Applied Failure Analysis

Service Training Meeting Guide 010

September 2000





Service, service support and administrative staff personnel who understand the basic principles of
failure analysis, and who are or may be involved in determining root causes of anti-friction bearing

This presentation describes function, structure, operation, normal wear, abnormal wear and fractures,
parts problems and some root causes of anti-friction bearing failures.

After learning the information in this presentation, the student will be able to:
1. describe functions of anti-friction bearings;
2. describe structural difference between, and correctly identify the different types of Caterpillar antifriction bearings;
3. describe the principle types of loading that anti-friction bearings experience during operation;
4. identify road signs of high temperatures, misalignment, impact damage, and corrosion on antifriction bearings and list possible root causes;
5. identify common manufacturing or installation problems of anti-friction bearings.

Anti-friction Bearings Applied Failure Analysis Reference Book
Anti-friction Bearings Applied Failure Analysis Self-Paced Instruction CD-ROM


AFA STMG 013 Failure Analysis Management
AFA STMG 017 Basic Metallurgy
AFA STMG 014 Principles of Fractures
AFA STMG 015 Principles of Wear

Estimated Time: 3 1/2 Hours
Visuals: 150 electronic images
Student Handout: 1 - Lab Worksheet
Form: SESV8010
Date: 4/2000

© 2000 Caterpillar Inc.



INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................5
FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................................11
LOADS .................................................................................................................................12
MANUFACTURE ................................................................................................................26
OPERATION ........................................................................................................................47
Ball Bearings...................................................................................................................49
Cylindrical Roller Bearings ............................................................................................53
Tapered Roller Bearings .................................................................................................55
PROBLEMS .........................................................................................................................63
Contact Stress Fatigue.....................................................................................................66
Plastic Yielding ...............................................................................................................79
Adhesive Wear ..............................................................................................................100
Abrasive Wear...............................................................................................................102
Fretting Corrosion and Creep........................................................................................111
Electrical Pitting and Fluting ........................................................................................118
Handling and Installation Damage................................................................................122
Bearing Problems..........................................................................................................150
SLIDE LIST........................................................................................................................155
STUDENT HANDOUT......................................................................................................158


sometimes also known as rolling element bearings. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 -5- 1 INTRODUCTION • Failure Analysis of Anti-friction Bearings This presentation covers applied failure analysis of anti-friction bearings.

properly installed and operated will then be covered.Failure analysis of anti-friction bearings This presentation will first look at the nomenclature. Bearing problems will also be discussed as well as the facts and "road signs" to look for that lead to the root causes of bearing failures. How the bearings are manufactured. function and loading of anti-friction bearings.Manufacture . .Operation .Nomenclature .Function .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 -6- 2 • Anti-friction bearings presentation .Installation .Loads .

ball and roller.Ball bearings may be radial and/or angular contact .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 -7- 3 • Anti-friction bearings include ball and roller . Within these categories.Roller bearings may be cylindrical. spherical. tapered. the major types found in Caterpillar products are: Ball . or thrust There are two general categories of anti-friction bearings -.radial contact .angular contact Roller - cylindrical (straight) tapered spherical thrust .Major types used in Caterpillar products .

Inner ring I. Cage D. Ring Faces . C. Cage E. D. Outer ring raceway B.D.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 -8- 4 NOMENCLATURE • Ball bearing nomenclature A. Outer ring O. Ring faces H. Outer ring The basic nomenclature of a ball bearing is shown here: A. Inner ring (race) H. (Outside Diameter) surface D. Outer ring O. Inner ring I. D. Outer ring raceway C. Inner ring E. G. Inner ring raceway I. Outer ring (race) B. Inner ring raceway F. Balls F. (Inside Diameter) or bore surface I.D. Balls G.

Outer ring O. D. Rollers G. Inner ring I. Ring faces H. Cage D. Rollers F. surface D. Ring faces J. Outer ring raceway B. Ribs I. Cage E. Outer ring (race) B. G. D. D. Inner ring (race) H. or bore surface J. Outer ring O. Inner ring raceway I. Inner ring raceway F. Inner ring I. Inner ring E. D. Outer ring raceway C. Ribs . C. Outer ring The nomenclature of a cylindrical roller bearing is shown here: A.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 -9- 5 • Cylindrical roller bearing nomenclature A.

Cone back face N. Cup (outer ring or race) Cup raceway Cup O. Cup back face F. Cup O. surface Front face of cup Back face of cup Cage Rollers Cone (inner ring or race) Cone raceway Cone I. Cone back face rib The basic nomenclature of a tapered roller bearing is shown here: A. Rib on front face of cone M. Cone I. D. H. Rollers H. Cone front face rib M. Cup raceway C. Cone front face L. C. Cup B. B.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . K. K. or bore surface Front face of cone L. Cone raceway J. D. G. Cage G. F. D. Cup front face E.10 - 6 • Tapered roller bearing nomenclature A. Cone I. D. D. E. J. Back face of cone N. D. Rib on back face of cone . I.

. Carry radial and/or thrust loads.Minimize friction .11 - 7 FUNCTIONS • Anti-friction bearing functions: .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Carry radial and thrust loads . Support and maintain alignment of shafts and housings while allowing rotation with minimum friction.Maintain alignment 2.Support shafts and housings Anti-friction bearings have two primary functions: 1. .

Hydraulic forces .Thrust loads .12 - 8 • Anti-friction bearing loads .Clutch engagement . chains. weight of parts on vertical shafts.such as belts.Etc Thrust loads (illustrated by the arrow pointing left) result from engagement forces of clutches.Radial loads . forces from wheels when machines turn corners. .Part weight load LOADS Radial loads (illustrated here by the arrow pointing down) generally result from the weight of parts supported by the bearings and loads on shafts required to transmit power -. . unbalanced hydraulic forces in line with shafts.Vertical mounting .Helical gear forces . etc.Operating loads . helical gear forces.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . etc.Cornering . gear drives.

This type bearing is essentially a radial load carrier with limited thrust load capability.Single row is most common type . or `non-loading groove' type) is the most commonly used ball bearing. . Therefore proper bearing seating is necessary to avoid abnormally high thrust loads.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . `conrad'.Radial load carrier .Limited thrust capability .13 - 9 • Ball bearings .Properly seated bearing is essential The single row radial contact bearing (also called `deep groove'.

Radial and thrust loads . These bearings can take thrust in both directions and provide precise axial shaft positioning. when mounted in opposing pairs. The ring sides opposite the thrust shoulders are only high enough to make the bearing non-separable.14 - 10 • Single row angular contact bearings (left) . However. . Thrust can be taken in one direction only by these bearings. Double row angular contact bearings (shown on the right) are basically two single row bearings built as a unit. single row angular contact bearings can carry thrust in both directions. The outer ring will have the thrust shoulder on one side and the inner ring will have the shoulder on the opposite side.High thrust shoulders -Thrust in one direction only .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . These bearings are also used where precise axial positioning of a shaft is required.Precise axial positioning . Angular contact bearings can be identified by high thrust shoulders on the rings.Opposing pairs carry thrust in both directions • Double row angular bearings (right) for thrust and positioning Single row angular contact bearings (shown on the left in this illustration) are designed for radial and considerable thrust loads.

The split inner race makes it possible to have high thrust shoulders on both sides of the races and also be able to assemble more balls in the bearing. . These bearings are capable of taking thrust loads in both directions. sometimes used in applications that require accurate axial positioning.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . is called a split inner race bearing.15 - 11 • Split inner race bearings .More balls in bearing Another type of ball bearing.Accurate axial positioning .Thrust loads in both directions .

these bearings are not generally used to carry heavy thrust loads. Although capable of handling some thrust. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .16 - 12 • Roller bearings carry higher radial loads than ball bearing Roller bearings have higher radial load carrying capacities than ball bearings of the same envelope size. • Cylindrical bearings carry high radial and low thrust loads Cylindrical or `straight' roller bearings have the capacity to withstand high radial loads.

Used where radial size must be minimal The cage and roller assembly pictured is a type of needle bearing sometimes used to support power shift transmission planet gears. These bearings are used for radial loads on shafts where radial dimensions must be kept minimal. .17 - 13 • Needle bearings .Have greater than 4:1 length to width ratio A needle bearing is a special type of cylindrical roller bearing that has rollers with a length to width ratio of greater than 4:1. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Used in transmission planet gears .

which will be reviewed later. hardened steel cup . formed by drawing a relatively thin hardened steel cup around the rollers. The unique feature is the outer raceway. Drawn cup bearings need special care during installation.Outer raceway is a thin.18 - 14 • Drawn cup bearings .Special care during assembly Another type of needle bearing is called a drawn cup bearing. (Photo courtesy of The Torrington Company) .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Good radial and thrust load carrier . .Precise axial positioning . The design of the rollers and raceways form an angle with the shaft axis.Single row carries thrust in one direction only Tapered roller bearings are especially suited for carrying both radial and thrust loads. A single row tapered roller bearing can carry thrust loads in one direction only and is therefore usually adjusted toward another bearing on the same shaft capable of carrying thrust loads in the opposite direction.19 - 15 • Tapered roller bearings .Rollers and raceways form angle . Tapered roller bearings are also useful for maintaining precise axial positioning of shafts and housings.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

20 - 16 • Double row bearings carry radial and thrust in both directions The double row tapered roller bearing can support thrust loads from either side as well as radial loads. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Self aligning . In addition to radial loads.Tolerate misalignment . .21 - 17 • Spherical Roller Bearings . and as such can withstand some shaft or housing misalignment.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . this type bearing can carry thrust loads from either direction.Carry thrust loads in both directions Spherical roller bearings are self-aligning.

as the name implies.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .22 - 18 • Roller thrust bearings only carry thrust loads Roller thrust bearings are designed to carry pure thrust loads.

Evenly spaced rolling elements . . brass.Maintain roller alignment • Multiple cage types Most anti-friction bearings incorporate cages to keep the rolling elements evenly spaced. Additionally. and slide causing adhesive wear and premature failure. stamped.Equal load distribution . If allowed to run free.23 - 19 • Cage functions . cages keep cylindrical rollers in line with the shaft. resulting in equal load distribution amongst the rolling elements and preventing the elements from rubbing against each other during operation. and electron beam welded. which is the type shown here.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . There are many different types of cages including riveted.Prevents contact . rollers could skew. stop rolling.

as it rotates through the load zone. . In angular contact bearings. In most applications. stresses are concentrated in the center of the raceways.Rotating ring High stress areas on ball bearings are indicated by the arrows on these illustrations. .Radial contact .Stationary ring .Angular contact . Load zones and resultant wear patterns will be reviewed later. subjected to radial plus significant thrust loads.24 - 20 • Ball bearing stress areas .Off center wear pattern The rotating ring will have stress all the way around its circumference. one ring rotates while the other ring is stationary.Load zone . the stationary ring will have constant stress only on the portion of its circumference that is in the direction of the load (called the "load zone"). In radial contact bearings subjected to radial only loads. Under these conditions. stresses will be off to one side of raceways and all the way around both rings.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Sliding . Tapered roller bearings will also experience bending.Inner raceways High stress areas on roller bearings are on inner and outer raceways and rollers where radial rolling contact forces are applied.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . This contact (called seating force) is what keeps the rollers aligned with the shaft. .Rollers . Normal stresses in cylindrical roller bearings will be all the way around the rotating raceway as it passes through the load zone and only part way around the stationary raceway (in the load zone).25 - 21 • Roller bearing stress areas .Outer raceways .Seating force . .Load zone .Bending .Compressive Stresses in tapered roller bearings with high thrust loads or pre-load will be all around both raceways.Cylindrical roller . and compressive forces due to contact between the back ribs of cones and the large ends of the rollers. sliding.Tapered roller .

Some are vacuum melted and most are vacuum degassed for maximum cleanliness. .26 - 22 MANUFACTURE • Anti-friction bearings are manufactured from quality steel and processes Anti-friction bearings are manufactured from top quality alloy bearing steels.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

.27 - 23 • Races are cut from tube stock or-forged Race blanks are either cut from tube stock (smaller bearings) or forged (larger bearings) from high quality steel and then machined to approximate dimension.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Soft core RC 25 40 core . The surface has been etched to highlight the case hardened depth.Visible case depth After machining.28 - 24 • Cylindrical and Tapered Roller Bearings . the races of cylindrical and tapered roller bearings are case hardened to RC 58 minimum and then ground to final dimension.Hard case RC 58 minimum .Case hardened . tougher core for increased impact load carrying capability. Case hardening gives raceway surfaces good resistance to wear and fatigue while maintaining a softer (RC 25 . This cross section is of a tapered roller bearing cone. . Tempering temperatures are approximately 190 to 200 degrees C (375 400 F).AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .40).

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .29 - 25 • Rollers are forged of high quality steel Rollers are forged (cold headed) from the same high quality steel as the races. This cylindrical roller is an example of cold heading. . before heat treat and grinding.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Finish ground Rollers are also case hardened (to RC 60 minimum) and then ground to final dimension.RC 60 case hardened . .30 - 26 • Rollers .

Hence no case depth can be seen on the ball and raceway cross sections shown here.Rollers and races through hardened .31 - 27 • Ball and spherical roller bearings have similar manufacture .No visible case depth Ball and spherical roller bearings are manufactured in a similar manner.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . except the raceways and rolling elements are through hardened.

5. 4. Be sure to order bearings from the Caterpillar parts system to avoid using standard bearings where "special" bearings are required.Removal/installation Using the correct anti-friction bearings for the application and correct procedures for removal and installation is very important. and to avoid damaging races. 6.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Proper tooling and procedures should be used to avoid excessive forces between races and rolling elements. General guidelines are as follows: 1."Clean" assembly . housings and shafts. Bearings. Bearing adjustments (if called for) must be accurate. The fit of bearings on shafts or in housing bores must be correct.Caterpillar parts . .Proper tools and procedures . shafts and housing bores must be clean and free of dirt or other debris. 3.Accurate bearing adjustment 2.32 - 28 REMOVAL/INSTALLATION • Removal/installation .Correct parts fit .Correct bearings . . Alignment of shafts and housings needs to be accurate.Parts alignment .

Therefore.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . cage design. internal clearances. No other bearing supplier is up to date on all these changes.Rolling element shape .Internal clearances .33 - 29 • "Special" and "standard" bearings . . "Special" bearings may look like "standard" bearings and may be marked by the manufacturer with similar bearing numbers.Design changes Caterpillar specifies "special" as well as "standard" bearings manufactured by suppliers. continual design changes improve and increase service life. etc. etc. shaft deflection. "Special" bearings are used where loads.Cage design . but will have different load carrying capabilities. Also."Special" bearings may have unique . call for unique rolling element shape."Special" bearing appearance and numbers . it is important to order bearings from the Caterpillar parts system to be sure of designed service life and to avoid premature failures.

PEDP8110) is available which discusses these differences. "Straight Talk about Caterpillar Anti-friction Bearings" (Form No. TEVN1412) explains the importance of using Caterpillar supplied bearings in Caterpillar products. In addition. discusses the differences between "standard" and "special" bearings. PEDP6124).34 - 30 • Various publications available on Caterpillar bearings An excellent video tape called "Caterpillar Anti-Friction Bearings" (Form No. . Also a booklet.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . a handout piece (Form No.

Dirt and debris can: .Create lose adjustment . it could cause a bearing race to be deformed or cocked resulting in out of roundness or misalignment. care must be taken to assure no dirt or other debris is present to cause premature wear or damage to rolling elements or raceways.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .35 - 31 • Anti-friction bearing Installation .Cause wear During installation. . If the debris is concentrated in one area of the circumference (illustration on the right). .Cock or deform races The debris could prevent bearings from seating properly (illustration on the left) and cause them to lose adjustment or positioning during operation. Equally important is avoiding debris or dirt from getting between bearing race faces and shaft or housing shoulders as is illustrated here.Prevent seating .

races should be pressed onto shafts or into housings straight and through only the race being mounted. The use of chisels. .Only press on the race being mounted • Some methods should be avoided Proper tooling and procedures are very important when removing and installing bearings. In general. punches.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Use a press where possible .36 - 32 • Proper tooling and procedures . and weld bead shrinking should be avoided where possible. flame cutting.

. This practice can cause chipping of ribs and/or denting (brinelling) of raceways and rolling elements that may lead to failure.Do not press or drive through rolling elements . i. These problems will be discussed later in this module.e.Chipping or denting may occur Bearings should not be pressed or driven through their rolling elements.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . removing or installing a race on a shaft or in housing by driving or pressing on the other race.37 - 33 • Incorrect procedures .

Use service manual and proper tooling Special care needs to be taken when pressing drawn cup needle bearings into bores since the cups are relatively thin and are easily damaged by mishandling. If service manual recommendations are not followed. Press only on the end of the bearing that has the bearing information stamped on it. Press only to a specified depth and not to an internal shoulder. cracking and subsequent failure can occur. Use proper tooling and procedures specified in the service manual.38 - 34 • Drawn cup needle bearing installation rules . (Photo courtesy of The Torrington Company) . General installation rules are: 1. cup distortion. 2.Press only on stamped end .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Press only to specified depth . 3.

or in ovens.39 - 35 • Heating or freezing bearings for easy installation .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Suspended in oil or oven . suspending in oil.Heating methods: . All these processes should be thermostatically controlled to avoid exceeding service manual specifications. Higher temperatures may soften bearings. . infrared lamps.Induction heaters .Infrared lamps .Thermostatically controlled methods avoid overheating Heating or freezing bearings for easier installation must also be correctly done. Bearings should be evenly heated with induction heaters.

40 - 36 • Open flame heating has uncontrolled temperatures Avoid heating bearings with an open flame such as a blowtorch because uneven and uncontrolled temperatures can result. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .41 - 37 • Freezing bearings for easy installation Sometimes freezing outer races is required for easier installation into housings. follow service manual instructions for proper freezing temperatures. Again.

Misalignment in any of these areas can cause uneven loading and result in early failure. and bearing seats also needs to be within certain tolerances. housings.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .42 - 38 • Parts alignment is critical to proper loading Alignment of shafts.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . split races.43 - 39 • Bearing fit .Loose fit bearings can move and increase clearances . Housing bores or shafts that are too tight can cause overload conditions that could split inner races or cause tight and subsequently hot running bearings. increase operating temperatures .Tight fit can overload.Machining can affect alignment and fit The fit of bearings on shafts and in housings should also be correct. Housing bores or shafts that are too loose can cause bearing races to move or turn in/on them (excessive "creep") resulting in abnormal wear and increased clearances. Improperly machined housing bores can cause misalignment or out of round bearing races and subsequent overloading of raceways and/or balls or rollers.

they are pressed slightly into the cup. bearing life may be reduced. Preload also minimizes radial and axial shaft motion in precision applications.Preload increases load capacity .Preload means tight fit at operating temperature ." Others are designed to operate with a certain amount of "preload. etc.44 - 40 • Tapered roller bearing fit can be adjusted Tapered roller bearings are usually adjusted with slotted nuts. • Design may be for "end play" or "preload" Some installations are designed to have "end play. ." .Preload minimizes radial and axial motion • Wrong adjustment shortens bearing life Preload means the cone and rollers are adjusted to where at operating temperatures. shim packs. If adjusted too tight or too loose.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Preload (illustration on the right) increases the capacity of the bearing by spreading the applied load over more rollers and over a larger portion of the fixed raceway compared to bearings adjusted with end play (illustration on the left).

45 - 41 • End play adjustment .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Rotate during adjustments and checks to seat bearings .Follow service manual instructions It is extremely important to rotate the shaft or housing while adjusting and checking end play on tapered roller bearing installations. If this step is not done. to be sure the bearings are properly seated. loose bearing adjustment sometimes results. . Again. service manual instructions should be closely followed to assure correct adjustment.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . To be safe.Use Operation and Maintenance Guide Once bearings are properly installed. use Operation and Maintenance Guide recommendations for correct lubricant quantity.46 - 42 • Lubricant . and type. and type for temperature control . viscosity. viscosity. Both under filling and over filling compartments can cause excessive temperatures and bearing damage.Use correct quantity. and type of oil or grease. churning may increase temperatures and reduce the viscosity of the oil at the bearing. it is also important to provide the correct quantity. viscosity. . Over filling can cause "churning".

applied loads. before oil films are established.070 MPa pressure on oil film between parts . rolling elements rotate fast enough to produce a thin oil film that separates rolling elements from raceway surfaces. may result after many.Oil film nearly becomes solid . Localized pressures can be as high as 2. During normal high speed operation.2. oil viscosity. Even if conditions are normal.070 MPa (300.High speed creates oil film thickness . anti-friction bearings do not have unlimited life. wear from fine debris or corrosive agents in the oil will be present. In addition to subsurface fatigue. subsurface fatigue cracking. and temperature. many hours of operation.000 psi) at the point where rolling elements are supported on the oil film.Limited life due to fatigue cracking OPERATION Normal operating conditions of bearings include factors such as oil film thickness. surface finishes. due to cyclic deflection.47 - 43 • Operation .Bearing surfaces deflect cyclically and elastically . For this reason. Wear on high hour bearings can also be caused by direct rolling element to raceway contact during start-up. . or in slower speed applications. At this highly localized pressure the oil film becomes almost solid and the surfaces of the raceways and rolling elements cyclically and elastically deflect or move during operation.Normal operating conditions .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Under these conditions.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . and reduce bearing life.48 - 44 • Slower speed operation . . the oil film may not be sufficient to keep race and rolling element surfaces completely apart. so normal service life in terms of hours of operation is achieved. contact other asperities.Reduced bearing life • Designed to give good service life This fact is taken into account in bearing design however.Asperity contact .Insufficient oil film In slower speed applications. . some asperities penetrate the oil film.

but is only on the load zone portion of the non-rotating outer raceway. This illustration is of a normal raceway wear pattern on a ball bearing that is radially loaded.Normal wear with radial loading . .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . In this application. the shaft (inner ring) is rotating while the housing (outer ring) is stationary.Outer raceway load zone Note.49 - 45 Ball Bearings • Ball bearing wear characteristics . outer race stationary Loads and resultant wear produce characteristic patterns on raceway surfaces.Inner race rotates.Inner raceway wear . The arrow indicates the direction of the load on the inner race. the wear is all around the center of the rotating inner raceway.

Outer raceway wear .50 - 46 • Ball bearing wear characteristics . Note that the wear is all around the center of the outer raceway and only on the load zone portion of the non-rotating inner raceway. Again.Typical wear pattern for rotating outer ring and stationary inner ring .Inner raceway load zone This wear pattern is typical for a ball bearing that operates with radial loads where the outer ring rotates and the inner ring is stationary.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . the arrow indicates the direction of the load on the inner race.

51 - 47 • Ball bearing thrust loading . . the raceway wear pattern will be similar to this illustration.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Single direction thrust wear • Thrust loads wear all around on one side If a ball bearing carries consistent thrust loads in one direction. Note: Pure thrust loads cause wear all the way around and toward one side on both raceways.

Stationary outer race wear pattern These raceways are from a ball bearing that was carrying both thrust and radial loads.52 - 48 • Ball bearing carrying thrust and radial loads . .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . The non-rotating outer raceway has a larger wear pattern (downward) in the direction of the radial load.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .Rotating raceways wear all around .53 - 49 Cylindrical Roller Bearings • Cylindrical roller bearings carry radial loads . The wear will normally be all around the rotating raceway surface and only partially around the stationary raceway in the load zone.Stationary raceways have load zones Cylindrical roller bearings are primarily designed to carry radial loads and will display normal wear patterns similar to ball bearings in radial applications.

Ribs and roller end wear is unusual Ribs and roller ends in cylindrical roller bearings usually have little if any wear unless subjected to significant thrust loads.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .54 - 50 • Cylindrical roller bearing .

The looser the adjustment and the lighter the thrust loads. .55 - 51 • Tapered roller bearing wear patterns .Adjustment and load determine wear pattern .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Loose adjustment or light load result in small wear area Tapered Roller Bearings Tapered roller bearing wear patterns will vary depending on the how tightly they are adjusted or how much thrust load they are required to carry. the more tendency for the stationary raceway to have wear on only a portion of its circumference.

56 - 52 • Tight adjustment or heavy load result in larger wear area The tighter the adjustment and the heavier the thrust loads.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . the more wear on the total circumference of the stationary raceway. .

heat discoloration. scuff. scuffing. .Normal loads cause wear .Abnormal loads can score. Contact between the large ends of the rollers and the ribs of tapered roller bearings may cause wear. however. displace metal and discolor Thrust loading tends to push the roller end faces into the ribs.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . etc. heavy scoring. would be abnormal. metal displacement.57 - 53 • Tapered roller bearing thrust loads affect roller ends and ribs .

if operation is normal. The circumferential scratches seen on the raceway surface are normal grinding marks that are made easily visible by side lighting and magnification. . This race is typical of a normal wear pattern on a tapered roller bearing cup.58 - 54 • Straight and tapered roller wear is uniform if normal operation • Normal wear pattern • Grinding marks can be seen with side light and magnification Whatever the preload or applied load.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . straight and tapered roller bearing wear should be relatively uniform across the raceway and roller surfaces.

rollers are sometimes designed with a special crown on the surfaces to prevent flattening. especially if the applied loads have been relatively light.59 - 55 • Highly loaded applications .Wear pattern centered on roller In highly loaded bearings or in applications with considerable shaft deflection.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . overloading and spalling of the ends of the rollers. .Crown rollers prevent overloading and spalling . These bearings may have a wear pattern that is concentrated more toward the middle of the roller surface.

Wear pattern centered in raceway Raceway wear patterns on lightly loaded crowned roller bearings may also be concentrated toward the middle. .60 - 56 • Lightly loaded applications .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Fretting corrosion or polishing from turning in the bore or on a shaft (a condition called "creep") is abnormal.61 - 57 • Back of races .Visible machining marks Backs of races should be free of fretting corrosion or polishing.No fretting corrosion or polishing . . The machining or grinding marks should still be visible on the surfaces.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Wear would indicate races have moved relative to shafts or housings. There should be no wear on these faces. .No wear Light staining from the edge of the housing or shaft may be present on the outer or inner ring faces.May have staining .62 - 58 • Race faces .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Contact stress fatigue (spalling) Plastic yielding Adhesive wear Abrasive wear Corrosion Fretting Corrosion and Creep Electrical pitting and fluting Handling and installation damage Fractures .Electrical pitting . 5.Contact stress fatigue (spalling) . 9.Plastic yielding Now that normal appearance of used bearings has been discussed some problems caused by abnormal operating conditions will be easier to identify. 2. 7. The most common types of bearing damage (not in order of priority) due to abnormal conditions are: . 4.63 - 59 PROBLEMS • Problems .Fractures 1. 8.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Adhesive wear . 3.Handling damage .Fretting Corrosion . 6.Abrasive wear .Corrosion .

spalling and/or plastic yielding and ultimate failure.One damage type may generate another . High loads and temperatures can disturb the oil film. with the secondary damage overlaid on top of the initial damage. 3.Investigate failure early . it may further generate other damage types on the same part surface. . there may be two or more types of damage present. at the time of investigation. It is desirable to investigate a failure in its earliest possible stages to most accurately determine the correct root cause. Be sure to consider all facts and possible conditions during analysis to eliminate preconceived ideas about the cause of failure. 2. When one damage type occurs.64 - 60 Key points to remember when analyzing bearing failures are as follows: • Failure analysis . cause abnormal wear.Eliminate preconceived ideas 1. Most abnormal conditions will eventually cause high loads and/or temperatures at raceways and rolling elements.Abnormal conditions create load and heat . 4.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . As such.Consider all facts .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Careful study of all the facts will be essential to determine the most probable root cause.Severe damage increases analysis difficulty If there is this much metal on the magnetic strainer in a system. chances are the damage has progressed to where it will be very difficult to determine the specific condition that started the failure (Root Cause).65 - 61 • Magnetic strainer . .

" In rolling contact stress fatigue.Subsurface fatigue . high rolling stresses cause cyclic flexing of rolling element and raceway surfaces. eventually breaking out large pieces of material."Spalling" If overloaded with enough cool oil to keep the bearing from softening due to high temperature.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . This surface movement initiates small fatigue cracks beneath the surface.Overload with oil .Cyclic flexing . These cracks can grow and progress upward. raceway and rolling element surfaces can prematurely fail due to "rolling contact stress fatigue. .66 - 62 Contact Stress Fatigue • Contact stress fatigue . creating a condition known as spalling.

. Excessive applied loads.Tight fit 4. Tapered housing bore or shaft.67 - 63 • Contact stress fatigue can result from . Out of round housing or shaft. Shaft too big or housing too small.Out of round 5. Misalignment. 9. including: 1. . . .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . . Tapered roller bearings adjusted too loose. .Loose adjustment 3.Lube 8.Tapered 6. Low viscosity lubrication. Etc.Loads There are many possible root causes of premature contact stress fatigue in rolling element bearings.Tight adjustment 2. . Tapered roller bearings adjusted too tight.Misalignment 7.

Damaged cage windows Correct adjustment of tapered roller bearings is essential.Wear and spalling occur . Raceways can also show more wear and spalling toward one face than the other.Fewer rollers carry the load .68 - 64 • Too loose . 2. this could result in: 1.Horizontal mounting will have .Off center roller and race wear .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Rollers can show more wear and spalling on one end than the other. wear and spalling can occur due to overload from not enough rollers taking the load. 3. If the bearing is adjusted too loose (too much end play). In horizontal shaft applications (primarily radial load).Small wear area on stationary race . . Wear and spalling all around the rotating raceway but only on a small portion of the stationary raceway. Cage windows on bearings on either end of the shaft may show lipping and an "hour glass" wear pattern.

that the rollers were not contacting the raceway surface across its entire width.Spalling not in normal wear location This stationary cup was overloaded due to loss of adjustment of the bearing (too much end play). The bearing had so much end play.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Narrow spalled area .Too much end play . Note the narrow area of spalling.69 - 65 • Too loose . .

bolts loosening.Roller alignment problems . The rollers were not held in line by correct adjustment and seating force against the cone back face rib. stop rolling. retaining nuts backing off. In addition. Also note the lipping (rolling up of a burr) and the "hour glass" wear pattern on the cage windows (window is slightly wider toward the ends of the rollers than in the middle). This wear pattern occurs when the rollers are allowed to skew and rub with greater than normal force against the cage windows.70 - 66 • Too loose .Tapered rollers spalled on the end . At this point.Cage window lipping and "hour glass" wear .Check other bearings . etc. Once the cage window struts fail.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . rollers can skew even more. and result in extensive bearing damage. the rollers in this cone have also worn sharp notches at the cage window corners.? . misalignment from too much end play. Was the bearing incorrectly adjusted when installed or become loose during operation due to conditions such as debris behind races. determine why the bearing had too much end play. Too much end play could also affect the bearing at the other end of the shaft in the same way.Determine reason for excess end play These tapered rollers are from the same bearing and are spalled on the small ends of the rollers indicating.Window notches are abnormal stress raisers . abnormal wear from dirt or other debris in the lubricant. These abnormal stress raisers can cause fatigue fractures of the cage window struts.

and failure.71 - 67 • Too tight . .Large wear and/or spalling area . rolling elements and raceways can be overloaded in thrust causing premature fatigue of their surfaces. 2) Rollers and raceways are worn/spalled evenly across the surfaces from face to face.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . spalling.Excess preload overloads in thrust If preload is too tight.Wear/spalling evenly across contact surfaces 1) Spalling/wear over a large portion of the circumferences of both the rotating and stationary raceways. Road signs of this condition on horizontal shaft applications include: • Road signs .

Deep wear location . This pattern can be found completely around the circumference of the cup. Note the even spall pattern on this stationary cup.Spalling increases end play and can cause misalignment This road sign indicates that after the tight or highly thrust loaded bearing spalled the thrust loads pushed the cone and rollers to this depth. . . unloading the bearings on both ends of the shaft and causing some shaft misalignment as evidenced by the heavier wear pattern and "grooving" toward the front face of the cup.72 - 68 • Typical road signs of excess thrust loads .Wear all around cup This tapered roller bearing cup has typical road signs indicating it had excessive thrust loads applied possibly from being adjusted too tight.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Cone moved in as spalling occurred This particular raceway also shows wear/spalling extending all the way toward the back face of the cup indicating the cone was running very deep in the cup just prior to disassembly. Note that as spalling continued the end play increased. .

Note however. This type wear implies the rollers were allowed to skew and wear the cage windows (after the bearing loosened) due to increased clearances from the wear and spalling. If tight bearing adjustment is suspected.73 - 69 • Roller and cone spalling from tight fit • Cage windows indicate loose fit after spalling • Investigate all possible reasons for excess preload The rollers and cone show the same even spall pattern indicating these parts were also running tight at one time in their life and were overloaded. This condition was secondary to the too tight/too much thrust condition which happened first. Remember that not only tight adjustment but also excessive thrust loads. can overload tapered roller bearings and give similar road signs. Investigate all possible root causes before arriving at the most probable cause. or a shaft that is too big or a housing that is to small.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . the lipping and "hour glass" shaped wear in the cage windows. review adjustment procedures with the installing service technician.

2.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .68 and No. . Abnormal wear and/or spalling on the complete circumference of both the rotating and the stationary races. The appearance will be similar to the tapered roller bearing subjected to too much preload or thrust shown in slides No. road signs would be: 1. internal clearances can be reduced to the point where rolling elements and raceways are overloaded at operating temperatures.74 - 70 • Tight fitting bearings can become overloaded If shafts are too large or housings are too small. • Road signs will be similar to excess thrust or preload problems Assuming temperatures are controlled. Wear and/or spalling distributed evenly across the wear surfaces of the rollers and raceways.69.

. In this case the wear/spalling pattern on the race installed in or on the out of round part will show two or more load zones. stationary race.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Note the two load zones (top and bottom) on the outer.75 - 71 • Out of round parts will have two or more load zones • Load zones are at top and bottom Another dimensional problem that can reduce bearing life is if the shaft or housing is out of round. The illustration in this slide would indicate an out of round (oval) housing bore.


- 76 -


• Tapered parts can
over load bearings
• Road signs are
usually found on the
back side of bearings
- Heavier contact
- Heat discoloration
- Fretting corrosion

Tapered shafts or housing bores can also overload bearings. Road signs
can usually be found on the back of the bearing race mounted in or on the
tapered part.
As seen here, the contact pattern may be heavier where the race is tighter
(on the right in this example). The well defined (straight) line at the edge
of the heavier contact area may indicate there was actually a step in this
housing bore.
The bearing also shows heat discoloration in the heavier contact area.
The discoloration was caused by increased temperature due to reduced
rolling element to raceway clearances.

- Fatigue cracking

Although not present on this bearing, fretting corrosion or fatigue
cracking due to flexing where races are not adequately supported by
shafts or housings is possible.


- 77 -


• Misaligned parts
- Unusual wear
- Contact stress
- Wandering wear

Misalignment can also cause unusual wear, contact stress fatigue and
spalling. Misalignment of shafts or housings will normally cause
wear/spall patterns to wander from one face to the other on one or both
This tapered roller bearing raceway shows a wear pattern caused by a
shaft that was out of alignment due to loss of bearing support on the other
end. If allowed to run longer and if temperatures are not excessive, the
surface could eventually develop contact stress fatigue and spalling.


- 78 -


• Low oil viscosity
- Thin oil film allows
more asperity
- Rolling contact
stress fatigue and
spalling occur
- Axial fracture and
wear patterns

If oil viscosity is too low, the oil film may be too thin and result in more
asperity contact than normal. This condition can over load bearing
raceway and rolling element surfaces. If rolling elements continue to roll
(don't slide), and if temperatures are low enough for the steel to maintain
hardness, rolling contact stress fatigue cracking and spalling can occur.
These fatigue cracks and spall patterns will usually have an orientation
across the raceway, in-line with the shaft (axial orientation).

or high loads . High temperatures. high bearing loads. etc.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . etc. too thin.79 - 75 • Plastic yielding .Results from high temperature. oil quality (too thick.). insufficient oil film separating the surfaces or heavy loads that permanently deform bearing materials at normal temperatures can cause plastic yielding.Root causes include lube quantity. Root causes include oil quantity (not enough or too much oil or grease). insufficient oil film. . lube quality high loads Plastic Yielding Another type of damage found on anti-friction bearings is plastic yielding.

show heat discoloration. This 816 dozer differential pinion bearing failed when a plug worked out of the axle housing resulting in loss of oil to the bearing and other components.Pinion and bearing failed without oil If the root cause is quantity (no oil or grease). the bearing surfaces and surrounding components will usually be softened from high temperature.80 - 76 • Lack of lube shows heat discoloration and no cooked on oil . Note the heat discoloration and the absence of cooked or burned oil on the surfaces (dry look).AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . and will generally be rather dry looking with little burned or cooked on oil.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . cause adhesive wear and generate even more heat. stop turning. . skid. The rollers are softened as indicated by plastic yielding. The cage was deformed allowing the rollers to skew.81 - 77 • Cage and rollers show severe heat road signs The bearing cage and rollers also show signs of severe heat.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .82 - 78 • Closer view of rollers A closer look at some of the rollers shows the softening. and evidence of skewing. plastic yielding. .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . dry look (no cooked-on oil). adhesive wear. and a hot.83 - 79 • Pinion bearing cup with hot dry look The outer race also shows signs of heat discoloration. deposits from the melted cage.

84 - 80 • Look for signs of heat on other parts Another road sign to look for in lubrication caused failures is evidence of heat on seals. gears. shafts and other bearings in the same system. . This cup is from the bearing on the other end of the shaft and is temper colored indicating high temperature was present here also.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Soft bristle brush and mild solvent removes lacquer . Discoloration or temper oxide from excess heat will normally not be removed. Discoloration from oil lacquer will normally be removed with the crocus cloth.85 - 81 • Proper cleaning techniques . . proper cleaning is important to determine if the discoloration is really oxide deposits from excess heat or lacquer from oil residue and not necessarily a road sign of high temperature. Wash the bearing with a soft bristle brush in clean solvent.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . 2. 1. If the discoloration is still present after washing. rub the surface lightly with crocus cloth. If the discoloration is removed. The following method will usually help.Crocus cloth used lightly removes lacquer coloring NOTE: If a bearing is suspected to been hot. the deposit is probably lacquer and not temper oxides.

86 - 82 • Hot.Bearing closest to the heat source (gear) failed first This 910 pinion bearing also suffered from loss of oil.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . with much plastic yielding. The bearing nearest the highly loaded pinion gear failed first. Note the hot. dry look with plastic deformation . dry look. .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Temper colors mean small end of rollers were overloaded The bearing on the other end of the shaft also shows distress from no oil and from misalignment caused by lack of support of the failed bearing.87 - 83 • Other parts may also show distress . Notice the heat discolored band on the raceway near the front face of the cone where the small ends of the tapered rollers were carrying more than normal load with insufficient oil film. .

88 - 84 • All parts show signs of lack of lube. . The analyst now needs to determine why the oil was not present in sufficient quantity.Determine why there was insufficient lube The rollers also show evidence of high temperature due to inadequate lubrication and misalignment. All road signs suggest there was inadequate oil quantity in this case. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

(Ambient temperatures too high. Asperity contact can then accelerate wear and may further increase surface temperatures on rollers.Asperity contact increases wear and temperatures Bearings can also over heat and plastically yield due to factors other than no lubrication. cages. . surfaces can be softened resulting in plastic yielding.etc.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Usually caused by . 2) High operating temperatures. and ribs. wet look . raceways. Any of these conditions can cause more asperity contact than normal.High operating temperatures .misalignment -.High loads . 4) Rough surface finish.applied -.89 - 85 • Hot. namely: 1) Using oil with viscosity that is too low. 3) High loads -. oil quantity marginal.misadjustment -.Low viscosity oil .Rough surfaces . If heat is not controlled to below the tempering temperatures. too much oil or grease causing churning.

90 - 86 • Asperity contact roughens and cracks part surface Failures caused by too much asperity contact usually start with roughening and fine axial cracking of surfaces as seen on the right of this spherical roller bearing raceway. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

some lipping (rolling up of a burr) can occur on edges of the relatively soft cage windows that rolling elements rub against. however. .91 - 87 • Cage windows damage Also. the cage windows will usually not be worn to an "hour glass" shape. unless bearing adjustment is lost or is set too loose allowing rollers to skew and wobble.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . In this case.

Next. as seen on these rollers. The glazed surfaces may also show some heat discoloration if surface temperatures have been high. small pieces may begin to pull out of rolling element and/or raceway surfaces forming pits. These pits may have a "frosted" appearance. Frosting can then progress to spalling as is seen on some portions of these roller surfaces. • Spalling will occur next. .92 - 88 • Glazed appearance on rollers and races • Material pull out on rolling elements Rolling elements and raceways may also appear glazed from plastic roll down (flattening of asperities) and polishing (burnishing) of a very thin surface layer.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

etc.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 ..93 - 89 • Worn or broken cages lose control of the rollers If cages wear or break. skew. In this case. plastic yielding and discoloration can occur. rollers may get out of line. begin to slide instead of roll. . generating enough heat to soften rollers and raceways.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . cooked or carbonized oil deposited. Burned or carbonized oil is evidence that there was oil at the bearing. . with burned. the bearing and surrounding surfaces may also appear discolored and damp. but the heat generated was too great for the oil to control.94 - 90 • Typical hot. wet look with cooked on oil If substantial heat is generated.

3. Gather as many background facts as possible. if the viscosity of the oil was too low due to: a. 2. incorrect dimensional fit. Immediate analysis of bearing failures is therefore very important. quantity. before arriving at the most probable root cause.. misadjustment. if the quantity of oil or grease supplied was marginal. There are many conditions that can give the same resultant damage in rolling element bearings. if the bearing oil film was disturbed or overloaded due to high applied loads. rough surface finish. . capability • Immediate failure analysis is important The challenge to the analyst when bearings have been hot (but not completely dry) is to determine: 1.viscosity . misalignment. or.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . such as oil quality. b. high operating temperatures (environment or too much oil or grease causing churning).quantity .. etc. operating temperatures. loading. use of the wrong oil.95 - 91 • Analysis challenge is to determine lube .


- 96 -


• Brinell marks are
dents caused by
excess load
• Forceful assembly
have grinding marks
in the dents

Another type of plastic yielding not usually accompanied by signs of high
temperature is called "brinelling." Brinell marks are dents on raceway
surfaces from excessive loads being transferred through the rolling
As mentioned earlier, brinelling can be caused during assembly by
forcefully driving one race into position through the other race and rolling
elements. Road signs are:
1) Dents all the way around raceways at the same spacing as the rolling
2) Grinding marks visible in the bottom of the dents.


- 97 -


• Wear pattern in the
bottom of the dents
- Shock loading did
not happen during
original assembly
- Damaged while
bearing was not
• Brinelling gives lube
an escape path

Another example of brinelling is shown here. Note the wear pattern in the
bottom of the dent is undisturbed. The rolling element actually dented the
surface, but did not rub or wear away the wear pattern that existed before
the brinell mark was formed.
This brinell mark did not occur during installation but after the bearing
operated for some time.
High shock loads applied (such as dropping a machine) while the bearing
is not rotating cause this condition.
If brinelling occurs after the machine has operated (and there has been
wear in the bearing), the wear marks will be visible in the bottom of the
dents instead of or in addition to the original grinding marks.
Brinelling can cause localized interruption of the oil film thickness, too
much surface contact and overload between raceways and rolling
Overloading can then progress to spalling, starting at the brinell marks.


- 98 -


• Bruises are dents
from large particles
- Hard particles
produce sharp
angled dents
- Soft particles
produce smooth
shallow dents
- Large particles may
cause the bearing to

Large particles in the lubricant, such as metal debris from a gear or
another bearing failure, can cause plastic yielding and surface or fragment
denting (called "bruising") of raceways and rolling elements. Hard
particles will produce sharp angular dents where softer particles will
produce smoother more shallow dents.
Large particles can also jam between rolling elements and raceway
surfaces causing bearings to "lock-up." When a bearing locks up relative
movement between the races and shafts or housing bores will occur.

. bruising can lead to spalling as seen in this tapered roller bearing cup.99 - 95 • Bruising leads to spalling If allowed to run long enough.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

without extreme plastic deformation. one way rollers can stop turning is if the cage is excessively worn or broken allowing rollers to skew and start skidding on raceways. As mentioned earlier. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . can occur on race and rolling element surfaces if there is sufficient cool oil or grease to control heat and if rollers stop turning and start sliding.100 - 96 Adhesive Wear • Adhesive wear can occur with adequate lube for cooling Adhesive wear.

101 - 97 • Typical surface adhesive wear • Lack of temper colors indicate oil was present • Analyst should determine what stopped the rollers These raceways are typical of the type of surface adhesive wear caused by this condition. This indicates there was enough oil to carry away much of the heat generated by the adhesive wear.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . The challenge when this condition exists is to determine why the rollers stopped turning or why the cage was worn or broken. Note the wear did not create excessive heat or soften the steel as there is little if any discoloration or gross plastic yielding.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .102 - 98 Abrasive Wear • Abrasive wear Abrasives such as dirt or sand in lube systems can also cause bearing failures.

The pitting is a result of the lapping action of the abrasive material. Note the matte or satin finish on the raceway due to fine pitting.103 - 99 • Fine abrasives create a matte or satin finish This bearing race had a considerable amount of fine abrasives present during operation.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . This same condition existed on the rollers and other raceway.

cause rollers or balls to slide generating adhesive wear.Increase end play . and/or cause races to move in housings or on shafts. and extensive damage. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . skewed rollers. Fatigue cracking and spalling can be due both to the abnormal stress raiser effect of the pit and the hydraulic force exerted by oil being forced into the pit during operation.Ball or roller sliding . bearings can lock up. cage fracture.Fatigue cracking and spalling If contamination is extensive. Severe contamination can also cause rolling element and raceway wear that can increase end play on tapered roller bearings (loose adjustment) which can result in abnormal cage wear. Severe pitting can lead to fatigue cracking and spalling of surfaces at high operating hours.Pitting .Bearing lockup .104 - 100 • Heavy contamination leads to: .

Look for the matte or satin finish discussed earlier on other bearings and gears lubricated by the same oil.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . Careful observation of other parts in the same lubrication system however. the root cause will be difficult to determine by looking at only the failed bearing. will generally give evidence of system contamination.105 - 101 • Look at other parts in the same lube system for road signs If abrasives cause bearings to progress to adhesive wear or spalling.

.Careful analysis finds the root cause If there is evidence of abrasive wear. etc.Use magnification and good lighting . Careful observation and consideration of all facts and possibilities are necessary to determine the exact root cause. failure to clean grease fittings. dirt entry through failed seals. If seals are failed. the analyst needs to determine the exact source of the abrasive material. determine whether the seal failed first contaminating the system or whether the bearing failed first causing shaft motion. contaminated grease. Using magnification to identify what type particle caused the wear is a good practice.Debris can be builtin or enter later .106 - 102 • Abrasive wear . resulting in a failed seal that allowed dirt entry. cracked housings. There are many sources such as debris built into the system.First determine what the abrasive material is .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

. or other rust inhibitor. rust can begin very rapidly. Protected bearings should also be stored in a dry place. protect removed bearings with oil. grease.107 - 103 Corrosion • Manufacturers dip and wrap new bearings • Bearings prepared for inspection will rust quickly New bearings are dipped in a rust preventative solution and wrapped in protective paper by the manufacturer.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Therefore. If bearings are removed from a machine and cleaned.


- 108 -


• Unprotected bearings
may be unfit for reuse

If these precautions are not followed, atmospheric corrosion can occur
and result in a bearing that is not fit for use.


- 109 -


• Corrosion can affect
assembled bearings
• "Static corrosion" or
"black acid etching"
occurs during
shutdown periods
• Moisture collects
around rollers and

Corrosion can occur after the bearing is installed if moisture enters the
lubrication system. Many times the corrosion will take place while the
machine is shut down and produce a condition known as "static
corrosion" or "black acid etching."
Under these conditions, moisture (coupled with acids formed in the used
oil), collects around the rolling elements and produces dark, evenly
spaced corrosion stains, pits, or deposits as seen on this tapered roller
bearing cup raceway. Deep pits can cause fatigue cracks, spalling and
subsequent failure.


- 110 -


• Static corrosion of the

This slide shows the static corrosion on the rollers of this same bearing.

" .a condition called "false brinelling. The analyst may also notice fretting corrosion on raceway surfaces where rolling elements have vibrated while the bearing was not rotating -.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .111 - 107 Fretting Corrosion and Creep • Fretting corrosion or creep indicate movement • "False brinelling" indicates vibration without rotation Sometimes road signs such as fretting corrosion or creep on inner or outer bearing bore surfaces will indicate movement relative to shaft or housing has occurred.

.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . a road sign indicating relative movement.112 - 108 • Fretting corrosion indicates movement The outer bore surface of this race shows fretting corrosion.

a condition called "creep. Care must be taken to assure shafts or housings are salvaged or replaced." Road signs of creep are a smooth. polished appearance on the bearing race. if worn to the point where new bearings will be loose. . housings or shafts where races are mounted will usually also be worn. If creep occurs.113 - 109 • "Creep" is a product of excessive movement .Road signs are radial marks on the race • Housing or shaft may require replacement This bearing outer race turned excessively in the housing.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

the grinding marks will be disturbed or worn away as seen in this slide.114 - 110 • Creep may also affect the rib faces. rib faces may also show wear from turning against shoulders on shafts or in housings.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Under these conditions. This rocking action can then disturb or wear the grinding marks off of rib faces. . • Thrust loading can produce similar marks If races have moved. This appearance can also result from high thrust loads in tapered roller bearings. These thrust loads can rock the cup in its bore without actually causing it to rotate.

3.Rolling element stopped rotating If a bearing race moves or "creeps" in its housing or on its shaft. the analyst should determine if: 1. the housing bore was too large or. 2.Shaft too small . the race moved because the rolling elements stopped turning for reasons such as skewing or foreign material being lodged between rolling elements and raceways.Housing bore too large .115 - 111 • Reasons for movement or creep are: . the shaft was too small. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . False brinelling is not a result of heavy shock loads. Much of the time it is stationary and is subjected to vibration under normal loads. During operation the bearing rotates only a few degrees as the pump is required to produce more or less flow.Caused by vibration without rotation . There is another condition which looks similar called "false brinelling. This cylindrical roller bearing supports the swash plate in a hydraulic excavator variable displacement pump. but is actually fretting or fretting corrosion caused by vibration under load while the bearing is not turning. false brinelling can occur when shipping machinery a long distance by rail.116 - 112 • "False brinelling" . .Can affect bearings that do not rotate during operation Brinelling was discussed earlier." False brinelling is different than true brinelling. it is possible to find some false brinelling on the raceway surfaces. After many operating hours. the rolling elements that support heavy loads may vibrate and wear into raceway surfaces. For example.Can occur during shipping . Under these conditions.

the original grinding marks are worn away where the roller vibrated against the raceway.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Now the analyst should follow the root cause path that identifies the source of the vibration rather than suspecting that shock loads while the machine was not operating caused the problem. This road sign indicates that false brinelling occurred. .117 - 113 • Closer view shows grinder marks worn away Notice on this magnified view.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Relatively low current over a prolonged period of time while the bearing is rotating. .High current not rotating . Relatively high current while the bearing is not rotating.118 - 114 • Electrical pitting and fluting • Two most common types are .Low current rotating Electrical Pitting and Fluting Another abnormal condition that can cause bearing failures is the passage of electric current through them. Two major ways this can happen are: 1. and 2.

These pits can lead to spalling and ultimate failure. (Photo courtesy of The Timken Company) .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .119 - 115 • High current causes arcing and pitting High current while the bearing is not rotating usually causes arcing and pitting as seen here. Root causes can include welding on a machine with the ground cable connected in such a manner that electric current passes through the bearing.

noise and fluting Road signs are many small pits covering a large portion of the rolling elements and the raceway paths.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . noise and increased vibration. . these pits can further develop into fluting.Can increased vibration.120 - 116 • Low current leaves small pits over a large area Another form of electrical damage is the passage of relatively low current over a prolonged period during operation. If vibration is also present. Flutes are the axial lines on this ball bearing raceway.

. the fluting lines are actually concentrated groups or clusters of small pits.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .121 - 117 • Closer view of flutes In this magnified view.

122 - 118 Handling and Installation Damage • Handling bearings incorrectly • Installation and removal procedures Faulty handling or mounting and dismounting practices can cause bearings to fail. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

Fractures will normally initiate on the exposed surfaces of the races that are vulnerable to outside forces.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Since raceways are heat treated to a very high hardness. fractures will normally be brittle. raceways can be dented. . cracks or chips • Races are very hard and will brittle fracture • Cone has impact damage and brittle fracture If bearings are dropped or otherwise forcefully mishandled before installation. magnification and good lighting are required when looking for evidence of crack initiation at the exposed surface. cracked. Therefore. or chipped. Note the impact damage with local heat discoloration from the sliding action of the impact load on the rib face surface.123 - 119 • Mishandling may cause dents. This cone appears to have been struck by an external force on the rib face.

begin skidding. stop turning. and lead to a serious failure. cause rollers to bind in the cage.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .124 - 120 • Bearing cage damage can lead binding of the rollers The bearing cage was impact damaged by dropping the cone before installation. generate heat. Damage such as this could crack cages. skew. .

This practice should be avoided since skidding and adhesive surface damage (scuffing) to raceways and rolling elements can occur with no oil film to separate them.125 - 121 • Avoid spinning the bearing with compressed air Another way to cause handling damage to bearings is allowing the bearing to spin while using compressed air for drying after cleaning.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .

. brittle fractures can occur which break out pieces of the ribs or material outside snap ring grooves. the broken pieces will tend to be at the same spacing as the rollers.Brittle fractures at the ribs and snap ring grooves Roller bearing ribs can be chipped or broken during installation by driving or pressing through rolling elements. as is the case in this slide. . . . Under these conditions.Ribs fractures at the same spacing as rollers If there is a rib on the race.126 - 122 • Improper installation . a random fracture spacing will occur.Snap ring groove fractures are random spacing If the rollers are retained with a snap ring. these fractures will normally be brittle and initiate at fillets on the inside of the ribs or at the corners of snap ring groves.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Fractures are brittle and start at fillets or corners In either case.

This bearing race was installed with a punch or chisel. housings or shafts. rolling elements. cause localized high stress. .127 - 123 • Improper tooling .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . The dent is also an abnormal stress raiser that could initiate a fatigue crack. and initiate spalling. dents like this can interfere with rolling element travel. If deep enough.Damage can interfere with performance Using improper tooling for removal or installation can result in uneven and/or forceful blows on bearing races. cages.

There are chisel marks in the housing bore which could cause high spots behind the race.128 - 124 • Improper tooling . and cause the bearing to run hot or be overloaded resulting in premature contact stress fatigue and spalling. reduce bearing clearances.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .Damage can affect the next bearing This same bearing race was also removed with a chisel.

129 - 125 • Improper tooling . Although not shown in this slide.Localized bearing damage in two areas This tapered roller bearing cup is spalled in only a localized area of the raceway.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . there is another similar area about 120 degrees around the cup's circumference.

.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Improper tools can damage housings Close inspection of the O. This high spot in the housing bore caused reduced bearing clearance resulting in localized overload and contact stress fatigue and spalling. The two high spots in the housing bore were probably the result of using improper tooling during bearing installation or removal. D. .130 - 126 • Close up of bearing O. bore surface of the cup reveals two areas where the cup was not allowed to seat properly due to a high spot on the housing bore surface.High spots create seating problems . D.

This type of damage results in smear marks and possibly brinell marks on rollers and raceways.131 - 127 • Misalignment can damage bearings • Damage will usually be at roller spacing • This cup was forced into position during assembly • One side has marks near the front of the wear face During assembly or disassembly. Spacing of the marks will be the same as roller spacing and will either be all the way around or concentrated in only a portion of the race circumference. . Note the marks are concentrated toward the front face on this portion of the cup. raceways can also be damaged if forced onto the mating roller and race assemblies without proper alignment. heavy pressure from misalignment (due to the cocked cup) caused brinell and smear marks to be formed on the cup raceway surface. This tapered roller bearing cup was not properly seated (cocked) in the bore when installed.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . As the shaft and cone assembly was moved into position.

.132 - 128 • Opposite side shows damage at the rear of the wear surface This portion of the cup is 180 degrees opposite the previous view.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Note that these brinell and smear marks are concentrated more toward the back face of the cup.


- 133 -


• More damage was
found indicating
• All road signs indicate
improper seating
during assembly
• Operating the
equipment would fail
the bearing

The O. D. bore surface near the back face of the cup also shows scuff
marks on only one portion of the circumference from the cup
straightening in the housing bore during shaft and cone installation and
bearing adjustment.
These road signs indicate the cup was not properly seated in the housing
bore prior to shaft and cone installation.
If this bearing were allowed to operate with this damage, the smear/brinell
marks on the raceways could have interrupted oil film and caused
premature pitting and spalling of the raceway and roller surfaces.


- 134 -


• Do not use a punch or
chisel on drawn cup
• Damaged bearings
should not be reused

This drawn cup needle bearing was removed with a punch or chisel. Note
the indentations on the thin cup lip that doesn't have the bearing
information stamped on it. Bearings removed in this manner should not
be reused as the damage could stop rollers from turning and cause them to
slide, resulting in adhesive wear and failure.


- 135 -


• Wrong flange angle
can damage bearings
• Use proper tooling
and press on the
correct side

Drawn cup bearings that are pressed in using tooling with the wrong
flange angle can be damaged by caving in and breaking off the lip at one
end of the cup. The other lip was broken at removal. Proper tooling is
very important and press only on the end of the bearing with the bearing
information stamped on it.
(Photo courtesy of The Torrington Company)

Feeling resistance to movement.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . . The key pushed the roller through the cage and fractured the lip on the end of the cup. • Keys and splines on shafts can damage bearings This drawn cup bearing was damaged when the corner of a key in the shaft key way caught on one of the rollers as the shaft was removed through the bearing bore.136 - 132 • Careful disassembly will prevent bearing damage Using care when removing shafts through bearing bores is also very important. The key also pressed down on the roller and brinelled the raceway near the opposite end of the cup. the technician decided to press the shaft the rest of the way out of the bore.

these methods should avoided since uncontrolled heat is generated and physical damage can be done to housings or shafts.May damage shafts and housings This cup was loosened in the bore by the weld bead method. .137 - 133 • Heating methods used to remove bearing races Practices sometimes used in bearing removal are flame cutting of inner races or weld bead shrinking of outer races. . .Creates uncontrolled heating . This procedure may have caused excessive heat to be transmitted into the housing.Should be avoided When possible.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . The heat discoloration extends all the way to the outside diameter.

and 2.138 - 134 • Flame cutting may damage shafts This cone was removed by flame cutting. Note the cone is actually cut through and into the shaft. the shaft was damaged both by: 1.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . cutting a groove in the shaft creating an abnormal stress raiser. As a result. raising a high spot that would need to be ground off before installing another bearing. . Consult the service manual for proper tools and procedures.

misalignment can over load. . are usually due to heavy overload conditions. If severe. wear and fracture rolling elements.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . ribs and races.Fractures may result from overload or misalignment Fractures Fractures in anti-friction bearing races or rolling elements that are properly heat treated and do not contain abnormal subsurface flaws.139 - 135 • Fractures .

140 - 136 • Fractures . .Broken D3 winch after 100 hours This group of parts is from a D3 winch with approximately 100 SMU.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

141 - 137 • Gears have road signs of misalignment The gear on the shaft and the mating gear show signs of severe misalignment.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .

.142 - 138 • Cylindrical roller bearing race fractured by shaft misalignment The outer race of the cylindrical roller bearing on one end of the shaft is fractured due to over load caused by the prying action of shaft misalignment.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .143 - 139 • Brittle fractured rib is a road sign of shock loading The rib on the outer race of the bearing on the opposite end of the shaft is broken off in brittle fracture indicating a severe shock load was applied.

.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .144 - 140 • Fractured rollers Several of the rollers in this same bearing were split in half.

145 - 141 • Closer view of fractured roller The broken rollers have ductile fractures in the softer core and brittle fractures in the harder case material indicating a sudden high load was applied. .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .146 - 142 • Roller ends are spalled The ends of the rollers are spalled and worn from unusual loading due to misalignment.

147 - 143 • Fatigue fractures on roller end from high cyclic loading Note the fatigue fractures (spalling) on this roller start at the end and progresses toward the middle due to high cyclic loads from the severe misalignment.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . • Need to determine what caused misalignment The question facing the analyst at this point is "What caused the severe misalignment?" .

The rest of the damage to the bearings and gears was the result of severe shaft misalignment. .Subsequent damage from misalignment This housing supported the bearing outer race that was cracked.148 - 144 • Failed housing supported the bearing outer race .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . The race and shaft were forced to move out of the housing at the fractured bore multiple times.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . .High cyclic loading or flaw are possible causes of failure Close observation of the cast iron housing with bright and angled lighting reveals what appears to be a brittle fracture. These possibilities would also need to be investigated prior to arriving at a most probable root cause.Faint semi-circular pattern could indicate fatigue . Looking carefully at the fracture face. an unusually high cyclic load or a material or process flaw could have caused a fatigue fracture in the housing.Brittle fracture is caused by shock load . there is a faint semicircular pattern radiating from the fillet in the bottom of the housing bore.149 - 145 • Housing appears to have a brittle fracture . This pattern could be the road sign of a fatigue crack.Fracture identification can be difficult in cast iron . Brittle fractures are usually caused by shock loads. Remember that fatigue fractures are sometimes very difficult to identify in cast iron. Therefore. The analyst should now investigate the application of the D3 to see how a shock load could have been applied.

150 - 146 • Bearing problems .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . forming. heat treat. machining.Material and manufacturing problems are rare . As a result only one example of a manufacturing problem is presented here. grinding and assembly problems are extremely rare in anti-friction bearings. This is due to the high quality bearing steels and the strict quality control measures used in their manufacture.One example available Bearing Problems Material. .

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .151 - 147 • Bearing with early hour failure This bearing failed after only a few hundred hours of operation. . The cage is broken into many pieces.

Outer race and balls look normal The outer race and balls look relatively normal.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .152 - 148 • Bearing failure . Only light scuffing is observed which is from the cage pieces rubbing against the race and balls as the cage was breaking up. .

the outer race and balls looked relatively normal and were of normal hardness.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .Inner race missed heat treatment The inner race.Inner race is plastically deformed and soft (RC 20) . . The race was soft and could not carry the normal radial and thrust loads applied. the hardness was found to be less than RC 20.No temper colors on parts . The notch on the outer edge of the raceway was easily cut with a file causing the analyst to question the material hardness. Therefore the analyst concluded that the inner race most probably missed the heat treat operation during manufacture. When tested. however. shows considerable plastic deformation. As mentioned earlier.Other bearing parts were normal hardness . The race deformed and allowed more end play than normal causing cage interference and subsequent failure.153 - 149 • Bearing failure . No evidence of excessive operating temperature (no heat discoloration) was found on the bearing or adjacent parts that could have softened the race.

low viscosity. and performing follow-up visits to assure user satisfaction. remember to complete steps 6. races and rolling elements are subjected to constant cyclic loads.Subjected to cyclic loads . Be very careful in analyzing anti-friction bearing failures since many different root causes can produce similar resultant damage. damage can be extensive and the root cause may be very difficult to find. Otherwise. taking appropriate corrective action. or no lubrication. The functions of bearings are to support and maintain alignment of shafts and to carry radial and/or axial loads. Most bearing failures are not due to manufacturing problems because of the high quality steel and control practices used in production.154 - 150 • Anti-friction bearings .Carry radial and axial loads .Require careful analysis to find root cause of failure .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . 7.May fail prematurely . . If oil film is not adequate either due to high loads. and 8 of the Eight Steps of Applied Failure Analysis. Getting all the facts when analyzing a bearing failure and to catch the failure in its earliest possible stages is very important. bearings can fail prematurely. After gathering facts and arriving at the most probable root cause.Manufacturing problems are rare .Perform all of the steps of Applied Failure Analysis CONCLUSION This concludes the anti-friction bearing module. These steps help "get the payoff" by communicating with the responsible party. As such.Support and maintain alignment .

Ball. Crowned roller bearing outer race. heavy load diagram 53. diagram 39. Thermostatically controlled bearing heater 36. 14. Tapered Roller Bearing Adjustment. 16. Tapered roller bearing. etched cross section shows case hardened surface Ball bearing and race. Fit 40. 2. oil film and asperities diagram 45. cross section of through hardened elements Removal and Installation Anti-Friction Bearings Caterpillar anti-friction bearings informational booklet Dirt / Debris. Angled view of outer race. 21. Back of outer race. light load diagram 52. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. wear pattern centered on roller surface 56. radial load diagram 50. load diagram 44. 12. 13. 7. Tapered Roller. correct method 33.Tapered roller bearing Functions Loads Single row ball bearing Angular contact bearing loading diagram Split inner race bearing Roller bearings Needle bearing Drawn cup bearings Tapered roller bearing Double row tapered roller bearing load diagram Spherical roller bearing Roller thrust bearing Weld on bearing cage Radial and angular contact ball bearing stress areas Cylindrical and tapered roller bearing stress areas Manufacture Races Tapered roller bearing race. normal appearance with no wear 59. 25. Crowned roller bearing. 9. Lubricant 43. Bearing and parts alignment after assembly. contact stress fatigue .155 - SLIDE LIST 1. normal wear pattern 55. Anti-Friction Bearings title slide In This Presentation Categories / Types Nomenclature . 22. Ball. Drawn Cup Bearing Installation Tool diagram 35. 20. Operation / Normal Wear. Tapered roller bearing outer race.Cylindrical roller bearing Nomenclature . 18. large end of rollers 54. instructions 42. cold headed during manufacturing Rollers. thrust load diagram 48. LP blow torch drawing 37. 6. diagram 41. 4. Tapered Roller Bearing Adjustment. 10. Ball. 15. diagram of location and affect on bearing Bearing installation on shaft diagram. normal appearance 58. 11. 8. 28. Rolling element. etched cross section shows case hardened surface Roller. 19. Bearing installation on shaft diagram. radial load with rotating outer ring diagram 47. 31. radial and thrust load diagram 49. Bearing freezer drawing 38. 26. view of rib and roller ends 51. Ball. Cylindrical.Ball bearing Nomenclature . radial load with rotating inner ring diagram 46. Cylindrical roller bearing. incorrect method 34. 3. 24. 27. 23. light wear pattern centered on race wear surface 57. 32.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Tapered Roller. 17. 5. 29. 30.

plastic yielding and evidence of skewing 79. Tapered roller bearing cone. Tapered roller bearing cone. Closer view of rear pinion shaft bearing. significant adhesive wear 98. 13 plastically deformed rollers 90. even spall pattern on roller and inner race 70. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. roller diagram 63. road signs of heat and misalignment 84. lipping at cage windows without "hour glass" shape 88. roughness and axial cracking 87. Determine Source 103. glazed appearance and temper colors present 89. diagram and road signs 72. race is spalled and fatigue cracking 75. Differential pinion shaft with inner bearing race. Possible Causes 92. temper colors without cooked on oil 77. bruising and spalling present 96. Close view of tapered roller bearing inner race. Look at Other Parts 102. Pinion shaft and bearing. Rolling Contact Stress Fatigue. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. brinell dents on raceway 93. Magnetic strainer. Tapered Roller Bearing . adhesive wear 97.Too Tight 68. Tapered roller bearing inner and outer raceways. Tapered Roller Bearing . wear pattern from heavy contact of tapered bore 73. "hot. road signs of heat and misalignment 85. Ball bearing. Tapered roller bearing cup. spalling in the load zone 66. brinell dents on top of existing wear pattern 94. cooked on oil deposits 91. Three bearing rollers. heavily contaminated with metal debris 62. abrasive wear 99. corrosion pits and black acid etching . Tapered roller bearing cup. Tapered roller bearing cup. Cleaning Overheated Bearings 82. Tapered roller bearing outer race.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Key Points 61. heavily corroded 105. Tapered roller bearing outer race with four deformed rollers. Closer view of rollers in slide #77. Out of Round. adhesive wear and deposits from melted cage 80. Tapered roller bearing inner race.156 - SLIDE LIST 60. dry look" 83. small end of rollers shows heavy contact and spalling 67. Shaft Too Big or Housing Too Small 71. Other Factors . Tapered roller bearing cup. Contact Stress Fatigue. Spherical roller bearing outer race. Extensive Contamination 101. spalling across entire wear surface 69. dark. Tapered roller bearing inner race. Tapered roller bearing race. severe temper colors and plastic yielding 78. Rollers from the bearing in slide #83. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. considerable fine abrasive wear 100. plastic yielding 76. temper colors. Deformed roller bearing rollers.Too Loose 65. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. Tapered roller bearing cup. Tapered roller bearing cone.Plastic Yielding 86. wandering wear pattern 74. Tapered roller bearing cup. Tapered roller bearing cup from bearing in slide #77. corrosion 104. bruising and spalling present 95. list of reasons 64. Tapered roller bearing cup. Tapered roller bearing cage and rollers. temper colors indicate high temperature operation 81.

localized spalling 126. pits and fluting 118. Close view of roller bearing elements. Winch housing. Ball bearing. grinder marks missing in the bottom of dents 114. fractured 145. Cylindrical roller bearing outer race and fractured roller 141. plastic deformation but no temper colors 150. Closer view of fractured cast housing 146. Creep .. dent in outer edge of race 124. Tapered roller bearing cup in slide # 127. brittle fracture at the snap ring groove 140. Closer view of slide #112. Roller bearing raceway. Tapered roller bearing cup O. Cylindrical rollers (9). brinell marks in localized area at small diameter of cup 128. Tapered roller bearing cone rib close-up. scuff marks on one portion of circumference 130. In This Presentation . impact damage to the rib 120.. housing and parts of broken bearings 137. Tapered roller bearing cup from slide # 125. Closer view of slide #116. brinell marks 180 degrees opposite 129. Anti-Friction Bearing Problems 147. handling and installation damage 119. D. broken lips on each end 132. Roller bearing outer race rib. Housing that held bearing in slide #123. D. Ball bearing inner race. Electrical Pitting & Fluting 115. large area of small pits and fluting 117. Drawn cup bearing. D. Tapered roller bearing cup. inner and outer races with the balls and broken cage 148. brittle fractures at snap ring groove 123. Tapered roller bearing inner race. Drawn cup bearing. flame torch cutting marks 135. Tapered roller bearing cup. Tapered roller bearing cup rib face.157 - SLIDE LIST 106. Cylindrical roller. indentations on cup lip 131. evidence of creep 110. Tapered roller bearing cup. Cylindrical roller bearing outer race. Cylindrical roller close-up.AFA STMG 010 9/2000 . Cylindrical roller bearing outer race. worn and spalled roller ends 143. Tapered roller bearing cup O. D. Close view of gear. normal appearance 149. Ball bearing. false brinnell marks 113. spinning with compressed air 122. cage and rollers still intact but the race is fractured 139.. Tapered roller bearing cup. fractures 136. fretting corrosion and creep 108. O. dented cage 121. D3 winch parts. Tapered roller bearing cone.Possible Causes 112. weld bead 134. Drawn cup bearing. Tapered roller bearing cone. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. broken lip and three needles removed 133. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. fractured 142. Tapered roller bearing cup O. evidence of creep 111. Ball bearing outer race and one ball. chisel damage in bearing bore 125. Cylindrical roller bearing outer race. fatigue fracture on end 144. mating part of slide #105 with corrosion on rollers 107. fretting corrosion 109. damaged teeth from misalignment 138. Damage Due to Abnormal Conditions. showing seating problems in bore 127. pitting from arcing 116.

AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .158 - Student Handout Applied Failure Analysis Laboratory Worksheet What do you see? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What does it mean? Where do you go next? .

159 - INSTRUCTOR NOTES .AFA STMG 010 9/2000 .

SESV8010 9/2000 Printed in U. .A.S.