Remesh’s Maths Coaching

--------------------------8. BINOMIAL THEOREM
PASCAL’S TRIANGLE
Pascal’s triangle is a triangle with 1at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides. It was
introduced by a French Mathematician Blaise Pascal. It is also known as Meru Prastara or Pingla.
Index

Coefficients

Expanded form

0
1
2

1

1
ab

1
1

3

1

4
5

1

6

1

6

1
2

3

1

1

4

5

10
15

3
6

a2  2ab  b2
1

4

1

10
20

a3  3a2b  3ab2  b3

a4  4a3b  6a2b2  4ab3  b4

5
15

1
6

a5  5a4b  10a3b2  10a2b3  5ab4  b5
1

a6  6a5b  15a4b2  20a3b3  15a2b4  6ab5  b6

Binomial Theorem
For any positive integer ‘n’, we have,
1.

 a  b n  an n C1 an 1b n C2 an2b2 n C3 an 3b3  ... n Cr anr br  ...  br

2.

 a  b n  an n C1 an 1b n C2 an 2b2 n C3 an 3b3  ...   1r  n Cr an r br  ...   1n br

Properties:
i.

The expansion has  n  1 terms

ii. The index of ‘a’ in the first term is same as the index of  a  b  . In succeeding terms, the index of ‘a’
decreases by 1 and in the term, it is ‘0’.
iii. The index of ‘b’ in the first term is ‘0’. In succeeding terms, the index of ‘b’ increases by 1 and in the
term, it is same as the index of  a  b  .

th
iv. The term n Cr a n  r br is known as  r  1 term or general term in the expansion and is denoted by

tr 1 .
v. The sum of the indices of a and b in each term is same as n, the index of  a  b  .
vi. Since n Cr  n Cn r , the coefficients equidistant from either end are equal.
E.g.: n C0 n Cn ; nC1 n Cn1; nC2 n Cn2 , etc.
HSSLIVE.IN

rchciit@gmail.com

Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------Questions and Answers: 1.1 10000  1000. Expand 1  2x  5 1  x n  1  nC1x  nC2 x 2  n C3 x3  . Expand  2x  y  5 a  2 x.IN rchciit@gmail.. indicate which number is larger 1. Expand 1026  100  2  1006 6 C1 1005  2 6 C2 1004  22 6 C3 1003  23 6 C4 1002  24 6 C5 1001  25  26 6  1000000000000  6  10000000000  2  15  100000000  4  20 1000000  8  15  10000  16  600  32  64  1000000000000  120000000000  6000000000  160000000  2400000  19200  64  1006002400060  120160019200  885842380864 HSSLIVE..  1  2 x   1  5C1  2 x   5C2  2 x   5C3  2 x   5C4  2 x   5C5  2 x  5 5C1  5 2  5C2  3 4 5 5 4  10  5C3  5C2  10  5C4  5C1  5 1 2        1  2 x   1  5  2 x   10 4 x 2  10 8 x3  5 6 x 4  1  25 x5 5  1  10 x  40 x 2  80 x3  80 x 4  32 x5 4. n  5  2x  y  5   2 x  5 C1  2 x  5 51 y  5 C2  2 x  5 2 y 2 5 C3  2 x  5 3 y 3  5 C4  2 x   25 x5  5  24 x 4 y  10  23 x3 y 2  10  22 x 2 y 3  5  21 x1 y 4  y 5  32 x5  80 x 4 y  80 x3 y 2  40 x 2 y 3  10 xy 4  y 5 3.1  10000C 2  0. 1. 5. b  y.1  Positive terms  1  1000  Positive terms  1001  positive terms  1000  1.110000  1  0. n  5  2x  y  5   2 x  5 C1  2 x  5 51 y  5 C2  2 x  5 2 y 2 5 C3  2 x  5 3 y 3  5 C4  2 x  5 4 y 4  y5 5 4 y 4  y5  25 x5  5  24 x 4 y  10  23 x3 y 2  10  22 x 2 y 3  5  21 x1 y 4  y 5  32 x5  80 x 4 y  80 x3 y 2  40 x 2 y 3  10 xy 4  y 5 2.com .1  Positive terms 2  1  10000  0.110000  110000  10000C1  0. Using binomial theorem. b  y.1 10000 or 1000. Expand  2x  y  5 Here a  2 x..

com ...Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------986 6.n Cn x n n 8. Hence evaluate 4 4  a  b   a  b 4  3 2   4 3 2  4 4 a  b 4 a  b   4  a 4  4 C1  a 3  b  4 C2  a 2  b  4 C3  a  b3  b 4  a 4  4 C1  a 3  b  4 C2  a 2  b  4 C3  a  b3  b 4       a  b  a  b 4 4  2 4 C1  a 3b  2 4 C3  a  b3  8a 3b  4ab3  8ab  a 2  b 2     3 2   4 3 2  4     2    8 8 3 2  3  2 2 6 3  2   40 6 Note: i) 1  x  ii) 1  x  n  1  nC1 x  nC2 x 2  .IN rchciit@gmail. Show that 9n1  8n  9 is divisible by 64...  8n  9  64n  9  C  8   9  C  8   .. divisible by 64. HSSLIVE.   1 .  100  2  1006 6 C1 1005  2 6 C2 1004  22  6 C3 1003  23  6 C4  1002  24  6 C5  1001  25  26 6  1000000000000  6  10000000000  2  15  100000000  4  20 1000000  8  15 10000  16  600  32  64  1000000000000  120000000000  6000000000  160000000  2400000  19200  64  1126162419260 7. whenever n is a positive integer.... n 9n 1  9n9  9 1  8   9 1  nC1 8   nC2 82  nC3 83  . Find  a  b    a  b  ..   8n  9  9  72n  9  C  8   9  C  8   .      8n  9  9 1  8n  C 8   C 8   .   64d .   9n 1 n 2 n 2 3 3 n 2 n 2 n 2 2 3 3 n 3 3  64  n  9  nC2  9  nC3  8   ...  nCn x n n  1  nC1 x  nC2 x 2  ... Hence proved..

. 2  ii)  n 1   n3 If n is odd. nC1  32. nC0  nCn  1 n  4n  RHS General term in the expansion of  a  b  n The general term.  3n. 12  3  Find the general term.Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------n 9. coefficient of x6 and the term independent in the expansion of  x   . Prove that  3r .32  .. 4th term.. n  12 x2 tr 1  nCr a nr b r 12 12 r  r 3  12 r 12 r  1    2   Cr  3 x  2  x  x   Cr x r  12Cr  3 x12r x 2r  12Cr  3 x12r 2r r r r tr 1  12Cr  3 x123r .. then   and   are the middle terms (two middle terms).3n  1  3 || 30  1... b   .(1) To find the 4th term: r  1  4  r  4 1  3 3  t31  12C3  3 x123(3) HSSLIVE. nCr  30.  n Cn .... then   1 term is the middle term (only one middle term). nC2  .com . x2   General term: 3 Here a  x. so n th i) n  If n is even.n C0  31...  2   2  th th NOTE: The following example will help you to clear the idea.... nCr  4n r 0 n LHS   3r .31  nC2 .IN rchciit@gmail. nCn r 0  1  nC1... tr 1  nCr a n  r br Middle term(s) in the expansion of  a  b  n Since the binomial expansion of  a  b  contains  n  1 terms.

..com .... th  12  Middle term    1 term  7th term  2  r  1  7  r  7 1  6 6  t61  12C6  3 x123(6) 12  11  10  9  8  7   729  x 6 1 2  3  4  5  6 673596  924  729 x 6  x6 t7  Problems: 1. of x5 in  x  3 8 a  x .n  8 t r 1 n Cr a n r . Find the coe.IN rchciit@gmail... Hence there is only one middle term....(1) HSSLIVE...3r t r 1 8 Cr ..br 8 Cr x8r .Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------t4  12 1110   27  x3  220  27 x3  5940 x3 1 2  3 To find the coefficient of x 6 : From (1)...3r .b  3 .12  3r  0  12  3r  r  4 (1) Becomes: 4  t41  12C4  3 x123(4) t5  12  11  10  9  81x0  495  81  40095 1 2  3  4 The middle term: Here n  12  even  . 12  3r  6  12  6  3r  6  6 2 3 2  t21  12C2  3 x123(2) t3  12  11  9 x6  594 x6 1 2 The term independent of x : To get the term independent of x.x8r .

. Write the general term in the expansion of  x2  y 2  12 .x83  8 7  6  27  x 5 1 2  3  56  27x 5  1512x 5  coe. of x 5 ..n  12 t r 1  n Cr a12r  2b  r 12 Cr .b7 7  792  128 a 5 b7  coe.. put r  3 in (1).b r r t r 1 12 Cr  2  .IN rchciit@gmail. n  12 The general term . b   yx. Find the coe.a127 . n  6 The general term  tr 1 n Cr a n r .a12r .x  0 a  x 2 .a 5 . put r  7 in 1  t 71 12 C7  2  .. of x 5  1512 2..b7 7 12 C7  2  ...(1) r To get the coe. t 31 8 C3 . Write the general term in the expansion of  x2  y  12  11  10  9  8  11  72  792 1 2  3  4  5 6 a  x 2 .. of a 5 b7  101376 || 12C7  12C5  3. of a 5b7 in  a  2b  12 a  a..33 . tr 1  nCr a nr .b r .br HSSLIVE. of a 5b7 .... b  2b.com .b r   nr 6 Cr .a12r  2  . we have.x122r . x 2   y r 6 Cr  1 . b   y. y r r 4.Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------Toget coe...

x9 . They are   term and  2  HSSLIVE.  2  . x  0? 3 x  th Find the 13 1 a  9x . y 3 3  220  x9  8  .Remesh’s Maths Coaching ---------------------------    12Cr x 2 tr 1 12r   yx r  12Cr x 242r  1 y r x r r  12Cr  1 x 24r y r  12Cr  1 x 24r y r r 5.  x 12 1 6 6 9 . Hence.  112 6 18 312  18C6  96  x 6 . r  x  2 y 12 b  2 y.x  t13  18564 _________________________________ 18  17  16  15  14  13 18C6  1 2  3  4  5  6  112  1  x 12 12  1   x2        312  32 7. 2 y   12C3 . y 3  1760 x9 y 3 || 12C3  12  11  10  2  11 10  220 1 2  3 18 6. n  18 3 x tr 1  n Cr a n r b r 12 1812  1    3 x  t121  18C12 .  9 x  . n  12 tr 1  nCr a nr br 3 tr 1  12C3 x123 . Find the 4th term in the exp antion of a  x. 6  1 12 x2  x6  96 7  x3  Find the middle terms in the exp antion of  3    6   th  7 1 Here n  7 (odd ). there are 2 middle terms .b   .  9 x  t13  C6 .com .  1  term in the exp ansion of  9 x   .IN rchciit@gmail.

there is only are middle term and middle term    1 th   5  1 th  6th term..b r 7 3 7 t31  C3  3  35  34.com . n  10 3 tr 1  n Cr a n r . x  Find the middle terms in the exp antion of   9 y  3   10  Here n  10  even  .  x3     6    3  x9 63 35  81   x9 216 105 9  x 8  Again 74 7 t41  C4  3  x3     6     7 C3  33   7 C3  33     x3 6 4 4 || 7C4  7C7 4  7C3  4 x12 4 3 2 4  765  35 1 2  3 35 12 35 12 x  x 3  16 48 10 8.Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------th  7 1   1 terms.IN rchciit@gmail.   2  x3 a  3 .e. 310  y 5  252  35  x5 y 5 3  252  243 x5 y 5  61236 x5 y 5 HSSLIVE.  2  x a  . 4th term and 5th term . b r 105 x t51  C5    3 10  252  x5 5   9y 5  95  y 5 3  252  x5 5 .b   . i. b  9 y . n  7 6 tr 1  nCr a n r .

.of a n are equal. In the exp antion of 1  a  We have.. r th and  r  1 terms of  x  1 areintheratio 1: 3: 5. The coefficient of the  r  1 ..... Find both n and r th th n th th Let the coe.  mnC0  mnC1 a  mn C2 a 2  ... of a m  m  nCm  m  n ! m! m  n  m !  m  n !   m! n! Coe.... r th and  r  1 terms be nCr 2 and nCr 2 .of a n m n      Coe. 1  a  m n m n . nCr 1 and nCr in that n Cr  2 n Cr 1  1 3 n and Cr 1 n Cr  3 5 n!  r  2 ! n      r  2  ! 1   n! 3   r  1 ! n  r  1 !      n!  r  2 ! n  r  2 !  1 n! 3  r  1! n  r  1!  r  1! n  r  1! 1   r  2 ! n  r  2 ! 3  r  2 ! r  1 n  r  1! 1   r  2 ! n  r  1! n  r  2  3 HSSLIVE. 10.. prove that coefficient of am and an are equal..of  r  1 .  mnCr a r  .  a mn Coe.IN and and and and n!  r  1 ! n      r  1 ! 3  n! 5 r ! n  r ! n!  r  1! n  r  1!  3 n! 5 r ! n  r ! r ! n  r !  3 5  r  1! n  r  1!  r  1!r  n  r ! 3  r  1 ! n  r ! n  r  1 5     rchciit@gmail. u sin g binomial therom .Remesh’s Maths Coaching --------------------------9.com . of a m Cn  m  n ! n ! m  n  n !  m  n ! n! m!  m  n ! m! n! and coe.

. HSSLIVE...(2) 4r  n  5  0 ......com ...............(1) 1  3   4  12r  3n  15  0 8r  3n  3  0 ( ) (  ) (  ) 4r  12  0 4r  12 12 r 3 4 in  4  8  3  3n  3  3n  3  24  3n  21  n  7 You should practice example questions as well as miscellaneous for the preparation of entrance examinations..IN rchciit@gmail..Remesh’s Maths Coaching ---------------------------  r  1  1 3  n  r  2 3  r  1  1 n  r  2  3r  3  n  r  2 3r  3  n  r  2  0 and r 3   n  r  1 5 and 5r  3  n  r  1 and and 5r  3n  3r  3 8r  3n  3  0 .........