You are on page 1of 33

Application

Engineering
Bulletin
Subject

This AEB is for the following applications:


Automotive and Bus Installation
Requirements Cooling System
Heat Transfer (Pre-2002)

Automotive

Industrial

Date Mar, 2006

G-Drive

Marine

AEB Number 21.38

Engine Models included: ISB99, ISC99, ISL99, ISM99, ISX99


Author: Doug Pulskamp

Approver: per Procedure 9183OPS-04-10-01

Page 1 of 33
This AEB supersedes AEB
21.38 dated Jul, 2001.

DOCUMENT OVERVIEW
In order to obtain Cummins concurrence with an installation:
The vehicle cooling system must meet the Engine Out Coolant to Ambient specification for the vocation,
weight and location in which the vehicle will operate:
For 10 liter and larger engines: specifications are on the Engine Data Sheet or in AEB 90.25
For engines below 10 liters: specifications are on the Engine Data Sheet or in AEB 90.24
Refer to Figure 4 of these recommendations for guidance in locating the appropriate cooling standard.
The engine cooling system must meet the required Intake Manifold to Ambient specification on the
Engine Data Sheet when tested with the ram air speed on the Engine Data Sheet.
The engine cooling system must meet the required Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air
Outlet to Intake Manifold specification on the Engine Data Sheet when tested with the test procedure in
these recommendations.
Vehicle cooling system testing must be done using the test procedure at the end of these
recommendations.
For a Firetruck or Emergency Vehicle, the cooling system must meet the special requirements for these
vehicles.
Transit busses and vehicles used in dirty environments must use heat exchangers with a maximum of 810 fins/inch and non-louvered fins for acceptable life before fouling and cleanability after fouling.
The charge air cooling system must have piping, hoses and clamps which meet the requirements
outlined in AEB 21.14 Installation Recommendations - Charge Air Cooling System.
The vehicle must use the fan controls in the engine ECM or controls which fully engage the engine
cooling fan at or below the Fan-On Temperatures in these recommendations.
Radiator shutters must open in response to both engine coolant and engine intake manifold air
temperatures, and be fully open at or below the shutter opening temperatures on the Engine Data
Sheet.
Winterfronts must have a minimum open area of at least the value on the Engine Data Sheet. The open
area must be in front of the charge air cooler and the fan hub if viscous-type fan clutches are used.
Installations with automatic transmissions with retarders must have the thermostat bypass flow plumbed
into the transmission cooler inlet.
The installation must include a high coolant temperature alarm set to engage at the Coolant Alarm
Activation Temperature on the Engine Data Sheet. The Warning light operated by electronically
controlled engines meets this requirement.
If the vehicle will be used in cold ambient regions, optional equipment must be offered to improve
vehicle heating by reducing airflow through the radiator, such as a winterfront, shutters or on-off fan
drive.
The fan installation must not exceed the allowable spacing and overhung moment limits for the fan hub.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 2 of 33

Introduction
The cooling system heat transfer components are the radiator, charge air cooler, fan and shroud along with
recirculation baffles and usually a fan clutch with controls. Vehicles which operate in cold weather often also use
a winterfront or shutters over the cooling system. Vehicles with automatic transmissions incorporate a
transmission cooler, often with special coolant plumbing.
The heat transfer components of the cooling system control coolant, intake manifold air and transmission oil
temperatures within desirable ranges during vehicle operation in moderate and cold ambient temperatures, and
maintain them below specified maximum levels under hot ambient conditions.
These recommendations outline Cummins requirements and design guidelines for these heat transfer related
cooling system components and the vehicle charge air cooling system. These recommendations cover design
aspects related to the performance of these components, but not component durability, which is the
responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer.
Virtually all Cummins requirements for the vehicle heat transfer system are performance-based, rather than
design-based, meaning that a certain cooling performance level is required of the complete system rather than
specific design aspects, such as a required radiator or fan size. The design guidelines in this document are
intended to aid the vehicle designer in developing an efficient heat transfer system which will meet Cummins
requirements with minimum size and cost.
The components of the cooling system related to the filling, venting and deaeration of the cooling system are
covered in the Automotive and Bus Installation Recommendations - Cooling System Fill and Deaeration.
The major steps in design of the vehicle heat transfer system; defining engine heat rejection and coolant flow;
defining cooling system performance requirements, choosing heat exchangers and choosing fan drives are
covered below.

Engine Heat Rejection and Coolant Flow


The engine water pump circulates coolant through the oil cooler, around the cylinder liners and through the
cylinder head. The coolant pulls heat from these engine components, controlling critical engine metal
temperatures and maintaining the engine oil temperature within a range which controls oil oxidation and
promotes long life.
The heat absorbed from the internal engine components must be dissipated in the vehicle radiator. The
maximum coolant temperature is controlled within a design limit so the coolant can effectively maintain the
internal engine metal temperatures below their design limits. Severe engine damage, such as piston scuffing
and cylinder head cracking, can result if internal engine metal temperatures become excessive.
The engine turbocharger compresses the air which will charge the engine cylinders, resulting in heating of this
charge airflow. Cooling this air in the charge air cooler increases the density of the airflow, increasing engine
power output, reducing emissions and reducing thermal loading of the engine power cylinder.
The vehicle radiator must dissipate the heat rejection from the engine coolant with the coolant flow available
from the engine, while maintaining the engine coolant outlet temperature within acceptable limits. The vehicle
charge air cooler must cool the charge air from the high temperature received from the engine turbo-compressor
to a temperature much nearer ambient.

Engine Data Sheet Information


The Engine Data Sheet contains all the engine information needed to design the vehicle heat transfer system. A
sample of a portion of an Engine Data Sheet is shown in Figure 1. The key information on the data sheet is:
Engine Coolant Heat Rejection: (line 18) This is the heat rejected to engine coolant with the engine running at
full power output at the specified engine speed. This value is the heat rejection by the engine when it is
consuming the Nominal Fuel Consumption listed on line 22.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 3 of 33
(line number) Cooling System

(Engine Data Sheets for non-Firetrucks)

(1) ..................Maximum Coolant Pressure -[Exclusive of Pressure Cap - Closed Thermostat at


(2) ................................................................................................................................................
the Maximum No Load
Governed Speed] - PSI (kPa) ......................................................................................................
.............................................................................................. .......................................................
(3) ...........................................................Maximum Coolant Temperature - Engine Out - F (C)
......................................................................................................................................................
(4) ........................................................Minimum Recommended Coolant Temperature - F (C)
......................................................................................................................................................
(5) ............Minimum Cooling Capability @ Nominal Fuel Rate [Level II] with 30 MPH (48 km/hr)
(6) ................................................................................................................................................
Ram Air Speed and
50/50 E.G. Coolant:
(7) ................................................................................................................................................
Engine
Out
Coolant to Ambient @ 1600 RPM - F (C).................................... ..............................................
(8) ................................................................................................................................................
Engine
Out
Coolant to Ambient @ 1200 RPM - F (C).................................... ..............................................
(9) ................................................................................................................................................
Intake Manifold
to Ambient at 1600 RPM - F (C)........................................... .....................................................
(10)Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop From Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold - in. Hg (mm Hg)
Maximum Rating Performance Data

Governed Speed

Peak Power

(11) .................... Engine Speed - RPM


2100
(12) .........................Output - BHP (kw)
(13) ....................... Torque - lb-ft (Nm)
(14) ......................................................Inlet Air Flow - CFM (litre/sec)
(15) ......................................................Charge Air Flow - lb/min (kg/min)
(16) ......................................................Exhaust Gas Flow - CFM (litre/sec)
(17) ......................................................Exhaust Gas Temperature - F (C)
(18) ..............................................................................................................................................
Rejection - BTU/min (kW)
(19) ..............................................................................................................................................
U.S. GPM (litre/min)
(20) ..............................................................................................................................................
Outlet Pressure - in Hg (mm Hg)
(21) ..............................................................................................................................................
Outlet Temperature - F (C)
(22) ...................................................... Nominal Fuel Consumption - lb/hr (kg/hr)
(23) ...................................................... Maximum Fuel Flow to Pump - lb/hr (kg/hr)
(24) ...................................................... Brake Mean Effective Pressure - PSI (kPa)
Cooling System

Peak Torque
1600

Engine

1200

Coolant

Heat

Radiator Coolant Flow Turbo

Compressor

Turbo

Compressor

(Engine Data Sheets for Firetrucks)

(1) ..................Maximum Coolant Pressure -[Exclusive of Pressure Cap - Closed Thermostat at


(2) ................................................................................................................................................
the Maximum No Load
Governed Speed] - PSI (kPa) ......................................................................................................
(3) .....................................Maximum Coolant Temperature - Engine Out (Road Mode) - F (C)
(3a) ............................. Maximum Coolant Temperature - Engine Out (Pumping Mode) - F (C)
(3b) ...................................... Maximum Intake Manifold Temperature (Pumping Mode) - F (C)
(4) ........................................................Minimum Recommended Coolant Temperature - F (C)
(5) ............Minimum Cooling Capability @ Nominal Fuel Rate [Level II] with 30 MPH (48 km/hr)
(6) ................................................................................................................................................
Ram Air Speed and
50/50 E.G. Coolant:
(7) ................................................................................................................................................
Engine
Out
Coolant to Ambient @ 1600 RPM - F (C)..................................................................................
(8) ................................................................................................................................................
Engine
Out
Coolant to Ambient @ 1200 RPM - F (C)..................................................................................
(9) ................................................................................................................................................
Intake Manifold
to Ambient at 1600 RPM - F (C)................................................................................................
(10)Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop From Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold - in. Hg (mm Hg)

Figure 1. Portion of Engine Data Sheet


Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 4 of 33
Radiator Coolant Flow: (line 19) This is the coolant flow to the vehicle radiator, measured with the standard
radiator restriction shown in Figure 2. Radiators with lower restriction than this standard curve will receive
greater coolant flow, those with higher restriction will receive less. On installations with automatic transmissions,
the transmission cooler restriction should be added to the radiator restriction when comparing the installation to
the standard curve.
Charge Air Flow: (line 15) This is the flow of engine charge air which must be cooled by the charge air cooler.
Turbo Compressor Outlet Temperature: (line 21) This is the temperature of the charge air as it leaves the
engine turbo-compressor and travels to the charge air cooler. This temperature on the Engine Data Sheet is
measured in an engine test cell with a turbo-compressor inlet temperature of 77 F (25 C). The turbocompressor outlet temperature will be considerably higher than this value during a vehicle cooling test, when the
turbo-compressor inlet temperatures are typically 110-140 F (43-60 C).
Ram Air Speed and Coolant Type: (lines 5 and 6) This is the airspeed over the test vehicle during the cooling
test and the coolant to be used in the system during the testing. The ram air speed listed on the Engine Data
Sheet is only used for certain applications and vehicle weights, as outlined in the Cooling System Performance
Requirements section below. A 50-50 water-ethylene glycol coolant mixture is used for cooling tests since this is
what is commonly used in service.
Maximum Coolant Temperature - Engine Out: (line 3) This is the maximum coolant temperature the engine can
tolerate in service. The Engine Out Coolant to Ambient Specifications for the specific applications are designed
to prevent this coolant temperature from being exceeded during real world operation.
Engine Out Coolant to Ambient Specifications: (lines 7 and 8) These are the amounts that the engine outlet
coolant temperature can be higher than ambient temperature with the engine at full power output during the
cooling test. These are also commonly termed top tank differential or TTD specifications.
Intake Manifold to Ambient Specification: (line 9) This is the amount that the intake manifold air temperature can
be above the ambient temperature with the engine at full power output during the cooling test. This is commonly
termed intake manifold temperature differential specification or IMTD.
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold: (line 10) This is the maximum
allowable restriction of the complete charge air cooling system, measured during the cooling test with the engine
at full power output. This restriction includes the charge air piping, hoses and cooler.
The heat rejection required from the vehicle charge air cooler is not listed on the engine data sheet, because it
varies considerably with the turbo-compressor inlet temperature. If the charge air cooler heat rejection is needed
for cooling system design calculations, it can be estimated using the calculations shown in Figure 3.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 5 of 33

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 6 of 33
Data Sheet Conditions
(77 F ambient)

Cooling Test Conditions


(100 F ambient)

Turbo Compressor Inlet Temperature

77 F

130 F

Turbo Compressor Outlet Temperature

TCOD TCOH

Intake Manifold Temperature

IMTS

TCOD is the Turbo Compressor Outlet Temperature listed on the Engine Data Sheet.
TCOH

is

the

Turbo

Compressor

Outlet

Temperature

at

high

ambient

cooling

test

130 F is assumed for the turbo compressor inlet temperature since Cummins allows 30 F heating of
the intake air in the vehicle intake system prior to the turbocharger on many engine models.
IMTS is the Intake Manifold Temperature target for the cooling test.

The turbo compressor outlet temperature will rise as the turbo compressor inlet temperature rises, but it
is not a one-for-one relationship. The turbo compressor outlet temperature and required intake manifold
temperature during the cooling test are:
TCOH = TCOD + (1.4 x ( 130 F - 77 F ))
IMTS = IMTD + 100 F
Where the IMTD is the Intake Manifold to Ambient specification on the Engine Data Sheet.
The required heat rejection by the charge air cooler to meet the engine IMTD specification under the cooling
test conditions is:
CAC Heat Rejection (Btu/min) = 0.241 Btu/lb F x Charge Air Flow (lb/min) x (TCOH - IMTS) (F)
This calculation method can be used at any ambient temperature with appropriate changes to the TCOH
formula above. Cummins recommends that a chassis dyno cooling test be run with an ambient temperature
of
90-110
F.

Figure 3. Calculation Method for CAC Heat Rejection for Cooling Test Conditions

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 7 of 33

Cooling System Performance Requirements


The performance requirements for the vehicle cooling system depend on the maximum ambient temperature the
vehicle will encounter in the area it is operating, and the speed the vehicle will be moving under the most severe
cooling conditions.
The Engine Out Coolant to Ambient specifications are designed to prevent the engine coolant outlet
temperature from exceeding the Maximum Coolant Temperature - Engine Out when the vehicle is running under
the most severe cooling conditions it will encounter.
For most on-highway vehicles, the most severe condition for the cooling system occurs when the vehicle is
climbing a long, continuous, steep grade pulling maximum GCW in high ambient temperatures. In this condition,
the engine is rejecting the maximum heat load, the charge air cooler is rejecting the maximum heat load, and
the vehicle speed is relatively low.
The chassis dyno cooling test is a laboratory simplification of this operating condition, but is not a duplication of
a real world hillclimb. Unlike the real world hillclimb, the chassis dyno cooling test uses a steady engine speed, a
steady ram air speed and a steady ambient temperature, conditions more easily maintained in a laboratory
environment.
Cummins cooling specifications for different applications and locations in the world vary based on the minimum
hillclimbing speed and the maximum ambient temperature the vehicle will encounter. The minimum hillclimbing
speed mainly depends on the vehicle gross weight and engine power level, which impact the ram air speed
used for the cooling test. The maximum ambient temperature depends on the area of the world in which the
vehicle will be operating.
The cooling system performance requirements on the Engine Data Sheet reflect only a single application and
location in the world. Refer to Figure 4 to determine the cooling standard which applies to the vocation, location
and weight of the vehicle being considered.

Heavy-Duty Engines (10L and larger Displacement)


Application
US Vehicle under 80,000 lb GCW
Vehicle over 80,000 dbl GCW
Vehicle operating in Canada or Mexico
Vehicle built in North America, Exported
Vehicles over 80 tonne (176,000 lb)
Exported to Australia
Firetruck of Emergency Vehicle

Use Cooling Standard


On Engine Data Sheet
In AEB 90.25
In AEB 90.25
In AEB 90.25
In AEB 90.37
On Firetruck Data Sheet

Medium Duty Engines (below 10L Displacement)


Application
US Truck over 25,000 lb GCW
US Truck below 35,000 lb GVW
US Non-Truck
Vehicle built in North America, Exported
Firetruck or Emergency Vehicle

Use Cooling Standard


On Engine Data Sheet
In AEB 90.24
In AEB 90.24
In AEB 90.24
On Firetruck Data Sheet

Figure 4. Cooling Standards Reference Tables


AEB 90.25 Cooling Standards for Export and High Gross Weight Vehicles contains the standards for vehicles
with engines of 10 liters or larger manufactured in North America and applied worldwide. The ram air speeds
used for cooling testing vary with the gross weight of the vehicle combination, and the design Limiting Ambient
Temperature (LAT) varies with location in the world.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 8 of 33
The Limiting Ambient Temperature is the maximum ambient temperature at which the vehicle can operate
before the engine coolant temperature reaches its maximum limit. Since the Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient
(Top Tank Differential) specification is the temperature difference between the engine coolant temperature and
ambient, LAT and TTD specs are related:
Maximum Coolant Temperature Limit = Limiting Ambient Temperature + Top Tank Differential
For Example, if a heavy-duty engine had a 220 F maximum coolant temperature limit, and a cooling system
was to be designed to operate in a maximum ambient temperature of 115 F (LAT = 115 F), the Top Tank
Differential requirement would be:
220 F = 115 F + TTD

or

TTD = 220 F - 115 F = 105 F


104 C = 46 C + TTD

or

TTD = 104 C - 46 C = 58 C
So during a cooling test, the cooling system would have to meet a Top Tank Differential of 105 F to operate
successfully in this environment. The ram air speed for the cooling test would be chosen based on the vehicle
weight as outlined in AEB 90.25.
It should be noted that the LAT specifications outlined in AEB 90.25 are the LAT values to be used in chassis
dyno cooling system sizing, which are slightly lower than the maximum ambient temperatures which a vehicle
will encounter in the specified areas of the world.
AEB 90.24 Midrange Engine Cooling Requirements outlines the performance requirements for cooling systems
for midrange engines (below 10 liter displacement) for vehicles manufactured in North America and used
worldwide. Since midrange engines are applied in a wide variety of applications, these applications are grouped
into three categories for cooling system sizing based on duty cycle.
A number of midrange applications, such as on-highway trucks and school busses below 35,000 lb (16 tonnes)
GVW, use the less stringent cooling system performance requirements outlined in AEB 90.24 rather than those
listed on the Engine Data Sheet. These light duty midrange applications can use smaller, less costly cooling
systems due to their lighter duty cycle and consequently lower demands on the vehicle cooling system.
Firetrucks and Emergency vehicles also have unique cooling requirements, generally less stringent than typical
on-highway truck or bus requirements. These less stringent requirements result from generally higher power-toweight ratios for these vehicles, and less severe operating conditions. The unique cooling requirements for
these applications are listed on the Engine Data Sheets for Firetrucks and Emergency Vehicles.
Pumper firetrucks also have unique cooling requirements to control temperatures during their stationary
pumping mode. These firetrucks are required to maintain the engine outlet coolant temperature and engine
intake manifold air temperature below the limits on the Engine Data Sheet during pumping mode (see Figure 1).
Pumping mode cooling performance is typically checked during the standard pumping mode test. These cooling
requirements must be met in addition to the standard on-road cooling requirements.

Heat Transfer Core Design


With the engine heat rejection and desired cooling performance specifications defined, and with the available
space in the vehicle known, the design of the heat transfer cores can begin.
The heat exchanger manufacturer typically uses computerized tools to determine the radiator and charge air
cooler core area required to meet the cooling requirements. The airflow required from the fan, and consequently
the approximate fan size and speed, are also estimated with these tools.
As outlined in the Fan and Shroud design section below, maximizing the sweep of the fan over the heat transfer
cores improves the efficiency of the fan and shroud system. Since the maximum possible fan sweep of the heat
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 9 of 33
transfer cores would occur with perfectly square cores, the closer the cores are to square, the greater the
potential for good fan matching.
Since the maximum fan diameter is usually known early in the cooling system design process, this fan diameter
should be used as a guideline for the minimum desired dimension of the radiator core.
Since the fan airflow must pass through both the charge air cooler and radiator cores, greater system efficiency
results from smoothing the transition between these cores. This can be done by matching the size and shape of
these two cores as closely as possible. Since the charge air cooler core area is often smaller than the radiator
core, care must be taken in designing the charge air cooler so that the tanks do not cover the radiator core area,
resulting in undesirable airflow blockage.
Another important design consideration for the heat transfer cores is the heat exchanger fin and tube
arrangement. Generally, the higher the fin density and the greater the louvering of the fins, the greater the
performance capability of the core within a given frontal area. However, high density, louvered fins and/or
staggered tubes will quickly plug with debris if the vehicle operates in a dirty environment, and will be difficult
and expensive for the vehicle operator to clean.
Cummins recommends that heat transfer cores with high fin density (12 fins/inch or more) louvered-type fins
should only be used in clean on-highway applications. Vehicles which operate in dirty environments, such as
street sweepers and some logging and agricultural applications, must use lower fin density non-louvered fins
and in-line rather than staggered radiator tubes.
Experience has shown that urban transit busses often experience short service life with higher fin density
radiators using louvered fins. Since these cooling systems require fan operation much of the time, the cooling
system tends to collect large amounts of street debris. Although this improves cleanliness of the cities in which
they are operating, the cooling systems must be designed to have a reasonable service life in this environment,
and be easily cleanable once they become fouled.
Cummins requires that urban transit busses and other vehicles which operate in dirty environments use heat
exchanger cores with no greater than 8-10 fins/inch, with non-louvered fins. Heat exchanger manufacturers
have developed fins which use ripples or bumps for fin turbulation rather than louvers, which makes these fins
much less prone to fouling and much easier to clean once fouled.
Vehicles which operate in dirty environments can also encounter problems with debris collecting between the
radiator and charge air cooler cores, where it is not easily cleaned out without removing the charge air cooler.
This problem results from debris being pulled through the gap between the two cores, and debris which passes
through the less dense charge air cooler being trapped in the higher density radiator fins.
This problem can be lessened by using a side-by-side radiator-charge air cooler layout rather than front-to-back,
installing a seal between the radiator and charge air cooler cores, or matching the fin density of the two cores so
that debris will pass through both.

Fan and Shroud Design


The radiator, charge air cooler and fan drive are typically designed to dissipate the required heat load from the
engine and transmission at minimal cost, weight and parasitic power, within the available space on the vehicle.
Heat transfer performance of the radiator and charge air cooler can be maximized by optimizing the relationship
between the fan, shroud and heat transfer core areas. This can be done with attention to three key design
areas; fan clearance to engine and cores, fan sweep of core area and fan to shroud relationship.
A rotating fan pumps air with an uneven velocity profile, with the greatest air movement near the tips of the fan
blades (see Figure 5). This velocity profile results in a low velocity region in the hub area of the fan and a
doughnut of high velocity air near the fan perimeter.
Since the heat transfer cores of the radiator and charge air cooler perform best with a uniform airflow distribution
through the core, the uneven airflow velocity produced by the fan is not desirable. This situation can be
improved by increasing the distance from the fan to the heat transfer cores, since the air velocity profile is
smoother further from the plane of the fan (see Figure 6.)
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 10 of 33

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 11 of 33
The airflow through the heat transfer cores can also be improved by maximizing the fan sweep over the cores,
by matching the fan diameter with the dimensions of the heat transfer cores. The air flows smoothest between
the heat transfer cores and the fan when the fan sweeps the greatest proportion of the core areas. This occurs
when the fan diameter is equal to slightly smaller than the minimum core dimension. However, fan performance
degrades significantly if the fan diameter exceeds the core dimensions, due to the airflow blockage of the
radiator and charge air cooler tanks (see Figure 7).
The fan airflow can also be disrupted by obstructions in front of or behind the fan, particularly near the fan
perimeter where the airflow velocity is highest. Since some airflow interruption by engine accessories or pulleys
is often unavoidable, the impact of these obstructions on fan performance can be reduced by maximizing the
clearance between the fan and any obstruction. Obstructions close to the fan also increase fan noise and can
contribute to shorter fan life by increasing fan vibration levels.
Good design practice is to include a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm) clearance from the front of the fan to the heat
transfer core, with 4 inches (100 mm) much better. Minimum clearance from the back of the fan to any
obstructions should be 3/4 inch (20 mm) or greater.
The fan shroud improves system efficiency by channelling the air between the heat transfer cores and the fan,
and minimizing air recirculation at the tips of the fan blades. The best shroud designs allow for a smooth
transition from the rectangular heat transfer cores to the round fan with minimal restriction. Good and bad fan
shroud designs are shown in Figure 8.
The amount of the fan depth which protrudes into the fan shroud is termed the fan immersion in the shroud. This
immersion, and the clearance from the fan blade tips to the shroud, are the key parameters which affect the air
pumping efficiency of the fan and shroud. The optimum fan immersion in the shroud varies with fan and cooling
system design, so is often determined experimentally.
Good design practice is to immerse about 1/2 of the fan depth into the shroud for both blower and sucker-type
fans. These immersion recommendations are different than those used in the past since the optimum fan
immersion has changed due to the additional airflow restriction caused by the charge air cooler. These general
rules do not apply to every installation, so the optimum fan immersion should be determined through testing.
Fan performance improves as the clearance from fan blade tips to the shroud is reduced. For best fan
performance, the tip clearance should not exceed 2.5% of the fan diameter. The minimum tip clearance to the
shroud is usually limited by the clearance necessary to prevent the fan blades from contacting the shroud when
the vehicle is running on a rough road.
Tip clearance can often be reduced to less than 1% of fan diameter when engine-mounted shrouds are used,
which further improves fan performance. Figure 9 shows fan immersion guidelines for sucker and blower type
fans.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 12 of 33

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 13 of 33

Airflow through the cooling system can also be improved by minimizing airflow resistance in front of the heat
exchangers and behind the fan. Grille open area should be maximized, and grille elements designed for low air
resistance. Restriction behind the fan can be reduced by easing the egress of air from the engine compartment
through maximizing exit area around the engine and using hood vents to allow air to escape.

Recirculation Baffles
When a sucker-type cooling fan is running, it pulls air through the heat exchangers and pushes the airflow
behind it into the engine compartment. This action creates a low pressure, or suction at the front of the heat
exchangers and a high pressure in the engine compartment.
The pressurized air in the engine compartment will escape in any direction possible, and can easily be sucked
into the low pressure region in front of the heat exchangers. Since the engine compartment air has already
passed through the heat exchangers and been heated, the recirculation of this hot air into the heat exchangers
degrades vehicle cooling performance.
This recirculation can be reduced by installing rubber baffles or seals between the sides of the heat exchanger
package and the vehicle hood or engine compartment. These seals must completely isolate the region in front of
the heat exchangers from the engine compartment to be effective.
Care must be taken in designing these seals so that they do not block any part of the heat transfer cores of
either the radiator or charge air cooler, are tall enough to seal the gap intended, will not blow open due to
pressure from the engine compartment, and remain stiff enough to be an effective seal at engine compartment
temperatures (typically 190-210 F, 88 - 99 C).
The hot, pressurized air in the engine compartment can also be pulled into the vehicle air intake system if this
system is not well sealed from the engine compartment. This ingestion of hot air into the vehicle air intake is the
most common reason a vehicle intake system fails to meet the intake temperature limits. If the vehicle has a
frontal air system, baffles for the intake system can often be incorporated into the cooling system recirculation
baffles.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 14 of 33
Cooling systems with blower-type fans also benefit from recirculation baffles, which must be designed to prevent
recirculation from the heat exchanger outlet to the fan inlet.

Fan Drive Systems


Since engines produce heat constantly while running, cooling systems must continuously reject that heat. The
heat exchangers require airflow through them in order to dissipate this heat, which can flow through the heat
exchangers naturally or be pulled through by the fan. Most installations employ a fan clutch to reduce fan speed
during the times when the cooling system does not require fan airflow. This is typically done to reduce noise,
parasitic power draw and to raise coolant temperature in cold weather.
A wide variety of fan clutches are available, with a wide range of cost and performance. The key factors to
consider in choosing a fan clutch for an installation are airflow requirements, fan power/ torque levels and
cost/complexity.
The amount of airflow a cooling system needs from the cooling fan depends on how much airflow the system
receives naturally due to vehicle motion.
Most on-highway vehicles with front-mounted cooling systems receive sufficient airflow that the fan is not
needed 90% or more of the engine running time. So the best fan drive for these vehicles would be one which
minimizes fan speed when disengaged, to minimize parasitic power draw.
However, if the cooling system is mounted in the rear or side of the vehicle, such as a rear-engine bus or RV, it
receives no natural airflow due to vehicle motion, so all the cooling airflow must be provided by the cooling fan.
The best fan drive for these vehicles would be one which always provides some airflow, since the cooling
system receives no natural airflow.
Fan drive systems also have limitations on the fan power and torque which they can accept. Viscous-type
clutches and hydraulic drive systems are generally limited to lower fan sizes and drive speeds. For Hydraulic
driven cooling fans, the system that drives the engagement of the fan clutch must provide a control such that the
through drive torque limit of the air compressor is never exceeded at any time, in any application. It is very
important to document how the running temperature of the fan drive system will effect the pressure to the fan
motor, thus load of the pump and torque applied to the air compressor drive coupling. Due to the large number
of suppliers available, consultation with the manufacturer(s) of the hydraulic drive system is mandatory to assure
proper selection and installations.
Hydraulic pump systems require deaeration during the installations in a vehicle. The processes of bleeding air
out of the hydraulic system will impose shock loads that will damage the air compressor, leading to failure.
Before load can be applied to the hydraulic pump, the system must be fully deaerated. It is the responsibility of
the initial installer (OEM) to assure the hydraulic system is deaerated before the engine is started. The drive
through torque capability of each engine family and air compressor model is documented in the engine family
option information book. Pneumatic or electromagnetic on-off clutches have higher drive capability and are
commonly used on heavy-duty engines. Consult the fan drive manufacturers for guidance on power, torque and
drive speed limitations of their fan drive systems.
When using Cummins fan drives on engines below 10 liter displacement, the bending moment imposed on the
fan hub by the weight of the fan and length of spacers must not exceed Cummins limits. These limits are a
maximum bending moment of 60 in-lbs (7.0 Nm) on 6 cylinder engines and 20 in-lbs (2.5 Nm) on 4 cylinder
engines. Total length of spacers should not exceed 3 inches (75 mm).
Cost and complexity of the fan drive system is typically dependent on the fan power requirement and the fan
control requirements. A well designed cooling system, following the design guidelines in the above sections, will
reduce the fan power requirement, which can reduce the cost of the fan drive system.
Cold weather operation can be a factor in fan drive design, since any airflow over the engine in extremely cold
weather can result in overcooling and poor cab heating. Viscous-type fan clutches drive the fan at relatively high
speeds in cold weather, while pneumatic or electromagnetic clutches virtually stop the fan. This results in
improved cab heating performance in cold weather, particularly during long idling periods, when on-off type fan
clutches are used.

Cooling System Testing


Cooling system testing involves holding the engine at maximum power output at various engine speeds with the
vehicle on either a chassis dynamometer or on-road, and allowing the cooling system temperatures to rise and
stabilize at their maximum levels.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 15 of 33
The parameters for cooling system testing for all applications are listed on the Engine Data Sheet or the
appropriate AEB as listed in Figure 4. These parameters are explained below. A detailed cooling system
instrumentation and test procedure is included at the end of this document.
Four key parameters are controlled during cooling system testing: Engine speed, throttle position, ambient
temperature and ram air speed. The engine speeds to be used for cooling system testing are listed in the
Cooling System section of the Engine Data Sheet (see Figure 1). The ram air speed appropriate for the
application being designed is the value on the Engine Data Sheet or in the appropriate AEB as outlined in
Figure 4.
Cooling system testing is done at wide open throttle, with a stable ambient temperature between 90 - 110 F
(32-43 C) when testing on a chassis dyno, and 70-120 F (21-49 C) when testing on-road. Experience has
shown that cooling systems must be qualified within these ambient temperature ranges in order to provide
acceptable performance at high ambient temperatures. Cummins will not accept cooling system test results run
at ambient temperatures outside these ranges.
Four key engine parameters are measured during the cooling test: Engine coolant outlet temperature, intake
manifold air temperature, charge air system pressure drop and the rate of engine fuel consumption.
Engine coolant outlet temperature, intake manifold air temperature and charge air system pressure drop are
compared to the requirements for the application. The rate of engine fuel consumption provides an indication of
the engine power output during the cooling test.
If the engine fuel consumption rate is significantly different than the Nominal Fuel Consumption value on the
Engine Data Sheet (Fig 1 line 22), the cooling test results can be corrected to represent an engine running at
the nominal fuel rate. The correction procedure is outlined in the data reduction section of the cooling test
procedure at the end of these recommendations.
The cooling test is done at the two engine speeds listed on the Engine Data Sheet (lines 7 and 8 in Figure 1) if
the vehicle uses a manual transmission. With an automatic transmission, the lower of the two speeds often
cannot be attained because the transmission will downshift above this speed. Since the lower speed cannot be
attained during real operation, this test rpm is replaced by a higher speed, close to the downshift point of the
transmission. More detail on test procedures for automatic transmissions is available in AEB 95.04 Automatic
Transmission Cooling.
The measured engine coolant temperature, intake manifold temperature and charge air system pressure drop
are compared to the specifications appropriate to the application to determine if the cooling system meets
Cummins requirements. Detailed cooling test data reduction procedures are included in the test procedure at
the end of these recommendations.

Automatic Transmissions
Automatic transmissions reject heat to the transmission oil during operation, therefore requiring cooling. The
transmission oil cooler is typically an oil-to-coolant heat exchanger mounted between the radiator outlet and
engine inlet (see Figure 10). This cooler location provides the advantages of full flow at the coolest point in the
system, and simple plumbing. The cooler is sized to meet the transmission oil cooling requirements defined by
the transmission manufacturer.
A disadvantage of locating the transmission cooler in this location is that the cooler only receives coolant flow
when the engine thermostat opens. This problem can be solved by plumbing the engine thermostat bypass
coolant into the transmission cooler inlet, as shown in Figure 10. This plumbing arrangement provides
continuous coolant flow through the transmission cooler regardless of engine thermostat position.
All Cummins engine models offer options for plumbing the thermostat bypass flow remotely from the engine,
which typically involves blocking the internal bypass flow path and providing a port for external plumbing. The
additional coolant flow during closed thermostat conditions improves transmission cooling during situations
when the transmission requires cooling and the engine does not.
The most severe transmission cooling situations occur when a transmission retarder (braking device) is
engaged. Retarders reject large amounts of heat into the transmission oil very quickly, requiring significant
transmission oil cooling. Since retarders are most often used to enhance braking on downgrades, when the
engine thermostat is often closed, the remote bypass coolant flow is critical to cooling retarder-equipped
transmissions.
For this reason, Cummins requires that the thermostat bypass flow be plumbed to the transmission cooler inlet
on transmissions with retarders. This is necessary to control transmission oil temperatures during retarder
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 16 of 33
operation with the thermostat closed. Cummins does not require the thermostat bypass flow to be plumbed to
the transmission cooler inlet on transmissions without retarders, however this plumbing arrangement does
enhance transmission cooling.
Automatic transmission-equipped vehicles with fixed fan drives (no fan clutch), such as some transit busses and
cement mixers, are a special case. The fixed fan drive causes the fan to run continuously, which reduces
coolant temperatures in moderate load and ambient conditions, causing the engine thermostat to close.
Therefore, these vehicles can operate with a closed or nearly closed thermostat, and little transmission cooling
flow, a large amount of their running time. Plumbing the thermostat bypass flow to the transmission cooler inlet
is recommended on vehicles with automatic transmissions and fixed (continuously running) fan drives to
enhance transmission cooling.
The remote bypass plumbing option on the B-series and ISB engines provides lower coolant flow than other
engine models, which can be insufficient to properly cool the high heat rejection of some retarders. If additional
flow is needed for retarder cooling, this can be achieved by adding coolant from another engine port to the
remote bypass flow as shown schematically in Figure 11. The additional flow can be obtained from any of the
coolant ports on the top of the cylinder head or rear of the cylinder block.
Testing has shown that this plumbing arrangement provides sufficient coolant flow to cool Allisons medium
capacity retarders on vehicles up to 35,000 lb (16 tons) GCW. It is not approved for use on high capacity
retarders or on heavier vehicles.

Charge Air Cooling System Components


The design of the piping, hoses, clamps and cooler in the charge air cooling system is critical to the reliability
and durability of the engine and vehicle. These components are subjected to extreme pressure and temperature
cycles and vibration levels. Cummins requirements for the charge air cooling system components are outlined in
AEB 21.14 Installation Recommendations - Charge Air Cooling System.

Fan and Shutter Controls


Most vehicles use a clutching fan drive, so that the fan can be disengaged to reduce noise and parasitic power
during the portion of vehicle operation when the cooling fan is not needed.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 17 of 33

Vehicles in which cooling air is forced through the cooling system when the vehicle is in motion, such as onhighway trucks, only engage the cooling fan during the unusual situations when the cooling system must reject
large amounts of heat with little ram air.
Vehicles in which the cooling system does not see ram air when the vehicle is in motion, such as rear-engine
busses, engage the cooling fan much more often since it is the only source of cooling airflow. These vehicles
often use different fan drive mechanisms, such as hydraulic drives, which can provide some fan speed at all
times.
Most fan control mechanisms provide zero or low fan speeds when the engine temperature is low, then turn the
fan on when the coolant temperature reaches a threshold value. On engines over 10 liter displacement, the fan
is typically engaged with a pneumatic clutch controlled by the engine ECM or coolant temperature sensor.
On engines below 10 liter displacement, viscous-type fan clutches, which sense the air temperature exiting the
radiator rather than coolant temperature, are often used. These engines also employ both pneumatic and
electromagnetic fan clutches controlled by the engine ECM or coolant temperature sensor.
For all types of fan clutches, the fan control system must bring the fan up to maximum speed before the engine
coolant temperature rises too high. It is desirable to engage the fan below the maximum allowable coolant
temperature of the engine, to allow the cooling system to respond and keep the coolant temperature from
reaching the maximum. The Fan-On temperature for each engine model is listed on the Engine Data Sheet.
For optimum vehicle performance, the fan should not engage at an engine coolant outlet temperature more than
10 F (5 C) below the Fan - On Coolant Temperature on the Engine Data Sheet. A fan clutch which engages
the fan at too low a coolant temperature causes excessive fan running time with consequent increases in noise
and parasitic power loss.
Cummins requires that the fan control system engage the cooling fan at or below the Fan-On Coolant
Temperature on the Engine Data Sheet. Engine electronic control modules (ECMs) provide a signal to engage
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 18 of 33
the cooling fan at the recommended temperature, and also engage the fan based on intake manifold air
temperature, refrigerant pressure and to assist downhill engine braking.
Newer engine models provide more sophisticated fan controls for new generation fan clutches with multiple
operating modes or variable fan speeds. Consult the Engine Electronic Subsystem information for details on
these controls.
Since viscous-type fan clutches engage in response to a rise in air temperature behind the radiator, rather than
directly sensing a rise in engine coolant temperature, their performance must be tested on a chassis dyno to
determine the engine coolant temperature at which the fan engages. The procedure to do this is included in the
cooling system test procedure at the end of this document.
If the vehicle is equipped with radiator shutters, these must also be opened to provide cooling airflow when
either the engine coolant or intake manifold air temperatures rise. The engine coolant and intake manifold air
temperatures at which the shutters should open are also listed on the Engine Data Sheet.
Cummins requires that shutter controls open the shutters at or below the engine coolant and intake manifold air
temperatures on the Engine Data Sheet.
Fan and shutter control requirements for all Cummins heavy-duty, midrange and alternative fuel engines are
summarized in the tables in Figure 12. The required fan control signal is provided by the engine ECM for all
engine models, but shutter controls must be provided by the vehicle manufacturer. All engine models provide
ports in the engine coolant jacket and intake manifold for installation of shutter controls, except the alternative
fueled engines, which require the intake manifold air shutter controls to be located in the pipe returning charge
air to the engine.
The recommended location for the coolant-temperature sensing fan control is sensing the engine outlet coolant
temperature. This can typically be done by locating the sensor in the coolant manifold which feeds the engine
thermostat, in the thermostat housing or piping between engine coolant outlet and the radiator. If the fan or
shutter control is located where it senses engine coolant inlet temperature rather than outlet temperature, the
sensor setting should be reduced 10 F (5 C) below the recommended setting.
Fan and Shutter Controls for Heavy-Duty Engines over 10 liter Displacement
Application
Fan On Temperatures
Shutter Opening Temperatures
Vehicle with Ram Air
Coolant = 205 F (96 C)
Coolant = 185 F (85 C)
Intake Manifold Air = 150 F (65 C)
Vehicle with No Ram Air
Coolant = 200 F (96 C)
Coolant = 185 F (85 C)
Intake Manifold Air = 160 F (71 C) Intake Manifold Air = 150 F (65 C)

Fan and Shutter Controls for Medium-Duty Engines under 10 liter Displacement
Application
Fan On Temperatures
Shutter Opening Temperatures
Vehicle with Ram Air
Coolant = 200 F (96 C)
Coolant = 185 F (85 C)
Intake Manifold Air = 150 F (65 C)
Vehicle with No Ram Air
Coolant = 200 F (96 C)
Coolant = 185 F (85 C)
Intake Manifold Air = 160 F (71 C) Intake Manifold Air = 150 F (65 C)
Fan and Shutter Controls for Alternative Fuel Engines
Application
Fan On Temperatures
Shutter Opening Temperatures
All Vehicles without Shutters
Coolant = 200 F (96 C)
N/A
Intake Manifold Air = 130 F (54 C)
All Vehicles with Shutters
Coolant = 200 F (93 C)
Coolant = 185 F (85 C)
Intake Manifold Air = 130 F (54 C) Intake Manifold Air = 120 F (49 C)
Figure 12. Fan and Shutter Control Recommendations
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 19 of 33

High Coolant Temperature Alarm


Cummins requires that the vehicle have an audible and/or visible high coolant temperature alarm to alert the
operator of high coolant temperature. This alarm must activate at the Coolant Alarm Activation Temperature on
the Engine Data Sheet, within normal sensor variability. Electronically controlled engines with an active engine
protection system meet this requirement with the Warning light.

Cold Weather Operation


Common modifications to the cooling system to adapt to cold weather are the installation of block heaters, oil
sump heaters, radiator shutters, winterfronts or on-off fan drives. These devices are generally used to maintain
a high enough engine coolant temperature to warm the cab sufficiently.
Engine block heaters come in two basic types, installed in the engine block or remotely mounted and plumbed
to the engine. Immersion-type block heaters and oil sump heaters are optionally available on all engine models.
Consult the block heater manufacturer for guidance on plumbing remote-mounted block heaters, such as Kim
Hotstarts to Cummins engines.
Radiator shutters and winterfronts are used to raise coolant temperature in cold weather to improve cab heating
and engine performance. The required controls for shutters are discussed in the Fan and Shutter Controls
section above. Winterfronts which fully close over the cooling system can cause engine damage by eliminating
airflow through the charge air cooler, causing excessive intake manifold air temperatures.
Cummins requires that winterfronts have a minimum open area of at least the value on the Engine Data Sheet.
This open area must be in front of the charge air cooler. If the vehicle uses viscous-type fan clutches, some of
this open area should be located in front of the viscous clutch to allow the clutch to sense ambient air
temperature and prevent excessive fan operation.
New-generation winterfronts are being developed which provide an even distribution of airflow over the charge
air cooler core to increase charge air cooler durability. These winterfronts equalize the exposure of each charge
air cooler tube to airflow to provide more uniform temperature distribution over the cooler core. This is obtained
by the use of full length opening strips that are perpendicular to the cooler tubes. See Figure 13. Additional
information on this topic is available from The Maintenance Council (TMC), Recommended Practice (RP)
CHARGE AIR COOLER WINTERFRONT APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN GUIDELINES. Cummins encourages
the use of these winterfronts to increase charge air cooler durability.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 20 of 33

Figure 13.

Winterfront

CAC Tubes

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 21 of 33

Preparation for Cooling System Testing - Chassis Dyno or On-Road


This procedure outlines the preparations necessary for a cooling test either on a chassis dyno or on-road. The
required instrumentation listed is the minimum necessary for evaluating whether the vehicle cooling system
meets Cummins requirements. Optional extra instrumentation is listed which allows a measurement of engine
heat rejection to coolant and measurement of other parameters such as intake and exhaust restrictions which
are commonly done in conjunction with the cooling test.
Equipment Required:
1. Means of absorbing full engine power at a variety of engine speeds. Typically this is a driveline
dynamometer (Go-Power type) or chassis dynamometer or a long, sustained uphill grade for road testing.
2. Means of delivering airflow to the vehicle at a controlled ambient temperature. For chassis dyno testing, this
is typically a wind tunnel with ducting to allow some cell air to be released and replaced with ambient air
from outside the tunnel to control cell ambient temperature. The required air velocity over the vehicle
depends on the Ram Air speed specification for the test. This ram air speed is listed on the Engine Data
Sheet or the appropriate AEB for the application (see Figure 4 in the recommendations).
3. Thermocouples and data logging device. 18 thermocouples must read up to 300 F (150 C), one up to 500
F, 260 C (turbo-compressor outlet temp), and one up to 1200 F, 650 C (exhaust temperature). The
exhaust temperature measurement is optional.
4. Six pressure transducers with means to read them, or a mixture of pressure gauges and manometers.
Three of these must read in the 0-50 psi range (0-350 kPa), one must read differential pressure in the 0 5 In Hg (0-70 in H20 or 0-20 kPa) range, one up to 20 in H20 (5 kPa) and one up to 60 in H20 (15 kPa). The
last three measurements can be taken with manometers rather than gauges.
5. A means of reading engine speed and ram air speed (or road speed). Driveline speed readings are also
needed if transmission cooler sizing is being evaluated during automatic transmission testing.
6. A means of controlling the engine throttle. This is typically done remotely during chassis dyno testing using
a throttle actuation system. Generally, testing is done at full throttle, but it is desirable to be able to actuate
the throttle over a range during warmup and cooldown of the engine.
7. A means of measuring the rate of fuel consumption by the engine. This can be done with a continuous
reading device, such as a Flo-tron type of positive displacement meter, or a fuel scales on which the time to
burn a measured weight of fuel is determined. The cell fuel system also must include a means of cooling the
fuel returning from the engine in order to keep the temperature of the fuel supplied to the engine stable. Fuel
consumption rate is not typically measured during on-road cooling tests.
8. A coolant flowmeter sized for the maximum coolant flow for the engine model being tested is needed if
engine heat rejection measurements are desired.
Installing Thermocouples
All thermocouples must be installed with the sensing tip in the fluid being measured, not touching any metallic
surface. Figure A describes how to avoid common instrumentation errors which can produce erroneous
pressure readings.
Double thermocouples are commonly installed in some of the key temperature measurements so that a cooling
test will not be scrapped by the failure of one thermocouple. Multiple thermocouples also provide the opportunity
to average the readings to obtain more accuracy.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 22 of 33

Figure A. Locating Pressure Taps


The first four thermocouple channels listed below are the most important to the test results, so it is important
that the thermocouples used in these channels are closely matched. Improved accuracy for these channels can
be obtained by using matched sets of thermocouples, either obtained from the supplier or calibrated by
immersing a group of thermocouples in an isothermal fluid bath and selecting a group of four thermocouples
which read the most closely together.
1. Engine Outlet Coolant Temperature (or Top Tank Temperature) - Install between the engine water outlet
and radiator inlet in the coolant piping as close to the engine as possible. Double thermocouples are
commonly installed in this location.
2. Ambient Temperature - This is installed in the air outlet duct of the wind tunnel for chassis dynamometer
testing. This should not be attached to the vehicle grille or radiator to avoid heating effects due to radiation
or recirculation. For on-road testing, this should be located on the outside of the vehicle at least 3 feet
(1 meter) upstream of the engine compartment, away from the vehicle exhaust system and shielded from
direct sunlight. Double thermocouples are commonly installed in this location.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 23 of 33
3. Engine Inlet Coolant Temperature (or Bottom Tank Temperature) - Install between the radiator outlet and
engine water inlet connection, as close to the engine as possible. This measurement is only needed if
engine heat rejection measurements are desired during the cooling test. When testing a vehicle with an
automatic transmission ( with a transmission oil to engine coolant heat exchanger) and calculating coolant
heat rejection , it is important to understand if the heat load from the automatic transmission is included in
the calculation. The placement of the thermocouple in the lower cooling system pipe (radiator outlet to
engine water pump inlet) will determine if the heat load from the transmission is included in the heat
rejection calculation.
If the thermocouple is located in the lower radiator pipe between the coolant returning from the transmission
heat exchanger and the water pump inlet, then the heat load from the transmission WILL BE included in the
calculation. If the thermocouple is located in the lower radiator pipe between the radiator outlet and the
coolant returning from the transmission heat exchanger, the heat load WILL NOT included in the
calculation. The heat rejection will be the engine only.
4. Engine Intake Manifold Air Temperature - Install in the engine intake manifold or elbow attached to the
manifold to read the temperature of the air as it enters the manifold. Avoid locating this measurement further
into the manifold as the air is heated by the hot intake manifold metal as it travels through the manifold.
Figure B shows an example of a good location.
5. Engine Compartment Temperature - Install this to measure the temperature of the air exiting the fan blades.
This is commonly attached to the engine lifting bracket at the front of the engine. This measurement needs
to be located away from the exhaust manifold to avoid false heating.
6. Recirculation Temperatures (4 corners of cooling package) - When a sucker fan is running, it sucks air
through the heat exchangers and pushes this air back through the engine compartment. This pressurizes
the engine compartment, causing the air to exit in any direction it can. The hot engine compartment air will
curl around the sides of the heat exchanger package and enter the front if allowed to do so. This
recirculation of hot air degrades cooling performance. These four thermocouples should be located to
intercept any flow of hot air from the engine compartment. These should be located in the four corners of the
heat exchanger package, in any open paths to the engine compartment or gaps between recirculation
baffles.
7. Engine Oil Temperature - The most expedient way to measure this is by wrapping a thermocouple around
the oil dipstick with the sensing tip protruding about 1 inch beyond the end of the stick. An alternative is
installing the thermocouple into a port on the side of the oil pan below the oil level, but this requires draining
and refilling the oil pan.
8. Air Entering Intake System - Install this thermocouple to the inlet grate of the vehicle intake system. This
reading will aid in interpretation of the intake heating reading taken at the turbocompressor inlet.
9. Air at Turbocompressor Inlet - Install into the intake elbow attached to the turbocharger inlet or as close to
the turbocharger inlet as possible.
10. Fuel Supply Temperature - Install the thermocouple into the fuel supply line as close to the engine as
possible. This temperature assists in controlling the fuel supply to the engine on a chassis dyno, but is
optional for road testing.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 24 of 33

(Do not use for


Intake M anifold
temperature)

Figure B. Example of Instrumentation Locations


11. Fuel Return Temperature - Install the thermocouple into the fuel return line as close to the engine as
possible if the engine heat rejection to fuel is desired. This reading is optional for both chassis dyno and onroad testing.
12. Turbo-Compressor Outlet Temperature - Install this thermocouple into the elbow attached to the engine
turbo-compressor outlet. It may be necessary to remove the elbow and tap a hole into the boss. This
reading will aid in evaluating the engine performance during the cooling test.
13. Exhaust Temperature (optional) - Install this thermocouple into the exhaust pipe as close to the
turbocharger as practical. This is commonly installed into the pyrometer port in the exhaust system.
14. Transmission Oil Temperature - Install this thermocouple into the transmission sump to monitor the
transmission oil during the test. For manual transmissions, this temperature should not exceed the
transmission manufacturers recommendations, generally 300 F (150 C). If testing an automatic
transmission, and transmission oil cooling is to be evaluated, thermocouples are needed in the transmission
sump, transmission oil outlet and in the oil entering and leaving the transmission cooler.
Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 25 of 33
15. Drive Axle Temperatures, Dyno Temperatures, other cell monitoring (optional) - When testing in a
dynamometer cell, other temperatures are often monitored to protect mechanical hardware.
16. In-cab ventilation duct temperature - In the outlet of a ventilation duct in the cab to monitor the cooling
performance of the air conditioner.
Installing Pressure Taps
These pressures are commonly read using pressure transducers, differential pressure transducers and
manometers when testing in a dynamometer cell, and with gauges and manometers when testing on-road.
1. Coolant Pressure (Block Pressure) - Measure coolant pressure anywhere on the engine block between the
water pump discharge and thermostat inlet, avoiding the water pump inlet. This pressure gives an indication
of whether the water pump is pumping coolant.
2. Engine Oil Pressure - Measure oil pressure in the oil rifle or oil cooler inlet, whichever is most convenient.
This measurement is intended to indicate if a loss in oil pressure occurs so the test can be aborted.
3. Turbo Compressor Outlet Pressure - Install into the turbo compressor outlet elbow, using the tap opposite
the one used for the temperature measurement. Do not install the temperature and pressure
measurements into a common tee. This pressure measurement indicates whether the engine
turbocharger is acting correctly.
4. Intake Restriction (optional) - Measure this with a tap in the intake elbow at the turbo- compressor inlet or
immediately upstream. Do not install the temperature and pressure measurements into a common tee.
This measurement will be generally less than 15 inches of water, so a manometer is often used.
5. Exhaust Restriction (optional) - Measure this through a tap in the exhaust pipe at least one pipe diameter
downstream of the turbocharger. The exhaust pyrometer port is often used for this measurement. This
reading will be in the 30-50 inches of water range, so a manometer is often used.
6. Charge Air System Pressure Drop - Measure this with pressure taps in the turbo-compressor outlet elbow
and engine intake manifold. It is acceptable to tee this pressure reading with the turbo compressor outlet
pressure reading described above. The pressure reading at the intake manifold should be taken using a
different port than that used for the intake manifold temperature reading. Do not install the temperature
and pressure measurements into a common tee. A manometer plumbed to read the differential pressure,
or a differential pressure transducer, is used to read this pressure. This pressure differential will be in the
range of 0-5 in Hg, 0-70 in H20 (0 - 20 kPa).
Other Measurements
Engine speed and ram air speed must be measured when testing on a chassis dyno. Engine speed and road
speed must be measured when testing on-road. If automatic transmissions are being tested, and a transmission
cooling evaluation is desired, driveline speed must be measured and transmission cooling system pressure drop
may also be needed.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 26 of 33

Cooling Test Procedure - Chassis Dyno


This procedure outlines the standard method of conducting a cooling system performance test in a
dynamometer test cell with all the equipment described in the Preparation for Cooling System Testing section
available. This procedure also includes the steps necessary to record intake and exhaust restriction and intake
system heating measurements, which are often done in conjunction with cooling system testing.
Test Method
1. Before starting the engine, check the coolant level in the surge tank or radiator and top up to the Full Cold
level with 50-50 water/ethylene glycol mixture if necessary. If the cooling system has just been drained and
filled (in order to install instrumentation) the system must be fully deaerated by warming the engine to
185-190 F ( 85 - 88 C) and running at governed engine speed at part throttle for 1 hour. After deaeration is
complete, allow the engine to cool and top up the coolant level if necessary.
2. The vehicle fan controls should be operating normally and a standard, functioning thermostat installed. It is
generally not necessary to block open the thermostat or lock on the cooling fan for chassis dyno testing as
long as a warm enough ambient, generally 90 - 110 F (32 -43 C), is available for testing.
3. Install the vehicle in the cell, install all instrumentation, and connect the dynamometer, exhaust system,
throttle actuator and fuel supply and drain. Turn the air conditioning system on to maximum (if equipped)
and open the windows of the vehicle so the air conditioning will run at maximum.
4. Set the ram air over the vehicle to the correct value based on the Engine Data Sheet or appropriate AEB
(see Figure 4 in the Recommendations).
5. If operating in a cell with ambient temperature control, set the tunnel ambient to 100 F (38 C).
6. Start the engine, idle for 30 seconds, then gradually increase engine speed and load until the engine is
running at full power at the highest engine speed test point listed on the Engine Data Sheet. Monitor the rate
of engine fuel consumption, which should be within 5% of the value on the Engine Data Sheet (see Fig 1,
line 22). If the engine fuel consumption is outside this range, the cell fuel system should be checked to
ensure it is providing fuel within the temperature and restriction limits of the engine. Fuel restriction limits are
listed on the Engine Data Sheet. The fuel supply temperature should be maintained within 5 F (3 C) of 104
F (40 C).
7. While the engine is warming up, note the engine outlet temperature at which the fan engages. The fan
should engage at a coolant outlet temperature at or below the Fan-On Coolant Temperature on the Engine
Data Sheet. If this is not the case, record this on the test data sheet.
8. After a period of running, the coolant temperature should stabilize at a maximum value with the fan running
continuously. If the coolant temperature is too low, the fan will cycle on and off and the temperature will not
stabilize. If this occurs, raise the ambient temperature in 5 degree F (3 C) steps until the fan remains on
continuously.
9. It is desirable for the coolant outlet temperature to stabilize in the 200 -210 F (93 - 99 C) range, but is
acceptable to be in the 195-215 F (90 - 102 C) range. If the coolant temperature is below this range, the
thermostat may not be allowing full flow to the radiator. If the coolant temperature is above this range, some
engine models may experience an engine power cutback due to the Engine Protection System in the engine
ECM.
10. If the coolant temperature is stabilizing outside the acceptable range, the ambient should be adjusted to
bring the coolant temperature into this range. An ambient temperature between 90 and 110 F (32 - 43 C)
is acceptable for cooling tests in a controlled ambient dynamometer test cell. An ambient between 70 and
120 F (21 - 49 C) is acceptable for cooling tests without ambient temperature control.
11. If the ambient is adjusted, this disturbs the stabilization of the cooling system, and the test must be
continued at least 20 minutes after the last ambient temperature change for the system to restabilize.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 27 of 33
12. As the temperatures in the cooling system begin to stabilize, record all the data channels at one minute
intervals. Stabilization is achieved when the engine outlet coolant temperature does not change more than 1
F (0.5 C) in 5 minutes.
13. Once the test is complete at the first test point, adjust the dynamometer loading to bring the engine speed to
the second test point and repeat steps 8-12 above.
14. If intake and exhaust restriction measurements are also being taken, these must be done at the engine
speed which produces the highest intake and exhaust airflow as listed on the Engine Data Sheet. If this
speed is different than that used for the cooling system testing, adjust the dynamometer loading to obtain
the desired engine speed while maintaining the engine at full power and take the readings.
Testing Vehicles with Automatic Transmissions
Many automatic transmissions will downshift as the engine is pulled down to the low speed cooling checkpoint,
preventing this rpm from being attained. Since this low speed checkpoint cannot be tested, this test rpm is
modified to a point just above the point at which the transmission will downshift. See AEB 95.04 Automatic
Transmission Cooling for details on how to determine the low speed checkpoint.
All engine cooling tests with automatic transmissions are done with the transmission in lockup mode (if the
transmission model has lockup). The only testing done with the torque converter slipping are transmission
cooling tests.
The performance of the transmission cooler is sometimes tested in addition to the engine cooling test. This
generally requires measuring the transmission oil sump and outlet temperature, and the pressure drop of the
transmission cooler and lines. Refer to the transmission manufacturer for details on transmission cooling
requirements and test procedures.
Measuring Viscous Fan Clutch Engagement Temperature
Since viscous fan clutches sense the air temperature exiting the heat exchangers rather than the engine coolant
temperature, testing is required to determine whether the fan engages at an engine coolant temperature which
meets our recommendations.
1. Adjust the dynamometer cell ambient temperature to 70- 90 F (21 - 32 C).
2. Run the engine at idle speed until the coolant temperature reaches 180-185 F (82 - 85 C). It is also
acceptable to begin this test with the engine at room temperature.
3. Adjust the ram air speed over the vehicle to the value on the Engine Data Sheet for the engine being tested.
4. Raise the engine speed and load rapidly to the Peak Power condition listed on the Engine Data Sheet.
5. Listen for the fan engagement and record the engine coolant outlet temperature at which it engages.
6. Allow the fan to cycle on and off a number of times and record the engine coolant outlet temperature when
the fan engages and disengages.
7. Repeat steps 2 - 6 to check repeatability.
The viscous fan clutch should engage the fan at a coolant outlet temperature no higher than the Fan - On
Coolant Temperature on the Engine Data Sheet. For optimum vehicle performance, the fan should not engage
at an engine coolant outlet temperature more than 10 F (5 C) below the Fan - On Coolant Temperature on the
Engine Data Sheet. A fan clutch which engages the fan at too low a coolant temperature causes excessive fan
running time with consequent increases in noise and parasitic power loss.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 28 of 33

Dynamometer Cooling Test Data Reduction


Record the measurements taken during the cooling test at the high speed checkpoint:
Stabilized Engine Coolant Outlet Temperature = ______________________ = ECOT
Ambient Temperature = _____________________ = Tamb
Stabilized Engine Intake Manifold Air Temperature = _____________________ = IMT
Measured Engine Fuel Consumption Rate = ________________________ = FRtest
Measured Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold = ________________
Record the Engine Data Sheet specifications at the high speed checkpoint:
Engine Out Coolant to Ambient ______________

Intake Manifold to Ambient ____________

Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold ______________
Nominal Fuel Consumption _____________ = FRspec

Calculations:
Measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = ECOT- Tamb = ______ - ______ = ______ = TTDtest
Measured Intake Manifold to Ambient = IMT - Tamb = _______ - _______ = _______
If the engine fuel consumption measured during the test (FRtest) is significantly different than the Nominal Fuel
Consumption on the Engine Data Sheet (FRspec), then the measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient
(TTDtest) can be projected to reflect the result if the engine was running at the nominal fuel rate:
Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient = TTDtest x

= ______ x = _______

Conclusion: the cooling system meets the requirements if:


The Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient __________ is less than or equal to the Engine Out Coolant to
Ambient specification __________ .
The Measured Intake Manifold to Ambient _________ is less than or equal to the Intake Manifold to Ambient
specification __________ .
The Measured Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold __________ is less than or equal to the
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold __________ .
Record the measurements taken during the cooling test at the low speed checkpoint:
Stabilized Engine Coolant Outlet Temperature = ______________________ = ECOT
Ambient Temperature = _____________________ = Tamb
Measured Engine Fuel Consumption Rate = ________________________ = FRtest

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 29 of 33
Record the Engine Data Sheet specifications at the low speed checkpoint:
Engine Out Coolant to Ambient ______________
Nominal Fuel Consumption _____________ = FRspec

Calculations:
Measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = ECOT- Tamb = ______ - ______ = ______ = TTDtest
If the engine fuel consumption measured during the test (FRtest) is significantly different than the Nominal Fuel
Consumption on the Engine Data Sheet (FRspec), then the measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient
(TTDtest) can be projected to reflect the result if the engine was running at the nominal fuel rate:
Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient = TTDtest x

= ______ x = _______

Conclusion: the cooling system meets the requirements if:


The Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient __________ is less than or equal to the Engine Out Coolant to
Ambient specification __________ .

Comments and other test observations:

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 30 of 33

Cooling Test Procedure - On Road


The test procedure for on-road testing generally follows that for chassis dyno testing, except for the adjustments
necessary due to the uncontrolled factors of the testing, such as ambient temperature, grade and altitude. The
only additional preparation work for an on-road grade climb test is loading the vehicle to the gross vehicle weight
rating so the correct road speed can be obtained.
The choice of test sites is important for on-road testing. The best test grade is a long, continuous uphill route
with a peak grade of at least 5%. The grade must be long enough so the engine can operate at full power for at
least 15 minutes. Since the minimum acceptable ambient temperature for on-road cooling testing is 70 F
(21 C), this will factor into the choice of location and season for testing. The altitude of both the bottom and top
of the test grade must be known or measured as part of the testing.
On-road testing with a towing dynamometer has some aspects of both a chassis dyno test and an on-road
grade climb. The test procedure above for chassis dyno testing should be used for towing dynamometer testing,
with the road speed for the tests determined as in step 4 of the on-road procedure below.
Test Method
1. Before starting the engine, check the coolant level in the surge tank or radiator and top up to the Full Cold
level with 50-50 water/ethylene glycol mixture if necessary. If the cooling system has just been drained and
filled (in order to install instrumentation) the system must be fully deaerated by warming the engine to 185190 F ( 85 - 88 C) and running at governed engine speed at part throttle for 1 hour. After deaeration is
complete, allow the engine to cool and top up the coolant level if necessary.
2. For on-road testing, it is generally necessary to install a blocked open thermostat to prevent thermostat
modulation from impacting the test results. If the vehicle uses an on-off type fan drive, this should be locked
on for the testing. Contact Cummins Application Engineering for assistance in blocking open a thermostat.
3. Connect all instrumentation to the data logging device. Drive the vehicle to the test site. Check for proper
functioning of the data logger and instrumentation during the drive to the test site. Stop at the bottom of the
test grade. Record the altitude at the bottom of the test grade. Turn the air conditioning system on to
maximum (if equipped) and open the windows of the vehicle so the air conditioning will run at maximum.
4. The vehicle speed to be used for the cooling test should be approximately the speed which the vehicle
would climb a 7% grade when loaded to maximum GCW. This can be determined using Cummins VEVMS
or VPE computer programs, Cummins PC Toolbox, Cummins CEA or the Allison SCAAN program.
5. Drive the vehicle up the hill, maintaining as close to the desired vehicle speed as possible. Choose a gear
which will run the engine at a speed within plus or minus 200 rpm of the high speed checkpoint listed on the
Engine Data Sheet. If the high speed checkpoint is the engine governed speed, then maintain an engine
speed of plus 50 to minus 300 rpm from the desired speed. This is necessary to prevent operating on the
engine governor, which will reduce engine power.
6. During the hill climb, the engine coolant outlet temperature will climb and reach a maximum, preferably
before the vehicle reaches the top of the grade. If the coolant temperature is still rising significantly, more
than 1 F per minute, when the vehicle crests the top of the grade, then the grade is not long enough for the
cooling system to stabilize. If this is the case, the cooling system can be preheated prior to the grade climb
by blocking the airflow to the cooling system off and raising the coolant temperature to the maximum
allowable coolant temperature prior to starting up the grade. This will speed stabilization of the system.
7. After a successful test at an engine speed near the high speed checkpoint, the test should be repeated at
an rpm near the low speed cooling checkpoint on the Engine Data Sheet. The actual rpm during the test
should be within plus or minus 200 rpm of the desired speed. This can usually be done by using a higher
gear or using the vehicle brakes to reduce the engine speed during the test. If the vehicle uses an automatic
transmission, the low speed cooling checkpoint is modified as outlined in AEB 95.04.
8. The cooling test results are valid if the engine outlet coolant temperature stabilizes below 215 F (102 C),
the starting ambient temperature is at least 70 F (21 C), and the coolant temperature is not rising more
than 1 F (0.5 C) per minute at the end of the test.

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 31 of 33

On-Road Cooling Test Data Reduction


Record the measurements taken during the cooling test at the high speed checkpoint:
Stabilized Engine Coolant Outlet Temperature = ______________________ = ECOT

Average Ambient Temperature = __________ = Tamb

Stabilized Engine Intake Manifold Air Temperature = _____________________ = IMT

Average Altitude = ______________


Measured Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold = ________________
Record the Engine Data Sheet specifications at the high speed checkpoint:
Engine Out Coolant to Ambient ______________

Intake Manifold to Ambient ____________

Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold ______________
Calculations:
Measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = ECOT- Tamb = ______ - ______ = ______ = TTDtest
Measured Intake Manifold to Ambient = IMT - Tamb = _______ - _______ = _______ = IMTDtest
If the average altitude at which the cooling test is run is above 1000 feet (305 m), then the cooling test results
can be adjusted for the effects of altitude on the cooling system. The corrections are:
Adjusted Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = TTDtest -

(Average Altitude 500ft)


1000 ft

x 2.5 F = ______

Adjusted Intake Manifold to Ambient = IMTDtest -

(Average Altitude 500ft)


1000 ft

x 1 F = _________

Conclusion: the cooling system meets the requirements if:


The Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient __________ is less than or equal to the Engine Out Coolant to
Ambient specification __________ .
The Adjusted Intake Manifold to Ambient _________ is less than or equal to the Intake Manifold to Ambient
specification __________ .
The Measured Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold __________ is less than or equal to the
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop from Turbo Air Outlet to Intake Manifold __________ .
Record the measurements taken during the cooling test at the low speed checkpoint:
Stabilized Engine Coolant Outlet Temperature = ______________________ = ECOT
Ambient Temperature = _____________________ = Tamb

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 32 of 33
Record the Engine Data Sheet specifications at the low speed checkpoint:
Engine Out Coolant to Ambient ______________

Calculations:
Measured Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = ECOT- Tamb = ______ - ______ = ______ = TTDtest
If the average altitude at which the cooling test is run is above 1000 feet (305 m), then the cooling test results
can be adjusted for the effects of altitude on the cooling system. The corrections are:
Adjusted Engine Outlet Coolant to Ambient = TTDtest -

(Average Altitude 500ft)


1000 ft
x 2.5 F = _______

Conclusion: the cooling system meets the requirements if:


The Adjusted Engine Coolant Outlet to Ambient __________ is less than or equal to the Engine Out Coolant to
Ambient specification __________ .

Cummins Confidential

AEB 21.38
Page 33 of 33
Change Log
Date

Author

Mar, 2006

R McCoy

Ownership of AEB changed to Doug Pulskamp;


Corrected formulas.

Jul, 2001

R McCoy

Fan and Shutter Controls for Alternative Fuel Engines.

Apr, 2001

R McCoy

Fan Drive Systems Amended regarding hydraulic systems.

Mar, 2001

R McCoy

Name Recommendations changed to Requirements.

Feb, 2001

R McCoy

Engine Inlet Coolant Temperature (or Bottom Tank Temperature).

23

Oct, 2000

R McCoy

Formula for TCOH edited;

Cooling Standards Reference Table for HD Engines.

Changes in this revision refer to winterfronts and addition of


Figure 13.

19

Nov, 1999

R McCoy

Description

Page(s)

Cummins Confidential

1
32-33
18
13/14