricants from 20% biodiesel fueled engine indicated a lower increase in iron content (Fig. bearing. Iron in wear debris may be due to wear of cylinder liner.hh . viscosity for B20K was 12. 3).hh Fig. At the start of test. However. may be due to presence of oxygen molecule in biodiesel chain. gears. shafts.5 cSt. 4).Fig. visco sity.

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