APPu1F MIcRomowOy, Mar., 1967, p.

378-389

Vol. 15, No. 2
Printed in U.S.A.

Copyright 0 1967 American Society for Microbiology

Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety
G. BRIGGS PHILLIPS Am ROBERT S. RUNKLE

Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Georgia, and National Cancer

Institute, Bethesda, Maryland

Received for publication 7 November 1966

Service, Communicable Disease Center, 1600
Clifton Road, Atlanta, Ga. (Laboratory Design
for Microbiological Safety-M-1091, 16 mm,
sound and color, approximately 35 min).
The initial step that should be taken in the design process for a microbiological research laboratory is an analysis of the research activities to be
undertaken, the hazards associated with the research and with each operation, and a functional
planning and design (3, 15, 16, 20, 21).
Incorporation of microbiological safety meas- evaluation of the relationships that will exist
ures in the design of biomedical laboratory facili- between each activity. This analysis should enable
ties is needed for one or more of the following the laboratory director and the architect or enreasons: (i) to prevent the uncontrolled escape of gineer to estimate the extent of the hazardous
infectious materials from the building to safe- operations and to concentrate and minimize the
guard the health of the surrounding community; amount of containment equipment required,
(ii) to assist in the prevention of accidentally thereby realizing economic savings.
Determining what safety measures to inacquired infections among building personnel;
(iii) to prevent the unintentional spread of corporate in the design of infectious-disease
diseases among animals by animal-to-animal or laboratories has required much research and
man-to-animal transfer; and (iv) to prevent false study. For instance, it was necessary to underlaboratory results due to cross-contamination of stand how laboratory workers become infected,
how microorganisms might escape and spread
microbiological cultures.
The purpose of this article is to describe and within a building or escape to the surrounding
illustrate some of the principal building features community, how animal cross-infection and culand devices used to provide effective microbial ture cross-contamination occurs, and other simicontainment for accomplishing the above aims. lar problems (6, 10, 12). From the results of a
The article is a corollary to a movie with the same number of laboratory hazards studies (1, 9, 17,
title that has been made by the Public Health 18), two concepts emerged that have proved sucService Audiovisual Facility and sponsored by the cessful in designing biologically safe laboratories.
National Cancer Institute. The film may be bor- The first is the concept of primary and secondary
rowed free of charge from the Public Health barriers for the laboratory containment of infecThe magnitude of the annual national investment in new biomedical laboratory facilities,
coupled with the problems arising out of unsafe
designs in these facilities, justifies increased attention to engineering design criteria to maximize
microbiological safety. A number of recent
papers, conferences, and seminars have dealt with
one or more aspects of microbiological laboratory

378

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Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and
remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to
laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the
scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new
microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and
secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a
microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff,
(ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental
validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory,
early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and
their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable
to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment
and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated.

org/ on November 15. . (ii) ultraviolet (UV) air locks and door barriers. and (vi) provisions for treatment of potentially contaminated liquid wastes. closed ventilated animal cages. 2016 by guest FIG. and the second concept provides the designer a logical division of major functional zones within a typical laboratory building. Examples of secondary barriers are (i) floors. etc. 1967 LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY woter 379 bottle. closed centrifuge cups. Examples of primary barriers are ventilated microbiological cabinets. Primary-secondary barrier concept. (v) provisions for filtering or decontaminating potentially contaminated exhaust air. and safety blender bowls (Fig. 15. These provide a separation between infectious areas in the building and the outside community and between individual infectious areas within the same building. These are the first line of defense (other than the test tubes. tious materials. safety centrifuge cup (lower left). (iv) differential pressures between areas within the building. Safety cabinet (upper left). 1. or other containment devices that immediately surround the infectious or potentially infectious material are designated as primary barriers. ventilated animal cage (upper right).) for preventing escape and possible spread of infectious microorganisms. walls. safety blendor bowl (lower right).VOL.asm. and ceilings. These and other sec- Downloaded from http://aem. flasks. The secondary barriers in a laboratory are the features of the building that surround the primary barriers. barriers. (iii) personnel change rooms and showers. Enclosures. 1).

Primary.PHILLIPS AND RUNKLE FiG. Downloaded from http://aem.asm. Five functional zones of hypothetical laboratory. M1CROBIOL.and secondary-barrier concept. 2016 by guest SECONDARY BARRIE FIG. APPL. . 3. 2.org/ on November 15.

Actually. Also. the more effective the primary barriers are. storage shelves for laboratory clothing. Clean zone. 4. the less need there is for emphasis on secondary barriers. provisions are usually required for transferring books. 2016 by guest ondary barriers provide supplementary microbiological containment. illustrated in the lower right hand portion of Fig. serving mainly to prevent the escape of infectious agents if and when a failure occurs in the primary barriers. Personnel should enter and leave the infectious areas through clean and contaminated change rooms. and appropriate toilet and wash facilities. and other tasks not involving infectious materials are carried out. At the front of the building. a bag for discarding laboratory clothing upon exit. the office area. Therefore. The clean change room should provide lockers to store street clothing. 19).asm. Figure 2 is a graphic representation of the functions of primary and secondary barriers. the necessary shipping. 15. within this zone are the transitional rooms through which personnel and ma- 381 . The contaminated change room should contain a storage rack for laboratory shoes. Obviously. Figure 3 illustrates five functional zones of a hypothetical laboratory building for research with infectiousdisease agents.VOL. Functional zones ofa laboratory building. An air lock with a UV door barrier and ceiling-mounted UV lamps separates the clean from the contaminated change room. clean and contaminated change rooms. and suitable toilet facilities. Transitional arrangements for materials and supplies generally are needed at two locations. reading. conference room and library. and those functional rooms where administrative operations. 1967 LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY terials enter and leave the potentially infectious parts of the building. The clean zone of a laboratory building (Fig. there can be numerous physical arrangements of these zones. The mechanical equipment space. will be discussed below. and similar items between clean offices and offices in Clean Office reception area Entry * Clean Corridor Contaminated Change Room Clean Chonge Room FIG. although a clean area. 4. it is both important and economically necessary first to determine and select the primary containment devices to be used. These transitional rooms preserve the integrity of the secondary barrier when people and materials enter and leave the infectious areas. Adjacent to this or between the two change rooms should be located a shower room for use when leaving the infectious areas. Clean zone.org/ on November 15. thereby reducing the complexity and cost of the secondary barriers. but the typical arrangement shown will illustrate their relationship to each other and provide a basis for a discussion of the design requirements for microbiological safety. writing.!In addition. The use of UV lamps in the shoe storage rack and clothing discard bag can be an effective secondary barrier (11. 4) contains the entrance area. data sheets. and clean storage areas are in the clean zone. during the design phase of any infectious-disease laboratory. conferences. receiving. Downloaded from http://aem.

Laboratory research zone. In reference to the hypothetical laboratory research zone (Fig. 7) contains laboratories for infectious microbiological operations. necessary toilets and change rooms. and other items from the infectious areas. 6) at the rear of the building will consist of a UV air lock for the inward passage of supplies. Figure 8 shows a partial-barrier cabinet that provides an inward Contominated Office t sweep of air through the open panel and away Contominoted Corridor from the operator. as illustrated in Fig. Obviously. 10). 9. MICROBIOL. trash. 5. Transitional arrangements between clean low to medium risk work requiring partial-barrier receiving area and contaminated research area. the U ucao. constant-temperature rooms for incubation and refrigeration.. 7. 5. and instrument rooms for centrifuges and other research apparatus. Transitional rooms at the rear of the laboratory are needed for receiving laboratory and animal room equipment and supplies and for removing equipment. -coeaninarted supply and exhaust.asm.org/ on November 15. 6. Downloaded from http://aem. The laboratory research zone (Fig. this may include a small through-the-wall ethylene oxide gas chamber for the cold sterilization of heat-sensitive materials (8) and a UV apparatus for decontaminating sheets of paper passed out of the infectious area (13). and clean and contaminated receiving rooms separated by APPL. 7).or absolute-barrier cabinets will have Confornmnoaed Svues Clean ReceivIng Area a significant effect upon sizing of the air-handling equipment because the former require 300 ft3/min supplIes to . FIG. This zone is separated at least by a corridor from the zone where infected animals are used. The use of small viewing windows and speaking diaphrams facilitates communication and operation in the front and rear transitional rooms. and 25% will need to be equipped with Clean Office Contaminated Office FIG. there are only two basic types: partial-barrier cabinets and absolute-barrier cabinets. A typical arrangement (Fig. whereas the latter require doors nterlocied sui ies only 3 to 10 ft3/min per 6-ft unit. This unit may also be used with a panel and gloves attached as shown in Fig. 2016 by guest the infectious area. Transitional arrangements between clean and Absolute-barrier cabinets are similar in appearcontaminated offices. ance (Fig. exclusive of animal work. In addition to laboratory rooms. but are gas-tight and are operated at a constant negative air pressure.382 PHILLIPS AND RUNKLE large through-the-wall autoclaves that are also operable with mixtures of ethylene oxide gas. Although cabinets are available in many shapes and sizes and constructed of a variety of materials. . Laboratory research zone. The selection of partial.rlock selection of the types of cabinets for use with the infectious cultures will vary according to an gos or steom ajpoclovse assessment of the risk of the types of laboratory equipment to laboratory _ operations together with the particular microsupporl zone _ lorge cage rack or equipment organisms to be used. Typically. cabinets. it is \Rear of Building assumed that 75 % of the research area will be for FIG. this zone may contain potentially contaminated offices adjacent to offices in the clean zone. Clean Corridor One of the most important tasks in planning the f Clean Off ice laboratory research zone is the selection of the primary barrier ventilated cabinets.

1967 =.org/ on November 15. (ii) Microbial filtration of exhaust air from absolute-barrier safety cabinets and other apparatus where aerosols of infectious microorganisms are intentionally generated.u diameter particles are acceptable in these applications.. Partial-barrier safety cabinet. The most important of these are as follows.^ wvtion _Loi laboratory research zone should be maintained at i -1 a negative pressure compared to the noncon_ E °.. gloves attached..... iPX.0-. 8.. The entire . wall FIG.3-. (iii) Air pressure balance within the zone should maintain the laboratory rooms negative to adjoining halls.. ThisXl. Partial-barrier safety cabinet.VOL. At least some of the other laboratory rooms should.. except that the cabinets replace the open bench in many of the activities.. there are a number of design considerations that will di- rectly influence the containment by the secondary barriers. Absolute-barrier safety cabinet system.. traffic. and other surfaces must Downloaded from http://aem. 10.. Ultrahigh-efficiency filters (2) with 99.95% retention of 0. In determining spatial arrangements for safety cabinets and the most effective and efficient room sizes. it also may be desirable to utilize an electric or gas-fired air incinerator in addition to the ultrahigh-efficiency filter for ultimate protection. (i) Microbial filtration of non-recirculated air exhausted from the laboratory rooms. 9.asm. The absolute cabinet system terminates with a double-doored autoclave. Highefficiency microbial filters (2) with 99% retention of 1. (iv) Paints and coatings used on walls. 2016 by guest |... curbings. FIG. and a germicidal liquid bath is also available for passing materials in and out of the system. have free-standing. 15. Obviously. the balance of such a system can be significantly affected by the pumping ac_ of doors. concept developed by Norman (7) is appropriate. s movement. reduces the need to transport potentially infectious materials in the corridors. A typical laboratory may be maintv s ___tainedat a pressure negative to surrounding areas by exhausting larger quantities of air than are supplied. Differential air pressures are estab/_ lished by controlling the direction of air ^^ < _ .ik__R taminated zones. In some instances. and the cabinets negative to the _ ~ laboratories. . single-door autoclaves. the bench FIG.. ceilings. floors. LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY 383 -_ absolute cabinet systems for performing highhazard operations.u diameter particles usually are appro- priate. and other factors. Within the laboratory research zone.

and infected-animal holding rooms equipped with primary-barrier isolation equipment such as ventilated cages and UV cage APPL. and ceilings should be free of cracks. It is desirable to have these filters decontaminated in situ and changed by laboratory personnel. A monolithic covering is often used on the floors. when possible. and other services that penetrate the secondary barrier wall must be designed and installed to preserve the biological separation between the contaminated and clean zones. These fixtures aid in reducing nonspecific microbial contamination and are useful in case of an accidental spill of infectious material. wall curbings. 11. ed. When the animal research zone is used for relatively small laboratory animals. Walls. The recommended minimal ventilation rate (Guide for Laboratory Animal Facilities and Care. . Although the nature of some disease agents in small animals is such that no special provisions are needed to pre- . 11). Small-animal research zone.1 Conta ml noted An. (viii) In some rooms it may be desirable to install ceiling-mounted UV fixtures operated from the corridor when the room is unoccupied. Since the walls and floors of animal areas will be decontaminated and washed frequently and exposed to urine and other wastes. MICROBIOL. 2016 by guest be resistant to flowing steam and to the disinfectants used in the decontamination process and frequent washings. draft-free air of the relative humidity and temperature appropriate to the animal species. In some instances it may be desirable to locate aerosol exposure equipment. careful selection should be made of wall paints and finishes. particularly doors to walk-in refrigerator and incubator rooms. (v) Casework and other installed equipment. (vi) Lighting fixtures. adequate storage areas. should be sealed to floors and walls to limit possible spread of contamination. D.Imolt Rooms FIG. such as the Henderson apparatus. 1965) for the rooms is 15 changes per hour of filtered. and a large autoclave for sterilizing cages and passing them into a cage-washing room. Equipment not sealed to walls or floors should be movable or mounted on wheels to facilitate decontamination and cleaning. the rooms are usually located in the same building as the laboratory research zone. and ventilated cages will have an impact upon the size of the air-handling equipment. The caging system selected will affect the cost of the facility. the animal area should have an incinerator for disposing of animal carcasses.384 PHILLIPS AND RUNKLE Cleor Co.. Downloaded from http://aem. If not available elsewhere. liberal use should be made of viewing windows and speaking diaphrams in doors or walls to laboratories. Dust filters should be installed at the air exhaust ducts of the animal rooms to prevent excessive loading of the downstream microbial filters with animal hair and dander. cage.org/ on November 15. floor drains.C. Washington. This zone typically includes rooms for animal inoculation and autopsy. In designing this zone. pipes.and rack-washing equipment. It should always provide for safe working conditions for personnel and prevent undesired animal cross-infection. (vii) To limit personnel traffic. nonrecirculated. conduit.. rev. the type and degree of animal isolation should receive early consideration. Animal research zone. and the coatings flexible enough to span minor shifts in the structural system. Electrical conduit should be internally sealed. automated animal care activities. in a room adjoining the animal room. Public Health Service Publication 1024. Other design considerations of importance in the animal zone are: waterproof lighting fixtures in wash areas. etc. Fixtures should be sealed to the wall or ceiling or mounted away from the surface for ease of cleaning.asm.do Contarm oted Corridor racks (Fig.

animals may be housed in cages under a UV barrier (14) as illustrated in Fig. and therefore additional FIG. An admitted disadvantage of locating the laboratory support zone outside the contaminated research zone is that washroom and animal-room personnel cannot move between the contaminated and clean zones without changing clothing and showering._ it is very difficult to provide primnary barriers around large animals. In some instances. If the animal research zone uses infected large 4animals. 1967 LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY vent cross-infection or to protect animal handlers. . screen).asm. instead of closed ventilated cages. many infectious agents require animal isolation equipment for protecting personnel. and incineration of carcasses. greater emphasis is orFIG. 15. Modified Horsfall isolation cages. autopsy. and rooms or areas for animnal inoculation. or may even be located in a completely separated facility. Horsfall units (5) shown in Fig. since . 2016 by guest FIG. Nonventilated animal cage rack (with UV personnel may be required. infected animals are held in small. A typical suite for housing infected large animals (Fig. 12. In many infectiousdisease laboratories.VOL. surgery. In situations where a high degree of isolation is required and where animal-to-animal separation is needed. In any case. 15) would contain holding rooms with movable stanchions and partitions. 14. 13.org/ on November 15. it may be in a remote wing or suite. Laboratory support zone. 13. individually ventilated cages (Fig. such as horses and cattle. 16) Downloaded from http://aem._ .. Ventilated animal cage rack (with UV dinarily placed on the secondary baffiers. the zone for laboratory support is best located outside the contaminated research zones. The large-animal zone should have ~~~~~~~~~~~suits change rooms and transitional rooms for movement of food and equipment as previously described. screen). 12). In case the epizootic diseases ~~~~being studied are transmissible to man. Nonportable ventilated animal compartments have been found to be effective in some infectious-disease laboratories. this location reduces the amount of secondary-barrier area required and provides an opportunity for grouping similar support functions in one area. A typical laboratory support zone (Fig. From an economic andiftnctional standpoint. 14 holds one or two animal cages and is equipped with a viewin window and inlet and outlet air filters. Each of the 385 t. protection ~~for operating personnel must be provided by garments and respirators or ventilated ~~~~~~~~~protective if needed.

PHILLIPS AND RUNKLE may include rooms for washing and sterilizing glassware and animal cages. and animal cages.386 APPL. Large-animal research zone. because of the large overhead monorail FIG. 15. 16. and repairing various laboratory items. the support zone may contain animal rooms for the quarantine and acclimatiza- tion of animals before they are passed into the infectious area for use.asm. preparing culture media. storing equipment. glassware. Also. In some instances. Laboratory support zone. 2016 by guest 1 incineratof room . FIG. MICROBIOL. Careful attention must be given to the design of the ventilation system for this zone because of the many heat-generating and odor-producing procedures which are carried out in the washing area. Downloaded from http://aem.org/ on November 15.

air ducts going to each room in the infectious zone should deliver non-recirculating. read-outs of all systems in the area can be monitored by engineering personnel. The supply ducts need not be of air-tight construction. Engineering support zone. Whenever a device or item of equipment is essential to the maintenance of a microbiological barrier and is subject to failure. 17). ducts. The fifth functional zone provides engineering support for the entire facility. In virus laboratories. interlocked supply and exhaust fans to prevent pressurization of infectious areas. but exhaust air ducts coming from the infectious zone must be air-tight to assure no leakage of infectious microorganisms before the 387 . the liquid waste treatment system. The room for culture media preparation should have a controlled movement of filtered supply air. Galvanized ducts with taped. epoxy-coated joints have been found satisfactory. Because the filters in a plenum must be changed periodically. cool. "fail-safe" design features are required. to reduce the necessity of entrance of maintenance personnel. 15. and will be acceptable if proper separation by zones of similar usage is employed. filtered. The inclusion of such items in a laboratory should be determined only after an assessment of the risks associated with the research activity has been made. and distribute the supply and exhaust air for the various building zones will occupy a large part of the engineering support zone.1967 LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY air reaches the exhaust filter plenum. Such boards should have visual and audible alarms that will automatically signal the failure of any part of the system when preset limits of environmental factors such as temperature are exceeded. automatic cycling of autoclaves after the door on the infectious laboratory side is opened. One vital consideration is the need to locate the air-intake grille upwind of the exhaust stack. and conditioned air. as much as half of the total building area is sometimes required for this zone. pumps. 2016 by guest amount of water involved in washing operations. Downloaded from http://aem. air in the room and cabinetry always should be maintained at a positive pressure compared to the other laboratory support rooms. To limit the ingress of microorganisms. Another important item is a standby electrical generator that is used in the event commercial power supply FIG. In the engineering support zone. In addition. blowers and filters. basement. wires. Exhaust air plenums are often sized to serve several laboratory rooms of about the same hazard level. provisions should be made for decontaminating both the filters and the plenum itself before entry by maintenance personnel. This system will result in significant economies by reusing conditioned air. Included here are the necessary pipes. The zone can be comprised of space located on the grounds adjacent to the building. They may be equipped either with highefficiency spun-glass mats.asm. 17. This equipment may represent an investment amounting to nearly one-half the cost of the facility. In tissue culture cubicles or other areas requiring this high-quality air supply. filters in series with air incinerators. and most of the air-handling systems. This aspect should be accomplished through the use of redundant fans and motors. The equipment required to heat. emergency electrical generators. Central engineering control board. An important part of the engineering support zone is the central control board (Fig. or other building space. walls. etc. there should be adequate physical separation between both to prevent cross-contamination. floors. inlet air is often passed through ultrahigh-efficiency filters. the use of a high-volume recirculated air system with ultrahigh-efficiency filtration should be considered if no hazards to operating personnel are created. Special engineering arrangements should maintain the integrity of the secondary barrier when penetration of the wall is made by pipes. As much of the engineering support equipment as possible should be located outside contaminated zones. and ducts. or with ultrahighefficiency units for filtering air discharged from the rooms. Because of the large amount of engineering equipment needed. This highquality air is required to prevent accidental contamination of experimental cultures by endogenous organisms or by other organisms utilized in the research program. A mixture of steam and formaldehyde is frequently used as the decontaminant (4). filter. or in the attic.VOL. and other surfaces should be resistant to moisture. Here.org/ on November 15.

A. A. HALL. Public Health Service Publication 953. Microbiological hazards in the laboratory. a continuousflow arrangement (Fig.388 PHILLIPS AND RUNKLE and the liquid is sterilized by adding steam and holding for a period time. ALG. Animal Care Panel 11:37-44.. fungicides and chemical and physical sterilization. F. 1964. 1961. 18. Lea and Febiger. B. In this case. GARDNER. in the laboratory no infectious culture fluids should be knowingly poured into drains without prior sterilization. The standby units may be mounted in trailers to provide easy portability. a second tank is automatically put into service at this time. Antiseptics. ventilated cabinets. Protection against infection in the microbiological laboratory: devices and procedures. D. 10. Although it may not be possible to provide a generator large enough to supply full electrical requirements. G. For larger volumes of effluent. Reddish [ed. Proc. PHILLIPS. are incorporated in the design for removing samples. Proc. the effluent-steam mixture flows through a series of retention tubes and is cooled through a heat-exchanger before being discarded. 1:179184. M.org/ on November 15. J. However. DECKER. Bacteriol. R. C. B. or incorporated in the engineering support zone. Ed. NORMAN. W. Washington. PHILLIPS. The bench concept in laboratory planning. L. L. and temperatures are visually indicated. 1961. if the hazards associated with the program are minimal and adequate space is available. Microbiol. BODMER. Gaseous sterilization. 3. 5. The batch system (Fig. J. Continuous-flow waste-treatment system. In G. 746-765. Health Lab. Proc. 1961. Cross-infection among experimental animals by organisms infectious for man. Cross infections among brucella-infected guinea pigs. F. D. AmD J. Animal Care Panel 11:267-280. J. the standby current should at least be sufficient for ventilated animal cages. A. B PHILLIPS. C. G. Batch-type liquid waste treatment system. 19) that utilizes injected steam to raise the liquid to a proper temperature may be used. 3:131192. FIG. GREMILLION. AND G.. 7. 4. Downloaded from http://aem. etc. The necessity for microbiological monitoring of the effluent from the system should be considered in the design process. J. 1957. Liquid waste treatment systems can be monitored and controlled from a central panel where flow arrangements. facilities must be provided for treating contaminated liquid wastes. Practical methods and problems of steam and chemical sterilization. B. In some laboratories. 8. effluent volumes. 19. 1956. H.]. Adv. L. to ensure that adequate valves. A concrete curb should be provided to contain the liquid in the event of a rupture in the system. JR. AND G. Two basic systems are usually employed: batch and continuous flow.asm. Individual isolation of infected animals in a single room. 1961. PHILLIPS. M. 1962. sampling ports. KIRCHHEIMER. BROADWATER. refrigerators. LITERATURE CITED CHATIGNY. disinfectants. MICROBIOL. J. BAUER. deep freezes. the drain lines are closed APPL. Air filtration of microbial particles. W.. GLICK. . Animal Care Panel 11:83-92. Diseases 99:56-59. 1965. Philadelphia. All piping to the tank should have welded joints to assure no possibility of leakage. 1940. REITMAN. and emergency lighting.. H. Sci. 42:43-48. V. M. F. M.C. 2016 by guest is interrupted. C. Chem. treatment times. G. a sanitary drain field can be utilized. AND G.. p. 117-130. G. Appl. FIG. L. Infect. BUCHANAN. 6. Regardless of the system. Usually. DOLOWy. Medical research laboratory of the University of Illinois. 9. 18) is used to collect potentially infectious effluents from infected animal areas by gravity flow. incubators.. 1. G. 40:569-580. When a tank is about one-half full of liquid. 2. C. AND R. JEMSKI. D. HORSFALL.

E. WEDUM. III. PHILLIPS. Public Health 43:1428-1437. J. 1964. JR. MULLICAN. Am. Soc. 17. G. J. 15.. 14. JR. Bacteriological safety. PHILLIPS. B. Rept. 389 . REITMAN. AND F. U. AND H. 21. Downloaded from http://aem. Infect. 1963. 79:619-633. PHILLIPS. Appl. G. E. 1956... G. ASHRAE (Am. Public Health Monograph 71. PHILLIPS. 13. NOVAK. Proc. A. Laboratory design for study of infectious disease.. Use of ultraviolet radiation in microbiological laboratories. JR. HANEL. 15. 1957. Am. G. PHILLIPS. Government Res. 34:122. 12. R. SNow.asm. G. Air-cond. 71:331-336. Microbiol. L. JR.VOL. Applications of germicidal ultraviolet in infectious disease laboratories. G. V. BRANT. Animal Care Panel 7:235-244. G. Cross-infection among animals challenged with Bacillus anthracis. WEDUM. 1964. 6:46-52. RUNKLE.. 1956. B. B. AND G. D.. Public Health 46:1102-1113.) J. 2016 by guest 11. Am.. Engrs. B. AND 0. T. Laboratory animal housing. Criteria for design of a microbiological research laboratory. J. GARDNER. HANEL. Public Health Rept. 19. HANEL. Architects 41:55-58. AND E. S. JEMSKI. WEDUM. The use of ultraviolet barriers on animal cage racks. Diseases 99:222-226. 77-80. A. 4:95-96. B. II. G. Space planning principles for biomedical research laboratories.. MILLER. D. Ultraviolet sterilization in microbiological laboratories. 1956. 1967 LABORATORY DESIGN FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY 16. B. Applications of germicidal ultraviolet in infectious disease laboratories. A. An ultraviolet passthrough chamber for disinfecting single sheets of paper. 18. A. C. 1960. B. AND G. E. 1964. G. G. G. PHILLIPS. A.. 1956. J.S. L. Laboratory safety in research with infectious aerosols. Heating Refrig. WEDUM. Public Health Rept. PHILLIPS. WEDUM.org/ on November 15. AND G. M. 20. Inst. 1953.