Natural Resources Ressources naturelles

CanadaCanada
Centre for Remote
Sensing, Natural Resources Canada
Canada

Geological Applications
Outline
• SAR and Geology
– Terrain relief and SAR
– Look direction
– Environments (Tropical, Polar, Desert)
– Data Integration
– Stereo image pairs

• Applications
– Geological mapping
– Mineral exploration
– Hazards mapping

Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada

Terrain Relief and SAR
• Low relief environment (~ 100 m)
® backscatter controlled by changes in local incident
angle and surface roughness
• Surface roughness controlled by
– weathering process of the bedrock
– “reworking” processes of unconsolidated surficial
deposits (e.g., fluvial sorting, glacial action, wind
erosion)

Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada

Vol. No.49º Resolution: 20 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Displayed Pixel Spacing: 27.ccrs. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing .cfm?BiblioID=4723 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. R. . Effects of relief on the selection of RADARSAT-1 incidence angle for geological applications. Saint-Jean.3 m Ground moraine Alluvium Geological Applications Laboratory http://dweb.3 m Strandline Landslide Standard Mode Beam S7 Ascending 06-Oct-96 Incident Angle: 45º . 1999. Manitoba Singhroy V. 25.gc. pp. 211-217 Standard Mode Beam S2 Ascending Orbit ã Canadian Space Agency 1996 Courtesy RADARSAT International Low relief environment Look 17-Oct-96 Incident Angle: 24º . 3.nrcan. 1999.31º Resolution: 22 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Displayed Pixel Spacing: 27.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.Comparison of RADARSAT Viewing Geometry of Low Relief Terrains at Morden. Natural Resources Canada Deltaic deposits 4 km .

cfm?BiblioID=4723 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. 211-217 Inc. Effects of relief on the selection of RADARSAT-1 incidence angle for geological applications. 1999 .ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.49º Resol.ccrs. 1999.gc. No.27º Resol.Effect of SAR Incident Angle on Terrain Mapping RADARSAT-1 Whitecourt. 3. Angle: 20º . Angle: 45º . Natural Resources Canada Geological Applications Laboratory . 25.: 26 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Partial Swath Displayed Pixel size: 56 m Orbit Look RADARSAT-1 C-HH 96-Jan-25 Ascending Orbi t Right Look STANDARD Mode Beam 7 Singhroy V. 1996 http://dweb. Alberta Orbit Look Intermediate relief environment RADARSAT-1 C-HH 96-Feb-12 Ascending Orbit Right Look STANDARD Mode Beam 1 Inc. .: 20 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Partial Swath Displayed Pixel size: 56 m ã Canadian Space Agency. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing .nrcan. Vol. pp. Saint-Jean. R.

.. layover and shadow Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.Terrain Relief and SAR (cont. Natural Resources Canada .) • High relief environment (~1000 m) ® backscatter strongly controlled by angle and orientation of slopes • Yields a very refined “terrain-texture” image of the landforms • Erosional processes which define the landforms are often diagnostic of the underlying rock type • Interpretation of high relief SAR imagery must contend with the effects of radar foreshortening.

ccrs. pp. B. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing . R.4 m Orbit Singhroy V.cfm?BiblioID=4723 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.nrcan.4 m High relief environment Legend Block slide Faults Transverse ridges Slide scarp Transverse block fracture 08-Oct-96 Incident Angle: 20º . 211-217 ã Canadian Space Agency.gc. Saint-Jean.C. Effects of relief on the selection of RADARSAT-1 incidence angle for geological applications. Vol. 3. 1999 .Comparison of RADARSAT Viewing Geometry of High Relief Terrains.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. Hope. 25. No.27º Resolution: 26 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Displayed Pixel Spacing: 29. 1999. Extended High Mode Beam EH6 Ascending 17-Oct-96 Incident Angle: 57º -59º Resolution: 18 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Displayed Pixel Spacing: 29. Natural Resources Canada Look . . 1996 Courtesy RADARSAT International Standard Mode Beam S1 Ascending Geological Applications Laboratory http://dweb.

1996 Received by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Processed and distributed by RADARSAT International Inc. Mahmood.cfm?BiblioID=2239 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.ccrs. Malaysia Incident Angle Effect on Terrain Appearance RADARSAT-1 Standard 5 q : 36° .N.59° .Sarawak.23° O rb it Loo k O rb it Effect of incident angle RADARSAT-1 EH6 q : 57° . P. .42° Loo k Loo k ã Canadian Space Agency.nrcan. Natural Resources Canada O rb it RADARSAT-1 EL1 q : 10° . 1997. Budkewitsch. N.gc. D'Iorio M.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. http://dweb.

• In low relief environments. Natural Resources Canada . the look direction can be used to provide information on areas that are occulted the the other look direction or subject to layover or foreshortening. the look direction can influence the information content of the imagery.Look direction • Since SAR sensors provide their own illumination source. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. • In high relief environments. • Greater morphological enhancement can be obtained when illumination is perpendicular to the topographical features (cardinal effect). the look direction can be used to provide a greater enhancement of lineaments.

Mahmood. Malaysia D'Iorio M.N. P. 1997.cfm?BiblioID=2239 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. http://dweb.ccrs.nrcan.Geological Application: effect of look direction Tropical forest environment : interlayered sandstone and shale layering apparent layering not apparent ã Canadian Space Agency 1996 Courtesy RADARSAT International Effect of look direction layering apparent layering not apparent Ascending pass (east-looking) Descending pass (west-looking) RADARSAT-1 date: 26 August 96 beam mode: Standard (S6) incident angle : 44º RADARSAT-1 date: 3 June 96 beam mode: Standard (S6) incident angle : 44º Sarawak. N. Natural Resources Canada . Budkewitsch. .gc.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.

Natural Resources Canada .Tropical Environments • Heavily vegetated • Always humid • Tropical weathering of bedrock reveals structures and rock type • Dense forest canopy acts as a surrogate for topography ® no SAR backscatter from ground Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.

59º Resolution: 18 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az). Natural Resources Canada . Pixel Spacing: 40 m Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. BRAZIL RADARSAT-1 23-Dec-98 Descending Pass ã Canadian Space Agency 1998 Geomorphology in tropical environments Extended High Mode (EH6) Incident Angle: 57º .MATO GROSSO.

related to rock type • Thin. dry snow cover is transparent to SAR • Best imaged during frozen ground conditions ® eliminates soil moisture effects Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Natural Resources Canada .Polar Environments • Sparse vegetation • Frozen ground • Bedrock weathered by frost action .

and J. ã Canadian Space Agency.nrcan.BATHURST ISLAND Lithological discrimination (roughness) at low and moderate incident angles Geological Map Kerr.49º resolution: 20 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) display pixel spacing: 60 mº Extended Low 1 17 February 97 incident angle: 10º .000 scale) Lithology in polar environments Standard 7 21 March 96 incident angle: 45º . 1974 (1:250. Natural Resources Canada .gc. 1996-97 http://www.ca/ccrs/tekrd/radarsat/images/nwt/rnwt01e.23 resolution: 36 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) display pixel spacing: 60 mº Paul Budkewitsch.ccrs.html Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. D’Iorio. Marc A. 1996. Chris Harisson.

Natural Resources Canada look direction .ccrs.7 cm ã Canadian Space Agency 1996 Courtesy RADARSAT International Inc. D’Iorio.6 cm RADARSAT-1 C-HH Paul Budkewitsch.: 20 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Pixel spacing : 32 m http://www.html Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.ca/ccrs/tekrd/radarsat/images/nwt/rnwt01e. Marc A.gc. 1996. Standard beam (S7) 21-March-96 q = 45° . Limestone : 4.descending pass BATHURST ISLAND POLAR BEAR PASS Lithology from SAR Lithology in polar environments Siltstone : 1.nrcan. Chris Harisson. and J.49° Res.

gc. http://www.BATHURST ISLAND Calibrated RADARSAT-1 Data Backscatter variation with angle of incident (fossiliferous carbonates vs. and J. Chris Harisson.ca/ccrs/tekrd/radarsat/images/nwt/rnwt01e. Marc A. Natural Resources Canada . siltstone) beam mode b° Radar backscatter (dB) Effect of incident angle on backscatter ‘rough surface’ (carbonates) ‘smooth surface’ (siltstone) Incident angle Paul Budkewitsch. 1996. D’Iorio.ccrs.html Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.nrcan.

Natural Resources Canada . avoid precipitation events Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.Desert Environments • Sparse vegetation • Dry soil conditions • Pebble size of alluvium strongly affects backscatter • Backscatter mainly controlled by soil moisture and surface roughness • If possible.

NEVADA RADARSAT-1 Fine Mode F4 18-Oct-96 ã 1996 Canadian Space Agency Image courtesy RADARSAT International Inc. Budkewitsch. P. Lithology in desert environments Orbit Look Incident angle : 45º -48º D'Iorio M.8 m (Rg) x 8. Rivard. Natural Resources Canada .ccrs.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.gc. B. .4 m (Az) Display pixel spacing : 25 m http://dweb.cfm?BiblioID=1528 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. 1996 Resolution : 7.nrcan.Lunar Lake Volcanic Field.

LAVA FLOW LUNAR LAKE Nevada. Natural Resources Canada Nevada. USA High and low surface roughness Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. USA .

46º ã 1997 Canadian Space Agency Nominal Resolution 50 m x 75 m (Rg x Az) Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.ZAGROS FOLD BELT. Natural Resources Canada Pixel Spacing 160 m . IRAN RADARSAT-1 11-Nov-97 Morphology in desert environments Ascending pass ScanSAR Narrow B Incident angle 31º .

Natural Resources Canada . • With the IHS technique. • Techniques such as IHS. Principal Component Analysis. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. can be used to merge the datasets. • Any properly geocoded digital dataset can be integrated with the SAR imagery. the SAR imagery is used to modulate intensity. Multiplication. Addition. • The resulting integrated product has a greater information value than the sum of the information of the individual constituents.Data Integration • SAR imagery may be used as a basis for data integration. while the merged dataset is used to modulate hue. etc.

B.gc.nrcan. .ccrs. R. Natural Resources Canada .Airborne C-SAR and Soil Geochemistry Nickel in soil (0-16 ppm Ni) Data integration SAR + Geochemistry IHS integration (soil geochemistry and SAR) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar C-HH Source: Singhroy V. Rivard 1995.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. Geological Applications Laboratory http://dweb.cfm?BiblioID=1661 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Saint-Jean.

Marc A.ca/ccrs/tekrd/radarsat/images/nwt/rnwt01e.nrcan.html Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.gc. 1996. Natural Resources Canada .W. Data Integration and Interpretation http://www.(geological map and SAR) Source: Paul Budkewitsch. Chris Harisson.T. D’Iorio. ã 1996 Canadian Space Agency Courtesy RADARSAT International Data integration Bathurst Island. and J. N.ccrs.

Azraq. Natural Resources Canada C-SAR and Landsat TM Landsat TM PCA (TM4.nrcan. Jordan Data Integration Data integration (Optical imagery and SAR) Airborne C-SAR Source: Singhroy V. . http://dweb.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. R.7) .5. B. Rivard 1995.cfm?BiblioID=1661 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.gc. Saint-Jean.ccrs.

Natural Resources Canada .RADARSAT Stereo Image Pairs • Appropriate RADARSAT image pairs can be viewed stereoscopically to provide a three-dimensional perspective of terrain landforms • Stereo pairs have proven useful for terrain mapping and DEM generation • Subtle features not discernible in single RADARSAT images are often recognized in stereo pairs Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.

Selection of Stereo Image Pairs • Best results obtained from same-side (i... ascending/descending) image pairs only recommended for very low relief areas.e. S7 or EH1-6) to minimise terrain displacement effects • The larger the difference between incident angles. similar tonal characteristics • Preference for one image with a large incident angle (i. the greater the vertical exaggeration in the stereo pair – high relief : 5°. descending/descending or ascending/ascending) image pairs with large overlap • Opposite-side (i.e.e.20° is sufficient – low relief : 20°..40° is required Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Natural Resources Canada .

Moon. BOLIVIA Stereo Image Pair 98-Aug-23 S3 Desc 97-Mar-27 S6 Desc Descending pass (right looking) Stereo image pair Display Pixel Spacing : 123 m Sub . .W.nrcan. L. Wu.MULTI-ANDEAN PROJECT. W. Lee.cfm?BiblioID=4734 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.gc. L.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. C.ccrs.A.scene Source: Lizeca J.M. C. Natural Resources Canada . 1999 RADARSAT-1 ã 1997 Canadian Space Agency http://dweb. Hutton.

C.nrcan. L. . 1999 Standard Image Pair : 98-Aug-23 (S3. Lee.M.ccrs.A. L. Hutton.ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. Natural Resources Canada . Desc) & 97-Mar-27 (S6.W. Moon.cfm?BiblioID=4734 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Desc) http://dweb. C.Digital Elevation Model of Multi-Andean Project of Bolivia DEM produced using radargrammetry and RADARSAT-1 image pair Source: Lizeca J. Wu.gc. W.

gc. 1999 Ortho colour image (IHS) draped over DEM Pixel Spacing = 25 m ã 1997 Canadian Space Agency http://dweb. Lee. Natural Resources Canada .ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere. Wu. Bolivia RADARSAT-1 perspective image Source: Lizeca J.nrcan. Hutton. L.M. L. . C. W.W. C.cfm?BiblioID=4734 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.Perspective Viewing Image Multi-Andean Project.ccrs.A. Moon.

Geological Applications • SAR can provide information for : – Geological mapping: regional surveys. map updating. structural and tectonic interpretation – Mineral exploration: provides simultaneous interpretation of information coming from several datasets – Geological hazards mapping: The all weather capabilities and the sensitivity to surface morphology provides information on remote areas Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Natural Resources Canada . geomorphological mapping.

. Natural Resources Canada (west looking ã 1996 Canadian Space Agency MACRES/CCRS Source: D'Iorio M. N. Malaysia Geological Map (Yin.gc.nrcan. Regional surveys. Mahmood. Structural interpretation http://dweb. Budkewitsch. Resolution : 21 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Pixel Spacing: 50 m .ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.cfm?BiblioID=2239 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.ccrs. 1997. 1992) Structural (stereo) Interpretation RADARSAT-1 S6 (descending) Map updating. P.Geological mapping Sarawak.N.

ccrs.nrcan.html Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.27º Sub-image Magnetics Vertical Gradient of the magnetic field From GSC Airborne Survey Line Spacing: 500 m Integrated through IHS with: Intensity : RADARSAT SAR Hue : Magnetics VG Saturation : Constant (DN=65) Geological Applications Laboratory http://www. 1996-June-04 STANDARD Mode.: 26 m (Rg) x 27 m (Az) Pixel Size Approx. 39 m x 39 m Inc. Angle: 20º . Beam 1 Resol.ca/ccrs/tekrd/rd/apps/geology/sudbury/sudburye.Mineral exploration Sudbury mining district.gc. Natural Resources Canada . Ontario RADARSAT-1 and Magnetics (VG) Integration SAR provides geomorphological information while the other dataset gives additional information Wanapitei Lake Granite and Granite Gneiss pi One Fm ng Chelmsford Fm rup el Ir Nick tive Sudbury Granite Greenstones and Sedimentary Rock LEGEND Mining Properties ã 1996 Canadian Space Agency RADARSAT-1 Orbit 3043.

ca/ccrs/db/biblio/papere.nrcan. Natural Resources Canada .C.cfm?BiblioID=13012 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. SAR provides geomorphological information http://dweb.gc. B.ccrs.Geological hazards mapping YALE LANDSLIDE Fraser Valley.

Natural Resources Canada ã 1997 Canadian Space Agency . right looking Landslide Pixel Spacing = 12 m Sub-scene Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. RADARSAT-1 Beam F2 SAR provides information about remote areas Ascending Pass. 1998.Geological hazards mapping Nevado Del Ruíz. Colombia Dec. 1.

often the most compelling factor for choosing between ascending or descending images • Viewing stereo image pairs significantly improves interpretation of geological structures (i. folds and faults) Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.e.RADARSAT and Geological Mapping • Topographic relief is the main factor for selecting beam position (incident angle) • Preference of radar look-direction (ascending vs.. descending) to be close to orthogonal to the principal trend of the bedrock structure . Natural Resources Canada .

• High relief (1000 m) : highest incident angles are best (i. EH1-EH6 beams also recommended to minimise terrain displacement effects.RADARSAT and Geological Mapping (continued) General guidelines : • Low to moderate relief (100-500 m) : all Standard beam modes (application dependent) ..e. Natural Resources Canada . S5-7). moderate preference for S1 to S5 for revealing terrain detail. however shadows may result • F1 to F5 in all cases exhibit few differences Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.

SN2) or ScanSAR Wide (SW2) useful for wide-area mosaics • Information content in Wide mode (W1-W3) is similar to Standard mode (S1-S7) images Detailed Studies : • Information content in all Fine modes (F1-F5) is essentially the same • Fine mode is recommended from 1:20 000 .RADARSAT and Geological Mapping (continued) Regional Studies : • ScanSAR Narrow (SN1. Natural Resources Canada .1:50 000 or smaller scale image maps Canada Centre for Remote Sensing.