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ABC Elementary School District
Prevention Manual

Behavior Plans

Haley Wilde, M.A. and Samantha Foulks, M.A.
Ball State University
School Psychology Program
Fall 2016

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Table of Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………….... 3
Needs Assessment ….……………………………………………………………………....….... 4
Justification …………………………………………………………………………………….... 7
Prevention Manual
Step 1: Baseline………………………………………………………………………... 10
Step 2: Goal Setting ………………………………………………………………...…. 11
Step 3: Intervention ………………………………………………………………….... 12
Step 4: Progress Monitoring ………………………………………………………...… 13
Step 5: Data Evaluation …………………………………………………………...……14
Step 6: Decision Making …………………………………………………………...….. 14
Evaluation …………………………………………………………………………………...…. 15
Recommended Reading and Resources ………………………………………………………... 17
References …………………………………………………………………………………….... 18
Appendix A: Competency Survey………………………………………………....………..….. 19
Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions……………………………………………….…….. 20
Appendix C: Referral Tracking Chart…………………………………………………………...25

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Introduction
This prevention manual seeks to provide resources for creating and managing behavior
plans for the teachers and staff in ABC Elementary School District. According to the “Primary
Sources: 2012” report, more than 50% of teachers wish they could spend less time disciplining
students (Scholastic, 2012). Well-designed behavior plans can be created for individual students,
small groups of students, classrooms, and/or entire schools. These behavior plans can improve
student behavior, decrease the amount of time teachers must spend disciplining students, and
increase the amount of time they have available to teach academics.
However, many teachers do not feel they have sufficient training in behavior
management to handle disruptive behaviors effectively or create effective behavior plans for
students. Locating and evaluating resources to determine which resources provide evidenced
based information and practices is therefore a necessary step in closing the gap between research
and practice. By providing reliable resources for teachers and staff in the ABC Elementary
School District to learn more about how to design effective behavior plans, this manual seeks to
increase the competence of teachers. If effective, this prevention manual will both raise the
competence of teachers in the ABC Elementary School District, and reduce problems behaviors
exhibited by students.

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Needs Assessment
Needs assessments are used in “collecting and analyzing data in order to identify needs or
problems to be addressed in program planning, development and modification” (Nagle &
Gagnon, 2008, p. 2207). Before designing and implementing a prevention manual to assist the
schools of the ABC Elementary district, a needs assessment was conducted. This assessment
focused on the perceived needs expressed by teachers, administrators, and staff at the schools in
the district. While all staff members were invited to participate in the perceived needs
assessment, the assessment focused on teachers, due to their direct interaction with students and
problem behaviors on a daily basis.
Prior to designing and conducting our needs assessment, we spoke to numerous teachers
and administrators about the current needs of the school. It quickly became apparent that all of
those responsible for drafting behavior intervention plans may not have sufficient training or
updated resources to create effective, evidence-based plans. The teachers and administrators of
ABC Elementary district expressed that they would be interested in gaining more resources for
their teachers in this particular area of practice.
Current District Practice
Currently, there are forms for teachers to use regarding behavior plans, however, these
forms are typically used for students who have individual education plans. Although they may be
used for students without IEPs, there are designed in a way that is more effectively used for
students with IEPs, and not necessarily those without. It is unclear how often and how efficiently
staff utilizes these forms. Furthermore, the behavior plan forms appear to focus on using methods
of punishment as strategies to decrease problem behaviors. Research demonstrates that positive
behavior interventions are more likely to result in behavior change than those that utilize

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punishment (Maag, 2001). While a school-wide behavior plan at one school does utilize a token
economy to promote good behaviors, no such program is in place at other schools in the district.
Based on this information, it is likely that ABC Elementary school district would benefit from
research-based trainings on effective behavior plans and practices.
Current Needs Assessment
To determine what areas teachers feel they would most benefit from learning more about
regarding behavior plans, a survey was conducted using a web-based survey generator. The
survey is attached to this document for further reference (Appendix A). The survey asks
participants their position as a staff member, and if they are a teacher, which grade they teach. A
brief description of the definition of a behavior plan is included before participants are asked if
they have any students that have a behavior plan, if they have ever developed a behavior plan,
and if they have ever used an already existing behavior plan before. Participants are asked to
rank what area of behavior management they would be interested in learning more about
according to several brief descriptions we provide. Finally, the survey concludes with a comment
box for participants to leave any questions or comments regarding the survey or behavior plans.
Results
10 general education teachers, 3 special education teachers, 2 administrators, and 2 other staff
members of ABC Elementary schools participated in our needs assessment survey. At least one
participant taught each grade, kindergarten through twelfth, however, it appeared that some
teachers worked with multiple grades. The grade most popularly reported was fifth (35% of
participants reported working with 5th graders), with sixth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth
grades the second most popularly reported grades participants worked with (29% of participants
reported working with 6th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th graders).

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62% of the participants reported having students that have a behavior plan, however, it
should be noted that one participant skipped this question. 58% of participants said they had
developed a behavior plan for a student, group, or classroom before. Similarly, 64% of
participants said they have used an already existing behavior plan with a student, group, or
classroom before. Of the topics participants were asked to rank from highest to lowest desire to
learn more about, understanding and intervening disruptive behaviors and identifying reasons for
problem behaviors and developing corresponding behavior plans were equal front-runners
compared to the other topics. Not far behind were topics about creating your own behavior plan
as well as how to help students become independent learners. Evaluating the effectiveness of
research-based programs, implementing research-based programs, and identifying and selecting
research-based programs were among the least popular ranked topics, which indicated these
topics were not of particular priority to participants.
The survey provided the opportunity for participants to leave additional comments
regarding the survey and topic of behavior plans. One participant mentioned that whatever the
plan is, it needs to be easy to put into place. Additionally, a special education teacher commented
that a resource for developing behavior plans would be beneficial. This participant praised the
idea of a “bank of ideas” that can be referred to and easily implemented by teachers.

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Justification
As expressed by the data collected through our perceived needs assessment, as well as
comments made by the ABC Elementary staff survey participants, it is apparent that the staff
members need and desire resources for designing and implementing behavior plans for students
and classrooms. ABC Elementary does not currently have a behavior plan protocol for students
without an IEP. Furthermore, there is not any sort of behavior plan protocol to be used with small
groups or whole classrooms. With more than half of the survey participants stating they had used
a behavior plan for individual students, groups, or classrooms, it is apparent that behavior plans
are extremely relevant within the ABC Elementary schools, however, there currently is no
existing systematization to the process.
When it comes to selecting, learning, and implementing behavior plans, it is extremely
beneficial to have at least a basic understanding of behavior management. For those hoping to
use behavior plans for students and their classrooms, acquiring such understanding and
knowledge is a crucial first step to being successful with behavior plan implementation. That
being said, our needs assessment demonstrated that the teachers, administrators, and other staff
members at ABC Elementary desire to better understand problem behaviors, be able to identify
the underlying reasons fueling them, and utilize appropriate behavior plans to manage such
behaviors in students, groups, and classrooms. Additionally, ABC Elementary staff members
expressed a desire for resources that can serve as guidance tools for understanding problem
behaviors and selecting appropriate plans, including interventions.
The IRIS Center, by Vanderbilt University, is a web-based program designed to enhance
the effectiveness of education professionals in the realms of evidence-based practices, such as
interventions, curriculums, and trainings (IRIS, 2016). Within the IRIS Center’s extensive

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contents, there is a collection of behavior management modules designed to help individuals
learn about and understand behavior plans from a variety of perspectives. With eleven modules
available, two of them in particular are related to identifying problem behaviors, understanding
them, and developing corresponding plans to intervene (IRIS, 2016). Based on the results of the
needs assessment, these two modules will be the most relevant for ABC Elementary staff
members to engage in and learn from.
The first module that utilized for our ABC Elementary prevention manual is presented in
two separate parts, one and two. The first part of the module, “Addressing Disruptive and
Noncompliant Behaviors (Part One): Understanding the Acting Out Cycle” breaks down problem
behaviors into 7 phases, each thoroughly explained in the module so that viewers can better
understand the cycle of a problem behavior. This part of the module takes approximately one
hour. The second part of the module, “Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors (Part
Two): Behavioral Interventions” covers interventions that can be used to increase compliance,
and decrease problem behaviors. Together, such interventions can be a powerful tool within the
classroom setting. This module discusses various forms of differential reinforcement and how
these strategies can be implemented. This part of the module also takes approximately one hour
to complete.
The second module we included for our prevention manual is also related to the
expressed needs of the teachers, administrators, and other staff members at ABC Elementary.
Titled, “Functional Behavioral Assessment: Identifying the Reasons for Problem Behavior and
Developing a Behavior Plan,” this particular module aims to teach viewers how to go about
understanding the depths of a problem behavior, including the behavior’s function and pattern. It
also elaborates on the fundamental principles of behavior, covering terms like positive

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reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and extinction. This module takes approximately two
hours to complete, however, it instructs viewers on how to complete a functional behavioral
assessment, select and implement an intervention based on the data collected, and lastly evaluate
the intervention.
Based on the results of our needs assessment survey, we selected the most appropriate
research-based modules that best fit the needs and requests of the teachers, administrators, and
staff members at ABC Elementary for working with behavior plans. It was our hopes that the
training provided and knowledge acquired from these modules will help ABC Elementary staff
members feel more competent and confident when it comes to behavior management for
individual students, small groups, and entire classrooms. Furthermore, we hoped that the use of
these modules would result in a reduction of problem behaviors.

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Manual
Baseline
In order to measure the effectiveness of our prevention manual, we must have a baseline
measurement. Because one primary goal for our prevention manual is to equip ABC Elementary
staff members with a resource that increases their competency and self-efficacy when it comes to
working with behavior plans, baseline data should be collected to understand how competent
staff members feel they are prior to any of the IRIS training modules. To measure this, a
Competency Survey with a series of rating scales assessing how ABC Elementary teachers,
administrators, and staff members feel about their knowledge, experience, and ability to
understand problem behaviors, select appropriate interventions, and implement them correctly
will be used. On a scale of one to five, staff members will be asked to rate themselves based on,
1) their understanding of problem behaviors, 2) their understanding of basic behavioral
principles 3) their knowledge of functional behavioral assessments, 4) their ability to identify
problem behaviors, 5) their ability to select appropriate evidence-based interventions, 6) their
ability to implement interventions, and 7) their ability to evaluate whether or not an intervention
is effective or not. Similar to our needs assessment, the participants’ responses are averaged per
1-5 rating scale, and will serve as our starting baseline data points. To measure the effectiveness
of our prevention manual, we will give this survey to ABC Elementary staff members prior to the
IRIS Center trainings.
We also hope to evaluate the effectiveness of these modules by measuring the impact on
the behaviors of the students in the ABC Elementary schools. This will be accomplished with
two methods. To measure overall reduction in problems behaviors from the student body as a
whole, the number of behavioral referrals written in each of the last five months should be

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counted and recorded as a baseline. To measure reduction in problem behaviors of students who
have behavior plans as a result of this manual, teachers should collect baseline data as instructed
within the modules to compare intervention rates of behavior to once the behavior plan is
implemented.
Goal Setting
As mentioned in the previous section, our baseline data will come from several sources,
the first being from the staff members of ABC Elementary and their self-rated feelings of
competency in understanding behavior and implementing plans. The other two baseline data
measurements will come from the number of behavioral referrals over the last five months and
from any behavior plans that are implemented and progress monitored after the modules are
completed.
One of our goals for this prevention manual is to increase the competency of teachers,
administrators, and staff members at ABC Elementary. Due to the expressed needs and other
information from the school system, it is likely that the Competency Survey will show the group
rating average as 3 or below for each item regarding their understanding, knowledge, and
abilities. It is our goal to increase the average rating on each item to above a 3.
We also aim to reduce the number of behavioral referrals that are made, as well as reduce
the presence of problem behaviors in students, groups, or classrooms for which behavior
management plans are used following the IRIS trainings. We will compare the baseline number
of referrals made over the last five months to the number of referrals made in the months to
come. If there are less referrals made in the months to come than the previous, we will have met
our goal. Similarly, if there is a decrease in the problem behaviors of students, groups, or

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classrooms for which behavior plans are implemented compared to the collected baseline data,
we will have met our goal.
Intervention
Our prevention manual utilizes several behavior management modules through the IRIS
Center, by Vanderbilt University, as a method of intervention for the teachers, administrators, and
staff of ABC Elementary. The IRIS Center describes their services as follows:
“The IRIS Center provides a wide range of tiered services designed to assist college faculty and professional
development (PD) providers to integrate information about effective evidence-based practices into their
courses and training activities. IRIS services also are designed to help practicing educators who are working
independently to upgrade their skills and knowledge with the goal of improving outcomes for struggling
learners, particularly those with disabilities.” (IRIS, 2016).

Among these services are structured modules, which include text, audio, and video that
provide information and instruction about particular topics. Out of the numerous modules related
to behavior management, we have selected two in particular for ABC Elementary staff to engage
in based on the needs assessment results. Each module takes approximately two hours to
complete, but can be done on one’s own time and pace. ABC Elementary staff will be provided
with the links to these modules, as well as a brief synopsis of what each module covers. We will
suggest that teachers, administrators, and other staff members complete these modules, which are
further discussed below, to enhance their understanding of behavior and learn how to select and
implement appropriate interventions.
Part one of the first module we will be using is titled, “Addressing Disruptive and
Noncompliant Behaviors (Part One): Understanding the Acting Out Cycle.” This module breaks
down problem behaviors into 7 phases, each thoroughly explained in the module so that viewers

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can better understand the cycle of a problem behavior. Part two of the module, titled “Addressing
Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors (Part Two): Behavioral Interventions” covers
interventions that can be used to increase compliance, and decrease problem behaviors. These
two parts come together to create a module that breaks down and explains the cycle that problem
behaviors present, as well as the interventions that can be used to combat such cycles.
The second module we will include in this intervention, “Functional Behavioral
Assessment: Identifying the Reasons for Problem Behavior and Developing a Behavior Plan,”
aims to teach viewers how to identify the underlying elements of a problem behavior. This
module focuses on understanding a behavior’s function and pattern in order to select appropriate
behavior plans and interventions. It also elaborates on the fundamental principles of behavior,
covering terms like positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and extinction. By the end of
this particular module, viewers will understand how to complete a functional behavioral
assessment, select and implement an intervention, and evaluate an intervention.
Progress Monitoring
To determine if the modules are resulting in a change over baseline, progress monitoring
should be conducted. Progress monitoring will use the same techniques used during the baseline
data collection phase in order to ensure that data reflects true change in behaviors and not simply
a change in measurement system. Therefore, teachers who have chosen to view the modules
should complete the Competency Survey after completing the modules, as well as periodically
while using the behavior plan(s).
To track changes in student behavior, the number of referrals written every month after
the intervention has begun should be recorded. Teachers may use the chart in Appendix C to

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record data, or create a chart of their own. Teachers should also collect data on the
students/behaviors they create behavior plans for in order to determine the plan’s effectiveness.
Data Evaluation
To help determine if progress has been made, teachers and administration should
regularly evaluate data. Evaluation will differ slightly for the different types of data collected. It
is suggested that teachers and staff evaluating the data use the suggestions provided by the
modules, and the Lane and Gast (2014) article listed in the Recommended Reading Resources
section of this manual in evaluating data. A copy of this resource may be checked out for
educational purposes. Please see the special education coordinator to obtain this copy.
Some general recommendations include using visual analysis to determine if the baseline
data forms a stable pattern, and if not, what the predicted trajectory of behavior would be for a
given data set. Furthermore, visual analysis may be used to determine if behavior is increasing,
decreasing, or staying the same when compared to baseline data. The information gathered from
this evaluation will largely determine what happens during the Decision Making step.
Decision Making
After the data are evaluated, this information should be used to determine how to
proceed. For example, if data evaluation from the Competency Surveys demonstrates a
decreasing or unchanging pattern, the staff will need to determine why the modules are not
helping. This could be due to many factors, including but not limited to completing the incorrect
modules, lack of use of information from the modules, and ineffectiveness of the program. After
determining the cause of the pattern of data, different courses of action may be taken, including
continuing to use the program, altering some aspect of the program (such as encouraging more

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teachers to view the modules if it is found that not many of them have used the modules), and if
necessary, discontinuing use of the program.
Evaluation
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of our prevention manual, we will compare the
baseline data collected from the Competency Survey, referrals, and behavior plan data to the
post-module training Competency Survey results, number of referrals made, and collected
behavior plan data. We had set three goals for this prevention manual, so our prevention
manual’s effect will be measured according to the achievement of those goals, or lack thereof.
To measure the impact our prevention manual had on ABC Elementary staff members’
understanding and knowledge of behavior plans and ability to select and use them, we will
compare the results of our pre-training Competency Survey with our post-training Competency
Survey (described in the baseline section). Again, on a scale of one to five, staff members will be
asked to rate themselves based on, 1) their understanding of problem behaviors, 2) their
understanding of basic behavioral principles 3) their knowledge of functional behavioral
assessments, 4) their ability to identify problem behaviors, 5) their ability to select appropriate
evidence-based interventions, 6) their ability to implement interventions, and 7) their ability to
evaluate whether or not an intervention is effective or not. Average ratings above 3 for each item
will demonstrate an increase in feelings of competency for the ABC Elementary staff. This will
indicate that our prevention manual training modules were effective in helping staff members
acquire knowledge, gain understanding, and feel more competent in their ability to use behavior
plans.
Our prevention manual will also be evaluated based on whether or not we see a reduction
in the number of behavior referrals made at the ABC Elementary schools, as well as a reduction

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in the problem behaviors exhibited by students, groups, or classrooms for which behavior plans
are implemented in the time following the module trainings. An apparent reduction in behavior
referrals and problem behavior occurrences will demonstrate whether or not the module trainings
had an indirect effect on the students and presence of behavior problems at the schools.

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Recommended Readings and Resources
IRIS Module Links:
Module 1, Part 1: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/bi1/
Module 1, Part 2: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/bi2/
Module 2: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/fba/
Data evaluation article:
Lane, J., & Gast, D. (2014). Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies:
Brief review and guidelines. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24(3-4), 445-463.
doi:10.1080/09602011.2013.815636

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References
The IRIS Center. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu.
Lane, J., & Gast, D. (2014). Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: Brief
review and guidelines. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 24(3-4), 445-463.
doi:10.1080/09602011.2013.815636

Maag, J. W. (2001). Rewarded by punishment: Reflections on the disuse of positive
reinforcement in schools. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 173-186.

Nagle, R. J., Gagnon, S. G. (2008). Best Practices in Planning and Conducting Needs
Assessment. In A. Thomas, & J. Grimes (Eds.) Best practices in school psychology - V.
Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

Scholastic, 2012. Primary sources: 2012: America’s teachers on the teaching profession.
Retrieved from: http://mediaroom.scholastic.com/files/ps_fullreport.pdf

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Appendix A
Competency Survey
Please rate the following items on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means you feel you are not at all
competent with the skill, and 5 means you are extremely competent with the skill.
1. I understand problem behaviors and why they occur in
students.

1

2

3

4

5

2. I know and can use behavioral principles to work with
students on behavioral problems.

1

2

3

4

5

3. I understand what a functional behavioral assessment is.

1

2

3

4

5

4. I understand how to conduct a functional behavioral
assessment.

1

2

3

4

5

5. I understand how to use the results of a functional
behavioral assessment to create an effective behavior plan.

1

2

3

4

5

6. I understand how to identify and define problem
behaviors.

1

2

3

4

5

7. I understand how to select appropriate evidence-based
interventions.

1

2

3

4

5

8. I feel confident in implementing behavioral
interventions.

1

2

3

4

5

9. I feel confident in evaluating whether or not an
intervention is effective.

1

2

3

4

5

10. I feel confident in using behavior plans with students.

1

2

3

4

5

Total: __________ /10 = ___________ (Average Rating)
If your average score is 4 or below, please consider revisiting sections you are unsure of, looking
at the frequently asked questions section of this manual, and/or contacting the Special Education
Coordinator for assistance.

Appendix B

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Frequently Asked Questions
Module 1 - Part One
Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors: Understanding the Acting Out Cycle
1)
The acting-out cycle typically occurs in a _____ pattern.
Chain
2) What is one characteristic of student behavior in the Calm Phase?
Goal-directed, compliant, cooperative, or engaged
3) What kind of attention/praise should students be provided in the calm phase?
Contingent and Non-contingent
4) What are some school-based triggers in the Trigger Phase?
Negative interaction with a teacher, argument with peer, change in schedule, high rate of
failure on academic task, confusion about an assignment
5) What are some non-school-based triggers in the Trigger Phase?
Hunger, lack of sleep, medical issues, stress at home
6) What kind of plan can be used to avoid or prevent the Trigger Phase?
Pre-correction plans
7) The ______ phase is often longer in regards to length of time.
Agitation
8) What are some ways to intervene at the beginning of the Agitation Phase?
“How can I help you,” or “I see that you’re struggling to stay on task right now.”
9) How should a teacher respond to a student attempting to engage the teacher in an argument
during the Acceleration phase?
Prompt, redirect, make a request, and give student time to respond. Once they respond
correctly, provide reinforcement.
10) Out-of-control behaviors occur during the ____ phase.
Peak

11) What is considered key when it comes to responding to student in the peak phase?
Know how your school wants you to respond to these situations (other student’s safety,
principal, disciplinary protocols, etc.)

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12) During the De-escalation phase, students may not want to talk about what happened, but are
usually _______ __ __________.
responsive to directions
13) What are some things teachers can do to prevent the student from re-escalating?
Have student work independently in different area, give them an instructional level task,
or have them make a journal entry.
14) It is often mistaken that ________ the student about the incident will re-trigger the behavior,
however, this is actually important for the recovery phase.
De-briefing
15) What are the seven phases of acting-out in order?
Calm, trigger, agitation, acceleration, peak, de-escalation, and recovery
Module 1 - Part Two
Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors: Behavioral Interventions
1)
Who are a few to seek support from when feeling overwhelmed by dealing with
problem behaviors in the classroom?
Behavior specialists, school counselors, family members, principal, or other teachers
2) Who is one of the best people to seek support or information from when it comes to handling
problem behaviors in the classroom?
Special education teachers
3) What are a few intervention strategies recommended for handling disruptive/non-compliant
behaviors?
High probability requests, choice making, or differential reinforcement
4) What is an advantage of the previous three interventions?
They are positive and do not require giving any form of punishment
5) What is a high-probability request?
When the teacher asks the student to do something that they are very likely to do
6) Differential reinforcement involves either _____ or ______ reinforcement.
Giving, withholding
7) DRO should be used to _____ a behavior
Eliminate

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8) DRL should be used to _____ a behavior
Reduce/decrease
9) DRI should be used to _____ a behavior
Substitute
10) How can you measure out how often a behavior is occurring?
Collect baseline data
11) If using DRO, when should you reinforce a student?
Reinforce when the student refrains from doing or engaging in the target behavior
12) If using DRL, when should you reinforce a student?
Reinforce when the student engages in the problem target less often
13) If using DRI, when should you reinforce a student?
Reinforce when the student engages in a behavior that is an acceptable replacement
behavior rather than the target behavior

Module 2
Functional Behavioral Assessment: Identifying the Reasons for Problem Behavior and
Developing a Behavior Plan
1) What is an ABC data chart?
A chart that identifies the antecedent to the behavior (what happens before the behavior
occurs), the behavior itself (what you see them do), and the consequence (what happens
after the behavior).
2) What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
In positive reinforcement, something is added after the behavior occurs that results in an
increase in the behavior in the future. In negative reinforcement, something is taken away
after the behavior occurs that results in an increase in the behavior in the future.
3) Are positive and negative reinforcement suggested to be used more than punishment and
extinction?
Yes. Punishment and extinction both can be effective, but they are much more difficult to
use correctly and can have adverse side effects.
4) What is an FBA?

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A Functional Behavior Assessment is a method of determining the function the behavior
is serving, so that interventions can be developed to treat the function of the behavior.
Using interventions based on the function of the behavior is much more successful than
randomly applying interventions.
5) Why do we need to define behaviors clearly when considering FBAs and behavior plans?
With clearly defined behaviors, we can collect data on the behavior that can be used to
determine the function of the behavior, if the behavior is decreasing in response to the
intervention, and if we need to change the intervention.
6) What are the functions of behavior?
The function of the behavior is the ‘purpose’ the behavior serves for the student. Students
may engage in behaviors to obtain or avoid attention, tangible objects or activities, and/or
sensory conditions.
7) Can a behavior serve more than one function?
Yes. Many behaviors will serve more than one function. When more than one function is
established, interventions should address all functions.
8) Is extinction most useful as a component of a larger intervention?
Yes. It can also be used alone, but in classrooms it is easier and highly recommended to
only use it with other components such as positive and/or negative reinforcement.
9) Should all behavior plans include a plan to generalize/ maintain the behavior?
Yes. The generalization of a behavior to other environments, contexts, and people should
be considered when developing an intervention plan. The maintenance (or how to get the
behavior to continue after the intervention is withdrawn) of the behavior should also be
planned for in developing the intervention.
10) How can we ensure the intervention is implemented correctly?
Data should be collected about intervention implantation as well (implementation
fidelity). Checklists can be used if the teacher needs to monitor their own
implementation, but ideally an observer would come in and objectively observe if the
intervention is implemented correctly using a checklist.

11) What are the steps for an FBA?
1. Identify and define problem and replacement behaviors

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2. Collect Data
3. Identify the function of the behavior
4. Design a function-based intervention
5. Maximize intervention success
6. Implement the intervention
7. Evaluate the intervention

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Appendix C

Please use the following chart to record student referrals and track progress.
Month
Number of Student Referrals
Student
Name

August
Septemb
er
October
Novembe
r
Decembe
r
January
February
March
April
May
June
Total (per
student)

Total
(per
mont
h)

Behavior Management

1

Would you like to learn about behavior plans for students, groups, and classrooms?
Look below to find information, strategies, interventions, and resources!
The following websites provide evidence based strategies and
“how to” sections on behavioral topics.
Addressing
Disruptive
and Noncompliant
Behaviors
Functional Behavior
Assessment:
Identifying
the Reasons for Problem Behavior and
Part 1: Understanding the Acting Out Cycle
Developing a Behavior Plan

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/fba/
Gain a better understanding of problem behaviors and how they are presented in
 How
to gofrom
about
understanding
the
depthsdown
of problem
Discusses the concept of a problem
behavior
a cyclical
approach,
breaking
a problem
behavior.
These seven
phases
formulate the collective problem behavior cycl

Learn
how
identify
a behavior’s
function,
as up as need
Takes approximately 1to
hour
to complete
(but can
be broken
well as the pattern it follows.
 Elaborates Part
on the
fundamental
principles of
2: Behavioral
Intervention
behavior, specifically positive reinforcement,
negative reinforcement, and extinction.
Discusses interventions that canbe How
usedto
to complete
increase student
compliance
and decrease the occ
a functional
behavioral
Designed to be used in tandem with part one in order to ensure theassessment,
viewer understands
cycle ofimplement,
problem behaviors
and the
as well the
as select,
and
Takes approximately
1 hour tointerventions.
complete (but can be broken up as nee
evaluate behavior

Takes approximately 2 hours to complete (but
can be broken up as needed).
THE IRIS CENTER – BY VANDERBILT
UNIVERSITY

 A web-based program designed to enhance the

effectiveness of education professionals in the
realms of evidence-based practices, such as
interventions, curriculums, and trainings.
 Within the IRIS Center’s extensive contents,
there is a collection of behavior management
modules designed to help individuals learn about
and understand behavior plans from a variety of
perspectives.

For more information please contact the Special Education Coordinator.