Grégoire Bonnefoy – A4095640
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Organizational Behaviour

he will have difficulties to find a clear answer quickly on the internet. For example. There is two main benefit to work by groups: stay motivated and to help each other. working by sessions can be really effective. preparation and planning can make a hard task more easy. Here. if he works with friends or colleagues he will explain his point and he may have a quicker and more relevant answer from his team. Like this. then 15 minutes breaks and 1h30 of work. If one of the members is on Facebook instead of working. It is possible to learn false information or pick up bad habits and it is also possible to learn correct information and good habits. Atkinson. help each other is stimulating because if the employee is alone and he do not understand a point of the subject. It can be due to multiple causes Grégoire Bonnefoy 2 . 1h30 of work. Slide 8: Nearly everybody is capable to understand what are the mains skills of a good manager. It can be associated to the first advice: they are complementary. However. it’s easier to work a long period without a burn out if you are working the whole week. Then. Then the task appears easier because you can divide it into session and make your own timetable to answer it. However. the others can remind him that he should work which is not possible if this employee is alone at home. People can not be effective in their work if they are not motivated. we have try to find some organizational technics to make easier learning difficult content. Why people don’t just apply these rules? Lack of motivation might be the first barrier to effective managerial problem. Say motivated is possible by keeping an eye on the other. Smith & Hilgard 1996). Then.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour Session 1 Slides 5 A generally accepted definition is that learning involves a permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a results of previous practice or experience (Atkinson. It will help to see the end and not to panic. Frist. This advice consists in paying attention to the steps of the task and shell it to see the all desk. a lots of corporation have managerial problems.

strategy formulation and implementation. The company must respond appropriately to changes in the preferences of their consumers and a strong culture might lead to high adaptation. For example. the effective control. Why is it important for company? In research conducted by Kotter and Heskett (1992). Slides 14: Culture and routine has been the subject of study in social anthropology. People understand what they should do or what they should not do. Here are two possible issues to effective management in corporation. According to Pettigrew (1979). It is also important to understand that humans are very complex and they are not always in perfect condition. organizational culture acts as a control mechanism on behaviour (O’Reilly & Chatman 1996). Hodgetts (1991) identifies five mains benefits of culture: effective control. So much situations are making this difficult. it was founded that good financial performance is highly linked on having a culture that helps the company anticipate and adapt to changes in its environment. actions and values that people in an enterprise are expected to follow. lack of goals. If it’s not difficult to assimilate and to incorporate all these life skills to his daily life. when a manager is angry or very tired he will react in a very different way than if he was in a good mood. This portfolio will focus on two of these benefits. promotion of innovation. it is very difficult to make sure that he will always respect it in the long term. managers and colleagues are likely to correct the action. what is more complicated without a Grégoire Bonnefoy 3 . First. no recognition of the work. where researchers tried to understand the shared meaning and values held by a team in corporation that give significance to their actions.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour such as low salary. When employees do not respect the beliefs or the values of the company. bad environment to name but a few. strong commitment from employees and normative order. If this manager has big personal or familial problems he may not be capable of keeping these problems at home and it will impact his way of managing. and employee commitment. If a manager is not motivated in his works he will not be capable of pushing his team to do their best. organisational culture consists of the behaviour.

Even if Maslow’s theory has been criticized its theory made an important impact on the expansion and application of theories of motivation based on human needs and it is still being possible to find evidence of support to the hierarchy of needs. Here is resume few of the key literature. a man never reaches complete satisfaction. When the need that he highly expected is satisfied another will replace it. The hierarchy of needs of Maslow classified the need with a pyramidal form. Session 2 Slides 5/6 The question of motivation is often arising when people are trying to understand why people behave in a certain way. it creates a strong feeling of belonging in an entity that they understand and like. routines are important because it create bases and people like to have steps during their weeks. Maslow explain that the higher need will been accessible only if the lower needs are satisfied. An issue of this theory is that some people sometimes try to satisfy higher needs even when lower need in the hierarchy have not been satisfy (Williams & Page. when the employees are attached to their culture they care about the success of the company and create a strong commitment and passion. and the individual strives to move upwards through the hierarchy.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour strong culture. In his theory (1954). As Maslow explains. esteem needs such as prestige or independence and self-actualization needs such as realizing personal potential or self-fulfilment. Grégoire Bonnefoy 4 . Then. affiliation needs such as friendship or love. ideas and contributions. The foot of the pyramid represents the most basic needs. He divided this needs into five categories: physiological needs such as drinking or eating. In family. For the consumers. 1989). safety needs such as protection from elements or freedom from fear.

creativity and ingenuity can solve work issues by an important number of employees. According to this theory. In 1967 McCelland. imagination.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour Mc Gregor (1960) postulate two different views and perspective of men called theory X and theory Y. These kind of people need to be influential. The work of Herzberg (1966) is reliable to Maslow’s and McClelland’s theories. This theory is at the opposite of the Y theory which states that work is as natural as play. power. The need of achievement. They like to have feedback. also know as the Three Needs Theory. Mac Gregor show that managers can have two point of view that will impact their way of managing their employees. Pinder (2008) talking about the X and Y theory said “One of the most insightful and enduring observations made by behavioural science concerning work is that made McGregor”. and affiliation affect the actions of people in a company environment. and prefer work in which the outcomes are based on their effort. This category of people like to have contact with colleague during their work and are motivated by this. His research classifies Grégoire Bonnefoy 5 . The need of affiliation is the need of friendly relationship. They like team work. The Dual-Factor theory is based on the principle that humans are motivated towards what makes them feel happy or good and away from what makes them feel bad. If people are passive or negligent on the job. McGregor would belief that there are more individuals than is generally believed who are able to make a constructive contribution to find a solution of organizational problems and subscribe to the theory Y. it is because of their negative experiences in organization and not generally because of inherent human weakness. suggested the need theory. The last need is the need of authority and power. The X theory is the belief that people are obviously lazy and unwilling to effort and has to be frightened or manipulated if someone want to them to work. is characterised by the fact that people needs to have results in their job. This is a motivation model that show how the needs for achievement. effective and to have an impact on the company.

1967). security and motivators factors are recognition. Hackman. These factors are divided into two part. to name but a few. developed a model that include a set of guideline to help managers to motivate their employee.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour motivators as factor producing good feeling in the work environment. based on three concepts: valence. Vroom (1964) developed the first expectancy theory of work motivation. vertical loading (give the managers task to the employee) and open feedback channel (let them give feedback). Hygiene factors are supervision. for him. that they will be recognise and/or that they will be rewarded. This model is based on the idea that the job itself is crucial to employee motivation. Herzberg consider that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not the opposites. These factors differ significantly from motivators because they “can only prevent illness but not bring about good health”. status. the hygiene factors and the motivators. This theory has been criticized. For example. salary. and Purdy (1975). Some people feel that this theory is idealistic because of the difficulties that people have when there are trying to see a connection between rewards and performance. In other word. Grégoire Bonnefoy 6 . and expectancy. Researchers have some difficulty in reproduce the original methodology (Thompson & McHugh). instrumentality and expectancy. The American physiologist Victor H. or the way the research of Herzberg was conduct have weaknesses (House & Wigdor. the fact that hygiene and motivator factors can both cause satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction. forming natural work units. Janson. This theory develops the view that we predict the possible outcome of divers actions. instrumentality. establishing client relationships (allow employees to contact directly clients). the opposite of job satisfaction is no job satisfaction and the opposite of job dissatisfaction is lack of job dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors are clearly concerned with the work environment rather that the work itself. responsibility and advancement. Vroom explain that it is possible to quantify valence. Oldham. he explains that people work hard only when they believe that they will better their performance. It state that the motivating potential of job can be improved by the introduction of the following five concepts: combining tasks (increase variety of tasks).

Chester Barnard (1938) defined that “Organizing is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions. Latham and Locke (1979) model show the complexity of the setting of goals in a business. Hence. It shows that positive state of mind will lead to more efficient and more effective work.” Organizing is one of the most important aspect of a manager. goals might be “reducing cost by 10%” or “increase revenue of 5% over the next year”. high goals lead to greater effort. the manager has to define which department is in charge of which unit. persistence lead to higher results and it helps to activate cognitive knowledge and strategies to make an efficient work. To finish the manager. will accept negative feedback. If he is not capable to do so the work could not be effective. First. Session 3 Slide 2: Here the purpose is to explain two function of the managerial aspect of managers. The model distinct four mechanisms thought which goal setting better increase performances: focus on relevant activities. will set higher goals and will choose better strategies than people without any self-confidence. In business. effort. The starting point of the model is that behaviour is influenced by conscious goal and intentions. money to name but a few. A strong belief in one’s capabilities will sustain the motivation needed for high performance on a task. Classifying the authority of the different department or units is the next step. have to define the coordination Grégoire Bonnefoy 7 .BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour The self-efficacy theory of Albert Bondura (1997) is based on the idea that people can be motivate by themselves. This organization avoids wastage of time. the manager has to identifies all the tasks which have to be performed. then to departmentally organize the activities by groups. the jobs related and the co-ordination between authority and responsibility. This aspect of management follows a planning. a manager always has to organize in order to get results. A goal is basically an objective. it can also be a goal for a carrier: “during this year. The clarification of authority helps in bringing efficiency to different task. the accomplishment of which is desirable in the mind of a person. I get a promotion!”. People who have high level of confidence in their skills will put more effort in their job.

Each employee must be aware of his/here authority and he/she knows whom they have to refer from and to whom they are dependent and to whom they have to report. bet your company and process. individual. should be very careful with the motivation of its employees and must be aware of their good business environment. will not try to do their best and will not be concern about the real purpose of the company. not superstitious. aerospace and defence company’s. in consequence. Employees are expected to be rather cautious and protective of their position. a demotivated workforce can be disastrous. radio and management consultancy. Grégoire Bonnefoy 8 . People will not be effective. These type of employees are often situated in oil. In work hard. Session 4 Slide 7-8: The research of Deal and Kennedy provides way of comparing organizations cultures. The last type of culture. according to Deal and Kennedy. have high work rate and quick solutions to problems. Organization associated with this culture can be found in construction. The Deal and Kennedy approach consists of four cultural profiles: though-guy macho. A manager who can understand the motives of an employee can influence his behaviour and make him very effective at work. The thought-guy culture is the culture where the perfect employee is though. Every human being has different motivation for their job and they are key determinant of our behaviour. to put a lot of time in their work. Company associated with this culture are often estate agencies. have well defined procedures. His dress code and his lifestyle is conventional. television. superstitious and risk-taker. is the process culture. cosmetics. A motivated workforce can be a sign of successful organization. On the other hand. Even if it is not clearly defining as the manager’s job to motivate its employees. nearly every professional admit at least that a manager has a big impact on the staff motivation. play hard culture. The bet your company perfect employee is technically competent with respect of authority and double checks his decision. Managers. Two important factors shape the organizational culture: the risk of the activities of the company and the speed of feedback in the outcome of employees. work hard play hard. mass-product company. and act as mentor for the new member of the organization.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour between authority and responsibility. car distributor and door-to-door selling. the perfect employee is friendly. conventional in dress.

Grégoire Bonnefoy 9 . The person culture organizations are focused on individuals. Company associated with this culture are start-up and architect’s partnership. Each personality come together to form a team and each team member has to contribute similarly and has to accomplish tasks in the most inventive way. The difference between these two concept is the two important factors shape. the procedures. However. The last culture is the task culture and is job or project oriented. influenced by Harrison’s (1972). also propose four type of organisation culture: power. for the Handy model the two factors are centralization and formalization.BIB 1 LONDON Organizational Behaviour The organisation they attached is located in publics utilities. That mean that the organization exist for the benefit of their employees. On the other hand. This culture is based on functional department and specialities. role. the two model bring quite similar culture corporations. The tough-guy macho and power culture are comparable and the process culture is similar to the task culture. In the Deal and Kennedy model. person and task cultures. Charles Handy (1985). insurance. dominant individual. banking. This type of culture might be founded in small company ruled by the owner. and the job description. the two factors are risk and speed of feedback. It is characterised by bureaucracies. pharmaceuticals and governmental agencies. these culture will recruit those who have a similar viewpoint and will try to operate with the minimum of rules. The role culture organizations focus on the rules. The power culture organization have a single. Team are created to solves critical problems.

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