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Remeshs Maths Coaching

--------------------------8. BINOMIAL THEOREM


PASCALS TRIANGLE
Pascals triangle is a triangle with 1at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides. It was
introduced by a French Mathematician Blaise Pascal. It is also known as Meru Prastara or Pingla.
Index

Coefficients

Expanded form

0
1
2

1
ab

1
1

4
5

1
2

10
15

3
6

a2 2ab b2
1

10
20

a3 3a2b 3ab2 b3

a4 4a3b 6a2b2 4ab3 b4

5
15

1
6

a5 5a4b 10a3b2 10a2b3 5ab4 b5


1

a6 6a5b 15a4b2 20a3b3 15a2b4 6ab5 b6

Binomial Theorem
For any positive integer n, we have,
1.

a b n an n C1 an 1b n C2 an2b2 n C3 an 3b3 ... n Cr anr br ... br

2.

a b n an n C1 an 1b n C2 an 2b2 n C3 an 3b3 ... 1r n Cr an r br ... 1n br

Properties:
i.

The expansion has n 1 terms

ii. The index of a in the first term is same as the index of a b . In succeeding terms, the index of a
decreases by 1 and in the term, it is 0.
iii. The index of b in the first term is 0. In succeeding terms, the index of b increases by 1 and in the
term, it is same as the index of a b .

th
iv. The term n Cr a n r br is known as r 1 term or general term in the expansion and is denoted by

tr 1 .
v. The sum of the indices of a and b in each term is same as n, the index of a b .
vi. Since n Cr n Cn r , the coefficients equidistant from either end are equal.
E.g.: n C0 n Cn ; nC1 n Cn1; nC2 n Cn2 , etc.
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--------------------------Questions and Answers:
1. Expand 2x y

Here a 2 x, b y, n 5

2x y

2 x 5 C1 2 x
5

51

y 5 C2 2 x

5 2

y 2 5 C3 2 x

5 3

y 3 5 C4 2 x

5 4

y 4 y5

5 4

y 4 y5

25 x5 5 24 x 4 y 10 23 x3 y 2 10 22 x 2 y 3 5 21 x1 y 4 y 5
32 x5 80 x 4 y 80 x3 y 2 40 x 2 y 3 10 xy 4 y 5
2. Expand 2x y

a 2 x, b y, n 5

2x y

2 x 5 C1 2 x
5

51

y 5 C2 2 x

5 2

y 2 5 C3 2 x

5 3

y 3 5 C4 2 x

25 x5 5 24 x 4 y 10 23 x3 y 2 10 22 x 2 y 3 5 21 x1 y 4 y 5
32 x5 80 x 4 y 80 x3 y 2 40 x 2 y 3 10 xy 4 y 5
3. Expand 1 2x

1 x n 1 nC1x nC2

x 2 n C3 x3 ....

1 2 x 1 5C1 2 x 5C2 2 x 5C3 2 x 5C4 2 x 5C5 2 x


5

5C1 5

5C2

5 4
10 5C3 5C2 10 5C4 5C1 5
1 2

1 2 x 1 5 2 x 10 4 x 2 10 8 x3 5 6 x 4 1 25 x5
5

1 10 x 40 x 2 80 x3 80 x 4 32 x5

4. Using binomial theorem, indicate which number is larger 1.1

10000

or 1000.

1.110000 1 0.110000
110000 10000C1 0.1 10000C 2 0.1 Positive terms
2

1 10000 0.1 Positive terms


1 1000 Positive terms
1001 positive terms
1000
1.1

10000

1000.

5. Expand 1026

100 2 1006 6 C1 1005 2 6 C2 1004 22 6 C3 1003 23 6 C4 1002 24 6 C5 1001 25 26


6

1000000000000 6 10000000000 2 15 100000000 4 20 1000000 8 15 10000 16 600 32 64


1000000000000 120000000000 6000000000 160000000 2400000 19200 64
1006002400060 120160019200
885842380864
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--------------------------986

6.

100 2 1006 6 C1 1005 2 6 C2 1004 22 6 C3 1003 23 6 C4 1002 24 6 C5 1001 25 26


6

1000000000000 6 10000000000 2 15 100000000 4 20 1000000 8 15 10000 16 600 32 64


1000000000000 120000000000 6000000000 160000000 2400000 19200 64
1126162419260

7. Find a b a b . Hence evaluate


4

a b a b
4

3 2

3 2

a b
4
a b

a 4 4 C1 a 3 b 4 C2 a 2 b 4 C3 a b3 b 4
a 4 4 C1 a 3 b 4 C2 a 2 b 4 C3 a b3 b 4

a b a b
4

2 4 C1 a 3b 2 4 C3 a b3 8a 3b 4ab3 8ab a 2 b 2

3 2

3 2

2 8

8 3 2 3

6 3 2 40 6

Note:
i)

1 x

ii)

1 x

1 nC1 x nC2 x 2 ... nCn x n

1 nC1 x nC2 x 2 ... 1 .n Cn x n


n

8. Show that 9n1 8n 9 is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer.



8n 9 9 1 8n C 8 C 8 ... 8n 9
9 72n 9 C 8 9 C 8 ... 8n 9
64n 9 C 8 9 C 8 ...

n
9n 1 9n9 9 1 8 9 1 nC1 8 nC2 82 nC3 83 ...

9n 1

64 n 9 nC2 9 nC3 8 ...

64d , divisible by 64.


Hence proved.

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--------------------------n
9. Prove that 3r . nCr 4n
r 0

n
LHS 3r . nCr 30.n C0 31. nC1 32. nC2 ... 3n. nCn
r 0

1 nC1.31 nC2 .32 ... n Cn .3n


1 3

|| 30 1, nC0 nCn 1

4n RHS

General term in the expansion of a b

The general term, tr 1 nCr a n r br


Middle term(s) in the expansion of a b

Since the binomial expansion of a b contains n 1 terms, so


n

th

i)

n
If n is even, then 1 term is the middle term (only one middle term).
2

ii)

n 1
n3
If n is odd, then
and
are the middle terms (two middle terms).
2
2
th

th

NOTE: The following example will help you to clear the idea.
12

3
Find the general term, 4th term, coefficient of x6 and the term independent in the expansion of x
.
x2

General term:
3
Here a x, b , n 12
x2

tr 1 nCr a nr b r
12

12 r

3 12
r 12 r 1
2 Cr 3 x
2
x
x

Cr x

12Cr 3 x12r x 2r 12Cr 3 x12r 2r


r

r
tr 1 12Cr 3 x123r .............(1)

To find the 4th term:


r 1 4 r 4 1 3
3
t31 12C3 3 x123(3)

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--------------------------t4

12 1110
27 x3 220 27 x3 5940 x3
1 2 3

To find the coefficient of x 6 :


From (1), 12 3r 6 12 6 3r 6

6
2
3

2
t21 12C2 3 x123(2)

t3

12 11
9 x6 594 x6
1 2

The term independent of x :


To get the term independent of x,12 3r 0 12 3r r 4
(1) Becomes:
4
t41 12C4 3 x123(4)

t5

12 11 10 9
81x0 495 81 40095
1 2 3 4

The middle term:


Here n 12 even . Hence there is only one middle term.
th

12
Middle term 1 term 7th term
2

r 1 7 r 7 1 6
6
t61 12C6 3 x123(6)

12 11 10 9 8 7
729 x 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
673596
924 729 x 6
x6

t7

Problems:
1.

Find the coe. of x5 in x 3

a x ,b 3 ,n 8
t r 1 n Cr a n r .br
8 Cr x8r .3r
t r 1 8 Cr .3r .x8r ................(1)

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--------------------------Toget coe. of x 5 , put r 3
in (1), we have,

t 31

8 C3 .33 .x83

8 7 6
27 x 5
1 2 3

56 27x 5
1512x 5
coe. of x 5 1512

2.

Find the coe. of a 5b7 in a 2b

12

a a, b 2b;n 12
t r 1 n Cr a12r 2b

12 Cr .a12r 2 .b r
r

t r 1 12 Cr 2 .a12r .b r ...............(1)
r

To get the coe. of a 5b7 , put r 7


in 1
t 71 12 C7 2 .a127 .b7
7

12 C7 2 .a 5 .b7
7

792 128 a 5 b7
coe. of a 5 b7 101376

|| 12C7 12C5

3. Write the general term in the expansion of

x2 y

12 11 10 9 8
11 72 792
1 2 3 4 5

a x 2 , b y, n 6
The general term tr 1 n Cr a n r .b r

nr
6 Cr . x 2
y r

6 Cr 1 .x122r . y r
r

4. Write the general term in the expansion of

x2 y 2

12

,x 0

a x 2 , b yx, n 12
The general term , tr 1 nCr a nr .br

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---------------------------

12Cr x 2

tr 1

12r

yx r 12Cr

x 242r 1 y r x r
r

12Cr 1 x 24r y r 12Cr 1 x 24r y r


r

5.

Find the 4th term in the exp antion of


a x,

x 2 y 12

b 2 y, n 12
tr 1 nCr a nr br

3
tr 1 12C3 x123 . 2 y

12C3 .x9 . 2 . y 3
3

220 x9 8 . y 3 1760 x9 y 3

|| 12C3

12 11 10
2 11 10 220
1 2 3

18

6.

1
term in the exp ansion of 9 x
, x 0?
3 x

th

Find the 13
1

a 9x ,b

, n 18

3 x

tr 1 n Cr a n r b r
12

1812

3 x

t121 18C12 . 9 x

t13 C6 . 9 x .

112

18

312

18C6 96 x 6 .

12

1
6 6

9 .x

t13 18564
_________________________________
18 17 16 15 14 13
18C6
1 2 3 4 5 6

112 1

12

12

1
x2

312 32

7.

1
12
x2

x6

96

x3
Find the middle terms in the exp antion of 3

th

7 1
Here n 7 (odd ). Hence, there are 2 middle terms . They are
term and
2
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--------------------------th

7 1
1 terms. i.e., 4th term and 5th term .

x3
a 3 ;b ; n 7
6
tr 1 nCr a n r .b r
7 3

t31 C3 3

35 34.

x3

6

x9
63

35 81 x9
216
105 9

x
8

Again
74

t41 C4 3

x3

6

7 C3 33
7 C3 33


x3
6

|| 7C4 7C7 4 7C3

x12
4

3 2

765
35
1 2 3

35 12 35 12
x
x
3 16
48
10

8.

Find the middle terms in the exp antion of 9 y


3

10
Here n 10 even , there is only are middle term and middle term 1 th 5 1 th 6th term.
2

x
a , b 9 y , n 10
3
tr 1 n Cr a n r . b r
105

x
t51 C5
3
10

252

x5
5

9y

95 y 5

3
252

x5
5

. 310 y 5 252 35 x5 y 5

252 243 x5 y 5 61236 x5 y 5

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--------------------------9.

In the exp antion of 1 a


We have, 1 a

m n

m n

, u sin g binomial therom , prove that coefficient of am and an are equal.

mnC0 mnC1 a mn C2 a 2 ........ mnCr a r ....... a mn

Coe. of a m m nCm

m n !
m! m n m !
m n !

m! n!

Coe.of a

m n

Coe. of a

Cn

m n !
n ! m n n !
m n !
n! m!

m n !
m! n!
and coe.of a n are equal.

10. The coefficient of the r 1 , r th and r 1 terms of x 1 areintheratio 1: 3: 5. Find both n and r
th

th

th
th
Let the coe.of r 1 , r th and r 1 terms be nCr 2 and nCr 2 , nCr 1 and nCr in that
n

Cr 2

Cr 1

1
3

and

Cr 1

Cr

3
5

n!

2
!
n

r 2 ! 1

n!
3

1
!
n

1
!

n!
r 2 ! n r 2 ! 1
n!
3
r 1! n r 1!

r 1! n r 1! 1

r 2 ! n r 2 ! 3
r 2 ! r 1 n r 1! 1

r 2 ! n r 1! n r 2 3

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and

and

and
and

n!

1
!
n
r 1 ! 3

n!
5
r ! n r !
n!
r 1! n r 1! 3
n!
5
r ! n r !
r ! n r !

3
5

r 1! n r 1!
r 1!r n r !
3

1
!
n

r
!
n

1
5

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---------------------------

r 1

1
3

n r 2
3 r 1 1 n r 2
3r 3 n r 2
3r 3 n r 2 0

and

r
3

n r 1 5

and

5r 3 n r 1

and
and

5r 3n 3r 3
8r 3n 3 0 ...............(2)

4r n 5 0 ...................(1)

1 3 4
12r 3n 15 0
8r 3n 3 0
( ) ( ) ( )
4r
12 0
4r 12
12
r
3
4
in 4
8 3 3n 3
3n 3 24 3n 21 n 7

You should practice example questions as well as miscellaneous for the preparation of entrance
examinations.

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