Basics of Reservoir Engineering –Module I

I.1.A - Fundamentals of Reservoir Phase Behavior

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Understanding Phase Behavior
Naturally occurring hydrocarbon
mixtures found in petroleum
reservoirs are mixtures of organic
compounds and few nonhydrocarbons that may exist in
gaseous or liquid states.
Differences in the phase behavior
of these mixtures over a wide
ranges of pressures and
temperature ultimately determine
the production characteristics of
hydrocarbon reservoirs.
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Why study Phase Behavior?
• As oil and gas are produced from the reservoir, they are
subjected to a series of pressure, temperature, and compositional
changes.
• Such changes affect the volumetric and transport behavior of
these reservoir fluids and, consequently, the produced oil and gas
volumes.
• All reservoir performance equations (e.g., Darcy’s law, material
balances) require the knowledge of fluid properties. It is
impossible to correctly evaluate well productivity and reservoir
performance if fluid properties are not known.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

pc Pressure Solid Meltingpoint lin e Phase Behavior .Pure Substance C Liquid V ro p a p ne i l re u s res Gas T Temperature Copyright 2008. All rights reserved Tc . NExT.

All rights reserved Gas Tc .Phase Behavior . NExT.Pure Substance pc Pressure Solid Meltingpoint lin e Critical Point C Liquid V T ro p a p ne i l re u s res Triple Point Temperature Copyright 2008.

Phase Behavior .Pure Substance Copyright 2008. All rights reserved . NExT.

1 0.Phase Behavior . psia 1100 16 0° F 1000 13 0° F 900 110 °F 100° F 95°F 800 C 700 90°F=Tc 85°F 80°F 600 70°F Two-phase region 500 60°F 400 0 0.Pure Substance 1200 Pressure. NExT.25 .2 Specific volume.05 0. All rights reserved 0. cu ft/lb Copyright 2008.15 0.

NExT.1 0.4 .Mixtures Critical point 4 45 0 o 54 oF F 425 oF 400 oF 300 200 De w 350 oF poin t 300 oF 0.Pressure. psia 400 Bubblepoint Phase Behavior . cu ft/lb Copyright 2008. All rights reserved 0.3 Volume.2 0.

NExT.Mixtures PURE SUBSTANCE Copyright 2008. All rights reserved MIXTURE .Phase Behavior .

the farther apart BP and DP Curves! DP Curve Temp. All rights reserved . p T < Tc “LIQUI D” BP Curve L + V coexistence T > Tc “GAS” CP The less alike the molecules.Phase Behavior . T Copyright 2008. NExT.Mixtures There is no real transition! Pressure.

00 90. All rights reserved Wt % ethane 100. °F 500 .22 50. NExT.25 29.Phase Diagrams of Mixtures of Ethane and n-Heptane Composition 1400 Pressure.25 n-Heptane 2 400 0 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Pure nC7 100 200 300 400 Temperature.22 70.91 9. psia 4 1200 5 3 1000 800 600 Pure1 C2 6 7 8 9 10 200 Copyright 2008.27 1.78 6.14 3.

All rights reserved -150 -100 -50 Temperature. NExT.Phase Diagram of a Reservoir Fluid 1400 1300 1200 1100 500 400 300 qu Li 5 10 20 0 600 5 700 2 800 id 900 10 0% Pressure. psia 1000 Critical point 1 200 100 0 -200 Copyright 2008. °F 0 50 .

psia Pressure path in reservoir 3 5 10 20 Separator Separator t line poin Dew Temperature. NExT.The Five Reservoir Fluids The Five Reservoir Fluids Dewpoint line Critical 1 point Pressure path in reservoir Dewpoint line 60 80 9 0 7 60 0 50 20 790 % Liquid 40 % Liquid 30 80 50 10 30 le bb Bu t in po 90 B ub bl ep oi nt lin e The Five Reservoir Fluids Black Oil e lin 2 Volatile oil Pressure Critical point 40 Pressure. °F Black Oil Temperature Volatile Oil Pressure path in reservoir Retrograde gas Pressure path in reservoir Pressure path in reservoir 1 1 1 5 0 Temperature Retrograde Gas Copyright 2008. All rights reserved Dew poi nt % Liquid 2 5 1 Separator Temperature Wet Gas 50 25 1 Separator Dry gas 2 25 Bu bb l lin epo 30 e int 30 1 Pressure De w % Liquid Critical point 15 line lin e po int Pressure De w Wet gas % Liquid 20 4 300 tl in e Critical point Bu bb le po in Pressure po in tl in e 2 Separator Temperature Dry Gas .

°F Copyright 2008. All rights reserved 20 10 30 leb b Bu t in o p e in Dewpoint line 40 Black Oil Pressure path in reservoir Critical point 50 Pressure.Phase Diagram of a Typical Black Oil L 90 0 % Liquid 8 70 0 6 Separator Temperature. psia An Oil Reservoir: Tr < Tc ( Bubblepoint Oil ) . NExT.

All rights reserved 10 5 n int li o p Dew e . °F Copyright 2008.Phase Diagram of a Typical Volatile Oil An Oil Reservoir: Tr < Tc ( Bubblepoint Oil ) Pressure path 1 in reservoir 2 % Liquid 20 Bu bb l 30 ep oi nt 40 lin e 50 80 9 0 70 60 Volatile oil Pressure Dewpoint line Critical point 3 Separator Temperature. NExT.

Phase Diagram of a Typical Retrograde Gas A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc (dewpoint system) Pressure path in reservoir 1 Retrograde gas w po in tl De % Liquid 20 30 ep oi nt lin e 40 Critical point Bu bb l Pressure in e 2 15 3 10 Separator Temperature Copyright 2008. All rights reserved 5 0 . NExT.

NExT. All rights reserved .Phase Diagram of Typical Wet Gas A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc Wet gas De wp oin t Pressure lin e Pressure path in reservoir 1 % Liquid 1 5 2 25 30 Bu b bl lin epo e int Critical point Separator Temperature Copyright 2008.

All rights reserved . NExT.Phase Diagram of Typical Dry Gas A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc e t l in oi n Dry gas Dew p Pressure Pressure path in reservoir 1 % Liquid 1 25 50 2 Separator Temperature Copyright 2008.

Field Identification of Reservoir Fluids The Concept of GOR Separator scf Gas res bbl Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved res bbl Oil scf Stock tank GOR = scf STB STB .

mole percent 4.807 Molecular Weight 142 lb/lb mole Copyright 2008.78 0.45 8.71 1.01 0.22 4.96 1. NExT. All rights reserved .45 0.Components of Naturally Occurring Petroleum Fluids Component Hydrogen sulfide Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane Hexanes Heptanes plus Composition.35 100.95 0.00 Properties of heptanes plus Specific Gravity 0.91 11.51 57.70 7.

NExT. mole % Copyright 2008. All rights reserved 50 .Initial Producing GOR Correlates With C7+ Initial producing gas/liquid ratio. scf/STB 100000 80000 60000 40000 Dewpoint gas Bubblepoint oil 20000 0 0 10 20 30 40 Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid.

mole % Copyright 2008.Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C7+ Dew point gases Initial producing gas/oil ratio. scf/STB 100000 10000 1000 100 0.1 1 10 100 Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid. All rights reserved . NExT.

All rights reserved . NExT. scf/STB 10000 1000 100 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid.Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C7+ Bubblepoint oils Initial producing gas/liquid ratio. mole % Copyright 2008.

NExT. mole % Copyright 2008. scf/STB 50000 Wet gas Dry gas Retrograde gas Volatile oil Black oil Dewpoint gas Bubblepoint oil 0 0 30 Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid.Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C7+ Initial producing gas/oil ratio. All rights reserved .

scf/STB Initial StockTank Liquid Gravity.000* Dry Gas 100.000* < 45 > 40 > 40 Up to 70 No Liquid Dark Colored Lightly Colored Water White No Liquid *For Engineering Purposes Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved .Field Identification Initial Producing Gas/Liquid Ratio. °API Color of StockTank Liquid Black Oil <1750 Volatile Oil 1750 to 3200 Retrograde Gas > 3200 Wet Gas > 15.

NExT.8* - .0 > 2. Mole Percent Oil Formation Volume Factor at Bubblepoint Black Volatile Retrograde Oil Oil Gas Bubblepoint Bubblepoint Dewpoint > 20% 20 to 12. All rights reserved Dry Gas No Phase Change < 0.5 < 12.Laboratory Analysis Phase Change in Reservoir Heptanes Plus.0 - - *For Engineering Purposes Copyright 2008.5 Wet Gas No Phase Change < 4* < 2.

All rights reserved Time GOR GOR Time Time Time Dry Gas Time No liquid Time ° API ° API Time Wet Gas ° API Time ° API GOR ° API Time Retrograde Gas GOR Volatile Oil GOR Black Oil No liquid Time .Primary Production Trends Copyright 2008. NExT.

000 Mscf/d. NExT.Exercise 1 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data One of the wells in the Merit field. the well produced 1987 STB of 58°API liquid and 78. the well was producing liquid at a rate of about 30 STB/d of 59°API liquid and gas at about 2.946 Mscf of gas.000 scf/STB. All rights reserved . originally produced 54°API stock-tank liquid at a gas/oil ratio of about 23. During July 1969. What type of reservoir fluid is this well producing? Copyright 2008. By May 1972. completed in December 1967 in the North Rodessa formation.

scf/STB 60 50000 40000 54 30000 53 20000 10000 52 51 0 50 72 0 12 24 36 48 60 Months since start of 1967 Copyright 2008. All rights reserved Stock-tank liquid gravity. NExT.Plot of Exercise 1 Data 90000 80000 59 58 70000 57 60000 56 55 Producing gas/oil ratio. API 100000 .

0000 Properties of heptanes plus Specific Gravity 0.0138 0. Classify this reservoir fluid. Laboratory analysis of a sample from this reservoir gave the following composition: Component Composition.2°API.0752 C2 0.0218 N2 0.000 scf/STB. NExT. The stock-tank liquid was “medium orange” and had a gravity of 51.1491 C7 1.Exercise 2 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data A field in north Louisiana discovered in 1953 and developed by 1956 had an initial producing gas/oil ratio of 2. All rights reserved .0167 C1 0.0474 C3 C4’s 0. mole fraction CO2 0.799 Molecular Weight 181 lb/lb mole Copyright 2008.0412 0.0297 C5’ C6’s 0.6051 0.

NExT.165 5.276 16.650 4.270 4.960 4.434 12.904 4.339 4.270 .814 4.Exercise 3 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data The reported production from the discovery well of the Nancy (Norphlet) field is given below. STB 4.707 4.147 15.800 4. Mscf 1.862 14.885 15.226 14.585 15.192 Gas.108 15.979 4.879 15.335 4. All rights reserved Stock-Tank Liquid Gravity’ °API 29 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 Oil.720 15.232 15. How would you classify this reservoir fluid? Why? Date 9/86 10/86 11/86 12/86 1/87 2/87 3/87 4/87 5/87 6/87 7/87 8/87 Copyright 2008.

NExT. All rights reserved 12 . scf/STB 500 400 300 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 Months since start of production Copyright 2008.Plot of Exercise 3 Data Producing gas/oil ratio.

Plot of Exercise 3 Data Three-Month Running Average Producing gas/oil ratio. All rights reserved 12 . scf/STB 500 400 300 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 Months since start of production Copyright 2008. NExT.

291 2. NExT.412 60.519 3.083 71.330 .Exercise 4 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data The Crown Zellerbach No.810 2. How would you classify this reservoir fluid? Why? Monthly Production Date Apr 1984 May 1984 Jun 1984 Jul 1984 Aug 1984 Sep 1984 Oct 1984 Nov 1984 Dec 1984 Jan 1985 Feb 1985 Mar 1985 Copyright 2008.799 1.359 80. STB 112 1.419 119.722 2. STB Water.104 94.151 100. The reported production during the first year of production is given below.230 3.279 57. All rights reserved Stock-Tank Liquid Gravity °API 55 55 55 55 54 55 56 56 56 56 56 Oil. 1 was the discovery well in the Hooker (Rodessa) field.362 54. Mscf 3.422 1.626 60.809 64.090 180 240 279 248 270 210 217 203 196 186 Gas.861 12.235 113.108 1.780 3.137 2.

All rights reserved . scf/STB 37000 28000 0 13 Months since start of production Copyright 2008. NExT.Plot of Exercise 4 Data Three-Month Running Average Producing gas/oil ratio.

Exercise 5 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data Here we present the GOR plot based on three month running average data for Exercise 4.122 665 Gas.075 241.048 221.106 178.110 Water. STB 4.215 932 1. Annual Production Stock-Tank Date Liquid Gravity °API 1982 46 1983 50 1984 47 1985 48 1986 50 *1987 51 *through August 1987 Copyright 2008.350 1. STB 1.606 1.177 1. Mscf 462.662 1.430 1.951 .265 342.484 1.646 2.020 267. All rights reserved Oil. NExT.

All rights reserved 40 Year 1988 1981 Year 1988 .Plot of Exercise 5 Data 200000 Stock-tank liquid gravity. NExT. API Producing gas/oil ratio. scf/STB 55 50000 1981 Copyright 2008.

Exercise 6 Determine reservoir fluid type from field data The following liquid yield production data is available for a given reservoir. Can you identify the fluid? 200 Yeild. STB/MMscf 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved 24 48 72 Months since start of 1966 96 120 .

All rights reserved . NExT.Basics of Reservoir Engineering Natural Gas Properties Copyright 2008.

gas. Temperature. solid) Copyright 2008. Volume) and phases (liquid. All rights reserved .Phase Behavior Relationship between conditions (Pressure. NExT.

pV = n R T m pV = RT M RT pv = M Copyright 2008.Ideal Gas Equation Of State The simplest PVT model: the ideal gas. NExT. All rights reserved Assumptions of the ideal model: Volume occupied by molecules is insignificant compared to volume of gas No attractive or repulsive forces between molecules .

All rights reserved n R T = p z n R T = = z V ideal p . V ideal V real Copyright 2008. or z-factor.Real Gas Equation of State pV = z n RT m pV = z RT M z RT pv= M z is called “compressibility factor”: V real z = V ideal Also called gas deviation factor. supercompressibility. NExT.

All rights reserved Pressure. NExT. p st n co t n a Actual V greater than ideal V .Compressibility factor.0 m Te tu a r e p re = Actual V less than ideal V 0 0 Copyright 2008. z Typical Shape of z-Factor z approaches 1.0 1.

All rights reserved 1000 6000 Pressure.z-Factors For Methane Methane 1.2 -84 0. NExT.4 1.1 404 342 320 262 240 212 0.6 2000 1.3 1. psia 8000 10000 p VM Z= RT .1 0 Copyright 2008.7 -4 0.5 104 140 170 212 240 262 320 342 404 3000 -54 -70 32 44 -22 -40 1.9 170 5000 140 104 44 p VM Z= RT -84 -70 -54 -40 -22 -4 4000 32 0.0 0.

9 Tr = 1.8 Reduced pressure.8 CH4 C5H12 C H H8 2 C3 C 5H 1 0.2 Tr = 0.6 1.5 C5H12 C3H8 Tr = 1.0 .2 1. pr 2. Pr= P/Pc. All rights reserved 0 0.z-Factors and Corresponding States By defining reduced conditions Tr = T/Tc.6 4 Tr = 1.0 C3H8 CH4 C6H14 C 6H 14 Compressibility factor.3 0.2 0 Copyright 2008. z-factor isotherms for different substances tend to collapse to a universal z-factor curve: 1.1 CH4 C5H12 0. NExT.4 3.0 C5H12 C3H8 Tr = 1.4 C3H8 CH4 CH4 C3H8 C5H12 0. z = pV RT Tr = 1.

z-Factors for Naturally Occurring Gas Mixtures
Pseudoreduced pressure, ppr
0

1

2

0.9

4

5

6

7

5
1.0
1
1.
1.2
1.3
1.4

1.3
1.25
1.2

1.5
1.6
1 .7 1 .8
1.9
2 . 0 2 .2

1.15
1.1
2.8

2.6 2.4
2 .2 2 . 0
1 . 9 1 .8
1 .7

7

2.4
2.6
3.0

1.05

3.0

1.4
1.3

8

1.2
1.1
1.05

9

10

11

12

13

14

Pseudoreduced pressure, ppr
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

8
1.1
1.0

Pseudoreduced Temperature
3.0
2.8
2.6 2.4
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.45
1.4
1.35

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.25
1.1
1.0
1.6

3

15

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0

Compressibility factor, z

Compressibility factor, z

1.1

Molecular Weight Calculation

The apparent molecular weight of a natural gas is
calculated as the weighted average of the molecular
weight of all its components:

Ma = ∑ yj M j

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Physical Constants
Physical constants of single components are tabulated!
Compound
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Isobutane
n-Butane
Isopentane
n-Pentane
Neopentane
n-Hexane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylepntane
Neophexane
2,3-Dimethylbutane
Hydrogen sulfide
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Argon
Oxygen
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Formula
CH4
C2 H6
C3H8
C4H10
C4H10
C5H12
C5H12
C5H12
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
C6H14
H2S
CO2
N2
A
O2

Molar Mass,
molecular weight
16.043
30.070
44.097
58.123
58.123
72.150
72.150
72.150
86.177
86.177
86.177
86.177
86.177
34.08
44.010
28.0134
39.944
31.999

Critical Constants
Pressure,
Temperature,
psia
°F
666.4
-116.67
706.5
89.92
616.0
206.06
527.9
274.46
500.6
305.62
490.4
369.10
488.6
385.8
464.0
321.13
436.9
453.6
436.6
435.83
453.1
448.4
446.8
420.13
453.5
440.29
1300.
212.45
1071.
87.91
493.1
-232.51
704.2
-188.53
731.4
-181.43

7809 0. Component Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Composition. Compute the apparent molecular weight of air given its approximate composition.Exercise 7 Calculate Apparent Molecular Weight of Gas Mixture Dry air is a gas mixture consisting of nitrogen.0093 0. mole fraction 0. and small amounts of other gases. oxygen. All rights reserved .0003 1.2095 0.0000 Copyright 2008. NExT.

All rights reserved g .Specific Gravity Of Gas Gas specific gravities are calculated as the ratio of gas density to the density of air. usually 60°F and atmospheric pressure ρg γg = ρ air . NExT. which becomes: p M γ g M g ρg R T = = = p M air ρ air 29 R T Copyright 2008. both measured at the same temperature and pressure.

mole percent 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.06 0.Exercise 8 Calculate Specific Gravity of Gas Mixture Component hydrogen sulfide carbon dioxide nitrogen methane ethane propane iso-butane n-butane iso-pentane n-pentane hexanes heptanes plus Properties of Heptanes Plus Density. All rights reserved Composition.15 0.13 1.94 100.00 96.00 0.16 0.50 0.88 0.10 0. NExT.798 164 . gm/cc @ 60°F Molecular weight Copyright 2008.

psia 10000 . NExT. psi/ft Calculated as a function of “Z”: Units .15 pM ρg = z RT ρg.Gas Density 0.lb/cu ft 0 0 or ρ g lb / cu ft psi = 144 sq in / sq ft ft Copyright 2008. All rights reserved p.

Gas Formation Volume Factor (Bg) Units - rcf/scf (res cu ft/scf) scf res bbl/scf res bbl/Mscf Separator Definition .volume of gas at reservoir conditions required to produce one standard volume of gas at the surface Symbol . NExT. All rights reserved res bbl gas Bg = Mscf .Bg scf Stock tank STB Gas res bbl Copyright 2008.

psia  psc z T res bbl bbl  1000    Bg =     M   5. All rights reserved 10000 .615 cu ft  Tsc p Mscf Copyright 2008. res bbl/Mscf 40 0 0 or p. NExT.Gas Formation Volume Factor (Bg) VR Equation: Bg = Vsc psc z T res cu ft Bg = Tsc p scf Bg.

large values = low flow rate.The resistance to flow exerted by a fluid.centipoise or centistoke µg. cp 0.05 0 0 Copyright 2008.e. i.. NExT.Gas Viscosity Definition . psia 10000 . Units . All rights reserved p.

NExT. All rights reserved . Ma. Ma. T) Thus µg = f(ρg. T) f(Ma. T) f(Ma.Gas Viscosity Gas Viscosity Correlation Equation (Lee-Gonzalez) µ g = A (10 − 4 ) EXP (B ρ gC ) where A B C = = = f(Ma. T) or µg = f(z. T) Copyright 2008.

All rights reserved p 10000 .Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Gas (Gas Compressibility) ∂V     ∂ p T Ideal Gas 1 cg = p Real Gas 1 1∂z  c g = −  p z  ∂ p T cg x 106 Definition 1 cg = − V 7000 0 0 Copyright 2008. NExT.

T ) i. ) p. All rights reserved .Gas Properties . z RT Bg = p sc z T T sc p M a = 29 γ g µ g = f (M a . need z and Ma i. Copyright 2008.e. need Tpc. ρ g . T c g = f (ρ g .. need γg Thus the only gas property required to enter all gas property correlations is either gas composition or gas specific gravity.e.. z . ppc i.Summary ρg = P Ma .e.. NExT.

Basics of Reservoir Engineering Oil Properties Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved .

usually 60°F and atmospheric pressure • Sometimes called γo (60/60) Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved .Specific Gravity of Oil Specific gravity of a crude oil is defined as the ratio of the density of the oil and the density of water at specified pressure and temperature conditions: ρo γo = ρw • Both densities measured at the same temperature and pressure.

it is customary in the petroleum industry to use another gravity scale known as API (American Petroleum Institute).5 This definition gives hydrometers a linear scale for measurement.5 γo − 131. which has been defined as: o API = 141. heavy and extra heavy (low API) is used Copyright 2008.API Gravity of Oil Besides specific gravity. medium. Based on API of crude oils. a gross classification of crude oils as light (high API). NExT. All rights reserved .

Phase Diagram . NExT. psia Pressure path in reservoir .Typical Black Oil Critical point Black Oil % Liquid 70 0 6 Separator Temperature. All rights reserved Dewpoint line 50 Pressure. °F 20 10 L 90 0 8 30 t in o lep b b e in 40 Bu Copyright 2008.

All rights reserved Oil p > pb res bbl oil STB .Reservoir Pressure > Oil Bubblepoint Pressure Separator scf scf Stock tank STB Bo = res bbl Copyright 2008. NExT.

All rights reserved .volume of reservoir oil at reservoir conditions required to produce one standard volume of stock tank oil scf Separator Units . NExT.Bo scf Stock tank STB res bbl Bo =res bbl oil STB Oil p > pb Copyright 2008.res bbl/STB Symbol .Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo) Definition .

Contracts .pressure decreases from reservoir pressure to atmospheric pressure Copyright 2008. Loses mass . Expands . NExT. All rights reserved .Oil Formation Volume Factor Three things happen to reservoir oil as it is produced to surface 1.temperature decrease from reservoir temperature to 60°F 3.gas comes out of solution on trip to surface 2.

Typical Shape Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo 2 1 0 Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved pb p 6000 .

NExT. All rights reserved .cubic feet of total surface gas at standard conditions per barrel of stock-tank oil at standard conditions.Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (Rs) Another important property of oils is the amount of “gas in solution” (Rs) available at every pressure level: Definition . scf/STB Copyright 2008.volume of gas which comes out of the oil as it moves from reservoir temperature and pressure to standard temperature and pressure Units .

Reservoir Pressure > Oil Bubblepoint Pressure Rsb = Separator scf scf STB scf Stock tank STB Bo = res bbl Copyright 2008. All rights reserved Oil p > pb res bbl oil STB . NExT.

All rights reserved pb p. psig 6000 . NExT.Typical Shape Solution Gas/Oil Ratio Rs. scf/STB 2000 0 0 Copyright 2008.

All rights reserved res bbl Oil p < pb res bbl oil STB . NExT.Reservoir Pressure < Oil Bubblepoint Pressure scf Rsb = scf Separator res bbl gas Bg = Mscf scf STB scf Stock tank STB Bo = Gas res bbl Copyright 2008.

Typical Shape - Oil Formation Volume Factor

Bo, res bbl/STB

2

1

pb

0
p, psig
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

6000

Typical Shape - Solution Gas/Oil Ratio

Rs, scf/STB

2000

0
0
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

pb
p, psig

6000

Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil –
p > pb
Definition, co = − 1  ∂ V  or co = − 1  ∂ Bo 
V  ∂ p T

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Bo  ∂ p T

Oil

Oil

Hg

Hg

NExT.Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil – p < pb 1 co = − Bo  ∂ Bo     ∂ p T Gas Oil Bg  ∂ Rs    + Bo  ∂ p T Oil Hg Hg Copyright 2008. All rights reserved .

Typical Shape .Oil Compressibility co. psi-1 x 106 500 0 pb 0 p. NExT. All rights reserved 6000 . psig Copyright 2008.

psig Copyright 2008. NExT. All rights reserved 6000 .lb/cu ft or lb / cu ft psi = 144 sq in / sq ft ft ρo. lb/cu ft 47 39 pb 0 p.Oil Density Units .

3 pb 0 p. i. µo. All rights reserved 6000 . cp 1.e. large values = low flow rates. psig Copyright 2008. NExT.the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid. Units: centipoise.Oil Viscosity Definition .1 0..

Oil producing rate. psia Production/Pressure History of Typical Black Oil 9000 6000 3000 100 75 50 25 Producing gas/oil ratio 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Copyright 2008. NExT. MSTB/d Reservoir pressure. All rights reserved 1978 1979 1980 Time 1981 .

All rights reserved .just before producing GOR starts to increase Copyright 2008. NExT.Field Data For Correlations Field Data Needed: • Plot producing gas/oil ratio v. cumulative oil production • Plot measured average reservoir pressures v. cumulative oil production Get: Rsb is initial producing gas/oil ratio pb is pressure at which pressure curve flattens .

All rights reserved 70 .Pressure. scf/STB Production/Pressure History of Typical Black Oil 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Cumulative oil production. MMSTB Copyright 2008. NExT. psia Producing gas/oil ratio.

NExT. i..e. TSP ) o Copyright 2008. an estimate of the quantity of stock tank vent gas must be added to get Rsb.Field Data For Correlations If producing gas/oil ratios are calculated using sales gas (the usual situation). All rights reserved . Rsb = RSP + RST Correlation RST = f ( API . γ gSP . pSP .

get from gas sales data Copyright 2008.derive from production data °API of stock tank oil required in all correlations . NExT. All rights reserved .Field Data for Correlations Accurate value of pb will improve accuracy of results of all correlations .otherwise use correlation for pb Rsb required in all correlations .get from oil sales data γgSP of separator gas required in most correlations .

The stock tank oil produced at Niceoil field is 39. Reservoir temperature is 246°F. All rights reserved . Copyright 2008.Exercise 9 Determination of Black Oil Properties The attached production graphs show stock tank oil sales and separator gas sales for Niceoil field. Determine and list all variables needed for estimating properties of the black oil.787.9 °API and the sales gas has specific gravity of 0. NExT. Separator conditions are 150 psig and 75 °F.

MMSTB Copyright 2008. psia 4250 3750 3250 2750 2250 1750 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 0 4 8 Cumulative oil production. All rights reserved 12 0 2 4 6 8 Cumulative oil production. MMSTB 10 . NExT.Pressure/Production History for Niceoil Field AVAILABLE PRODUCTION DATA 1000 Producing gas/oil ratio (3 mo running scf/STB average) Average reservoir pressure.

All rights reserved 12 0 2 4 6 8 Cumulative oil production. psia 4250 3750 3250 2750 Pb=2400 psia 2250 1750 900 800 700 Rsp= 570 scf/STB 600 500 400 300 0 4 8 Cumulative oil production.Exercise 9 Solution 1000 Producing gas/oil ratio (3 mo running scf/STB average) Average reservoir pressure. MMSTB 10 . NExT. MMSTB Copyright 2008.

400 psia .Exercise 9 Solution Rsb TR γSTO γg pb Copyright 2008.9°API 0. NExT.787 2. All rights reserved = = = = = 707 scf/STB 246°F 39.

All rights reserved . oil viscosity. Estimate values of oil properties for Niceoil field. and oil compressibility.000 psia with increments of 500 psi above the bubblepoint pressure and increments of 200 psi below the bubblepoint pressure to a final pressure of 100 psia. oil density. solution gas/oil ratio. Copyright 2008. Required properties are oil formation volume factor.Exercise 10 Estimation of black oil fluid properties. Create a table starting at 5. NExT.

psia 4000 5000 . scf/STB 900 800 700 600 data 500 correlation 400 300 200 100 0 0 Copyright 2008. NExT.Exercise 11 Solution 1000 Solution gas/oil ratio. All rights reserved 1000 2000 3000 Pressure.

resbbl/STB 1. All rights reserved 3500 4000 4500 5000 .40 1.20 1.15 1. psia Copyright 2008.25 1.35 1.50 1.Exercise 11 Solution (continued) Oil formation volume factor. NExT.05 1.10 1.00 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Pressure.30 data correlation 1.45 1.

3 0. All rights reserved 3500 4000 4500 5000 .29 0.28 0.32 0.35 Oil density.27 0. psia Copyright 2008.Exercise 11 Solution (continued) 0.31 data correlation 0.34 0.26 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Pressure.33 0. psi/ft 0. NExT.

3 0.7 0. cp 0.2 0.6 data correlation 0. psia Copyright 2008. NExT.Exercise 11 Solution (continued) 0.1 0 1000 2000 3000 Pressure. All rights reserved 4000 5000 .4 0.8 Oil viscosity.5 0.

Phase Behavior... and Brule. PVT and Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids. The Properties of Petroleum Fluids.References and Further Reading • McCain. All rights reserved . SPE Monograph Volume 20. 1998. • Danesh. A. M. Henry Doherty Series. • Whitson. 47.. NExT. 2000. 1990. C. Elsevier. W. Copyright 2008. Pennwell. Developments in Petroleum Science v.