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Copyrighted material

Contents
Preface to Second Edition
Preface to Flrst Edition

be
xi

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Historical Developments
Pavement Types
Road Tests
Design Factors
Highway Pavements, Airport Pavements, and Railroad Trackbeds
Summary
Problems and Questions

CHAPTER 2 Stresses and Strains in flexible Pavements
2.1
2.2
2.3

Homogeneous Mass
Layered Systems
Viscoelastic Solutions
Summary
Problems
.

CHAPTER 3 KEN LAYER Computer Program
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

C::HAPTER 4

Theoretical Developments
Program Description
Comparison with Available Solutions
Sensitivity Analysis
Summary
Problems

Stresses and DeOections in Rigid Pavements
4.1
4.2

Stresses Due to Curling
Stresses and Deflections Due to Loading

1

8
19
26
37
41
43

4.5
45
51

7.fl

89
90
94

94
106
109
130
141
143

147
147
153

v
Copynghted material

vi

Contents

4.3
4.4

Stresses Due to Friction
Design of Dowels and Joints
Summary
Problems

CHAPTERS KENSLABS Computer Program

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Theoretical Developments
Program Description
Comparison with Available Solutions
Sensitivity Analysis
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER6 Trame Loading and Volume

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Design Procedures
Equivalent Single-Wheel Load
Equivalent Axle Load Factor
Ttaftic Analysis
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER 7 Material Cbaratterization

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Resilient Modulus
Dynamic Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures
Fatigue Characteristics
Permanent Deformation Parameters
Other Properties
Summary
Problems
'

CHAPTERS Drainage Design

8.1
8.2
8.3

General Consideration
Drainage Materials
Design Procedures
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER9 Pavement Performance

9.1
9.2
9.3

Distress
Serviceability
Surface Friction

164
171
180
182
186

186
206
213
226
234
236
244

244
245
256
265
275
276
Z79

279
297
309

316
326
330
331
334

334
340
351
365
366
368

368
388
401

Copyrighted material

Contents
9.4
9.5

Nondestructive Deflection Testing
Pavement Performance
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER 10 Reliability

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

Statistical Concepts
Probabilistic Methods
Variability
Rosenblueth Method
Summary
Problems

CHAPTER 11 Flexible Pavement Design

Calibrated Mechanistic Design Procedure
Asphalt Institute Method
11.3 AASHTO Method
11.4 Design of flexible Pavement Shoulders
Summary
Problems
11.1
11.2

CHAPTER 12 Rigid Pavement Design

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5

Calibrated Mechanistic Design Procedure
Portland Cement Association Method
AASHTO Method
Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavements
Design of Rigid Pavement Shoulders
Summary
Problems

vii

410
424
436

438

441

441
ill
460

466
462
470

472
472
487
505
522
528
530

533
533
545
568
583
592
596
598

CHAPTER 13 Design of Overlays

600

13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5

600
605

Types of Overlays
Design Methodologies
Asphalt Institute Method
Portland Cement Association Method
AASHTO Method
I
Summary
Problems

APPENDIX A Theory ofVJ.SCOelastidty

A.l
A.2

Differential Operators
Elastic- Viscoelastic Correspondence Principle

608
620
627
650
652
655

655
657

Copynghted matenal

viii

Contents

A.3
A.4

Method of Successive Residuals
Complex Modulus

APPENDIX 8 Theory or Elastic Layer Systems
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Differential Equations
Circular Loaded Area
8ounda~· and Continuity Conditions
Extension to Concentrated Load

APPENDIX C KENPAVE Software
C. I
C.2
C.3
C.4

Software Installation
Main Screen
LAYERINP
SLABSINP

APPENDIX D An Introduction to Superpave
D. I
D.2
D.3

Asphalt Binder Grading System
Aggregates in HMA
Asphalt Mix Design
Summary

APPENDIX E Pavement Management Systems
E. I
E.2
E.3
E.4
E.5
E.6
E.7

PMS Activity Levels
Network-Level Elements
Project-Level Elements
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
PMS Data and Software
Infrastructure and Asset Management
Pavement Preservation
Summary
Problems

APPENDIX F A Preview of 2002 Design Guide
F. I
F.2
F.3

General Features
Design inputs
Distress Prediction Models
Summary '

662

666

671
671
673
674
676

677
677
678
679
681
682

682
684
689
692

694
694
695
700
703
711
713
714
714
714

716
716
717
722
727

APPENDIX G List or Symbols

728

APPENDIX H Retereoces

741

Author Index

161

SubJ«t Index

7Gl

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1935.The complexities of the mathematics involved have denied this refined method the attention it Copyrighted m a\erial . the PCA assumed that there was no load transfer across the joint. 1951). The same equation was applied by Older (1924) in the Bates Road Test. based on the assumption that the slab and subgrade were in full contact. 'Ibe results were published in Public Roads from 1935 to 1943 as a series of six papers and reprinted as a single volume for wider distribution (Teller and Sutherland. Westergaard also assumed that the slab and subgrade were in full contact. as indicated by Eq. 1926b. was used by the Portland Cement Association until 1966.6 Chapter 1 Introduction Analytical Solutions Analytical solutions ranging from simple closed-form formulas to complex derivations are available for determining the stresses and deflections in concrete pavements. at the Arlington E xperimental Farm. By assuming that part of the slab was not in contact with the subgrade.63-m) lane with most traffic moving away from the corl}er. Pickett found that Westergaard's corner formula. Goldbeck (1919) developed a simple equation for the design of rigid pavements. Pickett's corner formula (PCA. 1966). The PCA method was based on Westergaard's analysis. independent of the deflections at any other points. always yielded a stress that was too small. when a new method based on the stress at the transverse joint was developed (PCA. Westergaard's Analysis Based on Liquid Foundations The most extensive theoretical studies on the stresses and deflections in concrete pavements were made by Westergaard (1926a.12 in Chapter 4. 4. 1948). was employed (PCA. who developed equations due to temperature curling as well as three cases of loading: load applied near the corner of a large slab. so the stress thus determined was similar to the case of edge loading with a diffetent tire orientation. in addition to the fatigue criterion based on the edge stress. Pickett's Analysis Based on Solid FoundationS In view of the fact that the actual subgrade behaved more like an elastic solid than a dense liquid. the U. in which an erosion criterion based on the corner denection. However. in determining the stress at the joint. (1951) developed theoretical solutions for concrete slabs on an elastic half-space. The replacement of corner loading by the stress at the joint was due to the use of a 12-ft-wide (3.1943). In comparing the critical comer stress obtained from Westergaard's corner formula with that from field measurements. 1984). In conjunction with Westergaard's investigation. The PCA method was revised again in 1984. Virginia. he developed a semiempirical formula that was in good agreement with experimental results. and load applied at the interior of a large slab at a considerable distance from any edge. 1943.S. Pickett et al. load applied near the edge of a large slab but at a considerable distance from any corner. an extensive investigation on the structural behavior of concrete pavements. Goldbeck's Formula By treating the pavement as a cantilever beam with a load concentrated at the corner. Th. 1939. 1927. 1933. Bureau of Public Roads conducted.is type of foundation is called a liquid or Winkler foundation. The analysis was based on the simplifying assumption that thereactive pressure between the slab and the subgrade at any given point is proportional to the deflection at that point. with a 20% allowance for load transfer.

temperature curling.1. JSLAB developed by the Portland Cement Association (Tayabji and Colley. (Majidzadeh et al. The discrete-element method is more or less similar to the finite-difference method in that tile slab is seen as an assemblage of elastic joints. which is presented in Section 5. The method was later extended by Saxena (1973) for analyzing slabs on an elastic solid foundation. and moisture warping. Other finite-element computer programs available include ILLI-SLAB developed at the University of Illinois (Tabatabaie ruJd Barenberg. Discrete-Element Methods Hudson and Matlock (1966) applied the discrete· e lement method by assuming the subgrade to be a dense liquid.1be general-purpose 3-0 finite.. 1981. a break-through was made in the analysis of rigid pavements. Numerical Solution. and RISC developed by Resource International. was one of the first to recognize that theoretical results need to be checked against pavement performance. the knowledge gained from pavement performance is the most important. Cheung and Zienkiewic"l (1965) developed finite -element methods for analyzing slabs on elastic foundations of botb liquid and solid types.-element package ABAQUS (1993) was used in simulating pavements involving nonlinear subgrade under dynamic loading (Zaghloul and White. With tbe advent of computers and numerical methods. re-Spectively. tbe slab and subgrade are usually not in contact. 1984). 1982). 1994) and in investigating the effects of discontinuity on tbe response of a jointed plain concrete pavement under a standard falling weight deflectometer load (Uddin eta/.-elernent computer programs named WESLIQID and WESLAYER for the analysis of liquid and layered foundations. In collaboration with Huang (Chou and Huang. provided the intensity of ex'trcme fiber stress did not exceed Copyrighted material . However.. the following events are worthy of note. due to pumping. 1986). The consideration of foundation as a layered system is more realistic when layers of base and subbase exist above the subgrade. a simple intluence chart based on solid foundations was developed by Pickett and Badaruddin {1956) for determining the edge stress. Other Developments Even though theoretical methods are helpful in improving and ex'lrapolating design procedures. Fatigue of Concrete An extensive study was made by the Illinois Division of Highways during the Bates Roadl:est on the fatigue properties of concrete (Clemmer. Inc.3. It is well known that. 1979. ·n1e methods were applied to jointed slabs on liquid foundations by Huang and Wang (1973. 1980).2.~ All the analytical solutions mentioned above were based on the assumption that the slab and the subgrade are in full contact. 1995). some analyses based on partial contact were developed. 1923). 1974) and on solid foundations by Huang (l974a). 1979. Finite-Element Methods With the development of tbe powerful finite-element method.1 Historical Developments 7 merits. In addition to the above theoretical developments. rigid bars. Westergaard (1927). Chou (198!) developed finite. It was found that an induced flexural stress could be repeated indefinitely with· out causing rupture. who contributed so much to the theory of concrete pavement design. and torsional bars.

the discontinuity at the edge has very little effect on the critical stresses and strains obtained. rigid or concrete pavements. 1. because discontinuity causes a large stress at the edge.6 or 0. which is discussed in Chapters 2 and 3.61 m) from the edge. rigid pavements were constructed on gran ular base courses of varying thickness to protect against loss of subgrade support due to pumping. the current PCA method assumes a stress ratio of 0. This is particularly true in regions where high-quality materials are expensive but local materials of inferior quality are readily available. Conventional flexible Pavements Conventional flexible pavements are layered systems with better materials on top where the intensity of stress is high and inferior ma terials at the bonom where the intensity is low. and composite pavements.2. if the stress ratio was above 50%. The p he nomenon of pumping. the allowable number of stress repetitions to cause failures decreased drastically as the stress ratio increased. 1. Its application to flexible pavements is validated by the limited area of stress distribution through flexible materials. Many studies were made on the design of base courses for the correction of pumping. particularly just before World War II. 1986). Huang and Sharpe (1989) developed a finite-elen:ient probabilistic computer program for the design of rigid pavements and showed that the use of a cracking index in a reliability context was far superior to the current deterministic approach. As long as the wheel load is more than 2 ft (0. Although the arbitrary use of 50% stress ratio as a dividing line was not actually proved.45. below which no fatigue damage need be considered.9 m) from the pavement edge. it became evident that subgrade type played an important role in pavement performance. and the concepts were incorporated into the AASHTO design guide (AASHTO. Nor can the layered theory be applied to rigid pavements when the wheel loads are Jess than 2 or 3 [t (0. and that. Adherence to this design principle makes possible the use of local material~ and usually results in a most economical design. which is the ejection of water and subgrade soils through joints and cracks and along the pavement edge. After pavement pumping became critical during the war.2 PAVEMENT TYPES There are three major types of pavements: flexible or asphalt pavements.8 Chapter 1 Introduction approximately 50% of the modulus of rupture. Copyrighted material . Pumping With increasing truck traffic. A major limitation of the theory is the assumption of a layered system infmite in areal extent. Probabilistic Methods The application of probabilistic concepts to rigid pavement design was presented by Kher and Darter (1973). was first described by Gage (1932).To obtain a smoother fatigue curve.1 Flexible Pavements Flexible pavements can be analyzed by Burmister's layered theory. this assumption has been used most frequently as a basis for rigid pavement design. This assumption makes the theory iuapplicable to rigid pavements with trausverse joints.

used to ensure a bond between the surface being paved and the overlying course. Depending o n the purpose. Details about skid resistance are presented in Section 9. base course. is the asphalt layer below the surface course. Tile use of the various courses is based on e ithe r necessity or economy.2 Typical cross section of a conventional flexible pave ment (I in. Surface Course The surface course is the top course of an asphalt pavement.A is too thick to be compacted in one layer.2 Pavement Types 9 Figure 1. the pavement consists of seal coat. binder course.4 in 4 . Binder Course TI1e binder course. It is important that each layer in an asphalt • Seal Coat. Starting from the top. Second.1.12 i n./ I Surface Course lack Coat . seal coats might or might not be covered with aggregate.•ctcd Subgrade 6 in. (76 mm). prime coat. sometimes called the asphalt base course. First./ i Binder Couts<! i Base Course I Subbase Course 4 . and natural subgrade. 2. It must be waterproof to protect the entire pavement and subgrade from the weakening effect of water. Comp. tack coat. compacted subgrade. sometimes called the we aring course. the HM. subbase course..nder course generally con sists of larger aggregates and less asphalt and does not require as high a quality as the surface course.2 shows the cross section of a conventional flexible pavement.3. If the above requirements cannot be met. surface course. 1l1ere are two reasons that a binder course is used in addition to the surface course. !'rime Coat / -- 1. and some of the courses may be omitted. usually asphalt emulsion diluted with water.12 in. = 25.2 in. It must be tough to resist distortion w1der traffic and provide a smooth and skid· resistant riding surface. • - -I Natural Subgradc FIGURE 1. so it must be placed in two layers. it is generally placed in two layers. It is usually constructed of dense graded HMA. Seal Coat Seal coat is a thin asphalt surface treatment used to waterproof the surface or to provide skid resistance where the aggregates in the surface course could be polished by traffic and become slippery. Tack Coat and Prime Coat A tack coat is a very light application of asphalt. the use of a seal coat is recommended.4 mm). If the binder course is more than 3 in. so replacing a part of the surface course by the binder course results in a more economical design. Copyrighted material . the bi.

Figure 1. The three essential requirements of a tack coat are that it must be very thin. Prepared Subgrade Copyrighted material .~tructed by placing one or more layers of HMA directly on the subgrade or improved subgrade. or other untreated or stabilized mate rials. it. Subgrade The top 6 in. Asphalt Surface Asphalt Base 2 to 20 i. Instead of using the more expensive base course material for the entire layer. FIGURE 1.e. This compacted subgrade may be the in-situ soil or a layer of selected material. rather than several materials from different sources. A prime coat is an application of low-viscosity c. and forms a watertight surface..4 mm). This type of construction is quite popular in areas where local materials are not available. • 25. HMA. It can be composed of crushed stone. .utback asphalt to an absorbent surface. The subbase course is the layer of material beneath the base course. Although the type and quantity of asphalt used are quite different. It is more convenient to purcha. plugs the voids.10 Chapter 1 Introduction pavement be bonded to the layer below. Tack coats are also used to bond the asphalt layer to a PCC base or an old asphalt pavement. both are spray applications. thus minimizing the administration and equipment costs.n.phalt Pavements Full-depth asphalt pavements are con. Base Course and Subbase Course The base course is the layer of material im· mediately beneath the surface or binder course. local and cheaper materials can be used as a subbase course on top of the subgrade. As with conventional pavement. the subbase course with more fmes can serve as a filter between the subgrade and the base course. The diffe rence between a tack coat and a prime coat is that a tack coat does not require the penetration of asphalt into the underlying layer. a tack coat must be applied between two asphalt layers to bind them together. such as an untreated granular base on which an asphalt layer will be placed. i. ( 152 mm) of subgrade should be scarified and compacted to the desirable density near the optimum moisture content.~ only one material. lf the base course is open graded . The asphalt base course in the full-depth construction is the same as the binder course in conventional pavement. must uniformly cover the entire surface to be paved. Its purpose is to bind the granular base to the asphalt layer. The reason that two diffe re nt granular materials are used is for economy. crushed slag. Full-Depth A.3 "JYpical cross-section of a full-depth asphalt paveme nt ( I in. whereas a prime coat penetrates into the underlying layer. and it must be allowed to break or cure before the HMA is laid.3 shows the typical cross section for a full-depth asphalt pavement.. This concept was conceived by the Asphalt Institute in 1960 and is generaUy considered the most cost-effective and dependable type of asphalt pavement for heavy traffic.

4 shows a typical cross section for rigid pavements. They have no permeable granular layers to ·entrap water and impair performance.61 m) from ~he edge. -+ -- . as discussed in Section 5. 4. full-depth asphalt pavements have · the following advantages: 1.ith a plane before bending which remains a plane after bending. The existence of joints in rigid pavements also makes the layered theory inapplicable.. . 5. Thus. 1987). only the plate theory can be used for rigid pavements. say less than 2ft (0.. some call it a base course..4 1Ypicat croos sectiou of a rigid pavement ( 1 in. FIGURE 1. others a subbase. a distance of 2 ft (0. in~tead of the layered theory.2 Pavement Types 11 According to the Asphalt Institute (AI.2 Rigid Pavements Rigid pavements are constructed of portland cement concrete and should be analy1. rigid pavements are placed either directly on the prepared subgrade or on a single layer of granular or stablized material.1._ L ___ Portland Cement Concrete 6-12 in. (102 mm) or more.4.2. .3. Therefore. either plate or layered theory can be used and both should yield nearly the same flexural stress or strain.1f the wheel load is applied near to the slab edge. __. I I . 2.ed by the plate theory. 6. According to limited studies. Plate theory is a simplified version of the layered theory that assumes the concrete slab to be a medium thick plate Y. moisture content~ do not build up in subgrades under full-depth asphalt pavement structures as they do under pavements with granular bases. Figure 1. On widening projects. Time required for construction is reduced. Details of plate theory are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. ~ 25.61 m) from the edge is considered quite far in il tJexible pavement but not far enough in a rigid pavement. lf the wheel load is applied in the interior of a slab. Because there is only one layer of material under the concrete and above the subgrade. In contrast to flexible pavements. 1. ___ _ _____ Base or _________ Subbase Coune __ _May __ _o r__ May __Not __________ Be Used _ __ ! --~----- 4-12 in. where adjacent traffic flow must usually be maintained. 3. there is little or no reduction in subgrade strength. construction seasons may be extended. lltey provide and retain uniformity in the pavement structure. The reason that the layered theory is applicable to flexible pavements but nN to rigid pavements is that PCC is much stiffer · than HMA and distributes the load over a much \ider area... L .4 n1m ). Copyrighted material . When placed in a thick lift of 4 in. lltey are less affected by moisture or frost. full-depth asphalt can be especially advantageous.

The sequence of e vents leading to pumping includes the creation of void space under the pavement caused by the temperature curling of the slab and the plastic deformation of the subgrade.'racl<ing ---~~=. Even under very heavy loads.~-6. no pumping will occur. TI1erefore. as shown in Figure 1.5.C. Pumping will take place only under heavy wheel loads with large slab deflections.5 Pumping of rigid pavement.-~-~-~·. the entrance of water. The material under the concrete slab must be erodible. 3. }<..~~----~-FIGURE 1. the enlargement of void space. the same critical stress in the concrete slab can be obtained without a base course by slightly increasing the concrete thickness..-.. The following reasons have been frequently cited for using·a base course. As the weight and volume of traffic increased. Cot~trol of Pumping Pumping is defined as the ejection of water and subgrade soil through joints and cracks and along the edges of pavements. pumping will occur'only after a large number of load repetitions.12 Chapter 1 Introduction Direction of Movement 'Itailing Slab Leading Slab Fines Deposited due ro Suction \ loss of Fines· . it is uneconomical to build a base course for the purpose of reducing the col)crete stress. For heavily traveled pavements... 2. The corrective measures for pumping include joint sealing.. Because the strength of concrete is much greater than that of the base course. and muck jacking with soil cement. and finally the faulting and cracking of the leading slab ahead of traffic. Although the use of a base course can reduce the critical stress in the concrete. pumping began to occur. which creates a vacuum and sucks the fine material from underneath the leading slab. Use of Base Course Early concrete paveme nts were constructed di rectly on the subgrade without a base course. good drainage is one of the most efficient ways to prevent pumping. . There must be frequent passage of heavy wheel loads. When pavements are subject to a large number of very heavy wheel loads with free water on top of the base course. the use of a cement-treated or asphalt-treated base course has now become a common practice. caused by downward slab movements due to heavy axle loads.~.·. and the use of a granular base course became quite popular. the ejection of muddy water. The material under the concrete slab must be saturated with free water. Three factors must exist simultaneously to produce pumping: 1. The erodibility of a material depends on the hydrodynamic forces created by the dynamic action of moving Copyrighted material . Pumping occurs under the leading slab when the traiJjog slab rebounds. even granular materials can be e roded by the pulsative action of water. U the material is well drained. undersealing with asphalt cements.

frost penetrates into the pavement and subgrade.6.6 Formation of ice lenses. the amount of heave due to 9% increase in volume is 0. the capillary tension induced by freezing sucks up water from the water table below. as indicated by the depth of frost penetration in Figure 1.5 and is subjected to a frost penetration of 3ft (0. Frost heave is caused by the formation and continuing expansion of ice lenses. due to frost action. the temperature is below the ordinary freezing point for water. The soil within the depth of frost penetration must be frost susceptible. and even some weakly cemented materials. are erodible because the large hydrodynamic pressure will transport the fine particles in the subbase or subgrade to the surface. For examp. which causes concrete slabs to break and softens the subgrade during the frost-melt period. If the subgrade is above the fr~t line and within the capillary fringe of the groundwater table. 1be moisture deficiency and the lower temperature in the freezing zone increase the capillary tension and induce flow toward the newly formed ice.09 x 3 x 0.s•q. Any untreated granular materials. .1. frost heave can reach several inches or more than one foot. 'Ibree factors must be present simultaneously to produce frost action: 1. After a period of freezing weather. When water freezes in the larger voids.' Copyrighted material .91 m). only scattered and small ice lenses can be formed.5 = 0. Above the frost line.le. (41 mm).62 in. The adjacent small voids are still unfrozen and act as conduits to deliver the water to the ice. If there is no water table or if the subgrade is above the capillary zone. The water will freeze in the larger voids but not in the smaller voids where the freezing point may be depressed as low as 23•F ( . TI1e increase in volume of 9% when water becomes frozen is not the real cause of frost heave. the amount of liquid water at that point decreases. In northern climates. which is much smaller than the 6 in. It results in frost heave.135 ft or 1. Control of Frost Action Frost action is detrimental to pavement performance. (152 mm) or more of heave experienced in such eli!Date.lt is a great increase in the amount of water in the freezing zone and the segregation of water into ice lenses. It should be recognized that silt is more frost susceptible than clay because it has both high Surtacc Course Base Course Depth of Scattered Lenses frost Pene tration - Capillary Zone Hcavylce 0 Segregation CapiUary Action ttt t tttt Groundwater FIGURE 1. The amount of heave is at least as much as the combined lens thicknesses.2 Pavement Types 13 wheel loads.lhe resu. These fine particles will go into suspension and cause pumping. if a soil has a porosity of 0.

Consequently. Under inclement weather conditions. a base course can raise the pavement to a desirable elevation above the water tabie. the reduction of water entering the subgrade further reduces the shrinkage and swell potentials. except that uniform fine sands with more than 10% finer than 0. shows the major characteristics of these four types of pavements. Figure 1. Dowels are used most frequently in the southeastern states. The practice of using or not using dowels varies among the states. A bigh water table can provide a continuou.7. and an open-graded base course can serve as a drainage h1yer. continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). Dowels or aggregate interlocks may be used for load transfer across the joints.02 mm are frost susceptible. Control ofShrinkage and Swell When moisture changes cause the subgrade to shrink and swell. and prestressed concrete pavement (PCP). Types of Concrete Pavement Concrete pavements can bl dassified into four types: jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). and both are used in other Copyrighted material . A quick freeze does not have sufficient time to form ice lenses of any · . significant siZe~ Improvement lJ! Drainage When the water table is bigh and close to the ground surface. As can be seen from the above reasoning. Loweriug the water table by subsurface drainage is an effective method to minimize frost action. there is always a necessity to build a • base course. Due to the very low permeability of frost-susceptible soils. it takes time for the capillary water to Oow from the water table to the location where the ice lenses are formed. E xcept for PCP with lateral prestressing. an open-graded base course can carry it away to the road side.xpedition of Construction A base course can be used as a working platform for heavy construction equipment. A dense-graded or stabilized base course can serve as a waterproofing layer. jointed reinf~rced concrete pavement (JRCP). Although clay has a very high capillarity. the base course can serve as a surcharge load to reduce the amount of shrinkage and swell. 3.14 Chapter 1 Introduction capillarity and bigh permeability. F. its permeability is SQ low that very little water can be attracted from the water table to form ice lenses during the freezing period. There must be a supply of water. a longitudinal joint should be installed between two traffic lanes to prevent longitudinal cracking. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements All plain concrete pavements should be constructed with closely spaced contraction joints. 2. base courses have been widely used for rigid pavements. When water seeps through pavement cracks and joints. aggregate interlocks in the western and southwestern states.~ supply of water to the freezing zone by capillary action. Cedergren (1988) recommends the use of an open-graded base course under every important pavement to provide an internal drainage system capable of rapidly removing all water that enters. a base course can keep the surface clean and dry and facilitate the construction work.02 rom are generally frost susceptible. The temperature must remain freezing for a sufficient period of time. Soils with more than 3% finer than 0.Thus.

Based on the unit costs of sawing. and joint sealants.1.2 m). Nussbaum and Lokken (1978) found that the most economical joint spacing was about 40 ft (12. The amount of distributed steel in JRCP increases with tbe increase in joint spacing and is designed to hold the slab togethe r after cracking. However. ~ ~ I· tsto3on ·I· tsto3o n I i ·I I t Longitudinal Joint with Tie Bars ' \ Wire . so the selection of 40ft (12.· Fabric 30 to 100 fl ·I (b)JRCP (a) JJ'CP I Continuous 15 I I d37 Reinforcemen~CD9 No Joints Slab Length 300 to 700 ft (e) CRCP (d) PCP FIGURE 1. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavements It was the e limination of joints that prompted the fust experimental use of CRCP in 1921 on Columbia Pike near Copyrighted material .1 m) have been used. Because of the longer panel length.1 m) for doweled joints and 15ft (4. climate.ed. dowels.2 m) as the maximum joint spacing appears to be warrant. Joint spacings vary from 30 to 100ft (9~ 1 to 30m). the number of joints and dowel costs decrease with the increase in joint spacing. the aggregate interlock decreases.305 m). Maintenance costs generally increase with the increase in joint spacing.6 m) for w1doweled joints. as the joint spacing in· creases.7 Four types of concrete pavements (1 ft = 0.ural capacity of pave ments but allow the use of longer joint spacings~ This type of pavement is used most frequently in the northeastern and north ce ntral part of the United States.6 and 9. Jointed Reinforced Concrell! Pavements Steel reinforcements in the form of wire mesh or deformed bars do not increase the struct. dowels are required for load traJJSfer across the joints. and there is also an increased risk of cracking. Based on the results of a performance survey. Howe ver. areas.out Dowels Transverse Joints with Dowels \ J I I:l: . mesh.2 Pavement Types Transverse Joints with or witb. joint spacings between 15 and 30ft (4. and prior experience. Depending on the type of aggregate. Nussbaum and Lokken (1978) recom· mended maximum joint spacings of20 ft (6.

The thickness of concrete pavement required is governed by its modulus of rupture. (25 to 50 mm) or arbitrarily taken as 70 to 80% of the con. 2. Details on the design of CRCP are presented in Section 12. aJ pavement. w venhon The formation of transverse cracks at relatively close intervals is a distinctive characteristic of CRCP. J. The advantages of the joint-free design were widely accepted by many states.000 km). Pennsylvania (Moreen. These projects were preceded by a construction and testing program on an experimental prestressed pavement constructed in 1956 at Pittsburgh. These projects have the following features: 1. the recommended loadtransfer coefficients for CRCP are slightly smaller than those for JPCP or JRCP and so result in a slightly smaller thickness of CRCP. the thickness of CRCP has been empirically reduced by 1 to 2 in. 1971). Slab ~hickness was 6 in.1bis type of distress takes place between two paralle l random transverse cracks or at the intersection ofY cracks. (91-m) pavement in Delaware built in 1971 (Roads and Streets. (152 mm) on aU projects. D. 1972).5-mile ( 4-km) demonstration project was constructed in Pennsylvania (Brunner. a 2. which varies with the tensile strength of the concrete.4 to 2. 1975). As a result. It was originally reasoned that joints were the weak spots in rigid pavements and that the elimination of joints would decrease the thickness of pavement required. However. The first known prestressed highway pave ment in the United States was a 300-ft .. Slab length varied from 300 to 760ft (91 to 232 m). Longitudinal prestress varied from 200 to 331 psi (1. 4. The 1986 AASHTO design guide suggests using the same equation or nomograph for determining the thickness of JRCP and CRCP. In the post-tension method. the compressive stress was imposed after the concrete had gained sufficient strength to withstand the applied forces.3 MPa) and no transverse or diagonal prestressing was used. This was followed in the same year by a demonstration project on a 3200-ft (976-m) access road at Dulles International Airport (Pasko. Prestressed Concrele Pavem4'nts Concrete is weak in tension but strong in compression. Prestressed concrete has been used more frequently for airport pavements than for highway pavements because the saving in thickness for airport pavements is much Copyrighted material . In 1973. The preapplication of a· compressive stress to the concrete greatly reduces the tensile stress caused by the traffic loads and thus decreases the thickness of concrete requi~ed. The pre)ltressed concre te pavements have less probability of cracking and fewer transverse joints and therefore result in less maintenance and longer pavement life. and more than two dozen states have used CRCP with a two-lane mileage totaling over 20. U failures occur at the pavement edge instead of at the joint.16 Chapter 1 Introduction Washington. The amount of longitudinal reinforcing steel should be designed to control the spacing and width of cracks and the maximum stress in the steel. A post-tension method with seven wire steel strands was used for all projects.000 miles (32. there is no reason for a thinner CRCP to be used. .C.4. 1958).The distress that occurs most frequently in CRCP is punchout at the pavement edge. These cracks are held tightly by tne reinforcements and should be of no concern as long as they are uniformly spaced.

so they will not be discussed further in this book.. As of 2001. 1. 1976). The concrete pavement can be either JPCP. or CRCP. Section (a) shows the composite pavement with a jointed plain concrete base. an equivalent section can be used with the plate theory to determine the flexural stress in the concrete slab. (89-mm) HMA is composed of a 1. Prestressed concrete pavements are still at the experimental stage.ed bases. for asphalt pavements with stabili7. Design Methods When an asphalt overlay is placed over a concrete pavement. 1980). the major load-carrying component is the concrete. 1973) shows the HMA placed directly on the PCC base.2. which is a more conventional type of construction.1A and PCC. (64-mm) stone choked with stone screenings. A disadvantage of this construction is the occurrence of reflection cracks on the asphalt surface that are due to the joints and cracks in the concrete base.5-in. If the wheel load is applied in the interior of the pavement far from the edges and joints. as is described in Section 5. The PCC provides a strong base and the HMA provides a smooth and nonreflective surface.1. JRCP. and their design arises primarily from the application of experience and engineering judgment. The design of overlay is di~cussed in Chapter 13. can eliminate retlection cracks. The 3. The use of a 6-in. and Section (b) shows the composite pavement with a continuous reinforced Copyrighted material . (51-mm) binder course.3 Composite Pavements A composite pavement is composed of both HJI.2. However. Jf the wheel load is applied near to the pavement edge or joint. the most cri tical tensile stress or strain is located at the bottom of the asphalt layer. only the plate theory c11n be used.9 shows the composite structures reconunended for premium pavements (Von Quintus eta/. Composite pavements also include asphalt pavements with stabilized bases.8 shows two different cross sections that have been used. consisting of 2. practically all of which are the rehabilitation of concrete pavements using asphalt overlays. there are about 97.000 miles (155. The use of PCC as a bottom layer and HMA as a top layer results in an ideal pavement with the most desirable characteristics. Placing thick layers of granular materials between the concrete base and the asphalt layer. Assuming that the HMA is bonded to the concrete. Pavement Sedions The design of composite pavements varies a great del\J.2 Pavement Types 17 greater than that for highway pavements. Figure 1. For [Jexible pavements with untreated bases. either layered or plate theory can be used. tbis type of pavement is very expensive and is rarely used as a new construction. prevents reflection cracking. (152-mm) dense-graded crushed-stone base beneath the more rigid macadam base. the most critical location is at the bottom of the stabilized bases. (38-mm) surface course and a 2-in.1973).5-in. but the placement of a stronger concrete base under a weaker granular material can be an ineffective design.. The thickness of prestressed highway pavements has generally been selected as the minimum necessary to provide sufficient cover for the prestressing steel (Hanna et al. Section (a) (Ryell and Corkill. The open-graded HMA serves as a buffer to reduce the amount of reflection cracking. Figure 1.1.000 km) of composite pavements in the United States.5-in. so the plate theory should be used. as in Section (b) (Baker.

Premium pavements are also called zero-maintenance pavements. ll to 16 in. HMA Surface Course 2 in.se"'·"'G. (JPC) Granular Base • 8 in._e. HMA Surface Course Continuous Reinforced Concre te (CRC) Asphalt-Treated Base Drainage Layer lntprovcd Subgarde 3 in. (1980). Dense-Graded Crushed Stone in. ... Copyrighted material .Qrnded HMA Base Dense-Graded HMA Surface Dry Bound Macadam Jointed Plain Concrete (JPC) 8 in._d-"H. l Jointed Plain Concrete. TI1e ranges of thickness indicated in the figure depend on traffic.. Open.. They are designed to carry very heavy traffic with no maintenance required during the first 20 years and normal maintenance for the next 10 years before resurfacing. • 25.9 Typical cros.ra. 12 in. (After Von Quintus etal. = 25.4 mm). (a) !' II to 18 in. Subgrade (b) FIGURE 1.. "'"a"'' ce"-"_ At in. _______ l Subgrade (a) Crushed Stone Base 12 in. 0 to 24 in.) concrete base. 4ln.... Jointed Plain Concrete (n•q A•]>halt·Treated Base Drainage Layer Improved Subgarde Natural Soil . Natural Soil (b) FIGURE 1. Oto 12in.. and subgrade conditions.o.M. 4 in._.d. Asphalt Crack Relief Layer 3 in. OtoiOin.A"-"Surf.sections fo r premium composite pavements ( I in.4 nun). 010 24 in.18 Chapter 1 Introduction ~De=n. climate.. or Jointed Reinforced Concrete (JRC) 5 in ------------+16 ..8 Two different cross-sections for composite pavements (I in.

The pipe should be placed i. With current 24-ft (7.3. 1. cut in the subgrade. The soils under the pavement ranged from A-1 to A-7-6.6 mile (0.400 lb (80 and 100 kN) single-axle loads. The drainage layer is a blanket extending full width between shoulder edges. 1952). It should be noted that thickened-edge pavements were very popular at the time of the road test but are rarely in use today.1-mile (1. The asphalt relief layer is not required for continuous reinforced concrete base. an asphalt-treated base might be required beneath the concrete slab. Copyrighted material .000 and 22.1. with the A-6 group predominant.6-mm) asphalt crack-relief layer should be placed above the jointed plain concrete base. The total cost of the project was $245.8 MPa) may be used. This type of pavement is more costly to construct because of the grading operations required at the thickened edge. 1. (229-178-229-mm) thickened-edge cross section and reinforced with wire mesh. thus significantly reducing th1: ~tress at the edge.10.96 km) were subjected to 32. When the subgrade is poor.3-m) wide pavements.76-km) section of concrete pavement constructed in 1941 on US 301 approximately 9 miles (14.le loads. The west and east lanes of the southern 0. Note that a 3-in. if needed.000. Because of the large amount of interconnecting voids. It is designed toreduce reflection cracking.5 mile (0.1 Maryland Road Test The objective of this project was to determine the relative effects of four different axle loadings on a particular concrete pavement (HRB. The tests were conducted on a 1. three major road tests under controlled conditions were conducted by the Highway Research Board from the mid-1940s to the early 1960s. Thickenededge pavements were popular in the old days when pavement widths were in the neighborhood of 18 to 20 ft (5. the west and east lanes of the northern 0. respectively. (102-mm) drainage layer on top of the natural or improved subgrade. (7.4 km) south of La Plata. respectively.1to 3.91 to 1. Filter materials should be placed between the drainage layer and the subgrade.22 m) from the edge.1 m) and most trucks traveled very close to the pavement edge.5 to 6.9 A salient feature of the design is the 4-in. ControUed traffic tests were conducted from June through December 1950. In addition.n a trench section . this crack-relief layer provides a medium that resists the transmission of differential movements of the underlying slab. a perforated collector pipe should be placed longitudinally along the edge of the pavement.8 km) were subjected to 18. traffic concentration is between 3 and 4ft (0.000 and 44.3 ROAD TESTS Because the observed performance under actual conditions i~ the final criterion to judge the adequacy of a design method. There were four separate test sections.66-m) lanes having a 9-7-9-in.800 lb (142 and 200 kN) tandem·ax. This is a layer of coarse open-graded HMA containing 25 to 35% interconnecting voids and made up of 100% crushed material. General Layout The pavement consisted of two 12-ft (3. a leaner concrete with a modulus of rupture from 450 to 550 psi (3. Because the concrete base is protected by the HMA. Maryland. as shown in Figure 1.3 Road Tests 1.

12ft t 12(~ ! ::±£ :::J f9 in.64 mm). 1 9inJ:C FIGURE 1.400-lb (100-kN) single axle. 22.itudinal Joint Thrnaround 18. 3. (0.000-lb 22. c 0.014 in.800-lb (200-kN) ta ndem axle. the stresses for all cases of loading investigated were below generally accepted design limitsthat is. I ft I mile o 1. those for the edge loading approximately 0.6 mile ') "' inog.36 mm). the maximum deflections increased considerably.2 in. and 44. ~ 25. 7 m. . Mostly A-6 Subgrade (b) Pavement Section Major Find. .000-lb 44.45 N).20 Chapter 1 Introduction 1Urnaround J !' ' 12 fl I· + 12~ 32. the corner deflection approached 0. After pumping developed.ings l. (0. 9 in.10 Maryland Road Test ( 1 in. (5 mm) before cracking Copyrighted material . SO% of the modulus of rupture of the concrete. I lb o 4.6 km.4 nun. Pumping occurred on plastic clay soils but not on granular subgrades with low percentages of silt and clay. In some instances.000-lb (142-kN) tandem axle.5 mile ') Turnaround (a) Test Section . 2. the deflections for the corner loading averaged approximately 0.Teep speed.800-!b Tande m Tandem / 0.025 in. Both the average cracking and the average settlement of slab at the joint increased in this order: 18. Pumping and the accompanying loss of subgrade support caused large increases in the stresses for the corner case of loading. Prior to the development of pumping. 32.000-lb (80-kN) single axle.400-lb Single Single { J 0.305 m. Under t.

5. Except for one spring and two winter periods. (51-mm) HMA Copyrighted material . Tn one loop. with the same objective in mind (HRB. and 40. 203. (51 mm) of crushed gravel base. and 406 mm). regular traffic operation was staned. (51 mm) of HMA and 4 in.f instruments. For example. TI1e amount of damage to the pavement increased in the following order: 18. after completion of preliminary testing and installation o.400-lb (100-kN) single axle.000-lb (80-kN) single axle. 102.000. Idaho. (102-mm) increments for the five test sections. the deflections increased with corre.3. and 16 in. 4:' With the exception of the corner case of loading for pwnping soils. 8. 12. Thus.~ 1.sponding more rapid increase of stress to a magnitude sufficient to cause rupture of the slab. the results of an analysis showed that the minimum thicknesses of pavement with 2-in.400 lb (100 kN) in the outer lane. For pumping slabs under comer loading. the other tangent was surfaced with 2 in . the effect of temperature curling. The total cost of the project was $840. One tangent in each loop was surfaced with 4 in. On November 6. was not as pronounced as for the case of corner loading. The thicknesses of the gravel subbase were 0. In the o ther loop. (0.000-lb (80-kN) single -axle loads were operated in the inner lane and 22. slabs on the fine-grained soil can be explained by the fact that the deflections of these slabs under all of the test loads were sufficient to cause pumping when the other requisi te-s for pumping were present. 1955).1. 32. the total thickness of pavement over the A-4 basement soil varied from 6 to 22 in. the stresses averaged approximately the same for both vehicle speeds. 32. it was continued until May 29. 1952. For the case of edge loading. (152 to 559 mm) in 4-in. 22. although appre. 4. 1952. The stresses and detlectious caused by loads acting at the corners and edges of slabs were influenced to a marked degree by temperature curling.11le failure of the.000-lb (178-kN) tandem axle. Major Finding. General Layout Two identical test loops wer~ constructed. (102 mm) of HMA and 2 in. but on sections of flexible pavements in Malad. For the corner loading. the Westem Association of State Highway Officials (WASHO) conducted a similar test.000-lb (l42-kN) tandem axle. 205. and the completed pavement was accepted on September 30. 18.ciable.000 lb (178 kN) in the outer lane.11. the stress and deflection resulting at vehicle speed of 40 mph (64 km/h) averaged approximately 20% less than those at creep speed.2 WASHO Road Test After the successful completion of the Maryland Road Test sponsored by the eleven midwestern and eastern states.1954. each having two 1900-ft (580-m) tangents made up of five 300-ft (92-m) test sections separated by four 100-ft (30-m) transition sections.000-lb (142-kN) tandem-axle loads were in the inner lane and 40. Construction began in Apri1 1952. the stresses and deflections for a severe downward curled condition were observed to be only approximate ly one-third of those for the critical upwar d curled condition. (102 mm) of crushed gravel base. As pumping developed.3 Road Tests 21 occurred. as shown in Figure 1. 1.

b3 ~ Gravel Subbase I I h. Distress in the outer wbeelpath was more than that in the inner Wheelplith. 2 in. = 4 in. = 12 in. that would have been adequate to carry the 238. h3 = 12 in. The behavior of the pavement with 4-in.400-lb Single -+- 18. ' I A-4 Subgrode (b) PAVEMENT THIC'KNESSES FIGURE l. 432. I 24 ft ·I ~ 4 in. Crushed Gravel 4 in. • 25.305 m. 11b = 4. . = 0 in. 3.000 applications of the above loads were 16.8 in. Surfacing of the shoulders in three of the test sections in July 1953 proved to be highly I Copyrighted material . Ho t Mix Asphalt 2 in. . .. . 100ft h.1b Tandem 40. (102-mm) HMA was far superior to that oj equal total thickness with 2-in.17.45N).000-l b Tandem (a) TEST SECTIONS I· I 24ft I ·I I.•t ( l in. and 508 mm).22 Chapter 1 Introduction LOOP I - 22. ) LOOP2 32. h) . J ft = 0. 2. and 20 in. = 16 in. .l t WASHO Road Te.4 mm. (51-mm) HMA. 100 (t h. respectively. I ()Oft h·. = 8 in. tOO ft hJ = 4 in. b. 19. h.000. ( 406. h3 = 16 in. 483.000-lb Single • ( \ - E E E E E \_ hJ = 0 in. .

000. the north tangents were surfaced with HMA and south tangents with PCC. Each loop was a segment of a four-lane divided highway whose parallel roadways. 'llte test facility was constructed along the alignment of Interstate 80 near Ottawa. about 80 miles (128 km) southwest of Chicago. and 2000 ft (610 m) in loop 1. 1960.5 m) in loops 2 through 6 and 15ft ( 4. at which time 1.1. 1954. in which 40% of the total distress developed under 13% of the total applications. For the type of loading employed. or tangents. numbered 3 through 6. 6. that of a single-axle load is equivalent to the single-axle load. and test traffic was inaugurated on October 15. Deflection decreased as speed increased up to about 15 mph (24 kmih). deflections increased with increase in mois· ture content.1l1e deflection was maximum under a static load. Deflections of the pavement surface under traffic were approximately proportional to the applied load. called lane 1 and lane 2. 7. loa~. • 1 . iit which 27% of · the total distress developed under 0. whereas a tandem axle with a total load about 1.6 m) in loop 1. Test traffic was operated unti. after whicb deflections decreased only slightly as speed increased. One period was from June 11 to July 7. Copyrighted material . [)linois.8 times a single-axle load produced equal maximum deflections.~. 1953. were connected by a turnaro und at each end. 4400 ft (1340 m) in loop 2. 1962).l November 30. Centerlines divided the pavements into inner and outer lanes. 1958. 'llte second period was from February 17 to April 7. Deflection of the pavement surface under traffic was influenced by vehicle sp. Development of structural distress was confined largely to two critical periods of traffic operation.7% of the total load applications. a tandem axle with a total load about 1.e ed. On the basis of pavement distress. The minimum length of a section was 100ft (30. Each tangent was constructed as a succession of pavement sections called structural sections. General Layout The test consisted of four large loops. Construction began in August 1956. Detlections were greater as temperature of surfacing increased. The axle loads on each loop and lane are shown in Table 1.3 Road Tests 23 effective in retarding distress in the outer wheelpath. 5. and two smaller loops. and moisture content of the top layers of basement soil.1.000 axle loads had been applied. l and 2. When the moisture content at the basement soil exceeded 22%. Both facts suggest that the outer wheelpath with paved shoulders is the equivalent of the inner wheelpath and testify to the advantages of shoulder paving. The total cost of the project was $27.3 AASHO Road Test 'lbe objective of this project was to determine any significant relationship between the number of repetitions of specified axle loads of different magnitudes and arrangements and the performance of different thicknesses of flexible and rigid pavements (HRB.000. In all loops. temperature of the surfacing. 4. Tangent lengths were 6800 ft (2070 m) in loops 3 through 6. there was no significant difference between the magnitudes of the wheel loads transmitted in the outer wheelpath and those in the inner wheelpath that was due to the crown of the pavement. Pavement designs varied from section to section.114.5 times.

000 30. 'The superiority of the four types of base under study fell in the following order: bituminous treated. which is discussed itl Section 9.24 Chapter 1 Introduction Applications of Axle Loads on Various . load. but primarily by lateral movements of the materials. Lane no. S. Major findings for Oexible and rigid pavements are summarized separately as follows. cement treated. Data also showed that changes in thickness of the component layers were caused not by the increase in· density. Generally. lbe pavement needed to maintain a certain sel'\!iceability at a given number of axle-load applications would be considerably thinner in the inner than in the outer wheelpath.000 tnndem 6 5 4 2 l I 2 I 22.1 together with the eq uations relating serviceability.000 (lb) single Note: 1 lb ~ 12. base. Most of the sections containing the gravel base failed very early in the test.000 wndem 4. subbase. Flexible Pavements 1. A high degree of correlation was found between the det1ection at the top of the embankment and the total surface deflection and one between deflection and rutting. and thickness design of both .1 Loop no. This effect was due to the higher moisture contents of the base.Lanes at AASHO Rood Test TABLE 1. only 9% of a surface rut could be accounted for by rutting of the embankment. <l More surface cracking occlliTed during periods when the pavement was in a relatively cold state tilan during periods . 14 o/o in the base. cracking was more prevalent in' sections having deeper ruts than in sections with shallower ruts.45 N.000 single • 2 32.2. was greater in the spring than during the succeeding summer months.of warm weather. and embankment soil that existed in the spring. 1 2 1 2 Axle load (lb) None None 2000 6000 single single Loop no. 3. The deflection occurring within the pavement structure (surface.000 tandem 24.le load I 18. and their performance was definitely inferior to that of the sections with crushed-stone base. About 91% of the rutting occurred in the pavement itself: 32% in the surface. Ax. as well as that at the top of the embankment soil. 2 l 3 lane no.000 single tandem 2 48. and subbase). crushed stone. and 45% in the subbase. Rutli ng of the pavement was due principally to decrease in thickness of the component layers. Thus. and gravel. A pronounced reduction in deOcction accompanied an increase in Copyrighted material .400 single 40.0ept. 2. flexible and rigid pavements. Maj or Finding5 One important contribution uf the AASHO Road Test was the development of the pavement serviceability con1.

because all joints were doweled. reinforcement or panel length. No part of the cracking in the traffic loops was attributed solely to environmental changes. 1. subbase thickness. Inspections of the pavements were made weekly and after each rain.1. 4. viz. Asphalt and long-term pavement performance are the two areas directly related to pavement design. Congress in 1987 as a five-year. 1. Edge strains and deflections were affected to a lesser extent. materials testing.2 to 96 km/h) resulted in a decrease in strain or deflection of about 29%. Research on asphalt resulted in the development ofSuperpave (AI. These data. The research was conducted by independent contractors and targeted in four areas: highway operations. The amount of materials pumped through joints and cracks was negligible when compared with the amount ejected along the edge. only slab thickness has an appreciable effect on measured strains.2-m) reinforced panel usually exceeded those of a 15-ft ( 4.3. 5. An increase in vehicle speed from 2 to 60 mph (3. which inclusje inventory.S. including the coarser fractions. or loop 1. Of the three design variables. intended not to duplicate any ongoing research activities but rather to focus on some long-neglected needs for improving basic technologies and material properties. $150 million research program to improve highways and make them safer for both motorists and highway workers. Increasing the speed from 2 to 35 mph (3.6-m) nonreinforced panel. profile. as described in Appendix D.2 to 56 km/h) reduced the total deflection 38% and the embankment deflection 35%. if all other conditions were the same. was the major 'factor causing failures of sections with subbase. 2. Edge deflections and strains were not affected significantly by panel length or reinforcement. It was a new program. Corner deflections of a 40-ft (12. deflection by falling Copyrighted material . concrete and structures.U. because no cracks appeared in the nontraffic loop. and slab thickness.998.. never at the transverse joints. (Note: although no cracks appeared during and immediately after the road test. and long-term pavement performance.4 Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) The strategic Highway Research Program was approved by . One of the basic goals of the long-tem1 pavementperformance (LTPP) program is to eswblish a national pavement-perforn1ance data base (NPPDB) to store all the data collected and generated under the LTPP program. asphalt. The 1991 lntermodal Surface Transportation E fficiency Act (ISTEA) authorized an additional $108 million for SHRP itnplcmentation and for continuation of the 20-year long-term pavementperformance program. 2002). Pumping of subbase material.) 3. Rigid Pavements 1. cracks did occur many years later. Twenty-four-hour studies of the effect of fluctuating air temperature showed that the deflection of panel corners under vehicles traveling near the pavement edge migpt increase severalfold from afternoon to early morning. Faulting occasionally occurred at cracks.3 Road Tests 25 vehicle speed.

maintenance. responsibility for the on-going LTPP research and data-collection effon wa~ assumed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). materials. Since its inception. and failure criteria. conducting research on 666 international sites and forwarding data to the LTPP program. and traffic. cross profile. the LTPP program has been international in scope. The Transportation Research Board(TRB) was made responsible for maintaining the NPPDB. will provide researchers with reliable data for pavement design and performance studieS: The data were collected from 777 general pavement studies (GPS) sections and 234 specific pavement studies (SPS) sections throughout the United States.\ 26 Chapter 1 Introduction weighi deflectometer (F'WQ). environment. The nine paveme nt types for GPS are as follows: G PS-1: Asphalt concrete (AC) on granular base GSP-2: AC on stabilized base GPS-3: Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) GPS-4: Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) GPS-5: Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) GPS-6: AC overlay of AC pavement GP8-7: AC overlay of jointed concrete pavement (JCP) GP8-8: Bonded JCP overlay of concrete pavement GPS-9: U nbondcd JCP overlay of concrete pave ment The nine experiments for SPS are as follows: SPS-1: Strategic study of structural factors for flexible pavement SPS. In July 1992. friction. Fifteen countries are participating.ve-maintenance effectiveness for flexible pavement SPS-4: Preventive-mai.2: Strategic study of structural factors for rigid pavement 1 SPS-3: Preventi. The factors to be considered in each category will Copyrighted material . 1. so any conclusions or findings based on the short-term data are tentative and subject to changes and therefore are not reported here at this time. the SPS program includes specially constructed pavement that will help develop a better understanding of the effects on performance of a few targeted factors not widely covered in the GPS. climate.n tenance effectiveness for rigid pavement SPS-5: Rehabilitation of AC pavement SPS-6: Rehabilitation of J CP SPS-7: Bonded concrete overlay of concrete pavement SPS-8: Study of environmental effects in the absence of heavy loads SPS-9: Validation of SHRP asphalt specifications and mix design and innovations in asphalt paveme nt The LTPP program is still going on and the collection of data is not complete. The GPS program focuses on existing pavements. distress.4 DESIGN FACTORS Design factors can be divided into four broad categories: traffic and loading. rehabilitation.

4 Design Factors 27 be described.. A method for analyzing multiple-axle loads is presented in Section 3. the consideration of multiple axles is not a simple matter. However. tire-contact areas.. as illustrated by the PCA method in Section 12. even at a distance of more than 6ft (1. in the design of rigid pavements by plate theory.:fl:. a sim· plified and widely accepted procedure is to develop equivalent factors and convert each load group into an equivalent 18-kip (80-kN) single-axle load. For special heavy-duty haul trucks.22 to 1. The design is too conservative if each axle is treated independently and considered as one repetition.. Instead of analyzing the stresses and strains due to each axle-load group..1 Traffic and Loading The traffic and loading to be considered include.j ~4ft . the wheels on both sides./ Single Axle with Single Tire · Single Axle with Dual Tir es FIGURE 1.4.305 m ). l11e spacings of 23 and 13ft (7 and 4 m) shown in Figure 1:12 should have no effect on pavement design because the wheels are so far apart that their effect on stresses and strains should be considered independently. 1'be method of dividing axle loads into a number of groups has been used frequently for the design of rigid pavements. axle loads. single axle wit. and vehicle speeds. its application to flexible pavements is not widespread. Axle Lo ads Figure 1.. the number of load repeti· tions. Copyrighted material . Number or Repetitious With the use of a high-speed computer. tridem axles consisting of a set of three axles._.12 Wheel configurations for typical semitrailer units ( 1 ft = 0. (1. 6t ---. onlfthe wheels on one side. Unless an equivalent single-axle load is used.t. need be considered. 1. The design may be unsafe if the tandem and tridem axles are treated as a group and·considered as one repetition. are usually considered.8 m) apart. it is no problem to consider the number of load repetitions for each axle load and evaluate its damage.ol•---'23::. ln the design of flexible pavements by layered theory. and tandem axles with dual tires..1..:f. also exist.12 shows the wheel spacing for a typical semitrailer consisting of single axle with single tires.2.h dual tires... say at the outer wheelpath.. each spaced at 48 to 54 in.37 m) apart. because of the empirical nature of the design and of the large amount of computer time required.•• Jir~ ' ~aodem Axle with Dual1lres : ~ . and how the design process fits into a·n overall pavement management system will be discussed.1.3. Tractor... as illustrated by the f._ _~-+---1:::3:.

t t 1i. the contact pressure is greater than the tire pressure for low-pressure tires.14b. As indicated by Figure 1.14a was used previously by PCA (1966) for the design of rigid pa vcment. which has the same area of 0.<. It should be noted that the equivalency between two different loads depends on the failure criterion employed . These contact.s. The contact area shown in Figure l. which is composed of a rectangle and . When the Copyrighted material . The current PCA (1984) method is based on the fmiteelement procedure. and a rectangular area is assumed with length 0.3.2 and the AASHTO method in Sections 11. because the wall of tires is in. Because heavier axle loads have higher tire pressures and more destructive effe.ure. because the wall of tires is in compression and the sum of vertical forces due to wall and tire pressure must be equal to the force due to contact pressure. Therefore.5227L2.-x.6L.14a shows the approximate shape of contact area for each tire.cts on pavements. Figure 1. the use of a single equivalent factor for analyzing different types of distress is e mpirical and should be considered as approximate only.. as shown in Figure 1. it is necessary to know the contact area between tire and paveme nt. ]be size of contact area depends on the contact pressure.6L.13. in pavement design.6L) = 0.re Pressure ~H HH Contoet Contact Pressure Pressure (b) High Pressure Tire t ttt FIGURE 1. However.4L)(0.- L = V05i27 (l. tension.re Pressure Relationship between contact pressure and tire pres..28 Chapter 1 Introduction • Wall of1ire in Compression ~ J To. the contact pressure is smaller than the tire pressure for high-pressure tires.5227L2.13 Wall of1ire in'Umsion (a) Low Pressure Tire tttt Asphalt Institute metbod in Section 11.l) in which A< = contact area. By assuming length L and width 0. Heavier axle loads are always applied on dual tires. the area of contact Ac = 1T(0.8712L and width 0. areas are no t axisymmetric and cannot be used with the laye red theory. Contact Area In the mechanistic method of design. which can be obtained by dividing the load on each tire by the tire pressure. Equivalent factors based on fatigue cracking could be different from those based on pemtanent deformation. the use of tire pressure as the contact pressure is the refore on the safe side.3L) 2 + (0. two semicircles. so the axle load can be assumed to be uniformly distributed over the contact area.3 and 12. the contact pressure is generally assumed to be equal to the tire pressure. or .

~ ._____ __.. but the error incurred is believed to be small.. a 25.15 Example 1.le with the same contact area as the duals is frequently used to represent a set of dual tires...1 ~.___ ____. a single circ. Copyrighted material .4 mm). To simplify the analysis of flexible pavements.Ll !-+- ~--------------- 29 --·-··-~ ~ 0. 0.4 Design Factors ----~ - -.4. This assumption is not correct. 14 (b) Equivwent Area Dimension of tire contact area. as discussed in Section 4.1. instead of using two circular areas.6 L ~.1. 1 in.\. it is more reasonable to use a larger circular area to re present a set of duals.8712/. it is assumed that each tire has a circular contact area.. but could become unconservative for thin asphalt surface because the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt layer under· the larger c<intact radius of single wheel is smaller than that under the smaller contact radius of dual wheels.6 L .1: D raw the most realistic contact area for an J8-kip (80-kN) single-axle load with a tire pressure of 80 psi (552 kl'a).37 T '~· " .2. ·~· . Example 1.-10. as is illustrated in Section 3.1 (1 in.03 in. What are the other configurations of contact area that have been used for pavement design '! .1.2 0. This practice usually results in a more conservative design. \ f. .<j'b' 1. --L I Area = 0. For rigid pavcmeRts. layered theory is used for flexible pavement design.J (a) ~~ 9. ~ (a) ActuaL Area Figure 1. (b) --1 (c) (d) FIGURE 1.5 a .5227 1.

25/0.6L = 0.15b is the rectangular contact area for use in the finite-element analysis of rigid pavements with length 0.22 in.15a is the most realistic contact area consisting of a rectangle and two semicircles. In the mechanistivempirical method of design. as used previously by PCA (1966).5227 = 10. (158 nun). the slab curls upward so that its edge and corner may be out of Copyrighted material . or 4. although they used a tire pressure of 70 psi (483 kPa) and a contact radius of 4. is low. Effect on Asphalt Layer 1be elastic and viscoelastic properties of HMA are affected significantly by pavement temperature. (263 mm) . (229 mm). If the elastic theory is used. which may neutralize the beneficial effect of smaller strains. when temperature. This assumption was also made by the Asphalt Institute (AI. (115 mm .4.30 Chapter 1 Introduction Solution: The IS-kip (80-kN~ single-axle load is applied over four tires. During the day. stiffer HMA has less fatigue life. such as in VESYS and KENLAYER. Vehide Speed Another factor related to traffic is the speed of traveling vehicles. The contact area of each tire isAc = 4500/80 = 56.ler the · ' strains in the pavement.rcle with contact radius 2 x 56. each having a different set of layer moduli. Figure 1. 1978). each year can be divided into a number of periods.23 in.thaw cycles.2 Environment The environmental factors that influence pavement design include temperature and precipitation.37 = 6. the greater the speed.(107 mm). each having a load of 4500 lb (20 kN). This contact area was used in VESYS (FHWA.i der pavement temperature. The configuration of various contact areas is shown in Figure 1. The severity of cold climate is indicated by the freezing index. During the winter. Low temperature can cause asphalt pavements to crack. and the smal. Temperature 11le effect of temperature on asphalt pavements is different from that on concrete pavements.25 io. when the temperature at top is lower than that at bottom.25/'IT. 1981a). the HMA becomes rigid and reduces the strains in the pavement. Any mechanistic methods of flexible pavement design must cons.37 in. each having a radius of 56.15. Effect on Concrete Slob 111e temperature gradient in concrete pavements affects not only the curling stress but also the slab-subgrade contact.6 x 10" mm2) . when the temperature at top is higher than that at bottom.87l2L. However. 1. Generally. 1. which can be correlated with the depth of frost penetration. the slab curls down so that its interior may not be in contact with the subgrade.25/'IT = 5. Temperature affects the resilient modulus of asphalt layers and induces curling of concrete slabs.s used. .6 X 10. the resilient modulus of each paving material should be properly selected to be coinmensurate with the vehicle speed. 2 (3. At night. Figure 1. which can be related to air temperature. and width 6.98 in. (152 mm). In cold climates.03 in. From Eq.1Sd considers the contact area as a single ci. the larger the modulus.15c shows the contact area as two circles.2~n. both affecting the elastic moduli of the various layers. the resilient moduli of uustabi· lized materiaL~ also vary with the freeze. (158 rom). If the viscoelastic theory i. The damage during each period is evaluated and summed throughout the year to determine the design life. Figure 1. speed is directly related to the duration of loading. Figure 1. or 9. L ~ V56.52 in. The width of the tire is 0.1.

'The change between maximum and minimum temperatures also determines the joint and crack openings and affects the efficiency of load transfer.4 mm). frost Penetration Another effect of temperature on pavement design in cold climate is the frost penetration.1.16 Maxim1m1 depth of frost penetration in the United States ( I in. It is desirable to protect the subgrade by using non-frost-susceptible materials within the zone of frost penetration. A negative one-degree day repre.~ents one day with a mean air temperature one degree below freezing. Freezing Index The severity of frost in a given region can be expressed as a freezing i. The difference between the maximum and minimum \ FIGURE 1. which results in a stronger subgrade in the winter but a much weaker subgrade in the spring.32) = -27 degree days. the most detrimental effect of' frost penetration occurs during the spring breakup period. Although frost heave causes differential settlements and pavement roughness.17. the design method should take into consideration the weakening of the subgrade during spring breakup. a positive one-degree day indicates one day with a mean air temperature one degree above freezing. the degree days for each month can be similarly calculat~d. If the mean air temperature is 25°F on the first day and 22°F on the second and third days. Copyrighted ma~rial .4 Design Factors 31 contact with the subgrade. The loss of subgrade contact will affect the stresses in concrete due to wheel loads. ~ 25. Given the mean air temperature of each day.ndex in terms of degree days. If tllis cannot be done. the total degree days for the three-day period are (25 . when the ice melts and the stibgrade is in a saturated condition. as shown in Figure 1.32) + 2 x (22 . Figure 1. A plot of cumulative degree days versus time results in a curve. The mean air temperature for a given day is the average of high and low temperatures during that day.:16 shows the maximum depth of frost penetration in the United States.

... October.:.130 . -770.: 0.540 March ...!!" f\. -"'. January.: " ·.1.... ..40 . November... ."'• . < ~ . ... March. . February. z" 0 - -"" - \ .450 -290 April May . TABLE 1.32 Chapter 1 Introduction 800 .. -450. ..)! "'s :. ...450 410 .- ~ . ~ il: ? . -450.000 "'cb ~ ~ ci.. points on the curve during one year is called the freezing index for that year.lculate the freezing index.: 8 . FIGURE 1.21 60 . 540.290. Ca..) "to 0" "> ·::: "" § - - ...400 ! . / 400 0 v \ \ !:'.17 I'.2 Monthly and Cumulative Degree Days Degree days ("F) Month September October November December January · Monthly 540 540 ...810 . Example 1. The freezing index has been correlated with the depth of frost penetration and can be used as a factor of pavement design and evaluation.800 .no .. December.. -540.. April.2 : The monthly degree-day data are September. 170. and May..1.600 "\ -2.70. Dete rmination of freezing index...400 - -"' -..70 170 February Cumulative . -130.1350 -1800 -2090 .1990 Copynghted matenal . . >.200 ~ " - '0 \ ~ " '0 "" '0 ~ 1\ u c c 'N ...2.

7 m) in Saskatchewan.1 m) in Massachusetts. Precipitation The precipitation from rain and snow aff-eciS the quantity of surface water infiltrating into the subgrade and the location of the groundwater table.17. 1l1e location of the groundwater table is also important. However.4 Design Factors 33 Solution: The monthly and cumulative degree day data are shown in Table 1.4. such as stresses. ' 1.4 to 3. The cumulative degree days are plollcd in Figure 1. Freezing index = 2 160 + 540 = 2700 degree days. the recommended minimum depths are 7 ft (2. De tails of material characterization are presented in Chapter 7.5 m) in Michigan and Minnesota . smaUer elastic moduli must be selected for the component layers affected by poor drainage. even in regions o( high precipitation. 2. so their values can be reasonably assumed . and 3 to 7ft (0. the resilient modulus.9 to 2. General Properties ]be following general material properties should be specified for both flexible and rigid pavements: · • 1. must be selected in accordance with a load duration corresponding to the vehicle speed. Wheo a material is considered nonlinear e lastic. the properties of materials must be specified. When pavements are considered as linear elastic.91 m) below the pavement surface.. Details about drainage are presented in Chapter 8.1 m) in Nebraska (Ridgeway.1. the creep compliaoce. Copyrighted material . which can be calculated from the table or measured from Figure 1.In seasonal fTOSt areas. this measure might not solve the problem. Whe n the H M A is considered linear viscoelastic. 5 ft (1. If proper drainage cannot be provided. which is the elastic modulus under repeated loads.ayemeut design. the elastic moduli and Poisson ratios of the subgrade and each component layer must be specified. which is tbe reciprocal of the moduli at various loading times. Every effort should be made to improve drainage and alleviate the detrimental effect of water. 'The Poisson ratios have relatively small effects on pavement responses. the constitutive equation relating the resilieot modulus to the state of stresses must be provided. must be specified. For example. the depth from the pavement surface to the groundwater table should be much greater. The water table should be kept at least 3 ft (0. 3. so that the responses of the pavement.2. .3 Materials In the mechanistic-empirical methods of design. These responses a re then used with the failure criteria to predict whether failures will occur or the probability that failures will occur. its effect can be min imized. If water from rainfalls can be drained out within a short time.-8 to 12 ft (2. If the elastic modulus of a material varies with the time of loading. because poor drainage could stiJI incur damages other than the lack of shear strength. 1982).17. and displacements iu the critical components. strains. can be determined. such as the pumping and the loss of support. Flexible Pat·ements '!be followiug properties may be specified for tlexible pavements: 1. If the temperature ·at the creep test is not the same as the tempe rature used for P.

If other distresses.empirical methods of pavement design. the permanent deformation parameters of each layer mqst be specified. Therefore. 3.. must be specified.3. 3. must be specified.3. such as the asphalt stiffness at the winter design temperature.. are used ·as . If the design is based on fatigue cracking. such as faulting caused by excessive bearing stress on. must be established. appropriate properties.4 and are briefly described below. should be specified. must be specified. If the design is based on rut depth by summing the permanent deformations over all layers. The failure criteria for mechanistic-empirical methods are described next.4. as described in Section 7. These parameters can be obtained from permanent deformation tests. which uses the present servic. the failure criterion must incorporate a shift factor to account for the difference.a basis for design.through the laboratory fatigue test on small HMA specimens. such as low-temperature cracking. The most common distress in rigid pavements is fatigue cracking. appropriate properties.2.1. 2.1. If other distresses. and lowtemperatur e cracking are the three p~incipal types of distress to be considered for flex.2.4. The failure criterion relates the allowable number of load repetitions to the tensile strain. 1. 4. a number offailure 1. must also be provided. the fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures.4 Failure Criteria In the mechanistic. Rigid Pavements The following properties may be specified for rigid pavements: 1.34 Chapter 1 Introduction the time-temperature shift factor. each directed to a specific type of distress. as described in Secti<m 7. The difference in geometric and loading conditions makes the allowable number of repetitions for actual pavements much greater than that obtained from laboratory tests. such as the diameter and spacing of dowels. 2. ibte pavement design. This is in contrast to the AASHTO method. which indicates the sensitivity of asphalt mixtures to temperature as described in Section 2. Fatigue Cracking The fatigue cracking of flexible pavements is based on the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of HMA. as described in Section 7.:r iteria. To consider the effect of temperature curling. must be specified.5.e ability index (PSI) to indicate the general pavement conditions. Flexible Pavements li is generally agreed· that fatigue cracking. as described in Section 7. rutting. the modulus of subgrade reaction.dowel bars. so the modulus of rupture and th~ fatigue properties of concrete. are used as a basis for design. For rigid pavements on liquid foundations.2. 4. the coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete must be specified.3. Copyrighted material .1. These criteria are fully discussed in Section 11.

say. 1977) and the Asphalt Institute (Shook eta/. This method is based on the contention that.•ement will crack when the computed thermal stTess is greater than the fracture strength. The first method. as used in PDMAP (Fi•m et al. Two design methods have been used to control rutting: one limit the vertical compressive strain on the top of subgrade. Other criteria under consideration include faulting and joint deterioration of JPCP and JRCP and edge punchout of CRCP.1. Thermal fatigue cracking is similar to the fatigue cracking caused by repeated loads. if the quality of the surface and base courses is well controUed.2 through 12. 'TI1e potential of low-temperature cracking for a given pavement can be e>.23°C). which requires a failure criterion based on correlations with road tests or fie. where winter temperatures can fall below . 1f rutting is due primarily to the decrease in thickness of the component layers above the subgradc.1. as reported by Christison et aL (1972). 1'hermal Cracking This type of distress includes both low-temperature cracking and tbermal fatigue cracking. Only recently has pumping or e rosion been considered. 1986) and MICH-PAVE (Haricbandran et al. the total number of load repetitions must be Copyrighted material . The allowable number of load repetitions to cause fatigue cracking depends on the stTess ratio between flexural tensile stress and the concrete modulus of rupture. as incorporated in VESYS (FHWA. as was found in the AASHO Road Test. tbe use of thls method should be more appropriate.5 in.ld perf'Ormance. The most comprehensive study on low-temperature cracking has been conducted in Canada. and the other limit the rotting to a tolerable amount. It is caused by the tensile strain in the asphalt layer that is due to daily temperature cycle.l0°F( . TI1e Shell method also includes a procedure for estimating the rut depth in HMA (Shell. 1989) or on theoretical computations from the permanent-deformation parameters of each component layer. 1978). Low-temperature cracking is usually associated with flexible pavements in northern regions of the United States and much of Canada.4 Design Factors 35 Rulling Rutting occurs only on flexible pavements. The cumulative damage can be evaluated by Miner's hypothesis. rutting can be reduced to a tole rable amount by limiting the vertical compressive strain on the subgrade.. as indicated by the permanent deformation o r rut depth along the wheelpatbs. Rigid Pavement~ Fatigue cracking bas long been considered the major or only criterion for rigid pavement design. These criteria are fully discussed in Sections 12.6 and are briefly described below.aluated if the mix stiffness and fracturestrength characteristics as a function of te mperature and time of loading are known and if temperature data on the site are available.1. '01e pa. Because the design is based on the edge loading and only a small portion of the traffic loads is applied at the pavement edge. which computes the rut depth directly. can be based on empirical correlations with roa<{. 111e second method.. is much easier to apply and has been used by Shell Petroleum (Claussen et aL. (13 mm). 0. tests.. 1978). 1982). Fatigue Cracking Fatigue crackiog is most likely caused by tbe edge stress at the midslab. Thermal fatigue cracking can occur in much milder regions if an excessively hard asphalt is used or the asphalt becomes hardened by aging.

maintenance. design.ing pumping is needed . a. The applicability of the PCA method is quite limited because it is based on the results of the AASHO Road Test. Other Criteria Other major types of distress in rigid pavements include faulting.5 Reliability In view of the fact that the predicted distress at the end of a design period va. These distresses are difficult to analyze mechanistically. or rehabilitation activities for a particular project within the overall program. the usefulness of these models in practice could be limited by the large amount o f error involved. which includes planning. the acceptable PSI at the end of the design period can be computed. and joint deterioration.~ion models to predict them.ries a great deal. and drainage. given the required reliability and terminal serviceability index.6 Pavement Management Systems It bas long been recognized that pavement design is a part of the total pavement management process. or the probability that the PSI is greater than the terminal serviceability index. Copyrighted material .i ned by assuming the PSI at the end of a design period to be a normal distribution with a mean and a standard deviation. Pumping is caused by many other factors. Pumping or E rosion Although permanent deformation are not considered in rigid pavement design. If PSI is used as a failure criterion. maintenance. so a more rational method for analyt. AI the network level. These empirical models are applicable only under the conditions from which the models were derived.4. the pavement manageme nt system provides information on the development of an overall program of new construction. an d a great effort has been made recently in developing regres. in which a shift factor is used to adj ust the allowable number of load repetitions. maintenance. precipitation. consideration is given to alternative design. Conversely. and rehabilitation. At the project level.r ent design characteristics is available.4. or rehabilitation that will optimize the use of available resources. the reliability of the design. evaluation. With the use of a computer. 1984) as an erosion criterion in addition to the fatigue criterion.36 Chapter 1 Introduction reduced to an equivalent number of edge loads so that the same fatigue damage is obtained.nd maintaining pavements i. construction. 1. 1. spalling. which employed a highly erodible subbase. Unless an extensive data base containing a sufficient number of pavement sections with widely diffe. Pavement management can be divided into two generalized levels: network and project. . corner deflections have been used in the latest version of the PCA method (PCA. it is more reasonable to use a probabilistic approach based on the reliability concept. Consequently. More details about reliability are presented in Chapter 10. depending on the variability of predicted traffic and the quality control on materials and construction. evaluating. construction. a pavement management system (PMS) can be deve loped to assist decision makers in finding optimum strategies for providing. This approach is different from the fatigue analysis of flexible pavements. can be determ. the resilient deformation under repeated wheel loads will cause pumping of the slabs. such as types of subbase and subgrade.n a serviceable condition over a given period of time.

with some modifications. An economic evaluation will be made on all possible options and an optimized design at the lowest overall cost will be selected. The traffic and loading.18 is a flowchan for a project-level pavement management system (AASHTO. Models of pavement structure may be a mechanistic or an empirical model for Oexible or rigid pavements. AIRPORT PAVEMENTS. should be monitored and put into a data bank. 1986). Life-cycle costs re fer to all costs.5 Highway Pavements. Poor design practice will result in higher pavement maintenance and rehabilitation costs throughout the years and has by far the greatest effect on life-cycle costs. Even if the life is less than the design period. all benefits. due to the wander of aircraft. such as distress. The effect of loading and tire pressure can be taken care of automatically in any mechanistic method of design. For a given reliability. such as the improvement in laboratory and field testing equipment and the availability of high-speed microcomputers. distress is evaluated by failure criteria.5 HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS. whereas on highway pavemeuts. it will move on to the life-cycle costs block of the process. maintenance. have provided pavement designers with more tools to evaluate the consequences of design alternatives on life-cycle costs. roughness. It should be noted that pavement design is a critical part o( pavement management. or deformations. the following diffe rences should be noted in applying the mechanistic methods: 1.5. and Railroad Trackbeds 37 Figure 1.1 Highway Versus Airport Airport pavements are generally thicker than highway pavements and require better surfacing materials. and rehabilitation costs. The fact that highway IOlJdiogs are not really applied at the same location is considered in the Copyrighted material . and detlection. However. skid characteristic. After the pavement bas been constructed. whether the pavement is used for a highway or an airpon. the passage of one axle is considered as one repetition. several passages of a set of gears are counted as one repetition. information on performance. 1. More about PMS is presented in AppendLx E. because the loading and tire pressure of aircraft are much greater than those of highway vehicles. because an overlay at a later date will bring the serviceability index up and prolong the life of the pavement to more than 20 years. On airport pavements. the life of the pavement before the serviceability index drops below the minimum acceptable value can be evaluated. traffic loading.ns. AND RAILROAD TRACKBEDS The principles used for the design of highway pavements can also be applied to those of airport pavements and railroad track bed'). envirooment. strai. say 20 years. including construction. Airport Pavements. As long as the design meets the constraints. Behavior is characterized by stresses. 1. The (eedback of these performance data into the PMS information system is crucial to the development of mechanistic-empirical design procedures.1. and materials are the design factors that have just been discussed. Recent developments in pavement technology. the option is still open. and indirect costs. and performance is based on PSI. The number of load repetitions on airpon pavements is usually smaller that on highway pavements.

Used by permission. American Associarion of State Highway and li'ansportatioo Oflicials.) Copyrighted material .____ Materials 1ime (Age) Inputs ·- Environment . _ I L.stmct 1 Budget I + Monitor Performance ' Data Bank I t Feedback PMS Information System t FIGURE 1._ .r.· YEs.. NO .sign + Cou.. ' Design Constnlints J I Behavior I Distress + ~ I Perfo1m ance L---- Life Cycle (Meets Constrain!S7) Reliability .ife Cycle Costs Cost Direct Indirect J Economic Evaluation + Optimization (Li.38 Introduction Chapt er 1 r---. Washington..·. Flow diugram of a project-level pavement management system. -." by minimum cost at specified level of reliability) + Select Final De. Ene. (From the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pav<menr Stmcmrcs.Traffic and Loading Models of Po~o·ement Structure Incl. Copyright 1986.18 . DC. Factors .

The Federal Aviation Administration considers edge loading. 1955). the asphalt mat is placed under the ballast. The design of highway pavements is based on moving loads with the loading duration as an input for viscoelastic behaviors and the resilient modulus u. there is a major difference between a highway pavemem and a railroad trackbed.1. (1984b) developed a computer model called KENTRACK for the design of HJvtA railroad trackbeds. Airport Pavements. It is assumed that the edge effect is insignificant if a load is at a distance of2 to 3ft (0. The design considers traffic and loading. Based on the same design principles as used in highway pavements. which is similar to the construction of flexible highway pavements. 2. as described in Section 7.5. The HMA is placed on top of the subgrade or above a layer of base course. and an equivalent damage ratio for the fatigue of rigid pavements. and Railroad Trackbeds 39 failure criteria by increasing the allowable number of load repetitions. is called overlayment. wheel loads are distributed through rails and ties over a large area and the load on the most critical tie under the heaviest wheel load depends strongly on the stiffness of the layered system. 1984).5 Highway Pavements. the distribution of wheel loads to the layered system. However.3. so the loading is applied at the longitudinal joint. as shown in Figure 1. In the second metl. On higl1way pavements. the use of thicker Copyrighted material . The above comention is based on the assumption that the design is based on fatigue and the fact that the stresses at the edge and the inte rior are greater than those at the joints.• 1.6 to 0. As a re· suit. this fact is oot considered in the design of flexible pavements. but interior loading for the design of airport pavements (PCA. the number of load repetitions is small and may be neglected. TI. so the layered theory can still be applied. and the ties are placed directly on the asphalt mat. Although loads are applied near to the edge of highway pavementS but far away from the outside edge of airport pavements. as described in Section 12. 1988).r the outside edge of airport pavementS in certain situations. and materials as the major factors and applies Burmister's layered theory and Miner's hypothesis of cumulative damage (Miner.n der repeated loads for elastic behaviors. 'The first method. thicker pavements are used at the runway end than in the interior.9 m) from the edge.us is not true if the design is based on the erosion caused by the corner deflection at the joints. However. not really at the outside pavement edge. 1945). Huang et a. nan1ely. caUed underlayment.l. 3. The design of airport pavements is based on moving loads in tbe interior of runways but stationary loads at the end of runways.duced by 25% to account for load transfer across the joint (FAA. environment.ndependent of the stiffness of the layered system.lod. On railroad trackbeds. wheel loads are applied over small areas and the magnitude of loads on each area is a constant i. 1. such as the incorporation of a shift factor for the fatigue of flexible pavements.19.2 Highway Versus Railroad Two methods have been used to incorporate HMA in railroad trackbeds. Even if the loads can be applied nea. this fact should be considered in the design of rigid pavements. but the edge stress is re.2.1. Therefore. The Portland Cement Association employs edge loading for the design of highway pavements (PCA.

That the replacements of ballast by HMA increases the tensile strain is due to the load concentration. 1987). .. For the same reason. The design of slab tracks is similar to that of rigid highway pavements. . 1986b). 1985). but not very effective for railroad trackbeds. HMA for highway pavements is very effective in reducing both the tensile strain at the bottom of HMA and the compressive strain on the top of subgrade.• 40 Chapter 1 Introduction Subgrade (a) Overlayment • Subgrade (b) Underlayment FIGURE 1. In fact.for the design of HMA and conventional baJJasted trackbeds. was later expanded for the design of slab tracks via the finite-element method and the fatigue principle (Huang et a/. 1986a). for an underlayment with a given combined thickness of ballast and HMA. the tensile strain increases as the HMA thickness increases.. it was found that the use of vertical compressive stress is more appropriate for railroad trackbeds (Huang et a/. Portland cement concrete can be used for the construction of slab tracks. 1984a. except that loads are applied to the rails connected directly to the concrete slab or through rubberbooted block ties. which indicates that the use of ballast is more effective than the use of HMA in reducing t. the use of fuU-depth construc-tion. as indicated by the tremendous increase in the maximum contact pressure between tie and ballast caused by the stiffer track bed. The KENTRACK computer program. while an underlayment with a thick layer of baiJast and a thin layer of HMA can easily satisfy the design requirements (Huang eta/. Copyrighted material .ensile strains ('Huang et al. It was also found that overlayment cannot be used for heavy-haul trackbeds. is not recommended for railroad trackbeds. originally developed .19 Hot-mix-asphalt railroad trackbed$. Although the vertical compressive strain on the top of subgrade has been used most frequently for the design of highway pavements. because the required thickness of asphalt mat is just too excessive. which is popular for highway pavements.

There has been a dramatic change in the design methods for llexible pavements. the tre nd toward mechanistic methods is apparent. The design of flexible pavements is based on the layered theory by assuming that the layers are infinite in areal extent with no discontinuities. 3. More use of solid or layer foundation in design is.rical methods. With wider traffic lanes and more efficient load transfer. because concrete is the main load-carrying component. design (actors. Most design methods are based on the flexural stress in the concrete. 2. The most practical and widely used mechanistic-empirical method for flexible pavement design is based on Burmister's elastic.expected in years to come. With the availability of high-speed microcomputers and sophisticated testing methods. The current PCA method considers both the edge stress to prevent fatigue cracking and the comer deflection to minimize pumping or erosion of the subgrade. 'lb e two types of tlexible pavements in common use are conventional and fulldepth. road tests. With modifications. The three major road tests constitute an important part of historical development but are presented in a separate section after pavement types. from the early purely empirical methods to the modern mechauistic-empi. Composite pavements should be designed by the plate theory. pavement types. Layered theory can also be applied to rigid pavements if the loads are applied in the interior of a slab. it is no longer necessary to consider the foundation as a liquid. The method can be applied only to a single slab on a liquid foundation with fuU slab-subgrade contact. Earlier designs considered stress due to comer loading to be the roost critical. A third type of pavement is caUed the composite pavement. Important Points Discussed in Chapter 1 • I. FuU-deptb Cop~righted material . Also included is a brief description of tbe recently completed Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). S. Cooventional pavement~ are la yer systems with be tter materials on top and are most suited to regions where local materials are available. layered theory of limiting the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt layer and the vertical compressive strain on the surface of subgrade. and the differences between highway pavements and airport pavements and between highway pavements and railroad trackbeds. the method can be applied to layered systems consisting of viscoelastic and nonlinear elastic materials. Westergaard's plate theory bas been used for the design of rigid pavements since the 1920s. 6. the design of rigid pavements is based on the plate theory. TI1e most practical method to analyze multiple slabs on a layer foundation with partial slab-foundation contact is by the finite-element computer programs. 4. With the increase in speed and storage of modern computers. Because of the rigidity of the slab and the existence of joints. It covers five major sections: historical developme nt.Summary 41 SUMMARY This chapter provides an introduction to pavement analysis and design. edge stress due to edge loadings near the midslab is now being considered more critical. TI1ere are two major types of pavements: flexible and rigid. so that the conclusions dra wn from the road tests can be more easily understood.

much of the permanent deformation occurs in the upper layers above the subgrade. continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP). and the AASHO Road Test for both flexible and rigid pavements. The advantage of CRCP is the complete elimination of transverse joints. Each axle-load group can be considered separately. is a better approach. these limitations and approximations can be overcome. However. The WASHO Road Test indicated that tbe distress in the outer wheelpath was more than that in the inner wheelpath and that the outer wheelpath with paved shoulders was the equivalent of the inner wbeelpath. instead of the vertical compressive strain on the subgrade. though more expensive. Although several experimental projects have been constructed in the United States. lbe four types of rigid pavements are jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). the WASHO Road Test for flexible pavements.ip equivalent single-axle load and a lixed set of material properties for the entire design period. but increased tremendously after pumping and caused the rupture of the slab. the determination of permanent deformation in each individual layer. lL Introduction asphalt pavements. if the pavement cracks. and each year can be divided into a number of periods with widely different material properties for damage analysis. Consequently. Many of the mechanistic-empirical methods for flexible pavement design are based on the horizontal tensile· strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer and the vertical compressive strain on the surface of subgrade. have gained popularity because of their many advantages over conventional pavements. Most of the design methods in use today are based on the 18-k. with the use of modern computers and the mechanistic-empirical methods. 8.42 Chapter 1 7. thus testifying to the advantage of shoulder paving. because the savings in materials is not sufficient to compensate for the extensive labor required. but allow the use of longer joint spacings. The three major road tests conducted from the mid-1940s to the early 1960s are !he Maryland Road Test for rigid pavements. The most econornical construction is JPCP wi~h closely spaced joints. lbe AASHO Road Test developed the pavement serviceability concept and the equations relating the change in serviceability to the nwnber of load repetitions. the use of PCP for highway pavements is limited. 9. Previous experience has indicated that the thickness required for CRCP should be the same as that for JPCP_ and JRCP. and prestressed concrete pavement (PCP). 10. the last test was more comprehensive and involved the development of equations for design purposes. the steel can tie the concrete together. jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP). thus adding a new dimension to pavement design. With heavier axle loads and higher tire pressures.Steel reinforcements in JRCP do not increase its structural capacity. Copyrighted material . The first two tests were initiated for taxation purposes to detennine the relative effects of four different axle loads on pavement distress.. A significant outcome for each test is summarized as follows: The Maryland Road Test indicated that pumping was the major cause of distress for pavements on fine-grained soils and that the stresses for all cases of loading were less than 50% of the modulus of rupnrre of the concrete prior to the development of pumping.

78 in.• - Problems and Questions •3 U. Is thls value likely to be different from the freezing index ca.87 in.52 in. 40"F.ld be the d. 14. Under what conditions would a flexible pavement result in pumping? LU Which is more frost susceptible. whereas very few flexible pa\lelllell.S What are the purposes of using a seal coat? 1. PROBLEMS AND QUESnONS 1. which is popular for highway pavements.imension of the rectangular area? [Answer: most realistic area consisting of a rectangle and two semicircles with a length of 9.8 What is.3 Why is the limiting shear failure method of flexible pavement design rarely in use today? Under what situations could the method be used? L4 \yhat is meant by the mechanistic-empirical method of pavement design? Is it possible to ·develop a whoUy mechanistic method of pavement design? Why? l. such as the consideration of aircraft wandering on the number of load repetitions and the use of stationary loads at the end of runways. February. t6•F. I4°F.] 1. March. and a width of 5. silt or clay? Why? Copyrighted material . U the contact areas are assumed as rectangleS.s sbould a binder course be used? 1. With the availability of high-speed computers and the improvement in laboratory and field testing equipment. The design principles used for highway pavements can be equally applied to airport pavements with only a few exceptions. concrete pavements.lculated from mean daily temperature? [Answer: 2851 degree days] 1. so that the consequences of design alternatives on life-cycle costs can be evaluated. 15. April.flexible pavements generaUy built in layers with better materials on top? 1. and a width of 5.9 What are the advantages of placing a layer of HMA under a granular base or subbase? LJO Descrit?e the mechanics of pumping. tion. 16. January.eondi· . so•F.ts do so. is warranted. As more research is directed to these concepts and more efficient computer programs are developed.6 What is the difference between a tack coat and a prime coat? Which requires the use of a less viscous asphalt? 1. is ineffective for railroad trackbeds. November. and May. pavement design should be integtated into the pavement management system. October. It is more economical to place the HMA under the ballast rather than over the baUast.000 lb with a tire pressure of 100 psi. The use of full-depth asphalt.87 in. in addition to fatigue cracking. the inclusion of corner deflection as a failure criterion. what shou. the difference between a surface course and a binder course? Under what. it is expected that these concepts will become more popular and widely accepted in future mechanistic-empirical methods.1 Sketch and show the dimensions of-the most realistic contact areas for a dual·tandem axle load of 40.U Explain why rigid pavements pump. principle has long been used throughout the world for the design of 13. The fatigue. 25•f. 24°F. the concepts of serviceability ~nd reliability have not been widely accepted in current methods of pavement design.2 Mean monthly temperatures at a given paving project are September. Other than the AASriTO empirical methods. l .7 Why are. 32•f. In view of the fact that pumping is the ·main cause of distress. 22"F. December.: rectangular area with a length of 8. .3°F. Calculate the freezing index.

a highway or an airport pavement? Why? t.44 Chapter 1 Introduction · 1.16 What are the advantages and disadvantages of prestressed pavements? 1. contact pressure is smaller than tire pressure.17 What is the major distress in a composite pavement? How con it be prevented? 1. 1. for a high-pressure tire.24 On which pavement does pumping occur more frequently.20 List any two conclusions from the WASHO Road Test that are similar to those found in the AASHO Road Test.27 D iscuss the basic design differences between a highway pavement and a railroad track bed .19 List any two conclusions from the Maryland Road lest that are similar to those found in the AASHO Road Test.21 List any two conclusioo.25 For a given wheel load. 1.18 Why are modem concrete pavements no longer built with a thickened edge? 1.22 Explain why.14 Discuss the pros and cons of JPCP versus JRCI~ 1.28 What is meant by full-depth construction? Why is full-depth construction not recommended for railroad trackbeds? Copyrighted material .U Discuss tbe basic design differences between an airport and a highway pavement. 1. which should be thicker.15 Discuss the pros and cons of JRCP versus CRCP 1. 1.23 W hy is the shape of contact area used for the design of flexible pavements different from that for rigid pavements? 1.s from the Maryland Road Test on rigid pavements that are similar to the WASHO Road Test on flexible pavements. airport or highway? 1.13 ls frost heave due solely to the 9% volume expansion of soil water during freezi ng? Why? 1. 1. 1.

.. radial stress cr. much attention was paid to Boussinesq solutions because they were the only ones available. r.1. and one shear stress. Figure 2. the equation m~st be modified. The original Boussinesq (1885) theory was based on a concentrated load applied on an elastic halfspace... strains. and deflections in the subgrade if the modulus ratio between the pavement and the subgrade is close to unity. Because of axisymmetry.1 Solutions by Charts Foster and Ahlvin (1954) presented charts for determining vertical stress cr . shear stress T.2 through 2. 1947). The theory can be used to determine the stresses.The load is applied over a circular area with a radius a-and an 45 Copyrighted material . Before the development of layered theory by Burmister (1943). 2.1 H0MOGENEOUS MASS The simplest way to characterize the behavior of a flexible pavement under wheel loads is to consider it as a homogeneous half-space.CHAPTER 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 2. as shown in Figures :Z. These stresses are functions of q. and vertical deflection w. there are only three normal stresses. The stresses. cr t• cr. If the modulus ratio is much greater than unity. and z/a.1s an infinitely large area and an infinite depth with a top plane on which the loads are applied. strains. tangential stress u. A small cylindrical element witb center at a distance z below the surface and r from the axis of symmetry is shown. and cr. and defle...The half-space has an elastic modulus E and a Poi.6.. as demonstrated by the earlier Kansas design methosJ (Kansas State Highway Commission. as exemplified by a thin asphalt surface and a thin granular base.1 shows a homogeneous half-space subjected to a circular load with a radius a and a uniform pres>Jre q.ctions due to a concentrated load can be integrated to obtain those due to a circular loaded area. A half-space h.. ria.~son ratio v. which is equal tO 'T..

. .:... 1\ '\ 1\ "' \ \ '/! 20 30 40 5060 80100 -. . f-r-1 Component of stresses under axisymmetric loading. . ' : ~. so only one set of charts iS needed instead of oo.: ..... • 0 0 • • intensity qo Beca~OPoisson ratio has a relatively small effect on stresseso-Bnd·deft'*tions. was later refined tiy Ahlvio and Ulery (1962) :who presented a se~ of · •• .· ..... ..lar loading.. . .e for each Poissoii Tiiti'O:' · This work. ...G ... Foster and Ahlvin assumed the half-space to be in. : . ..: • FIGURE 2.. ... ...0 0. -~.: :- • . • 0 ... .1 0 ~ -.... .. ' 0 .46 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements Chapter~ 0 z '.• . . . ~ -. ... '· .>- ""' "I\ "7.. ratio of 005.2 Oo30. 0 . Venical stresses due to circu..compressible witli If foi11o.!! N 5 6 2 0.81..4 Oo6 0.i Numbers on Curves Indicate r/a • I!J \ • \ • .... "• E FIGURE 2o1 • . -:: r·· rs ... • 'I - 0 0 0 • • 0 I :' 0 8 • r 0 0 0 9 l ' 0 0 ' 0 " ' 10 .. ·~ I'"-- 4 5 6 8 10 '\ ~ J~ / ~ .· 0 ' i ... ". \ \ 1\ \ 9 """ I~ 7 -..·... 0 • Copynghled matenal ..... (After Foster and Ablvin (1954)o) • ·.2 0 ... 0 q"• X 100(%) I 2 -- ~ 3 4 .

oisson ratio can he computed. ~ '///.1 Homogeneous Mass 47 (T q' X 100 (%) 02 0304 0 5 07 10 . .) cf 17 02 030 4 060810 . ~· 1 2.6 / 6 / / 7 · r-.2.o· 4 . strains.2 v ~ 8 9 10 \~ / '\~ / 20 I. These equations and tables are not presented here because the solutions can be easily obiained from KENLAYER by assuming the homogeneous half-space to be a two-layer system one of any thickness. ~ 30 405060 80 100 ~ ' ~ ~ Fl' / "/05 1./ ~~ ~ ~ 2. I Numbers on Curves Indicate r/a 5 FIGURE 2.. FIGURE 2·. 3 4 5 67 8 10 2 on Curves r/a ' //.elastic modulus and Poisson ratio for both layers..) equations and tables so that the stresses.( 2 3 4 Prf X 2 / . (After Foster and Ablvin (1954). '7 ~ ~0:: 2 3 . Copynghted malenal .. (After Foste r and Ablvin. ~~~ · I ·s.3 Radial stresses due to circular loading.. (1954). and deflections for any given P. 9.4 Tangential stresses due to circular loading. 100 (%) 3 4 56 8 10 20 I~ 30 4050 60 80 100 I"< \.. but having the same .v.

.I---1--1-1--H-++H """9 \ 1\ 1-~nt-'-M'<-+*H\PI'I-t.4 0..1Ho~. 9I I .<' <-Hf-+-1-1-Hj~ I~ \~ Vj 5 . /.-1--l-+--l--1--+-+-+-HI---+--+-1--+-+-l FIGURE 2.81.!-j-. ['-.-J~:.~~~~~~~+++-4-+-~-+--l .J.. (Alter Foster and Ahlvin ( 1954). (Alter Foster and Ahlvio (1954).60.~+J+J.2 030../i/ 6 7 8 Numbers on Curves Indicate r/a /. ~ 2 3 4 5 6 810 20 3040506080100 ~ ::::---:::: I'--~~ t-~"" ~~H-'1. / ~iq.//) shh~~~-1-~+-+--+-+-+++4-+--+-++--+~ 9 1+++-H'V-IIP.:~ A 10 FIGURE 2.0 0.1 0 I 2 3 4 .6 Vertical deflections due to circular loading.) 4 l-+t+-H-4--In'-t 1 11 11 ~ 5 6 6 / 4-~ Numbers on Curves +++-!-I ---1---1- Indicate r/a qa /jJ ---+-1-------jf---+----iw~-+-Et--'"F~t--!---+--1--1-1 7Hs. I .) Copynghted material .5 Shear stresses d ue to circular loading. "7 t\.48 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements T qrt X 100 (%} 0.

ll ·. u . = 0.5 kPa).0 kPa).000 "' 0. The total deflection w = (0. which is located 10 in. = 0.38 psi (99. q = 50 psi (345 kPa) . and w == 0.)] (' (2.022 in.000 = 0. = 0.lb) E1 = 1 E[u..28 X 50= 14.68 and that due to the right load is 0. and z = 10 in.5 kPa).38 psi (2. = 0. "The half-space has elastic modulus 10.{)()76 X 50 = 0.21 ) X 50 X 5/10.022 in.1 Homogeneous Mass 49 After the stresses are obtained from the charts.000 psi v = 0.38.00132.56 mm).554 mm). = 14.68 + 0. = (1. and u.v(u. By superposition.00129.O A ur.4. + u. Determine tbe vertical stress. Copyrighted material .6 psi (100. from Figures 2. = 14.0 + 0.7 EKamplc 2. (056mm).4. (508 mm) on centers.5kPa).5 HIHl • 10 in. (127 mm).1c) 1f the contact area consists of two circles.3 = 2.6 kPa). = u.5. (254 mm) below the center of one circle. 2. the stresses and strains can be computed by superposition. .2.0.nswer is u . = 14.8 + 1.1: Figure 2.la.38 = 14. = 0. and 2. 2. the stresses at point A due to the left load with ria = 0 and zla = 10/5 = 2 are u . - - -1 fiGURE 2.3.4 mm.8 psi (5. (0. strain. Solution: Given a = 5 in. From Eq. f--to in. The pressure on the circular area is 50 psi (345 kPa). = 0. E. each 10 in.w =? 20 in.10 psi(l4.7 shows o homogeneous half-space subjected to two circular loads.3 psi (9. I i E = 10. and u. (254 mm) in diameter and spaced at 20 in.2 kPa). tbe detlection factor at point A due to the left load is 0.-. The resuhs obtained from KENLAYER are u.0 psi (96.6.2. the strains can be obtained from (2. = 0. From Figure 2.8 psi (5. E.5(2.6 kPa) and u.j I so ps. The final a.21.. and those due to the right load with l'la = 2015 = 4 and zfa = 2 are u .1a) (2.1 (I in.9 kPa) . u. = 0.10 + 0.000 psi (69 MPa) and Poisson ratio 0. which check closely with those from the charts. E.00129.016 X 50= 0.(t. and w = 0.026 x 50 = 1. psi = 6. : 0.. u.8)]110. Example 2. (0.38 psi (99. (254 mm). = 25.2 kPa). and deflection at point A.0218 in . I• .7 kPa).

is independent of E.3) Note that u < is independent of E and v. and u.ussinesq's solutions. flexible Plate The load applied from tire to pavement is similar to a flexible plate with a radius a and a uniform pressure q.6 can be simplified to . so u • and u.1. 2.In the above example. .7) On the surface of the half-space.'l. ' o. Eq.2) (2.. and deflection occur under the center of the circular area on the axis of symmetry.and point A is located on the surface of the subgrade. From Eq.6.6) When v = .. the most critical stres. (0. . so the deflecti()n on. if the pavement thiCkness is 10 in. Strains in Flexiple Pavements • In applying Bo. The stresses beneath the center of the plate can be detenilined from (2.·50 Chapter 2 Stresses and. from Eq. z = 0.56 mm). the deflection on the pavement surface is 0. are the principal stresses.2 Solutions at Axis of Symmetry When the load is applied over a single circular loaded area.8) Copyrighted material .the pavement surface is equal to that on the top of the subgrade. (2. (254 mm) .5)' The vertical deOection w can be determined from (2. (2. 2.022 in.s.1. (2A) . .. 2. 2. (2.. • ·.i t is usually assumed that ·the pavement above the subgrade has no deformation. strain. = u . where -rrz = 0 and u.

6 + 0. = 0.:OO.249 psi (. e.00044.9 Differences between flexible and rigid plates.2 psi (98. With v = 0.ICh as a rubber tire.-----t----- ~-- (b) Rigid Plate FIGURE 2.00144. u. u..::.0..L.0176 in...25psi ( .6 .. = .2.6 . 2.9 kPa).3 X 50 X 5/10.L. t E = 10. and deflection at point A.E. 2.000 {51(125)0 ·5 + 0.:: ti.3 X 50/10. strains. and 10 = 0. • all u . Copyrighted material . The negative sign indicates tension.9.000 [1 .0 kPa). Determine the str~ses.. = 14..lf the load is applied on a rigid plate.5] = 14.8 psi (5. L l llf--L-1. q = 50 psi (345 kPa). E..6 X 10/(125) 0·5 .00144. from Eq.2. E. From Eq.2. = . tT.3.447 mm). but the pressure distribution under the plate is not uniform.2 (I in._-. Rigid Plate All the above analyses are based on the assumption that the load is applied on a flexible plate.447 mm).5 kPa) when v = 0. except that only the left loaded area exists and the Poisson ratio is 0. The.000 (1 .t .~--- (2.L.1.5.. w m. From Eq. and z = 10 in. = 1.2: Same as Example 2.0. (0. d .51= .000 psi v= 0. such as that used in a plate loading test.. = 50(1 . 2.0. From Eq. 1987) q(r) = Uui£onu PreS$urc q _ U. (0.... which is in contrast to a compressive stress of 0..1 Homogeneous Mass 51 Example 2.5 Nonuniform Pressure q(r) 1 Pressure Distribution qa Z(ll2 _ (a) Flexible Pln<e --. :J *'• FIGURE 2.. as shown in Figure 2. L:. J Detlec.0 kPa).5.1.10]} = 0. = 25[1 + 0. results obtained from KENLAYER are u.6 X 10/(125)0 ·5 + 1000/(125)1. 2. 2.3 10 in.0.4 x 10/(125)05 + 1000/(125)1.6. Sl. L ' -- I ~'--.. The pressure distribution under a rigid plate can be expressed as (Uilidtz.7 kPa).U.---7---1---=-. 1 psi = 6. = 1.0..3 x 50120.1. ? Solution: Given a = 5 in. (254 mm).d_ Basio -- .72 kPa).3.__ !L. . the deflection is the same at all points on the plate.1000/(125)U) = 0.8. (127 mm). 10 = 1.0176 in.9) r 2)0.nd r.4.~--=-_.51= .3. The differences between a flexible and a rigid plate are shown in Figure 2.0.4 mm.2 psi (98.8 Example 2. .1000/(25 + 100) 1. = 25...L. wltich are nearly the same as those derived from the formulas.000444. thh~. from Eq.4/5[(125)05 .1.

It is well known that subgrade soils are not elastic and undergo permanent deformation under stationary loads.10 with Eq. 8000/(361>-) = 70. v = 0.10 are·based on a homogeneous half-space. From Eq. 0. determine the elastic modulus of the subgrade.vl )qa 2E (2. The pressure near the center has a greater effecl on the surface deflection at the center. E = 1r(l . (2. lib ~ 4. A total load of 8000 lb (35.3 (I = 25. so the elastic constant must not vary with the state of stresses.0.10. on the assumption that the material that constitutes the half-space is linear elastic.1) = 5600 psi (38. can be applied if the plates are placed on a layer system.4 Rigid Plate Denects 0. as indicated by Yoder and Witczak (1975). the axial deformation of a linear elastic material under an axial stress should be independent of the confining pressure.1. By integrating the point load over the area. Example 2.74 psi (488 kPa).4. it can be shown that the deflection of the plate is 'Wo = 11'(1 . Linearity implies the applicability of the superposition principle. Assuming that the subgrade has Poisson ratio 0.52 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexibie Pavements in which r is the distance from center to the point where pressure is to be determined and q is the average pressure. Although Eqs. It is therefore possible to select a reasonable elastic modulus commensurate with the speed of moving loads. However.16) x 70. The smallest pressure is at the center and equal to one-half of the average pressure.8 indicates that the surface deflection under a rigid plate is only 79% of that under the center of a uniformly distributed load.. 8000 lb l FIGURE 2.74 X 6/(2 X 0. which is equal to the total load divided by the area.3 Nonlinear Mass Boussinesq's solutions are based.10) A comparison of Eq.8 and 2. 12 in..79. This is evidently not true for Copyrighted material . In other words. E=? Solution: The average pressure on the plate is q . 2. and a deflection of O. (305-mm) diameter was performed on the surface of the subgrade. the same factor. 2.10 Example 2.6 kN) was applied to the plate.54 mm) was measured.45 N).4 rnrn. 2. The pressure at the edge of the plate is infinity.6 MPa).l in.10. This is reasonable because the pressure under the rigid plate is smaller near the center of the loaded area but greater near the edge. . 2. as shown in Figure 2. most of the deformations are recoverable and can be considered elastic.3: A plate loading test using a plate of 12-in. under the repeated application of moving traffic loads.1 in. 2.

Note that the lowest layer is a rigid base with a very large elastic modulus. an elastic modulus is assumed for each layer and the stresses are obtained from the layered theory.11. After the stresses are obtained. Iterative Method To show the effect of nonlinearity of granular materials on vertical stresses and deflections. The problem can be solved by a method of successive approximations.. the elastic modulus of each layer is determined from E = £ 0 (1 + {38} (2.11} in which IJ is the stress invariant. Given Copyrighted material . or the modulus when the stress invariant is zero.ent of eanb pressure at rest.2.-< I 8- • ~ "' I E. I soils.r I Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer4 Layer 5 • I I • " ~ •I • • E. cr. E is the elastic modulus under the given stress invariant. Huang (1968a) divided the half-space into seven layers.1 1--r q I 2a £. 'Y is the unit weight of soil. Eo is the initial elastic modulus. as shown in Figure 2. because their axial deformation depends strongly on the magnitude of confining pressures. Note that the stress invariant should include both the effects of the applied load and the geostatic stresses. radial. and tangential stresses due to loading. and Ko is t~e coeffi1. + u. Consequently. Laye. First. it can be expressed as • (J = u . + U 1 + yz(l + 2K0) (2. the effect of nonlinearity on Boussinesq's solution is of practical interest. and {3 is a soil constant indicating the increase in elastic modulus per unit increase in s1ress invariant. z is the distance below ground surface at whicb the stress invariant is computed.. and u 1 are the vertical.12) in which cr.:i.11 i • Division of balf-space into a se"en-layer system. Es • Eo ! • Layer 6 53 ~ E3 • Homogeneous Mass I • FIGURE 2. and applied Burmister's layered theory to determine the stresses at the midheigbt of each layer. or the sum of three normal stresses.

and the coefficient of earth pressure at rest is 0. 2. The soil bas Poisson ratio 0. (152 mm) and cootact pressure 80 psi (552 kPa) is applied on the surface of a subgrade. He later used the fini te-element method and found that the nonlinear behavior of soils has a large effect on ve rtical and radial displ11cemeots.·11te deformation of each layer.11 is one of the many constitutive equations for sands.5.resses are not affected significantly by whether the stresses at r = 0 or r = oo are used to determine the e lastic modulus.12b. the vertical stresses based on nonlinear theory may be greater or smaUer than those based on linear theory and. "lbe subgrade soil is a sand with the relationship between the elastic modulus a. but the vert ical displacements are tremendously affected.4: A circular load ba\ing radius 6 in. Uzan {1985). Depending on the depth of the point in question. the deformations are added to obtain the deflections at various depths. 2. This concept has been used in the 2002 Design Guide. The assumption of Boussinesq's stress distriburion was used by Vesic and Domaschuk (1964) to predict the shape of deflection basins on highway pavements. which is the difference between major and minor principal stresses. a new set of moduli is determined from Eq. Starting from the rigid base.n d the stress invariant shown in Figure 2. or a depth far from the surface where the vertical displacement can be assumed zero. In applying the layered theory for nonlinear analysis. Approximate Method One approximate method to analyze a nonlinear half-space is to divide it into a number of layers and determine the stresses at the midbeighi of each layer by Boussinesq's equations based on linear theory. Example 2. a question immediately arises: Which radial distance r should be used to determine the stresses and the moduli? Huang (1968a) showed that the vertical st. Determine tbe vertical surface displacement at the axis of symmetry.11. both theories could yield the same stresses. and Pezo {1993) assumed that the modulus of granular materials depended not on ly on the stress invariant.the mass unit weight is 110 pcf (17 3 kN/m3 ). 2.4. an intermediate effect on raclial and tangential stresses.3. and satisfactory agreements were reported.can then be obtained. 9.tion between the top and bottom of each layer based on the given £.12a. The soil is divided into six layers. Other constitutive relationships for sands or clays can also be used. From the stresses thus obtained.1. as sh own in Figure 2. {1992). which is the difference in deflec. as discussed in Section 3. It should be noted that Eq.11 and a new set of stresses is then computed. at a certain depth. and a very smaU effect on vertical and shear stresses (Huang. Pezo el a/. This may explain why Boussinesq's solutions for vertical stress based on linear theory have been applied to soils with varying degrees of suceess. the elastic modulus E for each layer is determined from Eq. as presented in Appendix F. The process is repeated until the moduli between two consecutive iterations converge to a specified tolerance.• 54 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements the stresses thus obtained. even though soils themselves are basically nonlinear. but also on the deviator stress. 1969a). Copyrighted material .

900 = 0.6)130. From Eq.1.0. = u. 2.3. From Eq . (305 mm).60 psi (31.11 with £ 0 = 18. when z = 12 in.800psi (130 MPa) and f3 = 0.5 + 2161(72) 1·5] = 4. and the deflection at bottom. (0.01048) V e N ~ · ·-c' ~ 1---------~---4·------------.5 E = 18. (152 mm). • .0174 in. I pcf = 157..6 X 6/{72)0 .01040) 0:: 80 100 Stress Invariant.1 N/m3).3 x 80 X 6 {6/(36 + 144)05 + 0.5 330 • ~ (b) Layer Subdivision FIGURE 2.0283 .4 mm.6 + 110 x 6 {1 + 2 x 0.12 Example 2.0109 in.4[( 180)0.7 psi {426 kPa). ----------------------Copynghted material .5 .2.277 mm). 1. 2..2. The deformations for other layers can be delermined similarly.7 kPa).2.800 psi {J • 0.719 mm).--' A 0 k-' ~ c :. and the results are tabulated in Table 2. Solution: At the midheight of layer 1.:l 'ii" 10 ~ Eo - 18. w = 1.800 ( 1 + 0.7) = 30.2.0109 = 0. when z = 0. (0.4 (I in. From Eq.5] = 51.5)/(12) 3 = 61.7 psi (357 kPa).12)/6}130.12a. From Eq. z = 6 in. the deflection at top. as shown in Figure 2. (0.6 + 4.800(1 + 0.216/ (36 + 36) t...9 kPa.0 104 E = 18. l psi = 6.6.5 A d 18 • 30 • 42 • w0 a ? 0.900 psi (213 MPa). SOpsi f M q fl z • 6 in.u. 2. The deformation for layer 1 is 0. w = 1..3 '( = 110 pcf Ko = 0.7 + 4.442 mm).0. psi (a) Resilient Modulus 20 40 60 120 140 6 in. 2.0104 x 61.3 .1 Homogeneous Mass 55 k-0 ~ .800(1 + 0.12.0104. = 40 [1 + 2 X 0.900 = 0.0283 in. = 25. 9 = 51.3 x 80 x 6 ( 1 + 1 . E = 18. u l = 80[1 . From Eq.

9 5 12 54 1.09 6.15 .27 .65 -·0.04 O.0025 7.(}174 30. To compute the deformation of each layer. The differences in stress distribution between Bous. = 25.0.4 mm.9 k.330 0.51 2.11 into the program.0029 123. = 175 N/n>.250 92.0. while that due to geostatic stresses increases with depth.5 0. Note also that more than 50% of the surface deflections are contributed by the deformation i. As a result.1 Computation of Deformation for Each Lnyer z at mid· Layer no. (psi) (psi) Loading Geostatic 60. 1 in.2 4 42 12 2.46 -0.04 42.260 20.67 21.01 27. become nearly the same.020 50.2. The same problem was solved by KENLAYER after the incorporation of Eq.0.~ Bunnister z at midheight (in.400 74. (psi) E (psi) 6 18 30 51.09 0. lt is interesting to note that the stress invariant 9 due to the applied load decreases with depth.29 10.56 Chapter 2 Stressei and Strains in Flexible Pavements TABU: 2.35 0.47 0.51 .0325 in. the product of w and E at each layer interface is first determined from Eq.0325 Total Not<.92 0.n the top 12 in. Copyrighted material .60 .0.46 0. 2.330 20.57 . I psi = 6.0.6.) height (in.72 11.04 0.~ Boussine.~ine.f120 42 54 330 1. = 2$.Pa.00 Nott.860 338. the elastic moduli for all layers.60 0.0.00 0. except layers 1 and 6.330 20. I in. 1 psi = 6.2 Differences in Stresses and Moduli between Boussinesq and Bu:rmister Solution.6 I 12 6 51.0 2 12 18 11.330 0.) 873.39 .00 30.72 4.oJ 0.250 20. u.860 21.11 30.826 mm).69 4. llbJin.9 kPa.69 .) (in.580 21. The surface deflection is the sum of all layer deformations and equals to 0. Thickness (in.020 0.27 4. 'The difference in wE between the two interfaces divided by E gives the deformation of the layer.46 4.50 10. (0.q and Burmister theory and the resulting moduli are shown in Table 2.0015 20.76 E wE alion (psi) (lblin.440 27.28 0.) Deform- 8 (psi) u.04 4. (p•i) E (psi) " ' (psi) u.0.1 3 12 30 4.0073 182.4 mm.03 3.0. (psi) u.82 • 20.070 20. 2.) u .5 6 330 540 0.0009 20.26 2.57 2.<. The surface deflection based on layered theory TABLE 2. It can be seen that the two solutions correspond well. (305 mm).88 1.27 .0.280 20.39 4.31 1.09 5.61 .15 2.400 27.

and three-layer systems with bonded interfaces are presented. 2.0325 in. Figure 2. Layer 2 Ez. the continuity of shear stress and radial displacement is replaced by zero shear stress at each side of the interf<~ce.787 mm). The theoretical development of multilayer systems is discussed in Appendix B. S. which also agrees with the 0. and linearly elastic with an elastic modulus E and a Poisson ratio v. Copyrighted material .2 LAYERED SYSTEMS Flexible pavements are layered systems with bener materials on top and cannot be represented by a homogeneous mass. 1945). and radial displacement For frictionless interface.13 shows an 11-layer system. 3. In this section. Each layer has a finite thickness h. 1968a). Each layer is homogeneous. 1967. (0.0310 in. as indicated by the same vertical stress.vl ~ FIGURE 2 . (0. except thai the lowest layer is infinite in thickness. 2. Burmister (1943) first developed solutions for a two-layer system and then extended them to a three-layer system ( Burmister..2 Layered Systems 57 is 0. so the use of Bunnister's layered theory is more appropriate.826 mm) from Boussinesq theory.13 Layer n An n-layer system subjected to a drcular load.2.2. ~~-~ Layer l Eh Vt --h. only some of the solutions on two. the theory can be applied to a multilayer system with any number of layers (Huang. A uniform pressure q is applied on the surface over a circular area of radius a. shear stress. With the advent of computers. The basic assumptions to be satisfied are: 1. 2. 4. vertical displacement.1 Two-Layer Systems The exact case of a two-layer system is the fuU-depth construction in which a thick layer of HMA is placed directly on the subgrade. isotropic. The material is weightless and infinite in areal extent. If a pavement is composed of three . Continuity conditions are satisfied at the layer interfaces.

a granular base course.58 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements layers (e. as indicated by Boussinesq's stress distribution. As in all charts presented in this section. and reduces to about 8% of the applied pressure if £ 1/ &z = 100. the vertical stress increases with the increase in contact radius and decreases with the i. 'The chart is applicable to the case when the thickness h 1 of layer 1 is equal to the radius of contact area.ncrease in thickness.g.rrade. It can be seen that the vertical stresses decrease significantly with the increase in modulus ratio. an asphalt surface course. (After Bunnister (1958).14 shows the effect of a pavement layer on the distribution of vertical stresses under the center of a circular loaded area. it is necessary to combine the base course and the subgrade into a single layer for computing the stresses and strains in the asphalt layer or to combine the asphalt surface course and base course for computing the stresses and strains in the sub~:.This simplification is valid for highway and airport pavements because the vertical strain is caused primarily by the vertical stress and the effect of horizontal stress is relatively small. To combine the effect of stress and strength. because the large horizontal stress caused by the distribution of wheel loads through rails and ties over a large area makes the vertical strain a poor indicator of the vertical stre. As pointed out in Section 1.. the vertical compressive strain has been used most frequently as a design criterion. The reason that the ratio alh 1 instead of 111/a was used is for the purpose of preparing influence charts (Huang.5 is assumed for all layers.14 Vertical stress distribution in a two- layer system. Figure 2. The aiJowable vertical stress on a given subgrade depends on the ~trengtll or modulus of the subgrade.5. a Poisson ratio of 0. the vertical stress is about 68% of the applied pressure if E 11&z = 1.2. At the pavement-subgrade interface.15 shows the effect of pavement thickness and modulus ratio on the vertical stress uc at the pavement-subgrade interfaee unde r the center of a circular loaded area. or 11 1/a = 1. 1969b) for two-layer elastic foundations.ss.) Copyrighted material . The stresses in a two-layer system depend on the modulus ratio £ 1/&z and the thickness-radius ratio h 1/a. The function of a pavement is to reduce the vertical stress on the subgrade so that detrimental pavement deformations will not occur. " zJq FlGURE 2. and a subgrade). the design of railroad trackbeds should be based on vertical stress instead of vertical strain. Vertical Stress The vertical stress on the top of subgrade is an important factor in pavement design. Figure 2. For a given applied pressure q.

a/11 1 = 1.9 ~0 0.13) in which Nd is the allowable number of stress repetitions to Limit permanent deformation. (152 mm) a nd uniform pressure 80 psi (552 kPa) is applied on a two-layer system. The subgrade has e lastic modulus 5000 psi (35 MPa) and can support a maximum vertical stress of 8 ps i (55 kPa).15.4 03 ~ 1!-' k' 0.jq = 0.4 0.000 psi or 25.6 2.0 2.15.7 ((.1.1 . from Figure 2. = '/ FIGURE 2.s 0.8 ~~<!~ 0.15 Vertical imerface stresses for two-layer systems. i I E. = 25. Solution: Given £1 /~ = 500.000 psi (3.000 psi (173 MPa).45 GPa). u 0 is the vertical compressive stress on the surface of the subgrade in psi.15 = 5.' 0.2 Layered Systems 59 0.6 CT b" :'-'~ o. (1984b) developed the relationship (2. from Figure 2.5: A circular load having radius 6 in. Huang et al.4 = 15 in. or 1! 1 = 6/1.5 ( I in.2 OJ ~~ 0.000/5000 = 100 and uJq = 8/80 = 0.000 psi ~= 5000psi h. as shown in Figure 2. what is the required thickness of a full-depth pavement? If a thin surface treatment is applied on a granular base with elastic modulus 25.8 1.2 1. what is the thickness of base course required? ~ sops. {132 mm). and £.4. [( the HMA has elastic modulus 500.) Example 2.2 in. a/11 1 = 0. The al~ lowable vertical stress should depend on the number of load repetitions.4 a/h 1 FIGURE 2.4 mm.000/5000 -: 5 and u.9 kPa). (After Huang (1969b) .16. Using tbe Shell design criterion and the AASHTO equation. ln this example.2. (381 mm). or 11 1 = 61 0. = 500._ is CopynglltL'd material . Given £1 /~ = 25.16 Example 2. an allowable vertical stress of 8 psi (55 kPa) is arbitrarily selected to show the effect of the modulus of the reinforced layer on the thickness required. which is tbe minimum thickness fo r full depth. J psi = 6. which is the minimum thickness o f granular base required.15.

(305 mm) in diameter.7 x lOS.5 2. then .17 Vertical surface deOections for two-layer systems.18. 2.14 is identical to Eq.02 0 0. (After Burmlster (1943). Vertical Surface Deflection Vertical surface deflections have been used as a criterion of pavement design. For a homogeneous half-space with h 1/a = 0.60 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 0. Layer 1 has a thickness of 8 in. lf the deflection of the plate is 0. F2 = 1.10.14) The deflection factor is a function of £ 1/£ 2 and h 1/a.03 0.2 .5.18qa"' Ez rz (2.000 lb (89 kN) was applied on the surface of a two-layer system through a rigid plate 12 in.15} Example 2.54 mm).05 0. (203 mm) and layer 2 has an e lastic modulus of 6400 psi (44.6: A total load of20. For a stress of 8 psi (5 kPa) and an elastic ·modulus of 5000 psi (35 MPa). Both layers are incompressible with a Poisson ratio of 0.5 1.5qa UJo = &z F2 (2. (2.0 1.5. 11Jo = 1.8 when v = 0. from Eq 2. The deflection is expressed in terms of the deflection factor F2 by 1. 2. CopynglltL'd material . If the load is applied by a rigid plate.) the elastic modulus of the subgrade in psi.1 0.06 0.2 MPa).17 can be used to determine the surface deflections for two-layer systems.1 in. Figure 2. the allowable number of repetitions is 3.0 3 4 5 6 b 1/a FIGURE 2.04 0. determine the elastic modulus of layer 1. so Eq. as shown in Figure 2..08 0.:· 0.

22 MPa). The deflection is expressed in terms of the deflection factor F by qa w = -F (2.18 x 176.2. v.) CopynglltL'd material .6 (in. I psi = 6. (After Huang (1969c).000/(3671') = 176.5 8 in.4 mm.19 can be used to determine the vertical interface deflection in a two-layer system (Huang.511. v2 = 0. or £ 1 = 5 X 6400 = 32.16) £2 F I Deflection =~ F 7 FIGURE 2.9 kPa. 'I Layered Systems 61 Rigid Plate DeOects 0.18 ~ • 6400psi Example 2.000 psi (221 MPa). FIGURE 2. Given 1!1/a Figure 2. = 0.8 psi (1.45 N) . Figure 2. 1 lb = 4. 19 Vertical interfaee deflections for two·layer systems.1 x 6400/(1. E11Ez = 5.1 in. 1969c). 2.17.2 12 in.5 Solution: The average pressure on the plate is q = 20. = 25. F2 = 0. From Eq.8 X 6) = 0.15. from Vertical Interface Deflection The vertical interface deflection has also been used as a design criterion. = 816 = 1333.

"· '5 6 Deflection • 7 FIGURE 2. :0 ~liMOiiR.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 o.3 0.2 1.2 1.7 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.1 1.1 1. • E.5 0 I ' F 0.2 0.8 0.c 6 E.8 0.4 0.4 I.S 7 5 6 De.6 0._ -'! 3 5 6 .4 0.§.1 0.5 0.1 9 (Conlinued) Copyrighted m atenal .7 0.1 0.S ON CURVES lNOICATE rfJ 4 2.9 1.4 1. ·- E.:l 1.9 1. :~~ F l 7 F 0 0.1 0.0 1.2 l ... e.6 0.S 2 NUMBERS ON CURVES INDICATE .4 0.= .c 4 2 s 3 e . .2 0.1 1. 10 1 4 e.fleclion o.3 0.5 0.62 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements F 0 0.8 0.4 1..5 0 F 2 ~ 3 .3 1..

r ! J JJ l E1 a 100. 2.. 10. 7 E.6 0..20 Example 2.14 by the factor 1.19 (Continued) Note that Fin Eq. 1 0.5 3 't NUMBERS ON CURVES lNDICATE rfa ~ ~-~1 4 't 5 E. The deflection factor is a function of £ 11£-z. §.j__ A E1 = 1.4 1.I 2.000 psi (690 MPa).000 psi t6" _________w. I psi a a 25.20 shows a set of dual tires. (343 mm).000 psi (69 MPa).5. "' e..5 70 psi 4. and 100.5 0. - E.5.0 1. Layer I bas thickness 6 in. 25. 5. and ria. (!52 mm) and e lastic modulus 100.3 0. (115 mm) and contact pressure 70 psi (483 kPa). where r is the radial distance from the center of loaded area.2 Layered Systems 63 F 6 0.2 1..9 1. 2.7 (I in.5 in.. 4. Copynghted matenal . l !i--rl-i-Jr. 50. are shown . h 1/a.Il l 13.1 1. Determine the vertical deOection at point A . Seven sets of charts for the modulus ratios 1.52 in.3 1.8 0.52 in..= 50 •• 1 L. 6.4 0. the deflection for any intermediate modulus ratio can be obtained by interpolation.=~ ? --~~----------.52 in.9 kPa). each having contact radius 4.2 0.. E.7 0. layer 2 bas elastic mod· ulus 10. which is on the interface beneath the center of one loaded area.4 mm..7: Figure 2. Example 2.0.16 is different from F2 in Eq.000 psi FIGURE 2. = 100 Deflection = ~F FIGURE 2. 2. 6 Vcrciatl de ectJon • t lbis point 10 be . The case of £ 1/£ 2 = 1 is Boussinesq's solution. The cente r-to-center spacing of the dual is 13.

19. is the horizontal principal strain based on the horizontal normal and shear stresses only. F = 0. In most cases. .05 FIGURE 2.56 and that due to the right load with ria = 13.56 + 0. Critical Tensile Strain The tensile strains at the bottom of asphalt layer have been used as a design criterion to prevent fatigue cracking.84 = 0.02 e= F. (After Huang (!973a).oJ Copynghtfld matenal .28 = 0.52 = 1..5 "' 0. which checks weU with the chart solution.28. Huang (1973a) developed charts for determining the critical tensile strain at the bottom of layer 1 for a two-layer system.027 in.) 0.69 mm).514.33.64 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements Solution: Given £ 11£z = 100. The overaU principal strain is slightly greater than the horizontal principal strain. one at the center between two tires.17) Et • in which e is the critical tensile strain and Fe is the strain factor..21 S1rain faclor for single wbc. which can be determined from the charts. One is the overall principal strain based on all six components of normal and shear stresses.s 0. say one under the center of one tire. it is necessary to compute the deflection at several points. 0. (0.714 mm). and find out which is maximum.52 = 2. By superposition. the deflection factor at point A due to the left load with ria = 0 is 0. Single Wheel Figure 2. and the other under the edge of one tire.21 presents the strain factor for a two-layer system under a circular loaded area. (0. The critical tensile strain is the overall strain and can be determined from e= !LF (2.1 0.000110. It should be pointed out that the maximum interface deflection under dual tires might not oceur at point A. w = 70 X 4. which is more popular and was used in KENLAYER.el. The other.99 is 0.• 'l 0 1) a. From Eq. so the use of overall principal strain is on the safe side. the critical tensile strain occurs under the center 20 10 5 2 - .52/10.84.16.. from Figure 2. 1\vo types of principal strains could be considered. To determine the maximum interface deflection. O. 2.0281 in.000 = 10 and h 11a = 614.000 X 0.2 r. The interface deflection obtained from KENLAYER is 0.

22 Example 2.72.h 1/a = 816. as the predominant effect of the shear stress.7 psi (467 ltPa).7 X 0.17.7) ~ 6.721150.21 can be used to determine the vertical compressive strain on the surface of the subgrade as well. which i~the ratio between dual. Solution: Given a c V 9000/(1t x 67. Because the strain factor for dual wheels is generally greater than that for a single wheel. which checks well with the 3.21.22 shows a full-depth asphalt pavement 8 in. If layer 2 is incompressible and the critical tensile strain occurs on the axis of sym· metry. However. then the vertical compressive strain is equal to twice the horizontal strain. so that Figure 2. the critical tensile strain occurs at some distance from the center. 1 Dual Wheels Because the strain factor for dual wheels with a contact radius a and a dual spac.21 can still be used.000 psi (1.25 X 10""'.21 . Example 2.5in. 0. the most djrect method is to present charts similar to Figure 2.2 Layered Systems 65 of the loaded area. and 1. the dual wheels are replaced by a single wheel with the same contact radius a. the critical tensile strain e ·= 67.5a. However.21 . a conversion factor C.000 pst 8 in.000 = 3. must be determined.5a from the ce nter were computed.000 .000/15. (203 mm) thick subjected to a single-wheel load of 9000 lb (40 kN) ba. =j. (l65mm).and single-wheel strain factors.36 X 10"" obtained by KENLAYER.7 psi Et ~ 150.ing Sd depends on S.23. 1. . F.llthe elastic modulus of the asphalt layer is 150. determine the critical tensile strain in the asphalt layer. 10. 9000 lb 67. In this method. and the critical value was obtained and plotted in Figure 2. 2. one for each value of Sia. Jib = 4. from Figure 2. = 25. Multiplication of Copyrighted material .4 rnrn. To avoid these difficulties. where the shear stress is zero. Under such situations. I psi = 6.•ing contact pressure 67. Therefore. the principal tensile strains at the radial distances 0.2. this approach requires a series of charts. .Ya in addition to £ 1/£ 2 and h 1/a.21 (as is discussed later).. It is interesting to note that the bonded interface makes the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of layer 1 equal to the horiwntal tensile strain at the top of layer 2.and£11£z .000 psi (104 MPa).9 kPa. 0. Figure 2. 2.23.5 .000 psi - ' c= ? Ez = 15. FIGURE 2. as shown by Eq.8: Figure 2.45 N). From Eq.8 (1 in. as shown in Figure 2. a.04 GPa) and that of the subgrade is 15. 150. a unique met11od was developed that requires only one chart. when both h 1/a and £ 1/£2 are small. and the interpolation could be quite timeconsumjng.

The strain factors for various values of h 1 and £ 1/ ~ were calculated and the conversion factors were obtained and plotted as a set of curves on the upper part of Figure 2.2 FIGURE 2. Although Figure 2. fairly accurate conversion factor for any other contact radii. for the same dual spacing. and £ 1/£2 • As long as the ratios h 1/a and Sd/a remain the same.) 12 the conversion factor by the strain factor obtained from Figure 2. hi> and a.23. Copynghted malenal .2 • 1.23 16 Thickness of Asphalt Layer. (610 mm) and a = 3 in. no matter how large or small the contact radius a may be. (203 mm) is plotted at the bottom.6 Cz 1. 1.23. the larger the conversion factor. It can be seen that. Another set of curves based on the same Sd but with a = 8 in. sd (2. 4 Conversion !actor lor dual wheel (1 in. find conversion factors C1 and C2 from Figure 2. From the given Sd. However.4 1. Sia. The procedure can be summarized as follows: 1.23 is based on Sd = 24 in. (After Huang (1973a). so a straight-line interpolation should give a .18a) (2. (76 mm).4 mm). Consider a set of dual wheels with Sd = 24 in. in.4 c. so that the ratios htfa and Sd/a remain the same. determine the modified radius a' and the modified thickness h]: 24 a' = -a sd h\ • 24 = . the change in conversion factor due to the change in contact radius is not very large. the strain factor will be the same. it can be applied to any given Sd by simply changing a and h 1 in proportion to the change in Sd.21 will yield the strain factor for dual wheels. (610 mm). The two-layer theory indicates that the strain factor for dual wheels depends oil h 1/a.h. the larger the contact radius.66 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 1. Using h\ as the pavement thickness. = 25.0 1.18b) 2.

2 .3}(1. the strain factor for a single wheel = 0.18. The use of these charts is similar to the usc of Figure 2.35 + 0.9 {I in. (610 mm). it is Copyrighted material .7 psi (467 kPa).5 in.5 in. Because the conversion factor for dual-tandem wheels depends on hia.50. (1220 mm).7 in. 2. (76 and 203 mm).21.35) = 1.5 = 9. lib = 4.47 and that for dual wheels = 1. By oomparing tlie results of Examples 2. and S11a. Huang (1972) also presented a simple chart for determining directly the maximum tensile strain in a two-layer system subjected to a set of dual tires spaced at a distance of 3a oo center.50 x 0. (1830 mm) were developed for determining the conversion factor due to dual-tandem wheels.35 and C2 = 1. from Eq. With E11~ = 10 and an asphalt layer thickness of16.7 p<i E 1 = 150.2 (9. if the 900Q. a load applied on a set of dual tires yields a critical strain that is not very different from that on a single wheel.2. and 2.3) X ( C.4 mm.21 X 10· • obtained by KENLAYER.24 Example 2.19) Example 2. a' 11.8 and 2.705.26.7) = h 1 = 8 in. However. A series of charts relating tensile strains to curvatures was also developed. ~.25. as shown in Figure 2.18 X 10-<. C = 1. and = 24 x 4. this is not true when thin asphalt layers or large dual spacings are involved. (292 mm).47 = 0.5 = 16.19. which checks closely with the 3.7 in.from Figure 2.6 itt. so the critical tensile strain e = 67.23 with dual spacing Sd of 24 in. 2. From Eq. (292 mm) and a contact pressure of 67. 1 psi = 6.23. determine the critical tensile strain i.9: For the same pnvemcot as in Example 2 . (610 mm) and tandem spacings 51 of 24 in. and 72 in.000 psi -- 8 in. as shown in Figures 2. us ·m. ( 424 mm).23. (610 mm).2 Layered Systems 67 3.46 . ~ 25. (203 mm).7051150.9 kPa.9. 48 in. (117 mm) .000 = 3. l971).6/ 11. or C = C1 + 0. (244 mm) and ill = 24 X 8/ Solution: Given a= V45001(1T x 67.6 in. so that the tensile strain under a design dual-wheel load can be evaluated in the field by simply measuring the curvature on the surface (Huang. Sd!a.27.Ib (40-kN) load is applied over a set of dual tires with a center·to-center spacing of 11.n the asphalt layer. Determine the conversion factor for a' by a straight-line interpolation between 3 and 8 in.1.46. and because the actual Sd may not be equal to 24 in.45 N) .2 X (a' . Sd = 11.24. Dual-Tandem Wheels Charts similar to Figure 2. 4500 I b 4500 lb 67. From Figure 2. in this particular case (when the asphalt layer is thick and the dual spacing is small). e: ? FIGURE 2. 2.8. C 1 = 1. it can be seen that.7 x 0.C1) (2. (424 mm).6 .

that for other values of S. Conversion (actor for duaJ. sd = 24 in.22.2 1.02 6 14 18 Thickn ess of Asphalt Layer.8 . = 25.2 1. and 1. o<'! --:: 1. 1. -- <. 48. The conversion factor for S. 8 in. tandem spacing (1 in.68 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 2. = 24. must also be changed accordingly to keep hila and 51/a unchanged.... in. r:: "" ~\ 10 i4 i8 Thickness of Asphalt Layer.2 • 2. .25 :.6 c..0 ~ sd 24 in.4 .J S . the original problem is changed to a new problem with Sd = 24 in.) 1. (0. thus keeping the ratio Sia unchanged.4 1. = 25. (610 rom) and a newS.. Therefore.18a.0 2. 1.sd - - • 24 in. 2.) i"" 6 .61. 1. and 72 in..tandem wheels with 24-in.. Copynghted malenal . sd - 24 in. (After Huang (l973a). 1.2 1. (610 mm) and then change the contact radius a proportionately according to Eq. 1 2. FIGURE 2. ::1.:).0 1.: p. 1. a = 3 in.8 s1 48 in. = 48 in. 1.'-1 p. 1.83 m) can be obtained from the charts.6 1.8 ~~ . The values of h i and S.6 1.24 in.a .3in.4 mm). in. 24 in.) 1. ..8 1. can be determined by interpolation.~.4 nun). (After Huang (1973a). 1.6 s. necessary to change Sd to 24 in.4 2.2 . 1. c. <.4 1.26 Conversion faccor for duaJ·tandem wheels with 48-io.4 FIGURE 2. a = 8 in.0 s. tandem spacing ( 1 in.

05 m). except that an identical set of duals is added to form dual-tandem wheels having the tandem spacing 49 in. I lb = 4.28. : 25.7 psi E 1 m 150. (1.25 through 2.9. = 120 in. (After Huang (1973a).9 kPa.2 1.10: Same as example 2. are greater than 72 in. (1.6 1. in. as shown in Figure 2.25 m).28 c=? ~ Example 2.27.2. in many cases. 18 witb 72-io. Figure 2.26 and 2.83 m).27 Conversion factor for dual·tandem wheels 10 14 Thickness of Asphalt Layer. 1 psi : 6.4 mm. Figure 2. thus decreasing the critical tensile strain.000 psi \ CopynglliL'd material . In fact. 1. 67.23 with Figures 2.2 Layered Systems 69 1.05 m) the conversion factor due to dual-tandem wheels does not differ significantly from that due to dual wheels alone.10 ( I in.23. tandem spacing ( I in. the addition of tandem wheels reduces the conversion factor. The interaction among these wheels is quite unpredictable.4 c.45 N). (3.5 in. 4500Jb 4500Jb I1. (3.27 clearly indicates that.) a 25.4 mm). as indicated by the irregular shape of the curves in the lower part of Figures 2. so Figure 2.000 psi -- FIGURE 2. based on dual wheels can be used for interpolation. This is due to the compensative effect caused by the additional wheels.0 1. • = 15. If the new values of S.23 can be considered to have a tandem spacing of 120 in.23 is a special case of dualtandem wheels when the tandem spacing approaches infinity. A comparison of Figure 2. when S.4 FIGURE 2. Example 2. It was found that.

= 49 io .20 indicates that the radial strain equals one-half of the vertical strain and is opposite in sign.6721150. (2.S i.. when a material is incompressible and has th.1. (1.5 = 102. h1 '"z1 -' ~ u.1. (1.83 m) and 1. (1 .3 i.47 = 0. + 0. u:.25 m). which is smaller tba. (424 mm).7 in.32 + (1. and .21) Equation 2. = 72 in.43. When S..2 (9.03 x 10'""'.l strain is equal to one-half of the vertical strain and the sum of E.21 can be visualized physically from the fact that. u :to vertical stress at interface 2.50 . (244 mm). With a conversion f-actor of 1.6 in. (292 mm) and S.7 x 0. u.20b) Equation 2. must be equal to 0. from Figure 2.30 . Values of a' and h' arc the same as in Example 2. u ." FIGURE 2. u. 2 .5. (3.32}(102.2.e Poisson ratio 0.20a) = E(u.05 m).32. (2.5 for th e dual wheels · alone. 'These stresses include vertical stress at interface '1 .43 x 0.h radial stress at bottom of layer 2.n. Note that.5. or (2.1.672. 2. and radial stress at top of layer 3. which checks closely with the 3.z. on the axis of symmetry. from Eq.u.000 = 3. Critical tensile strain= 67. 1 E.2 Three-layer Systems Figure 2.n the 1.. = 72 in. . 2• radial stress at bottom of layer 1.29 Str= at interfac-es of a·t·bree· '3 = • hz Interface 2 0.70 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements Solution: Given Sd = Ll.23. E.h radial stress at top of layer 2. Eo! layer system.50 for s. 2. tangential and radial stresses are identical and the sheer stress is eq ual to 0.23) = 1. by straight-line interpolation. The strain factor due to dual-tandem wheels = ) .05 x 10""' obtained from KENL AYER.32 for S. C = 1. .29 shows a three-layer system and the stresses at the interfaces on the axis of symmetry. C = 1.5. u .hi = 16.) (2. Copyrighted material .72)1{120 .72) = 1.27. and E.8. the horizonta.3)(1.60 m).3 .modificd taodem spacing= 49 x 24111.6 . When the Poisson ratio is 0. 1 Interface 1 0' r1 1 1 l<ra . = 120 in.83 m). we have.n. a' = 9.

24c) (1'~ Uf2 = q (ZZ2 .q (ZZl) (2.u :Z = u a .RR2) (i24d) - ..2 Layered Systems 71 ' Jones' Tables The stresses in a three-layer system depend on the ratios k 1. .ur2 __.22a) (2.000 psi (2.. (152mm). The product of the contact pressure and the stress factors gives the stresses: .j - u. :or. 2..2 . h 1 = 6in. A. and ~ = 10.. ·o:. to conserve space. (203mm). \• ~ Given' tile three-layer system shoWn in Figure 2~ ·with a = 4. ZZl . 20. In view of the fact that solution)i for three-layer systems can be easily obtained by KENLAYER and the interpolation from the tables is impractical and requires a large amount of time and effort. defined as (2.-ZZ l.2.24b) u.24a) (T. and 200). The continuity of horizontal displacement at .h o-.Ur2· His tables also include values of u<l .000 psi (69 MPa).1 =.and H.SGPa)." u . Four sets of stress factors. Table 2. determine aU the stresses and ·strains at the two interfaces on the axis of symmetry.20b. but these tabulations are actually not necessary because they can be easily deiermined from those at the bottom of layers 1 and 2. Example 2. El = 400. and k2 = 2 and 20) are prll'seiiiecf. 1 = q (ZZ1 .:: kz (2.h2 · 6 in... q = 120 psi (828 kPa).11: : . 2. (l22 mm). · Copyrighted material .2.22b) . from Eq. k 2 . . and ZZ2 .23a) u a . I Jones (1962) presented a series of tables for determining u.RR2-are shown. 2 = q (ZZ2) (2.RRl) (2.£z = 20.000 psi (1~8 MPa).u.8 in. : I ITa (2. and C1':2 .~__. The sign convention is positive in compression and negative in tension. 20. 1 -IT.3 presents the stress factors for three-layer systems.23b) The tables presented by Jones consist of four values of k 1 and k 1 (0..the interface implies that the radial strains at the bottom of one layer are equal to that at the top of the next layer.RR 1. and 200. Zzz. so solutions for intermediate values of k 1 and k 2 can be obtained by interpolation. only the more realistic cases (k1 = 2..:. 1 at the top of layer 2 and IT :2 at the top of layer 3.

70970 0.35807 0.40086 0.0.14419 0.38469 0.56298 0.20963 0.95534 31.76234 0.00530 0.07933 0.05278 0.65934 0.8 1.06741 0.13480 0.67)74 0.08634 0.(16974 0.99364 0.04193 0.28$12 5.77394 0.00710 0.2 0.05399 0.6 3.0761:3 0.2 0.66753 0.38520 0.03481 0.00215 0.01744 0.19580 8.74573 5.01027 0.3 Stress F3c1ors for ·Three-Layer Syst<:ms kl H a k1 2 (ZZJ .89878 0.86779 5.01799 0.98565 2.37852 18.49523 1.25229 O.29072 0.62399 0.90325 0.43263 1.01122 0.03336 0.41078 k2 2 k.02783 0.29034 0.145 13 0.23476 0.64313 4. 0.ot ()SO 0.13541 0.00969 0.70225 0.91166 2.61673 0.01694 2.42940 0.125 0.00896 0.17763 8.200 ZZI ZZ2 (ZZJ .43022 0.03812 0.00861 0.95080 0.63003 0.46409 99.04047 0.92533 .03467 0.93831 0.86191 0.00440 0.63215 1.16717 3.45208 0.96553 3.88358 0.78414 0.06003 0.00826 0.10763 8.70221 0.4 0.0.30923 26.019) I 0.002.05574 0.19598 1.97806 0.38638 11.28318 0.17331 .914(i9 3.8 1.4 0.2 0.00828 0.28916 0.OOCJ(.93712 0.02452 17.0002.98447 0.09061 0.96634 0.t'0128 O.54931 0.03493 0.23838 0.38377 4.59448 10.4 0.62943 0.60964 0.39919 1.15211 . "' TABlE 2.93487 1.1 0.89191 0.411~7 0. .96l48 0.84545 0.8.2 0.02728 0.828$9 .90115 0.00257 0.26617 0.01542 .01434 0.0342 1 0.00885 32.1)()12.00909 0..06647 0.50790 0.4 0.75904 0.38799 0.00203 0.8 0.6 3.00810 0.70119 0.14282 0.69109 0.96681 0.2.0()465 0.71083 O.2 2 1.13976 6.00064 0.99215 5.8 1.19982 .12667 0.00464 0.17997 0.08044 0.5 () 0 "0 '< :0.04236 0.01611 0.469<18 6.02946 0.14116 0.42106 0.08229 o.02741 0.49135 1.()2086 0.0622 1 0.RR L) (ZZ2 .30247 0.1)1888 0.99434 0.26620 0.2 20 0.06894 0.SOO 0.02985 0.64779 1.00509 0.1 0.6 0.10928 0.97493 0.31847 1.05854 0.37342 1..1 1491 0.19520 5.85940 0.00ll7 0.03648 0.03731 0.03392 0.00149 0.90861 0.09592 6.09508 0.52912 0.11697 0.18091 0.65003 1.28362 0.24528 0.0()489 0.89895 0.44710 0.00373 0.0.19872 0.027 10 0.2 20 0.34941 0.98610 0.07027 0.49938 3.93309 0.14159 0.22002 5.27934 0.09285 2.42809 0.Z 0.04320 0.76886 5.55231 4.932$4 0.33878 0.00179 0.01014 0.37882 0.01716 0.95639 6.84369 O.78424 0.1 0.5$490 0.23137 0.22.96330 0.81178 3.1.10710 0.15436 ().1 0.70622 0.36932 0.68947 0.02259 8.00182 0.69098 1.963$3 0.70726 0.13946 0.0022H 0.0. 10684 0.97494 0.00899 0.2 0.82256 0.02732 12.01025 0.26278 0.46583 .06722 0.53833 3.21951 .79338 J.91258 0.00488 0.27093 .49238 0.00259 0. 0.01453 0.02697 0.64175 2727701 23.40857 57.56409 .0.08250 0.98044 0.02091 0.99840 0.03781 0.15765 34.03998 0.24281 1.1 0.119 .21860 0.63916 1.89390 0.t'0509 0.23256 0.RRI ) (ZZ2 .1 37tl8 0.35175 0.2 0.04381 0.46835 0.39588 .98591 0.2 0.14529 0.01353 0.66097 20.03844 0.3.99060 0.11 ) .19358 0.42950 0.53836 0.RR t) (ZZ2 .!8'!09 2S.93798 0.08738 3.23531 0.00564 0.5.15524 0.20115 0.07827 0.02167 0.03269 0.88655 0.~7 1.224 ll .1 0.26565 0.68433 0.75683 1.67115 0.30477 0.96921 0.92757 0.034$4 0.98156 0.1 0..62046 0.01028 0.5490 0.722(14 2.66535 .48647 0.129$4 0.00549 0.97146 0.80664 0.00990 0.69332 0.00407 0. 13148 0.00116 0.11350 0.00962 0.58553 0.0.00259 0.35384 0.77028 77.00176 0.6 3.436.49612 3.14808 20 0.009HS 0.11448 0.01930 0.126$4 0.8 1.42077 0.78651 1.69014 0.27906 0.11650 0.2 0.27135 0.97956 0.6049.84030 0.59341 3.25 2 0.95243 a 20 (ZZI .07045 0.06476 0.29887 1.29943 49.15325 0.24726 10.RR2) ZZI ZZ:2 0.1 0.97420 0.30212 16.19178 0.'12695 0.05622 0.03170 0.01996 0.71939 0.~60 3.1.55211 0.8 0.27307 1.3 1771 0. - "' ::7 ~ -~ => "'"" .31263 0.357!6 0.00094 0.90693 4.00372 0.00094 0.14286 0.RR2) 0.05489 2.83766 3.14447 0.98.41828 0.03620 0.04172 0.05691 0.98801 0.51585 1.1 0.00128 0.01972 0.01778 0.66885 0.00106 0.66786 0.()9893 0.4 0.21640 0.02218 0.84462 0.19803 0.97707 0..()2.71973 20.87014 0.6 0.01836 0.00911 0.00251 0.4 0.6 3.96703 0.607$4 025180 0.94860 4.89817 4.27574 0.41442 57.04000 0.72113 0.04330 0.RR2) A ZZI ZZ:2 0.42462 0.98743 1.00063 0.1$452 0.01474 0.91393 0.70903 0.93447 3.264$4 0.85930 0.31094 0.10306 0.87931 0.99922 0.33736 2.S 0.98772 3.76647 0.12259 36.33218 0.47022 0.7.13365 0.50196 4.00878 0.05952 0.

34 121 3.00637 0.00920 0.0023.O(XXJI CI. Afitr Jonc:s ( 1962).2H90 9.02324 11.0 0.00469 0.00!03 0.000i1 O.01651 0.1101 44 0.00009 0.00460 0.00131 0.00263 0.1U.25739 0.!Xl'ISl! 0.OOS\lJ tt001 23 0.13516 0.2497 1 8.l.6 3.003 12 0.lll!604 0.~ 0.07335 0.00963 0.02647 0.596n 6.OIS\rl 0.83387 0.18481 0.00010 0.56503 3.00039 0.:1$64 1 1.38690 0.14~79 0.25168 1.' 0.0048.00436 0.01032 0.1012 O.26100 12.06671 0.95104 0.00008 0.01.4 0.13989 0.00099 0.04751 0.001 31 3.7134 1 0.(!()1).6749 2.29253 0.00119 0.0019~ 0.w92 0.01219 0.00.00560 0.()0374 0.00950 2 0.~ 0.0031>1 O.00545 O.ll!ll68 0.6 O.8 1.0156$ 0.199 0.00154 O.02 195 0.06045 0.06947 0.l G.02003 O.35515 0.llJZ.01 245 0.00520 0.04031 0.()06.03724 0.01283 0.02043 0.00510 0.0 17110 0.0691 3 0.14665 0.00235 0.0(1()0.1}(11 47 0.4Xl0 Iij 0.00991 2 o.26873 0.02498 0.00024 0.7~ 0.2 O.34131 1.(1)119 0.00746 0. 1 O.00019 0.9 7428 4.021211 0.19183 0.(1!15~ 0..2 0.16 0.00110 0.OCI610 0.13 0.92442 0.00100 0.37001 0.S/j6 0.0202.txXI02 O.tx..00034 0.65446 OJJ0049 0.21288 1 o.00142 0.4 0.1 0.03109 0.02061 0.08618 0.034118 0.31215 O.00.00130 0.6n32 o.2 0.00 1().00029 0.oooo7 0. () 0 .004l4 0.1)~)54 O.1 4.172'}.06$69 0.!Xl?.51128 0.A1 0.1 M4IWJ O.12.92 112 0.17961 0.00467 0.1 o.25186 0.1291 0.OOS08 3.1 1331 o.00071 0.43632 0.l0109 2 0.35311 13. 1003J 0.171\IJ 0.00203 0.04134 4.(XXl07 t\.1 I 4 0.OOOJJ 0.0~500 1.txXIOS 0.45544 O.21:006 0.00181 0.OI.1))124 0.OS061 o.~ 0.24425 0.05.J% 0.76292 1.00248 0.3 0.2999 1 0.00142 0.4S IIJ! 1.1 2 0.on4s 0.06883 0.oo.00 137 o.01797 0.6 0.0.0108.00030 0. 11666 0.l 0.Ol.71434 ll.0002 1 0.1 0.01862 0.OiXJ57 0.(1()098 0.00138 0.2.10918 0.1 0.OOOJ4 0.1 0.00179 0.2 '0 '< ::>.OOlS9 0.01507 0.18344 0.(XXI()2 0.Slnt 0.53398 1.3M27 0.02 160 O..04944 0.o8465 0.s 0.O.12007 3-2 0.22047 20.00025 0.2 20 0.1 4241 0.10864 0.28913 O.llfiO~ O.4Xffl.1 0.02179 0.10017 0.00035 0.027~ (l.03832 0.()()'JOS O.II()(Xl O.02713 O.00134 0.6 3. 12427 0.ot236 003379 O.A 0.0083) 0.7501>'7 1.4Xl!l l? 0.1 0.HI08 0.ra.00116 0. ###BOT_TEXT### =- -"' ::> 10 "'"' 0.().05974 0.37407 6.OOSSJ 0.000 II 0.(I()(JO() 0.12173 0.38974 0.2 0.06167 008469 0.00054 0.2241 8 0.2(1()98 0.97695 0.07294 -Smr.16 0.67384 O.154 0.02950 0.000.00215 0.01569 0.00321 0.21190 o.1!8673 0.1'2 0.1<15 O.s 1. 1 0.71032 o.00542 O.3435S 0.~3 0.05938 0.24250 0.01746 0.6SS30 o.51815 1.05737 0.28773 4.0417~ O..6 3.01029 0.01568 O.oow 0.00036 0.OlliJIJ O.11061 2 0.0799 1 0.00100 0.~ O.03697 20 0.OtXm 0.00027 0.511l6 O<m55 0.)(15 0.ns 0.!.00396 0.03810 0.36644 0.211145 0.33263 1.00035 0.00013 0.01782 O.1 O.0244 1 0.2:l852 0.l O. 13215 O.1 20 0.230M 0.02049 0.91)41!2 0.66727 0.68381 2.95622 .0068.~ 0.8 1.91809 36.03010 .00553 0.11022~ 0.97701 O.01683 0..90594 2.()0453 0.09049 O.21i'J611 1.00029 0.0319 1 0.05789 0.60426 0.05549 0.(10138 0.05993 0.06ns 0.06236 0.oo387 0~ 0.27103 I.00214 0.14 0.(1()()()<) 0.2 0.18857 0.DJ.77014 15.00711S 2.00025 0.'654 0.00322 0.00347 0.001!16 0.2 0.05012 0.9.02032 0.29.066.00188 0.82430 2.4 0.2 0.ooos.txXlJI O.003114 O.1 0.05444 0.09~68 0.OOOO.03093 0.tl(l!l24 0.011 30 0.296-10 0. l~ 0. 1473.23252 0.00587 0.7509 0.00011 0.6363 1 0.00030 0.0506.8 1.02332 O.2279.07972 0.03412 0.6 3.Oi'W\S9 o. 10140 0.0~9Sll .00378 O.017114 0.27221 1.66041 0.o31!25 0.02199 0.9 1994 7. 1 0.Ot<~S7 0.~9 1 1.~44 1 0.02680 0.'16 0.00250 0.01565 O.IJS 0.0177 0.00193 0.007 16 0.25495 4.4 O.39942 0.001.12lll'l.00160 0.(XH30 0.1))201 O.2783.l:l 0.00128 0.0217~ 0.OOOOil 0.00413 0.70723 0.(1()()02 O.00397 0.00003 0.il0008 O.(JOIIJ I 0. O.016 ~2 0.IXIOI S 0.022-'9 0.(XI()I4 0.01737 0.01)2(.03390 0 .00901 0.02358 0.00033 o.'18 OJXI014 o. 1 0.66326 UlS634 0.01140 3.00437 0.00028 0.00750 0.31575 0.(1()261 0.llOSO:l 0.00015 O.00518 0.00922 0.00051 0.4 0.00229 0.13401 0..00837 0.00062 0.014.78347 2.0098.4 o..OOOJ6 0.02341 O.0.544 0.0037 0.(l'T. -8.33312 1.IOOS o.11060 0.33&10 1.1)106.19247 0.1 0..00751 0.1 0.J3669 0.19267 0.<m&> 0.0213.0000\) 0.txXl02 0.

and ZZ2 .3 psi ( .30 Example 2. u d 1 = 236.<T. the chat:t has the advantage that interpolation for A and H can be easily.000 psj 6 in. · Peattie's Chart• Peattie (1962) plotted Jones' table in gtaphical forms.. or 81 times. At top of layer 3: u. At top of layer 2: <r.8 kPa).09268.000 r= 20.56/10.RRl = 1.2. = -2.85 = 2.fPa).91 psi (1. the radial strain can be determined from = !!. Copyrighted material .4 kPa). interpolation for k 1 and k2 is still cumbersome.96 X 10. Although the solutions · obtained from the charts are not as accurate as those from the table.85120. In the foregoing example. H:owever.FromEq.000 = 2.12173. = 120 X 0.11.97428.236. ~ ~ 20.24. = 236. and Hare exactly the same as those shown in the table.2. k 2 = 20. the interpolation of only one parameter requires at least th. 2.2.ZZl )fl.53 r.12120.000 psi ' aU<r c ~ • E3 = 10.1. the total effort required will be 3 X 3 X 3 X 3._ E.12.76 psi (19.kPa). 2 (2. = -2.000 psi ' ? 6in .'equires three points. 2.uz.23. ZZ2 = 0.56 x 10"".96 x 10· •. If all (out parameters are different from those in the table.20. ( RRl .2 = 11. 2 .63 MPa).000120. At bottom of layer 2: u i2 = 7.8/6 = 0..11 (I in. Solution: Given k 1 = 400.RR2 = 0. At bottom of layer 1: u" = 14. and ua <T<1. E.1 2 psi (49. M E! R ' 400. Because each interpolation /. = .91120 = 11.4 mm.done.56 x 10"" and e.12 = -4.12 psi (76. from Eq.222.56 psi (38. = 5.000110.000 = 5. l psi ~ 6. u .85 psi (81.ud = 120 x 1.8.11.25) The radial strains at the bottom of layer 1 should be in tension.000 = 5. = 11.97428 = 236.ree times the effort.56 psi (10. E (RRl -ZZl).20b. • • u.61 . at the bottom of layer 1.74 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 4.1 kPa).56 = 1..92 x 10"4 • and u. = 11. ZZI = 0. and H = 616 = 1. From Eq. ~ 25.000 = 5.5.61 . • . "' FIGURE 2.12173 = 14.05938. As indicated by Eq. A = 4.61 psi(lOl .0.05938 = 7.<TzJ = 120 X 0.2 = 7.8 kPa) and <r. from Table 2. and e.000 = 5. • .7 kPa).12 .3.12/2 = 5. Figure 2.a = 120 X 0.09268 = 11.78 x 10"". 1 .911400. = . so no interpolation is nee~d.91<Pa).92 x 10"4 and •.0 kPa).31 shows one set of charts for radial strain factors.78 x tO"". ZZ1 .0 psi ( -28 kPa). the parameters k1o Jrc. A .91 = . 1 = 14.8 in. E. 2.

(203 mm )..2.2 Layered Systems 10 10 -~ - ~ ' (• - ~ ~ .01 0..:: 0. what is the radial strain at lhe bottom of laye r 1'? I Copyrighted material .3 1 (Continued) Example 2.31 Charls for horizontal strain factors at bottom oflayer 1.I<" 0.) 10 - ~ ~ N N N N -" 1 1 - I I " :.k2 = 2 L-----. 75 ~ ~ 1 -"" J I 0.1...01 FIGURE 2.oi O.!----. If lr2 = 8 in. (After Peanie (1962).11.JN ~ ~ O.:: . determine the radial strain at the bottom of layer 1.1 0.1 ~ .1 .12: • For tbe same case as Example 2.001 (c) k1 = 20.k2 = 20 FIGURE 2.-..JO~i.oJ 0.1 H• 8 (d) k 1 = 20. as shown ·in Figure 2..IN :.32..

.3lc.01 O.96 x 10'"" from the table. VISCOELASTIC SOLUTIONS A viscoelastic material possesses both the elastic property of a solid and the viscou~ behavior of a liquid. The radial strain obtained from KENLAYER is 2. = 25.818 = 0..>.Ql 0.OOI '-------.1 . it is said to be viscous.. which checks closely with the 2..k2 =2 (Continued) 120 psi A ++ ++ E 1 = 400.5 mm. A = 0.____ 6 in .12 (1 in I psi = 6. A = 4.75.A•-""0. Copynghted malenal . From Eq . The viscous component makes the behavior of viscoelastic materials time dependent: the longer the time. from Figure 2.. FIGURE 2. 6 in. {RRl ...9 kPa).OOI '-------.IN O.3 .?.A-• "" 0. indicating that the thickness of layer 2 has very lillie effect on the tensile s train due to the predominant effect of layer 1..ZZl)/ 2 = 1.or8 in. from Figure 2.1 0. E3 = 10. .32 Example 2..000 psi ~ = 20. If the ball is thrown on the floor and rebounds.. If the ball is left on the table and begins to flow and flatten gradually under its own weight... it is said to be elastic.25.•-c8: ... N N - ~ -I~ I I - 0. 2. Suppose that a material is formed into a ball. -. and H = 618 = 0.000 psi Solution: Given k 1 = 20..>.000 = 3 X 10'"" (tension) .8. e. the strain factor is still close to 1. and H = 1. 2.. Given 11 2 = 8 in..6. = 120/400.' (e) k 1 = 200.' Q.31c.91 x 10-<~.. k 2 = 2. k2 = 2 FIGURE 2.0.76 Chapter 2 Stresses and Strains in Flexible Pavements 10 - ~ ~ I ~I a: a: ~ .. (203 mm). 1 ""H"'•-c8:--. .31 (I) kl =200. 1 -!H<.•.000 psi .

thus changing a viscoelastic problem to an associated elastic problem. 'Therefore. " t (T " Eo E " {a) Elascic (T (b) Viscous (c) Maxwell T.33 Mecbanic.33 shows various mechanical models for characterizing viscoelastic materials.The latter is used in KENLAYER because of its simplicity. The models are formed of two basic elements: a spring and a dash pot.viscoelastic correspondence principle by applying the Laplace transfonn to remove the time variable 1 with a transformed variable p. so it is natural to apply the theory of viscoelasticity to the analysis of layered systems. The Laplace inversion of the associated elastic problem from the transformed variable p to the time variable 1 results in the viscoelastic solutions. the other by a creep-compliance curve. 2.3 Viscoelastic Solutions 77 the more the material flows. A simple collocation method to obtain the viscoelastic solutions from the elastic solutions is presented in this section. Copyrighted material . Because Poisson ratio v has a relatively small effe. Details about the theory of viscoelasticity are presented in Appendix A. (f (1 E.al models for viscoelastic materials. it is assumed to be elastic independent of time. E. E • CT (d) Kelvin (T (T (e) Burgers (I) Generalized Model FIGURE 2.2. HMA is a viscoelastic material whose behavior depends on the time of loading.3. The general procedure is based on the elastic. only modulus E is considered to be viscoelastic and time dependent.1 Material Characterization There are two general methods for characterizing viscoelastic materials: one by a mechanical model.c t on pavement behavior. Mechanical Models Figure 2.

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as is illustrated by the following example.e"''·0 1) + 0. all the retarded strains have near· ly completed and only the viscous strains exist. several values ofT. after t = 5.14: Figure 2. (254 mm).697 1.36. as indicated by a straight line.592 1.3 Viscoelastic Solutions 81 TABLE 2. However.36 shows a viscoe lastic two-layer system under a circular loaded area having radius 10 in. 'lbe method can also be used to obtain the viscoelastic solutions from the elastic solutions. no units are given for the viscoelastic constants. The creep compliances at various t. values are determined by solving a system of simultaneous equations. an approximate method of collo· cation.4 0. (254 mm) and uniform pressure 100 psi (690 kPa}.1 62 1.~ of layer I is 10 in. Elastic Solutions Given the creep compliance of each viscoelastic material at a given time. lll:1J. Example 2. more Kelvin models with longer retardation times will be needed.0· 1) + (I . Dete nnine the surface deflection under the center of the loaded area at the give n times.0 1. If £ is in lb/in 2. and the corresponding £. .6 0. 2. the viscoelastic constants of a generalized model can be determined by the method of succe-ssive residuals.l ated in labte 2. when 1 = 0.654 1.35a. then the creep compliance is in in 2 11b..3.795 5.5 (1 + 0.l (1 . and both layers are incompressible.500 2 0.763 3.2 Collocation Method The collocation method is an approximate method to collocate the computed and ac· tual responses at a predetermined number of time durations. If E is in kN/m 2.016 2.798 6. it is more convenient to use. are arbitrarily assumed.909 1.891 2. Copyrighted material . the viscoelastic solutions at that time can be easily obtained f.736 1. then lbe creep compliance is in m2/kN. as described below.2 0.1/5) + O.05 0. The creep compliances of the two ma· te rials at five different tjmes are tabu. with Poisson ratio 0.1. D .4 and plotted in Figure 2.llte thickoes. ~ . 2.5. Instead of determining both E1 and 71by the method of successive residuals.238 2. · 2.423 1.1 0. 0. as described in Appendix A.129 2.e. If the retarded strain lasts much· longer.4 Creep Compliance at Various Times Creep Creep compliance lime compliance 0 0.rom the e lastic solutions.1) = 1.799 11mc 0.819 J 1. lt Clln be seen 1hat.. then the actual time 1 is also in seconds. From Eq.162. D = 0.imes are tabulated in Table 2.5. and when 1 = 0. If T is in seconds.8 1. If a creep compliance curve is given.2 ( I .786 4.5.5 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 Sol11tion: In Figure 2.35b.

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s was the reduction in "D" cracking on pave1nents susceptible to this type of distress. Generally speaking. However. but aU of the nondoweled sections with skewed joints had a lower PSR than similar designs with perpendicular joints. In general. but were generally in the fair to very good category.~s than 0.1% reinforcing steel often displayed significant deteriorated transverse cracking. A minimum of 0.1bese pavements were especially susceptible to faulting. Slab Length For JPCP. so the use of dowel bars might be required. An advantage of aggregate bases is that they contribute the least to the high curling and warping stresses in the slab. several JRCP with long joint spacings performed quite welL In particular.1% reinforcing steel is therefore recommended. joint faulting. These can affect their long-term performance.4 to 9. Pavements constructed over aggregate bases had varied perfonnance. Specific areas of concern were the high co·roer deflections and the low load transfer exhibited by the permeable bases. On pavements with random joint spacings. An examination of the stiffness of foundation was made through the use of the radius of relative stifflJess. Pavement sections with le. Reinforcement The amount of steel reinforcement appeared to ha ve an effect in cootrolling the amount of deteriorated transverse cracking. Even though aggregate bases are not open-graded. the more open-graded the aggregate. Jt was found that reducing the slab length decreased both the magnitude of the joint faulting and the amount of transverse cracking. This factor was further examined for different base types. The available data provide no definite conclusions on the effectiveness of skewing transverse joints for nondoweled slabs. An unexpected benefit of using permeable base.3 m/day). the long jointed pavements in New Jersey.434 Chapter 9 Pavement Performance 1be construction of thicker slabs directly on the subgrade with no base resulted in a pavement that performed marginally.9 m).5 m) experienced more transve rse cracking than did the shorter slabs. even under low traffic levels. The results from the limited sample size in this study were ambiguous. e. Typical base courses have penneabilities ranging from 0 to less than 1 ft/day (0. Skewed joints are not believed to provide any benefit to doweled slabs. displayed excellent performance. was greater than 5. good permeable bases ha~e penueabilities up to 1000 fllday (305 mlday). u e. Generally. they are more permeable and have a lower friction factor than stabilized bases. transverse cracking occurred more frequently. the better the performance. the length of slabs investigated ranged from 21 to 78ft (6. with larger amounts required for more severe climate and longer slabs. Copyrighted material .4 to 23. when the ratio where L is the length of slab. lt was found that stiffer base courses required shorter joint spacings to reduce or eliminate transverse cracking. which were constructed with expansion joints. The best bases in terms of pavement performance were the permeable bases. Joint Orientation Conventional wisdom has it that skewed joillts prevent the application of two wheel loads to the joint at the same time and thus can reduce load-associated distresses.1 m). shorter joint spacings performed better.75 to 30ft (2. and joint spalling. the length of slabs investigated ranged from 7. as measured by the deteriora ted transverse cracks. For JRCP. slabs with joint spacings greater than 18 ft (5.

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These features include slab thickness.5 3.2 Section no. These equations illustrate the effects of various factors on pavement performance.38. 16.sign.8 5. and subdrainage. PROBLEMS 9. The new technology of knowledge-based expert systems offers a powerful means for acquiring and organizing this human expertise so that it can be preserved and communicated to others. load transfer. 1\vo of the systems. rutting. 1.0.0 4 9.1 J 0 16 0.19 Cracking and patching + P (rt or [12 n z} PSR 0 I 13 4. Develop the equation for the present serviceability index.2 23 2. SCEPTRE (or flexible pavements aod EXPEAR for rigid pavements.to 0. Slope variance. (Answer: PSI = 9.9 16. joint orientation. A large numbef of regression equations~ be found io the literature to predict pavement performance.lmile) PSR 800 1. find Ajj and A 1 based ou the data shown in Table P9. longitudinal joint de.09RD1 .51 . (Answer: PSI = 5. but their usefulness in practice can be limited by the scope of the data base that was used i. Rl (in. tied concrete shoulders.1. sv (10-6 ) 3 4 2. joint spacings.0 I 2 Rut depth Ri5 (in.004 VC + P ] TABlE P9.8 5 56.981og(R1)] TABLE P9. dowel bar coatings. transverse joint faulting.1 Seetion no.0 2. Some equations are presented for predicting fatigue cracking.502.4 1.438 Chapter 9 Pavement Perf ormance problems in this domain could be S<llved only by human experts with extensive practical experience and knowledge.o their development.06 O. and transverse joint spalling of rigid pavements.5.1 c nooo 31 Copyrighted material .joint sealant.) 0.8 10.1. An insight into the effects of various design featqres on the performance of jointed concrete pavements was presented.2 Table P9.1 It is assumed that the present serviceability index PSI of pavements is related to the roughness index Rl by PSI = Ajj + A 1 log(RI) Derive the general equations for determining Ao and A 1• Using the equations derived. as well as the present serviceability rating. base type. reinforcement.0 5 2 3 300 200 t50 80 2.8 3.70 log ( I + SV)' . and low-tempemture cracking of llexible pavements.3 3. are briefly described.0 4.2 shows the measurements and ratings of five sections of flexible pavement.

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1 Probability density functio n.2b) If n independent observations of x are taken.3) X - fl This value is caUed the sample mean and is the best estimate of the true or population mean 11-· Example 10. Expectation The expectation.2a: - (10. (10. 10. the mean of the observations. Example 10. l0.<] for a random variable x witb the following probability density function: 1 I 3 1 2 ! / (.2a. or mean. £[x] = 1(~) + 2(k) + 3(1) + 4(!) = 3.2a) j~xf(x) dx (10.1: Compute £[x] for a random variable x with the foUowing probability function: I l I X J f(x) I • i 4 l ' 2 ' Solution: By Eq.125.2: Compute£[. is obtained from Eq. x./(x. of a random variable x is defmed as foUows: Discrete case E[x] Continuous case E[x] = = L x. each with the same probability lin.) nil x.t) = {ix 3 0 :S x :S I l < xs3 Copyrighted material .• 442 Chapter 10 Reliability f(x) FIGURE 10.

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ln the deterministic Copyrighted material .1.36) (10. that xis greater than 150.10: IJ the distribution ofx in Example 10.log IL u= (10. 10. or 10.41.ic method. the designer usually assigns a higher factor of safety to those factors tbat are less certain or that have a greater effect on tbe final design.398: so there is a 0. that xis greater than 150. 1/J(<) there is a 0.og Nomwl Distribution When a variable extends over several orders of magnitude.4343 X 2 = 0.33 become. Using judgment. 10.036.33.34.4343/135}Y l25 ~ 0. damage ratio. A more realistic approach is the probabilistic method.37) Equation 10.9 is log normal. From Table 10.r = e) V[x) x log 0. determine the probability tbatx is greater than 150. 'llJere are two types of load repetitions: the predicted pumber of load repetitions n and the allowable number of load repetitions N .. or permeability. so that Eq. Traffic.30.2% probability. From Table 10. ~ (Jog 150 . Solution: From Eq. is one of the most important factors in pavement design.2 t1 PROBABILISTIC METHODS 'lllere are two methods of pavement design: detenninistic and probabilistic.102 chance..r is the sta ndard deviation based on the log normal distribution of x.1 . or the number of load repetitions. such as traffic volume. Example 10. Reliability is defined as the probability tbat the design will perform its intended function over its design life.2 Probabilistic Methods Solution: From Eq.8 . = 451 0. depending on the magnitudes of the safety factors applied and the sensitivity of t he design procedures. From Eq. <fr(z) = 0.036 = 1.log 135)/0. it is necessary to present it in log scale and assume its distribution to be log normal. s1. grain size. 10.35) in which Stog . 10. The factor of safety assigned to each design factor and its sensitivity to the final design are automatically taken ca re o~ and the reliability of the design can be evaluated. so l.s log x . 10. in which each design factor is assigned a mean and a variance. From Eq. In the detenninist.4343C(x) (10. each design factor has a fixed value based on the factor of safety assigned by the designer. 10.35.27. or 9% probability.135)/Vi25 = 1.10. ~ (0. z = ( 150 . Application of this traditional approach based on the factors of safety can re sult in overdesign or underdesign.37 can be used to relate the standard deviation based on the normal distribution of x to that based on the log normal distribution of x. 1886 x2 V[x] s = 0.09 chance.37. V(log x] = ( Stos .

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Furthermore.5) 2 X Performance Prediction [n the. but also exhibit a range of variations.689 Sc (psi) 650 10 4225 NQtc. Example 10. n3 = 365 X 40 X 2 X 05 X I X 20 = 2. 10. V(llt] = (365 X 2W((2 22. from Eq.J GJ = • V[u] + (~Y V[S (10.27 and can be expressed as log N = 17.61(~) (7.36.nv[~] (10.55) Nz V(log N) V[N) = O. It should be noted that the coefficients in the fatigue equations are not determin- istic. lit = 365 x 500 X X 0. n2" = 365 x 100 x 2 X 0. de tennine the means and variances of allowable stress repetitions for each load type. and tridern-axle loadr.54) 0) The variance of log N based on Eq.87 X 1010 Solution: For single-axle loads.5 X 1 x 20 = 3. 10. For a given axle load.500 .5)2 X 6400 + (100 X 0. the allowable number of stress repetitions for load i.664 380 35 cv Variance 17. depends on the stress ratio.l 886 (10.62 X 1011 • For tridemax.n and Variance of Concrete.56.16) = 8.39) The variance of u!S0 can be determined from v[.f. from Eq.16) = 3.5f X 1600 + (40 X 0. 10. I psi = 6. design of concrete pavements. as shown in Table 10. TABLE 10. from Eq.9 kPa Copyrighted material . coefficients of varia tion.5)2 X 0.61 - 17. (500 X 0. which is a quotient of the stress u and the modulus of rupture of the concrete Sc. V(log NJ = and. 10.92 X lOS and V(n3J = (365 X 20) 2 ((2 X 0.15: Given the means. a variance due to the inadequacy of fatigue equations and other unexplained variances can be added to Eq.65 X 106.le loads.5 x I X 20 = 7.39 is 310.5) 2 X 0. the average number of repetitions to cause fatigue failure is shown in Figure 7. For tandem-axle loads.5. o' and Sc are not completely independent because u depends on the modulus of elasticity of concrete.52.5 Mea. which can be related to the modulus of rupture. and variances of critical stresses under single-.73 X 1012. tandem-.458 Chapter 10 Reliability 2 X 0. Therefore.5f X 0.56). 7. Stress and Modulus of Rupture Stress u (psi) Modulus of rupture Design foetor Single Tandem Tridem Mean 330 30 9801 360 30 11.16] = 1.3 X to-' and V(n2J =(365 X 2W [(2 X 0.53.

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3 Variability 463 TABLE 10. 50 Mean 40 677 psi s = 6Spsi n e 270 ~ •• • ~ • •• • FIGURE 10.12 shows a typical frequency distribution for tbe initial serviceability index of a newly constructed tlexible pavement and Figure 10.2 s = 0.e..xible pavements (After Darte r er {1/.32 in. = 25. 14 9 in. Sourr.12 Initial serviceability index of ne.33 8 · n = 54 . 0.) Copyrighted m atenal . lOin.13 shows that of the AASHTO Road Test rigid pavements. Note that rigid pavements have a higher initial serviceability index and a lower coefficient of variation compared with flexible paveme nts.11 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 Modulus of Rupture (psi) Frequency distribution of concrete modulus of rupture ( I psi ~ 6.5 • • •• - 4.4 mm. I in.• . 0.!.0 FIGURE 10. (After Kher and Darter (1973). ~ •• • • r • 2 0 f:l.5 Initial Serviceability Index f. 0.:.8 Standard De via lions or Concrete ·n>ickncss for Rigid Pavements Concrete thickness Standard deviation Number of projects 8 in.•• ·. ••• 5. (t973a).10.9kPa). s 5 Nmtt. 10 Mean = 4.) Initial Serviceability Index Figure 10. A (t<~r Kher and Darlcr ( I 973).29 in..· ·· 3.29 in.0 4.

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is procedure does not take derivatives on Eq.1 CBR) . V[t) = .!. V[log n] == 5. From Eq. Rosenbluelh's Prot.000/(8..1 CBR) . 4 3291 = {.lCBR ) = V[log nj = 0.s 8.0. = ( illog n ) .1453 v'Q. From Eq.381.s 38. or log n = 2. E[log 11) = 38. From Eq.2851-Tr = 835.8315.. and A can be computed by the first -order Thylor's expansion: V(log n].O. and A .674 X 0. which checks with the value O.381 = 2.3841.1461/16 = 2.Ahr] . 10. I (I X C[tj)· v P/(8. but instead requires the evaluation of log n 16 times.2.(2.!.1476. · 2[P/(8.116. and the sum of ( log n )2 is 93.0003 = 0.3841 0.Ahr [ ( 4. CB R.62d.1 461.0276 1 2 (P/(8. or " = 133.s8.329 X 20 X 0. so the allowable number of repe titions for 75% reliabi.3841)2 = 0.329 ] . and E[( log n?J = 93. P. = 2 1 } 2 Ah r] 1.125.674 = (log n .373 derived by Taylor's expansion.96 0 0898 .373)/0.lity is n = 131. <Jt 2 2 4.-edure Th.381 For 75% reliability.3041/16 = 5. 10.0276 + 0. as indicated in Figure 10.0276 + 0. The sum of log n i.30.i476 = 2.1CBR (P x C[P)) .2[Pi(8.!.1.61.1 X 4) .3041.1? 74.468 Chapter 10 Reliability The variances o f log n due to the variances of 1.674. z = . For 75% reliability.0.l3.l453 derived by Taylor's exp ansion .On6 2 J.21 = · .}( A X C(Aj) Ahr jL 5 1T 2 = 0 0003 • + 0. From Table 10. 14 Allowable repe1i1ions "' 75% relinbilily. Copyrighted material .0898 S log . -0.. the area between the number of repetitions and the mean is 25%. p.373 .14. which checks with tl1c value 131 de rived by Taylor's expansion. J0. CBR.35. and the results are presented in Table JO. FIGURE 10.{ . log n = 2 .329t V(logn)pV[lo n] g CBR V(lo n ) g A 2 43291 p } (CBR X C[CBR])2 = 0.l (CBRf {. It is convenient to evaluate log n at plus and minus one standard deviation.8315 .674 x v'Q.1 CBR) 4.64 with respect to 1. which checks with the value 2.10.'i453 = 0.

000 4. 10.13 ComputBtio n o f Log 11 a nd ( log n) 2 by Eq. their cova riance must also be spe.+. and tem1ioal setviceability index.5 5.cified.Summary 469 TABLE 10.000 27. 1 in.29 or 10.4 4.5 256.3161 3. If any two of the design factors are correlated. may be used for computing reliability.2384 93.0880 2. Reliability is the probability of success.+ ++-+-+·~ 22 +-++--+ +.26 can be.4 4. usually a value that is conservative compared with the mean.0880 2.) togn (log 11 )' ++ ++ 22 22 33.6 313.4 313.5 Sum 3 . In the probabilistic method or design.5 25(>5 313.5 2. the required criterion must be more strin gent. th.6 .0(X) 4.: mean and va riance of random variables can be determined by the Taylor series expansion. each design factor has a mean and a variance. each design factor is assigned a fixed value.000 27.6547 2.6547 7.0587 1. - 22 22 22 --++ --+---+ ---- 18 18 18 18 18 IS IS Ill ~7. damage ratio or crack· ing index.5 256. 1461 5.. ~ 2$.5 4.3742 2.2387 7.3643 9. 10. such as equivalent 18-kip single-axle loads.5 313.8332 5.6 4.000 27.5 256.-15 N. depending on tbe va riability of tbe mean value.++ -+-+ .6905 2.000 3.000 27.1)473 4.. Copyrighted material . 2.000 33.1'0 increase the reliability.6 4.000 33.000 33.3599 4.8027 1.2428 7.6366 4.2498 3. 1744 5.2387 7. all based on the mean values and each with its own coefficien1 of: variation.000 33.4 mm and lib • 4.4 3.4 152 2.0474 22 33.000 3. Thus.The reliability can be obtained by comparing the mean value o [ the criterion with the required critet·ion. Jn the probabilistic method.4 4.0587 38. various design elitetia.l6 256~'i 313.64 Term r (in.30 can be used to determine the variance.2384 3. the reliability of the de· sign is 50%.5 313.5 313.6 3. 3. Eq.000 27.4 2. Important Points Discussed in Chapter /0 L There are two methods of pavemem design: deterministic and probabi listic.6 256.000 33.0904 ++ +++.5 256. 10.000 27. 4.-+++ .(~102 2.4839 22 33.6 3.000 27. ln the deterministic method .) I' (lb) CB R A (in.5 313.5504 9.7817 2.34 t8 2.5 256. Depending on how the success or failure is defined.used 10 determine the mean and Eq.3041 Nou·. If the random variables are normally distri buted . the second-order terms are small and can be neglected. 1l1e most popular probabilistic method of pavement design is to compare the allowable number of load repetitions with the predicted number of load repe ti tions.4 3.6905 2.3S9<J 4. SUMMARY 1l1is chapter discusses the concept of reliability and ils application to pavement design. Various cliteria can be used to eval uate the reliability of a design. If the mean value is equal 10 the required value.4 3.

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3... 480 Perloff. 105. 99. 690 Pezo. J. N. B... M. 299 Saal. 2 Powell. H . 212 Page n. 6. K.. 178... D. M. 201. 399 Schofield. D. B. 684 Stoffels. 160-165.. 482 Ray. 7... 149. J. 3. 158 Slavis. H. G.15 Pell. S.328.. L.220 Tayabji. R. L. 537 Pickett. 486. S. S. D. G. K. B. J.. 302.112. F. 479. 3. R. T. 160. 8 Shell Petroleum International. !L 724 Thrnbull. 359 Sharpe.. M.216. 0. R.. E. M. 17 T Tabatabaie. G. W.152 Q Qi. 353. J. 475 Scrivner.. 212. H.. M. 212.. 110.160-165. R.764 Author Index p s Packard... 624-626 Teller. E.. 85 Papazian. 113.. 307 Sherard. 213. 6. H.359 Ritchie. 345 Sherman...529 Shannon. M... 217. S. 425 Road Research Laboratory. E. E. K. 6. 201. P. K. R. 545. 433 Smith. C. 601 Tseng. F. 111 Rada. E.. 212.. J. V. 462 Shook. K. 430. E. l!i Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. B.. W. 94 TRB. 3 Sawyer. B. R. 35. 358.A. J. 607 Root. K. E. .. 124 Smith. 7. 684 Skarlatos. 321 R • Raad.. J. 16. !LTh 339.. 398 Spangler. 602 Sutherland... 2 Stephens. 153. 102. 177.. 569 Steele. . 149 Ridgeway. H. 594 Smith. S. 473. 216. 152 Terzaghi. 297 Pasko. 309. D. 578. 87 Peterson..X.104 Shahin. R. 7. 172. 4. 2 Thompson. . 317 Rauhut.368 Sinha. 4.272. J. 480 Puzinauskas. Y. 467 Copynghted matenal . W. K. 189 Sayers. S.688 Treybig. 476 Roads and Streets. L. 484 Ryell. 2lt ~ :lQ.... 414 Porter. 101 Raithby... C. 268. S. E. 342. 298. 466 Ruth. N. C. T.. L.li 98. W. 7.. K. 460 Scullion. A. M.. M.. G. P..D. 301 Rosenblueth..480 Timoshenko. G. C. C. 153. E.. J.F. J. 368 Spangler. 475... PCA. 360 Saxena.. 5. 6..484. C.101 SHRP. D. 300. ~ Phu.. 423 Selig... G. K. S.G. 304. W. 217 Poehl. 623. E. R.. C. T. G.229. M. T. 545-568. W. 171. 232. 216 Richardson. R. 270. J. 583 Peattie. 416. W...321.352.. L.

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508 Frost penetration. 26 Generalized model. 249 equal vertical stress criterion. 344. 304 typical ranges. 77. 6. 7. 538. 254 equal tensile strain criterion. 135. 606. 283. :ill. 309 Dynamic test. 3. 487. 1 full depth. 512 Effective structural capacity. 298 relationship between dynamic stiffness modulus and dynamic modulus. 576 solid foundation . 316 AI. 426 Fatigue of bituminous mixtures. 253 equal vertical deflection criterion.574 • rigid foundation at shallow depth.193. 384. 607. 3. 256.568 Emulsified asphalt mixtures. 245 equivalent single-axle radius. LJ.475.316 Field calibration.655. 478 Elastic moduli for different materials. 98. 416. 4. 575 Effective roadbed soil resilient modulus. 178 Filter criteria.371. 720 Fmite element method. 378. 634 Fatigue cracking.609.1 Full-depth asphalt pavement.541 Edge loading.260 Falling weight dellectometer.573. 1. 256 Erosion analysis. 297. 301. 266. 8 Flexibility matrix. 108 Elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. 424.260.431. 668 Freezing index.723.580 Elastic modulus of viscoelastic layer. 6.350 Fine-grained soils. 478 Flexible pavements asphalt grade and viscosity. 212. ll. 186 relationships between E and k-value 189. ' Faugue of concrete. 430. 380.0 minimum thickness. 545. 346. 245 equal contact pressure criterion. 539. 543. 494. 187 Fourier transform. 726 Fatigue adjustment factor. 245. 492 design methods. 4. 262 Equivalent contact radius for dual tires. 188 Flexible plate. 358. 490. 321 Field-molded sealants.488 PCA. 6.260 University of Nottingham.109. 309 315 . 120. 28. 426. 543 Frost action.220 Edge punchout. 188 liquid foundation. 442. 4. 493.298.478 Empirical methods. 415.505.557 EXPEAR program. 300 stiffness modulus by Shell. 329. 547. 33. 432. 287.666 dynamic modulus by Al. 340. JO. 413 Faulting.725 Edge drain. 212 Shell. 7.527 Equivalent axle load factor. 316.657 ELSYMS program.324 E 769 F Failure criteria. 431. 2. 79 . 495 G General pavement studies.452. 508.487.505 first pavement.275.497 Environmental effect.614 Equivalent single-axle radius.488. 467 Expenditure stream diagram. 386. 519 pavement types.616 Elastic layer program.289 nonlinear coefficients. 244. 479. 632. 630 Effective thickness. 472. 726 Effective modulus of subgrade reaction. 256 Equivalent single wheel load.Subject Index Dynamic modulus complex modulus. 5ll Foundations layer foundation. 708 Expert system. !59 Equivalent single axle load. 34.374. 102 universal model. 541 . 98. 338. 98. 438 Expectation. 2. 3. 34. 307 dynamic stiffness modulus. 1.427.435. 213. ~ 369.

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438. 374. ~ 98. 8. 153. 433 types. 16 Prime coat. 315 Copynghled matenal . 466 Roughness. ~36. 509 related to IRl.~~ 373. 537. 154. 545. 97 Probabilistic method. 100. 5 interior loading. 481 R-value. 152. Seal coat.398 PRORUT. see Rigid pavement Precipitation. 130. 488. 400 Present serviceability rating. 543 Preformed sealant. 399. 295. 412 Road tests. 9 Principal stresses and strains. 608. 167 temperature curling. 289.707 Prestressed concrete pavement. 12. 364 Rut depth. ~ 455. 287 granular materials.547 Punchout. 389.296 cement-treated bases. 435 Present serviceability index. 541. 612 Resilient modulus asphalt-treated bases. 51 ruse program. !1.204 WASHO Road Test. 32 Reflection cracking. 391. M. 296 Resolution of stresses into x and y components. 533. 710 Separation layer.537. 640 Representative rebound deflection. 466. 567 Regression methods. 156 steel stress due to volume change. 12 Rigid plate. 492 related to resilient modulus. 380.Subject Index Portland cement concrete pavement. 389. 7 Road Surface Analyzer.157. 392. 5. ~ 98. 430. 512. 220 effect of design feature on performance. 398.480 Rutting.535. 412 Rosenblueth method. 433 first pavement. 1. 507. 35 AASHO Road Test. 370. 436.414. 226. 424 loading waveform 279 subbases. 19. 178. 295. 6.222 edgcloading. 301. 96 Response-type road roughness meter. 4 Sawing and sealing of joints.721 Profilometer. 293. 463. 152 Bates Road Test. 398. 2 Relative damage. 2. 217 Railroad track beds. 293 s SAPIV program.296 fmc-grained soils. 9 Sensitivity analysis. 5. 33.437 773 Riding number. 3!. 480. 451 . 290. 151. 398 Pumping. 204 Arlington Road Test. 295. 427.296 subgrade soils.539. 723 criteria by various agencies.352 Predictive models. 338 Shell nomographs. 459. 503. see Edge punchout I R Radius of relative stiffness. 568 concrete stress due to volume change.294 laboratory modulus versus backcalculated modulus. 222.642. 293 untreated bases. 12. 21 Rolling Dynamic Deflectometer.607.293. 290. 14 use of base course. 165 comer loading.697. 508 Remaining life. 7 Maryland Road Test. 403 Road rater. 724. 16 first pavement. 325. 577 Reliability. TI. 399 Rigid pavements. 603 SCEPTRE program. 8. 11 design methods. 284 hot mix asphalt. 428. 4. 425.721 suggested levels.726 Roughness coefficients for underdrains.

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Low PRICE EDITION l 'l\_l l:-L ll }_Ll l l1GSL 0~ll 1 l /-\_L lu.. ) 1 S. • . Sn Lanka and the Malcflves.. Bhutan.L~ I LlO. Nepal. Pakistan. 8a11gladesh. • • ISBN 978-81-317-2124-7 PEARSON Education This edition is manufa~ured in India end Is euthorized for sale only In India.