History

Of

Graphic Design

Egyptian demotic script. Asia used movable type but with single characters. gave the sensation of the page literally being illuminated. called hieroglyphics where as the Sumerians’ pictographic writing evolved into abstract cuneiform. the Greeks achieved visual order and balance. They used a palette of pigments mixed with fat to paint these images onto cave walls. which are symbols that represents an idea or concept. Later it was made into a twenty-one letter alphabet that was pronounced with phonetic sounds. writing. Similarly a petroglyph is a carved or scratched sign or simple figure on rock. Pictographs were an elementary picture or sketch representing the thing depicted. Through a standardized system of horizontal.000 BCE CAVE DRAWINGS Many years ago. During this time almost all knowledge learned up to this point was lost. they were arranged side by side to compose full lines of text. The Latin alphabet would become the main writing system in use in the Western world and the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. hieroglyphics had been undecipherable up until this point. and Greek. (from the Greek “to plow a field with an ox. technological and cultural developments.100 BCE LATIN ALPHABET The Roman alphabet originated from the Etruscans. Cuneiform is a form of ideographs. One accomplisment they achieved was relief printing. The Greeks changed five consonants to vowels and applied a geometric structure to the uneven Phoenician characters. and diagonal strokes. curved. printmaking and letter form. 1. Boustrophedon. It was an early alphabetic system of twenty­-two characters written from left­to right. With economic progress. vertical. was a writing method developed by the Greeks in which every other line reads in the opposite direction. and the inked image is transferred to the paper. Then. For 300 years the knowledge of writing was kept alive mainly in the remote outposts of religious cloisters and retreats in the form of illuminated manuscripts. There they unearthed a black slab that had two languages and three scripts written on it: Egyptian hieroglyphics. the remaining raised surface is inked.000 BCE MESOPOTAMI 15. Minuscule letter forms were small or lowercase letterform.100 BCE ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS The Greek alphabet evolved from the Phoenician.” which is known as the cradle of civilization. 1. reading.5000 CE 4. Napoleon’s troops were digging a foundation in the Egyptian town of Rosetta.000 BCE -1. or North Semitic alphabet. these cave drawings represented the beginning of written communication. One form of this imagery was a pictograph. The fall of Rome brings on the Medeival Era. Sumerians were those who settled in the lower part of the Fertile Crescent.Evolution of the Written Word 15. or majuscules started out as all caps. libraries. etc. Relief printing is when the spaces around an image on a flat surface are cut away. They were made individually in a mixture of clay and glue. freely drawn majuscule letters.400 BCE Roman letterforms.This was very hard to read because of the lack of space between the words. The Sumerians who settled in the lower part of the Fertile Crescent developed cuneiform. 105 CE . Boustrophadeon was not always in use with Greek writing. Messopotamia was “The land between rivers. humans used drawings as visual communication. a method of writing in which a triangular-tipped stylus was pushed into the clay and formed a series of wedgeshaped strokes rather than a continuous line drawing. which reflected light from the pages of handwritten books.”). Illuminated manuscripts is the term used for all decorated and illustrated handwritten books produced from the late Roman Empire They were called illuminated because of the vibrant luminosity of gold leaf. 3. Over many centuries this writing system evolved. The Rosetta Stone was discovered August of 1799. PHOENICIAN ALPHABET The Phoenician alphabet was a North Semitic writing. Uncials differ because they are rounded. 750 BCE The eastern hemisphere was much more advanced with their knowledge of papermaking. 780 CE ASIAN INFLUENCE GREEK ALPHABET EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS The Egyptians retained their picture-writing system.

. while based on geometric Roman letterforms continued to retain the humanist feel of the hand and broad nib and angle of the written letter. Transitional typefaces are precise and refined. 1420–1480) is credited with developing the first true Roman typeface. ​ MODERN (ROCOCO) While more transitional styles were being developed in England. Transitional (NeoClassical). printmaking and typefounding. The serifs became hairlines that formed sharp right angles with upright strokes. an impressive ‘Modern’ style type was emerging in Italy and France. Nicolas Jensen (c.Evolution of Movable Type 1450 CE TYPOGRAPHIC PRINTING Printing was introduced by China with a technique called relief printing. Both Bodoni and Didot pushed each other as rivals to get a perfect typeface. Giambattista Bodoni evolved and redesigned typefaces which resulted in a new category of Roman type identified as Modern. These modern fonts were great for headlines but hard to read for large areas of text. bracketed serifs. Humanist (Venetian). ornaments. It resulted in the rapid spread of knowledge and literacy in addition to making printed publications available to the general public. Renaissance. This method of printing was used until the 1960s. ​Francesco Griffo created a more authentic typeface in 1496 called Bembo. During the Renaissance. It was so successful that it is still in existence today. page layout. Renaissance). The invention of movable type and the printing press ranks as one of the most important advances in civilization. His first large scale print job was the Gutenberg bible. typeface design would drastically change and 4 type classifications of Roman serif letterforms would emerge that would remain until this day as the standard system for type classification. He also spaced the letters and words more evenly on the page. The invention of Gutenberg’s printing press caught on like wildfire. and the rise of the Renaissance and the Early Modern Age. the Didot family of France was slightly to the left. John Baskerville refined Old Style into the Transitional style by creating wider letterforms with more contrast between thick and thin strokes. Claude Garamond. beginning to build a legacy of printing publishing. His letters possessed a new elegance and lightness. 1439 CE MOVABLE TYPE Movable type was responsible for the end of the Medieval Era. Printing firms rapidly populated Europe particularly throughout Italy and Venice. and even the total design of the book. another famous type designer. Didot’s letterforms were lighter and the serifs were unbracketed. This was done by casting metal type and then printing the type on a press. It was printed in black ink with textura type. 1400-1700 CE 1496 CE 1439-1798 CE OLD STYLE Old style: Garalde. and an axis stressed in Italy. Johann Gutenberg invented the first successful method of letterpress printing around 1450 in Germany. Jenson’s type. 1783 CE DIDOT 1465 CE HUMANIST The first Roman type called Humanist appeared during the 1460s and 1470s. Typeface designers naturally began to refine the letterforms gradually moving away from the humanis style and more towards a cleaner easier to read letter style. as they represent the initial departure from the characteristics of Old Style classification into modern typefaces. and Modern 1798 CE 1760 CE TRANSITIONAL The typefaces of this period are called Transitional. Baroque and Rococco period a number of important changes would occur in typeface design. illustration. Old Style (Garalde. It is also referred to as Venetian because it was developed by a Venice printer. TYPE CLASSIFICATIONS During this timespan. created beautiful typefaces that created a greater contrast between thick and thin At the same time as Bodoni’s innovations strokes.

INVENTION OF SANS-SERIF RISE OF DISPLAY FONTS With the need for more casual printing projects. This problem was solved in 1827. 1812 CE KEY INNOVATIONS PRINTING The hand fed Gutenberg printing press was still in use 300 years after it was invented. Another invention of the 19th century was the typeface. Fat-face type style is characterized as Roman typeface with a higher contrast in stroke weight. flyers and signs could be produced to invent sans-serif type. everyone demanded consumer goods that indicated their status. Sans-serif fonts would not information and entertainment. The creation of ‘fat-faces’ began in the early 19th century by designer Robert Thorne. Advertising progressed from typographic wood type posters and full color lithography to highly stylized look of the art nouveau period. Contrast was reduced. His press used a steam engine and printed 300 sheets per hour. During the Industrial Revolution. posters. labels and broadsides. a need for advertising these consumer goods increased. a display font was created. They were no longer limited to books and religious documents. people were looking for a typeface that stood out to the viewer. 1890 CE NEW TYPEFACES Decorative fonts and new fonts were being created. when Darius Wells invented a special wood drill which was capable of cutting letters on type-high-endcut wood blocks. This invention of the spinning machine set in motion the inevitable progress of humankind and our ultimate dependence upon machines to replace human labor. He was paid to improve his press and developed a double cylinder steam-powered press that was capable of printing 1. With this. the serifs were thinner. The industrial revolution and the mass production of cheap goods also ignited consumer revolution. Egyptian (slab serif/antique) which was created by Vincent Figgins. As a result.1000 impressions per hour. Wood type was faster and cheaper to produce than metal type. or less important information. From this. By the 20th century enough innovations and technological advancements were in place for the profession of graphic design to make a lasting impact on the western world. It was used to offset for religious documents and books. These advancements took place during the Industrial Revolution. factories and cheap production increased. Prints were now being made for newspapers. which was initially per hour where printing was used primarily called Two Lines English. and the x-height was increased for legibility at smaller sizes. this allowed designers to custom design typefaces to fit their product.The Industrial Revolution 1800-1890 CE 1836 CE BEGINNING OF ADVERTISING 1827 CE WOOD TYPE 1800 CE WHAT WAS IT? The industrial revolution influenced and shaped the beginnings of the graphic design field. This was the beginning of graphic design or customized design. and offered them used for headlines. Printing presses were influential to graphic designers where thousands of William Caslon IV was the first type designer posters. billboards. Then the more traditional font could be used for the subtitles. posed a printing problem. It fueled the boldness of the fat faces and Egyptians being people’s imaginations. By the end of the seventeenth century. The need for bigger prints for billboards and such. This is a font that can be used in a headline but cannot be used in a block of text as it would be illegible. inventors tried making mechanical innovations that would hopefully increase the hand press’ efficiency. Friedrich Koenig had plans for a steam-powered printing press. German printer. FRIEDRICH KOENIG 1816 CE . take off in popularity until the 20th century. People moved from agrarian life to the city life. and for the first time.

1830 CE CAMERA OBSCURA Photography would be one of the greatest achievements and would open up new avenues for the fledgling graphic design industry.where he coated a sheet of pewter with bitumen of Judea that hardened when exposed to light. It was not a method that could be used in printing publications like books or newspapers. The type could be melted down and reused. 1840 CE 1796-1886 CE CHROMOLITHOGRAPY This is the technique of “printing in colors”.000 double-sided sheets per hour. When one of the ninety keys were pressed on the Linotype. achieved realistic results was invented by Aloys Senefelder. hot metal was poured over the matrices and a line of type was produced. He then oiled a drawing that made it transparent. Around the 1930s chromolithography would disappear in favor of the photographic process but the method of separating colors and printing in cyan. In 1886. and is of the form used by William Henry Fox Talbot for his experiments with photography in the 1830s. He used a highly polished silver-plated copper sheet that was sensitized by placing it. Later he applied it to the sheet. This machine was capable of printing 4. yellow. 1815 CE WILLIAM COWPER William Cowper invented a printing press using curved plates wrapped around a cylinder. This machine poured a suspension of fiber and water into a thin stream above a vibrating wire-mesh conveyer belt which produced an unending sheet of paper.Evolution of Printing 1803 CE PAPERMAKING The industrial revolution influenced the printmaking world drastically. The printing industry intoxicated the world with lush colorful hues. By the 1800s. Cowper and his partner were commissioned. Typesetting was slow tedious work where every letter of every words had to be set individually and in reverse order. Ottmar Mergenthaler developed a typesetting machine called a Linotype. and exposed it to sunlight creating a contact print. 1886 CE 1826 CE HELIOGRAPHY Heliography was a method used by Frenchman Joseph Niepce. a matrix slid down a tube and into position. over a container of iodine crystals. The camera obscura was a darkened box with a convex lens or aperture for projecting the image of an external object onto a screen inside.400 impressions per hour and could print 1. silver side down. This replaced hours and hours of setting type by hand. the method of printing images was either wood engraved block or chromolithography. 1796 CE LITHOGRAPHY A printing process. and created a four cylinder steam powered press that utilized the curved stereotyped plates as well. The lithographic process was when one printed from a flat surface instead of having a plate with a raised surface. Paper manufacturing was invented by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier in 1803. magenta. DAGUERREOTYPE LINOTYPE Typesetting still slowed down the entire printing operation. and black is still in use today on offset presses.200 double sided. large amounts of paper were also needed. 1833 CE Louis Daguerre further developed the photographic process in 1833. Then. which formed one line of type. the exposure took several days which can be seen as the light from the sun lights up both sides of the building. This machine was capable of making 2. This example is in the historical apparatus collection at Transylvania University. . called lithography. Chromolithography was great for producing vivid realistic colorful prints. However. The plate was placed in the camera and exposed to light coming through the lens to produce a latent image. Due to the mass production of prints.

In 1861 especially with the invention of the toy book. The philosophy behind the movement was based on the renewal of aesthetics and hand crafted pieces. potters and tile makers. She used white space and soft colors in her illustrations. Walter Crane was one of the earliest and crafted products and furnishings for homes. Randolph Morris’s wallpaper designs were especially Caldecott designed illustrated books that caught the attention of ornate and intricate and would have lasting children worldwide. The Harper brothers-James. This was unlike anything that had been available before because everyone had the power to create images. English writer. and proper social conventions through their design aesthetic. TOY BOOKS 1886 CE A group of young artists lead by Arthur Machmurdo. designer. optimism. most influential designers of children’s picture books. John Ruskin and artist William Morris. and a publication for younger audiences. dyers. weekly newsmagazines.S. Kate Greenaway’s another children’s book appeal. The political concerns. handpurely entertainment.Evolution of Graphic Design 1850-1888 CE 1880-1910 CE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1850 CE MAGAZINES Magazines launched the graphic design business. He began to assemble teams of craftsmen that eventually included furniture. but eventually developed into a main stay for designers. The design and content Morris. invents roll film and made photography available to the general population with his hand held Kodak camera. Louis Prang was the most influential and popular illustrator and is considered the father of the Christmas Card. called the Arts and Crafts Movement. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom ruled Thomas Nast was hired by Harper’s Weekly and illustrated deep-rooted social and during two thirds of the 19th century. Victorians sought to convey their strong moral and religious beliefs. This movement brought on a reaction against the mass production of cheap and poorly designed products such as books. The printing and publishing firm started the Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. moral and artistic confusion of the Industrial Revolution. 1837-1901CE VICTORIAN ERA 1888 CE BROWNIE CAMERA American. KELMSCOTT PRESS 1891CE CENTURY GUILD WILLIAM MORRIS Morris was artistically talented in many areas and while decorating his own home. Revival of book and publication design. John. was well-structured and gracefully designed. he would discover and fall in love with Victorian products and furniture design. otherwise known as the brownie camera. Anti-Industrialism and anti-machinery. It began as cheap fast runs. and the children in her books influenced children’s fashions at the time. A movement evolved in England that eventually swept across Europe and into the U. This was a colorful he would establish the art-decorating firm picture book for preschool aged children. It was essentially a reaction against social. It was a resurrection of the classics as well as aesthetics and craftsmanship. Morris designed a book and typeface design and established the Kelmscott press. This concept wouldn’t be fully explored until the anti-art Dada movement of the early twentieth century. George Eastman. While the group was dedicated to featuring mostly medieval imagery they were also heavily influenced by Japanese art which was popular at the time in Europe. This was a private printing company dedicated to printing incunabula inspired books that were articulate and beautifully crafted with hand made papers and wood block illustrations. The Victorian aesthetic used the Gothic period as an influence. It was started by two significant people. of the children’s books changed from morals and lessons to This company provided beautiful. and Fletcher became the largest printing and publishing firm in the world (1850). It came loaded with 100 exposures that needed to be sent back to the factory by processing and reloading once the roll was finished. a women’s publication named Harper’s Bazar. Wesley. would band together to establish the Century Guild in London. This group believed that the painter or designer of something as mundane as a flowerpot should have the same status as a famous painter. The goal was to elevate design to its rightful place besides painting and sculpture as an artform. Marshall Faulkner and Company. stained glass Designs of the Victorian Era focused more towards children fabricators. 1882 CE . posters and typefaces. cabinet makers. weavers.

De Roos was convinced that the typeface was the foundation of sound book design. vibrant black-and-white work. The work reflected a love of order and geometry. beautiful. Chris Lebeau and Jan Toorop. the goal was to not have the images interfere with legibility. It’s considered a ‘total’ art style encompassing all the design arts. and that it should be practical. he turned his energy towards designing typefaces and eventually designed 122 typefaces for the Lanston Monotype Company. publications were designed with aesthetics in mind rather than just saving money. traditional techniques and relied heavily upon nature and organic forms.Arts and Crafts Movement 1826-1930 CE 1930 CE 1890-1910 FALL OF THE ARTS AND Art Nouveau (Continued) Its popularity swept across Europe and America CRAFTS MOVEMENT The reason the movement ended was a bit of a philosphical paradox. and their own twist. William Addison Dwiggins. Japanese art would mark the end of realism and the beginning of abstraction and the dawn of Modernism. eccentricity. 1890-1910 1890-1910 French Art Nouveau Beginning in Paris in 1881. He thought it should be more utilitarian and should be perfectly executed so that reading was pleasurable. He made use of a striking pen line. plantlike line. where each country would have its own name for it. English art nouveau was also influenced by Gothic art and Victorian painting. a new French law lifted censorship restrictions which led to a booming poster industry. It was also influenced by the vine and decorative borders of the Arts and Crafts movement. openness. the book was one of the principal expressive mediums of Nieuwe Kunst. . Their view on book design was purely typographic. and shockingly exotic imagery. Hand-labor was intensive and the end product was way too expensive for the working class to purchase. were influenced by traditional crafts of the Dutch East Indies. music halls. He created vivid poster ads for the cabarets. the art nouveau movement was primarily concerned with graphic design and illustration.H. 1890-1910 Art Nouveau in the Netherlands In the Netherlands. While their book publications were less decorated. He was most well known for his Goudy Old STyle typeface. The movement influenced typography. Albert Bruce Rogers. Some special qualities of the book’s design are unpredictability. After it was burned to the ground. and Morris F. who was born in Java. de Roos and Jan Van Krimpen. such as the organic designs of batik. Benton were all influential during the Arts and Crafts Movement in America. Aubrey Beardsley was a key figure. English Art Nouveau In England. It’s frequently used for packaging and advertising. His works were influenced by scenes of Rococo frivolity. ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT IN AMERICA Bookkeeper Fredrick Goudy would lead the Arts and Crafts movement in the United States. the rococo style. as well as the swirling forms of Vincent Van Gogh. The new style was a continuation of the English Arts and Crafts Movement that emphasized a return to handcraftsmanship. 1895 CE 1890-1910 Art Nouveau Art Nouveau is an international decorative style that thrived roughly during the two decades between the turn of the century. He was inspired by the private press movement and opened The Village Press. and theatres. Van Krimpen felt the reader should never be conscious of the typography. and now. Over time. Jules Chéret was convinced that pictorial lithographic posters would replace the typographic letterpress posters. He was born in England but moved to Paris and was said to have been inspired by Henri Toulouse LauTrec’s poster style. humans get tired of the same look and want something new. 1875 CE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT IN GERMANY AND THE NETHERLANDS The two most influential contributors of the Arts and Crafts Movement in Germany were S. Art nouveau’s identifying visual quality is an organic. and easily readable. these style and movements can be traced back to Japanese decorative art. and innovation. Along with Frederick.

Hohlweins’ Nazi posters reflected the triumphant superiority of the German Master Race and his posters would further develop a bold militaristic style of heavy forms and strong tonal contrast.S. It was the beginning of a new form of simplistic language of shape and sign. Futurism. His work tended to straddle between the symbolic imagery of the Central powers imagery and the Allies pictorial imagery. when radio and other electronic means of communication were not yet widespread. led by France. Consequently. Dada. And at no other time in history would the graphic design industry play such an important role in helping to decide the fate of the world. or the Liberty clad in the flag to promote patriotism among Americans. He designed over 300 packages for 66 products using simplistic elementary graphics. In AustriaHungary and Germany would create posters in the style of the Vienna Secessionists along with the simplicity of Bernhards’ Plakatstil. The two opposing sides. Hohlwein’s career would continue on and would be commissioned to design propaganda posters for the emerging Nazi party and Adolf Hitler.. Faith in the machine was at an all time high and cubist ideas about spatial organization and synthetic imagery inspired a new direction in pictorial imagery. Europe and the United States was about to enter a state of crisis. These movements affected imagery. THE ALLIES Many changes in the fine art world changed at the turn of the century including the direction of the graphic design industry. and Surrealism swept across Europe and eventually into the United States. During World War I (1914–1918). LUDWIG HOHLWEIN WAR PROPAGA The war poster or propaganda was the most important and most available means of communicating to the people. brought about by World War I. He would go on to produce 322 covers for the Saturday Evening Post. Hohlwein is from Munich. Leyendecker would use popular imagery such as boy scouts and honor as visual symbols. The Allies. Cubism. Germany. and Germany would produce two radically distinct poster styles-from both a visual and emotional perspective. He was very successful and for two decades continued with this approach to poster design. his reputation would be forever tarnished by his collaboration with the Nazis. boosting public morale to maintaining popular support for the war effort. James Montgomery Flagg and Joseph Leyendecker would become two of the most prolific poster designers during the war for the US.” resource: Meggs . using literal imagery that emotionally tugged at the heartstrings of its people.Graphic Design during WWI 1914-1918 CE THE CENTRAL POWERS THE POSTER GOES TO WAR LUCIAN BERNHARD 1900-1930’s TURN OF THE CENTURY Bernhard reduced visual communication to just a single word and two matches. British posters stress the need to protect traditional values. the poster served as a major communications tool for propaganda and visual persuasion: recruitment. He would become the most prolific poster designer for the Central Powers. Hungary. Words and images were integrated and the essence of the communication was conveyed by simplifying images into powerful shapes and patterns that held symbolic meaning. fundraising to collect money to finance the war. versus the Central Power led by Austria. Constructivism. ​ POST WWI POSTERS “After WWI the nations of Europe and America sought a return to normalcy and prosperity ensued for the victorious Allies. The Allies approach to propaganda was more illustrative. Designers on both sides of the war would use posters as the main means of communication. Modern Art Movements including Expressionism. color and typography of poster design. Great Britain and the U. He applied more of a rich range of textures and decorative patterns.

Which can be seen in his first propaganda posters for Great Britain during WWI. The avant-garde would coin their movement as cubo-futurism. he moved very close to synthetic cubism. He and Wassily Kandinsky believed that art should not have a social or political role. . apart from the utilitarian needs of society. 1895-1944 GUSTAV KLUTSIS A.M. He was convinced photo montage was the medium of the future and that it rendered all other forms of artistic realism obsolete. which introduced three-dimensional illusions that both receded (negative depth) behind the picture plane (naught depth) and projected forward (positive depth) from the picture plane.M. His love of letterforms is evidenced by an exceptional ability to integrate words and images into a total composition. By reducing his subjects to iconographic symbols. He argued that art must remain an essentially spiritual activity. They would experiment with typography. A. An American who emigrated to Europe to be amid the cutting edge of modern art. simplified planes of color. In a series of three collage-inspired posters. 1923 CE EL LISSITZKY El Lissitzky would influence the course of graphic design. hand lettering. Lissitzky also effectively used montage and photomontage for complex communications messages. powerful geometric forms. and symbolic imagery created by simplifying natural forms into almost pictographic silhouettes. His most well-known posters are purely geometric but effectively depict through square colors the warmer climate below during the winter and cooler temperatures below during the summer. simple designs emphasize two dimensionality and are composed of broad. Cassandre achieved concise statements by combining telegraphic copy. Cassandre’s bold. He would be arrested for his beliefs in 1938 under Stalin and die in the labor camps. Tectonics represents the unification of communist ideology with visual form. CASSANDRE From 1923 until 1936. Edward McKnight Kauffer (1890-1954). For the next quarter century he continued to produce a steady stream of poster and would design 141 posters for the London Underground Transport. Cassandre revitalized French advertising art through a stunning series of posters. 1890-1941 1917 CE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION COMMUNISM The Russians would absorb cubism and futurism and move onto new innovations. and expressive qualities developed from the intuitive organization of the forms and colors. to break the umbilical cord connecting them to traditional art. he showed how the ideas surrounding cubism and futurism could be used with strong communications impact in graphic design. 1878-1935 KAZIMIR MALEVICH Kasimir Malevich founded a painting style of basic forms and pure color that he called suprematism. Lissitzky set a standard of excellence for the designer. The visual form became the content. texture and construction were the three principles of constructivism. He developed a painting style that he called PROUNS. Tectonics. texture meant the nature of materials and constructions symbolized the creative process and laws of visual organization. 1920’s ART DECO The term Art Deco is used to identify the popular geometric works of the 20’-30’s.Pictorial Modernism 1900-1930 CE 1930 CE AUSTIN COOPER Cooper made a direct application of cubism to graphic design in early twentieth-century England. and printing on course papers due to the poverty of peasant society. He created an elemental geometric abstraction that was new and totally non-objective. The master of propaganda photomontage referred to the medium as the art construction for socialism. 1920’s CONSTRUCTIVISM The Constructivists called upon artist to stop producing useless things such as paintings. His influence was widespread and enduring. He believed the essence of the art experience was the perceptual effect of color and form. he attempted to spark memories of the viewers’ earlier Continental visits by presenting fragments and glimpses of landmarks.

and Martin Munkacsi and taught designers how to use photography as a design element through cropping. as were public-service communications about health. He experimented with planes of flat color. Man Ray. Paul Renner designed the Futura typefaces in 1927. This typeface had 15 variations and became the most widely used geometric sans-serif family. gray. Beall became increasingly involved in the corporate design movement. He sought to find a new asymmetric It worked to elevate standards of design by unifying artists and craftsmen with industry typography with the aim to be the delivery of a message in the shortest most efficient to elevate the functional and aesthetic manner which rejected decoration in favor qualities of mass production. The design language they brought with them. came to America. visual artists. the WPA Federal Art Project enabled actors. photomontage. Launched in the fall of 1935. 1920’s A migration began slowly and reached a peak in the late 1930s. During the 1950s and 1960s. including many graphic designers. typesetters and designers. 1933. He commissioned art and photography from major European artists such as Henri Cartier-Bresson. as cultural leaders from Europe. Alexey Brodovitch was an example. In graphic design he advocated an uninhibited use of all linear directions. Consequently it would close August 10. The growing Nazi persecution led many Bauhaus faculty to emigrate to the United States where design theory was much behind Europe’s forward thinking progressive. America would replace Europe as the most influential design mecca of the world. 1920’s Primarily self-taught. Beall’s posters were used for the Rural Electrification Administration. the federal government created the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1935. IMMIGRATION TO THE US TYPOGRAPHY THE END OF BAUHAUS In 1931 the Nazi party dominated the Dessau City Council and canceled the Bauhaus faculty contracts in 1932. where he rethought the approach to editorial design. From 1935 until 1939. Lester Beall’s extensive reading and curious intellect formed the basis for his professional development. rectangles and squares painted in mainly primary colors. enlargement. Letters should never be forced into a preconceived framework. and constructivism to produce a modernist result that contrasted with the traditional illustration dominating much of American mass-media graphics of the era. They are not perfect and have a machine like quality to them. and the juxtaposition of images. This was a direct relief effort for the unemployed. 1931 CE Eric Gill designed Gill Sans in 1928 with letterforms that have a humanist quality to them.of rational design. Rudolph Koch designed the typeface Kabel which was another popular geometric typeface with a medieval feel. A. His compositions were of asymmetrical balance with tension between elements. Most of the designs were silk-screened. Silk-screen printings was composed of flat color combined with influences from the Bauhaus. and writers to continue their professional careers. M. Salvador Dali. 1938 CE THE WPA As part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal. But with the influx of these innovative design thinkers. Nagy marked influence on the evolution of Bauhaus because he believed that typography must emphasize clarity and legibility. He designed the Die Neue Typographie which was like a textbook for designers and lay people. musicians. and neutrals black and white. and typography and reduced pro-electrification messages to elemental signs. pictorial modernism. He combined photography. Cassandre. THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL 1917 CE DE STIJL Piet Mondrian was a well known artist during the De Stijl period. over two million copies of approximately thirty-five thousand poster designs were produced. His work was composed of horizontal and vertical lines. when the Federal Art Project was abolished. particularly low-cost consumer products. and education. He removed all representative elements from his work moved cubism toward a pure geometric abstraction. 1935 CE . and the changes imposed on their work by their American experience. elementary signs. Lazlo Moholy. forms an important phase of the development of American graphic design. red yellow and red.Modernist Era 1900-1950 CE 1950 CE MODERNISM MOVEMENT IN THE US 1930’s JAN TSCHICHOLD Tschichold would assimilate and epitomize the Bauhaus and Russian Constructivist typography and new design concepts. were frequent subjects for the poster project. He was the art director of Harper’s Bazaar from 1934 until 1958. housing. crime prevention. a square. and overprinting. For instance. And he explained them to a wide audience of printers. Government-sponsored cultural events. including theatrical performances and art exhibitions. A poster project was included among the various cultural programs. graphic signs. a federal agency responsible for bringing electricity to the less populated areas of America. wood type.

vehicles. when America’s entry into the global conflict seemed inevitable. faculty. ranged from posters to informational training materials to amateurish cartoons. In 1941. Over one hundred thousand copies were distributed throughout the country. Will Burtin(1908–1972). 1953 CE HERBERT BAYER 1941 CE THE WAR BEGINS Kauffer was commissioned to design posters to boost morale of the Allied Nations. invoices. the federal government began to develop propaganda posters to promote production. In 1953. Herbert Bayer. and Harper’s Bazaar. reached a larger audience in posters conveying Nazi brutality. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. 1950 CE HERBERT MATTER Matter made significant contributions to design in work for the Container Corporation of America (CCA). checks. recognized as one of Germany’s outstanding designers. which was designed and edited by Bayer over a five-year period. Major artists such as Rene Magritte and William de Kooning created these works under the direction of CCA. Office of War Information. he fled Germany in 1938 after refusing to work for the Nazi regime. Ben Shahn addressed political and economic injustice during the Depression. commissioned by the U. students. CAA published the World GeoGraphic Atlas. His work combined a graphic clarity and directness with a lucid presentation of the subject matter. When the Nazis closed the Bauhaus in 1933. such as Carlu’s famous “America’s Answer! Production” poster. 1950 CE CCA CAMPAIGN In 1950 CCA set out on its most ambitious and abstract advertising campaign. and the New York Art Director’s Club Exhibition recognized Carlu with a top award. A truly revolutionary moment in marketing history. Walter Gropius. Paepcke recognized that design could both serve a pragmatic business purpose and become a major cultural thrust on the part of the corporation.After the War 1900-1930 CE 1941 CE WORLD WAR II America’s wartime graphics. the advertisements that were collected in the “Great Ideas of Western Man” series removed nearly all mention of the paperboard industry as well as the company who paid for the advertisement. Ayer advertising agency to create an ad campaign for CCA. and for twenty years as a graphicdesign and photography consultant to the Knoll Associates furniture design and manufacturing firm. 1935 CE THE CCA A major figure in the development of American modern design was the Chicago industrialist Walter P. Mies Van der Rohe. Herbert Matter. and Alexey Brodovitch. 1950 CE CCA CAMPAIGN (CONT) Roughly once a month between 1950 and 1970.S. The innovative campaign departed from the conventional headline and long-winded body copy of most 1930s advertising and featured a dominant visual supported by a simple statement. Others during this time period included. The results were unmistakably brilliant interpretations famous writers quotes. A new trademark was applied to stationery. Cassandre was commissioned by art director Charles Coiner of the N. magazines including Vogue. and signage. readers of national news magazines would find a visual rendering of a major philosophical idea as offered by a famous Western writer. A consistent format used sans-serif type and a standard color combination of black and shipping-carton tan. . W. and alumni dispersed throughout the world and made modern design a truly international movement. who founded the Container Corporation of America (CCA). 1934 CE FLIGHT FROM FASCISM The rise of fascism in Europe created one of the greatest transnational migrations of intellectual and creative talent in history. This publication was an important milestone in the visual presentation of data. The company gave the artists one guideline: Interpret the quotation in any way you choose. Paepcke. Fortune.

Theo Ballmer. These posters made statements about social views rather than commercial messages. industrial designers engaged with corporate It was released as Neue Haas Grotesk by design culture by assuming more control Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. He sandwiched images and type and juxtaposed ordinary. Univers. be seen across a range of industrial products. is a graphic design style developed in Switzerland in the 1950s that emphasizes cleanliness. dizzying optical illusions. visual styling.The Digital Era 1950-2000 CE 1971 CE CORPORATE IDENTITY 1960s-1970s THE CONCEPTUAL IMAGE & RETRO DESIGN During the 1960s. Laura Worthington. THE DIGITAL ERA From the mid 80’s onward designers became increasingly fascinated with the potential of the computer. The first wave of posters Raymond Loewy recognized the significance would come from the hippie culture in the form of psychedelic posters due to their of comprehensive design systems and left an anti establishment values. Helvetica typeface. images. while postmodern design did not consist of one unified graphic style. which were unforgettable mark on America’s history of prominently displayed in the form of the swirling curves of art nouveau. POST MODERNISM THE NEW YORK SCHOOL 1980’s DESIGNERS Zuzana Licko. Carol Twombly. His streamlined aesthetic can intense colors. Josef Muller Brockmann. and objects into a effort and time involved to achieve the result. universally understood signs and symbols to reinterpret meaning and support a message. the original Helvetica family lacked the cohesiveness of Univers. the movement was an expressive and playful time for Paul Rand. italics. Women’s Rights Movement and the Civil Rights Movements. rock music and psychedelic drugs. He changed the way even larger x-height than the font. However. Rand’s strength was in his ability to analyze a ways to go against the system. fostered by social activism brought on by a reaction to the Vietnam War. Posters were hung in apartments more frequently than they were found on the streets. and used collage and montage as photoshopped images but with much more a means to bring concepts. Max Bill and Max Huber to name a few were all Swiss style graphic design artists. 1900’s . He often altered or artsist. interiors. and communicate Weingart was a well known post-modernist the message through dynamic visual form. They all—of these functions. When this design was produced in Germany over entire industrial and visual campaigns. architecture. and corporate identities. readability and objectivity. John Maeda Nancy Skolos and Tom Wedell. Yet. digital Post modernists created works beginning technology enabled one person operating a in the 1970s without any set adherence to desktop computer to control most—or even rational order and formal organization. Michael Bierut and Muriel Cooper are all well known designers in the graphic design field. cohesive whole. not only as an efficient tool but as a potent catalyst for innovation. also seemed to entirely pay no attention to traditional conventions such as legibility. had a thorough understanding of the modern designers who searched for more and more movement. 1960 CE HELVETICA 1950 CE SWISS STYLE The International Typographic Style. Wolfgang message. textures. Jonathan Hoefler & Tobias Frere-Jones. David Carson. reduce it to a symbolic essence. by the now defunct D. For example. Helvetica’s to packaging or industrial products but also well-defined forms and excellent rhythm included complete identity designs. Ernst Keller. Jessica Hische. Stempel AG in 1961. product designs for blue chip companies such as BP. Chip Kidd. the face was renamed with the traditional Nabisco. Ed Fella. Rand employed And the results are strikingly similar to a visual and symbolic contrast. has an packaging. posters would become the craze. Shell. Exxon. of positive and negative shapes made it the most specified typeface internationally during the 1960s and 1970s.basically similar to what is done in layers in photoshop only with film. and widths. such as the barbed photograph them. wire on the 1940 cover of Direction magazine. because different designers in several countries developed Helvetica’s various weights.op-art . and Lucky Strike were not limited Latin name for Switzerland. By the 1990s. this new sans serif. also known as the Swiss Style. Stefan Sagmeister. Erik Spiekermann. Graphic design would be transformed and irrevocably changed by the continued development of hardware and software.