COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE

THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
System buses: Computer Components, Computer function, Interconnection Structures,
Bus Interconnection, PCI.
Internal Memory: Computer Memory System Overview, Semiconductor Main Memory,
Cache Memory, Advanced DRAM Organization.
Input/ Output: External Devices, I/O Modules, Programmed I/O, Interrupt- Driven I/O,
Direct Memory Access, I/O Channels and Producers, The External Interface.
Operating System Overview.
THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
Computer Arithmetic: The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Integer Arithmetic,
Floating-Point Representation, Floating-Point Arithmetic.
Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Function, Machine Instruction Characteristics, Types
of Operands, Types of Operation, Addressing Modes and Formats, Register Organization,
The Instruction Cycle, Instruction Pipelining.
Assembly Language
The Control Unit: Micro-operations, control of the CPU, hardwired Implementation,
Micro program Controller, Basic Concepts, Microinstructions, Sequencing,
Microinstruction Execution.
Reduced Instruction Set Computer: An Introduction.
OPERATING SYSTEMS
Introduction: System software, resource abstraction, OS strategies; multiprogramming,
batch, time sharing, personal computers and workstation, process control & real time
systems, processes & threads using FORK, JOIN, QUIT.
Operating System Organization: Factors in operating system design, basic OS function,
implementation consideration: process modes, kernels, methods of requesting system
services, device drivers.
Device Management: Service management approaches, buffering, device drivers,
performance tuning.

Protection and Security: Policy mechanism. monitors and the interprocess communication. RAM. D-type flip flop. Synchronization Principles: Interactive processes. NOR and Exclusive-OR operation. File Management: Directory structure. allowing pre-emption. Clocked flip flop design. circular wait. initiating The OS. ROM. Multiplexers. Deadlocks: System deadlock model. Strategy selection. events. Code converters.McCluskey’s method. PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS . authentication. Quine. Parity generators and checkers. internal access authorization. synchronous counters. Sequential Logic Designs: Registers. process hierarchy. semaphores.Process Management: System view of the process and resources. critical section. variable partition. hazards. general resources system recovery. Hexadecimal. deadlock. Boolean Algebra. Priority Encoders. basic file operations and their implementation. Edge triggered flip flop. NAND. and asynchronous behavior Flip-Flops: Clocked RS flip flop. Number system and Codes: Primary. Decoders. process abstraction. Basic Digital Circuits. hold and wait. memory allocation strategies. consumable resources. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Fundamental Concepts: Digital signal. multiprocessors. Races. coordinating processes. Excitation table of flip flop. multipliers. Demultiplexers. fixed partition. serially reusable resources. non-pre-emptive and preemptive strategies. Comparators. Shift registers. Banker’s Algorithm. Adders and Subtracters. process address space. Octal. prevention strategies. Asynchronous counters. spread memory. Memory Management: Mapping address space to memory space. segmentation. resource abstraction. Combinational Logic Design: K-map representation of logical functions and simplification using K-map of 4 and 5 variables. hamming codes. Scheduling: Scheduling Mechanisms. Signed Numbers Codes.

basic I/O devices and storage devices. Resizing and moving windows. reals. Numerical and non-numerical applications using above concepts. ActiveX Control. Shape.Standard EXE. Picture Box. VB Project Options. Text Box. methodology of developing an algorithmic solution from a mathematical specification of the problem. Specifying the input-output interface (type). loops. Form. stepwise methodology of developing an algorithm. Active X Document EXE. Image. Addin. emphasizing the following notions: Building blocks: arithmetic and logical expression. Object Oriented Programming. Vertical Scrollbar. File List Box. Frame. basic data structures-integers. variables. classes and packages. Event Driven Programming: About Visual Basic (Object Based Programming Language). DHTML Application. . PROGRAMMING TOOL: VISUAL BASIC Introduction to Programming –Modular Programming. List Box. Event Procedures. Data. Basic operations of a programming environment. Directory List box. input/ output of data. ActiveX DLL. problem solving using top-down design and decomposition into sub-problems. data abstraction and encapsulation-objects. Horizontal Scrollbar. procedural abstractions (procedures. Immediate window. Programming using a modern programming language such as Java. Form Layout Window. Object Naming Conventions. Line. methods). Properties Window.Basic Computer Organization: Functional Units. Visual Basic Tool Box (Standard Window Controls). strings and arrays-and internal representation of scalar and vector data. Docking windows. Project Explorer. Toolbox. Combo Box. Option Button. Rapid Application Development using Visual Basic. Representation of integers. Quitting Visual Basic. Concept of Project In Visual Basic. Problem Solving Approaches: Notion of an algorithm. VB Application Wizard. ActiveX EXE. Check Box. OLE. control structures including sequencing. Lbel. assignment. real (fixed and floating point). Opening and Closing window. characters (ASCII and Unicode). Timer. conditionals. Toolbar.Pointer. use of recursion for problems with inductive characterization. Drive List box. Command Button. IIS Application. Getting Familiar with Visual Basic User Interface-Pull-Down menus.

Inheritance. abstract data types and objects. programming-in-the-large issues: modularity and code re-usability. interfacing with libraries and separate compilation. classes and subclasses. overloading. efficient representations of data structures (e. data abstraction and internal representation. ADO DC. Left Arrow. Assigning value to Variables. Shortcut. Common Dialog Box. Class and Object. queues. DB Combo. Negotiate Position. Separating Menu Controls. lists. Single. Right Arrow. Help Context ID.sparse arrays). Checked. Assigning Access Keys and Shortcut Keys. Variables: Need to use variable. function templates. Adding Menu Control at Runtime. command-line arguments. String. Variable Naming Convention. Making a Menu Control Invisible. Visible. Shortcut menus and Popup menus Designing Menu System. trees and balanced binary trees. Programming with Data structures: Stacks. Object Oriented Programming: Concept of Object Oriented Programming. Menu Editor : Concept of menus.Data hiding. PROGRAMMING IN C++ 1. notion of efficient algorithmic solution. Setting the Name Property. Data Types of variable. Long. records. Dialog Boxes: Pre-defined dialog box. Next. Displaying Pop-Up Menu. graphical user interfaces. Enabled. Cancel). To Add Code for the Toolbar Buttons. Media Player Control. Currency. To Create Menu Controls in the Menu Editor. Object. Scope and lifetime of Variables (Public and Private). Menu List. Declaring Variables. General Controls (Advance): Image List. Creating Sub Menus. Creating a Menu Control Array. Variant. Index. Data encapsulation. Adding a Toolbar: Creating an Image List.g. Menu Editor Dialog Box Options (Name. Window List. Delete. Menu Naming Conventions. OK. Adding Status Bar: Adding Status Bar panels. Controlling Menus at Runtime-Enabling and Disabling Menu Commands. DATA STRUCTURES Introduction to the object-based and object-oriental programming paradigms. Double. Date. language support and OOP: Sub-typing. classes and packages. specification of exception conditions and exception handling. Adding Images to the Toolbar. Polymorphism (Implementation of polymorphism using Function overloading as an . Custom dialog box.Data Types: Integer. Insert. Displaying a Checkmark on a Menu Control. Up Arrow. Byte. Abstract class and Concrete class. DB Grid. header files. Down Arrow. Adding Time on the panel. algorithms for searching and sorting. Boolean.

Publicly derived and Protectedly derived class. Using Private and Public visibility modes. Data File Handling: Need for a data file. Pointer to structures: Deference operator: *. Declaration of objects as instances of a class. Single level inheritance. Appending data to a file. accessibility of members from objects and within derived class (es).->. Pointers and Arrays: Array of Pointers. self referential structures. Binary File: Creation of file. protected visibility mode. . Components of C++ to be used with file handling: 4. Defining derived classes. Multilevel inheritance and Multiple inheritance. Members of a class-Data Members AND Member Functions (methods). Function returning a pointer. Pointers: Declaration and Initialization of Pointers: Dynamic memory allocation/ deallocation operators: new. Function call by reference. 3. Implementation of above mentioned data file handling in C++. Advantages of Object Oriented Programming over earlier programming methodologies. Insertion of data in sorted filed. Constructor and Destructor: Constructor: Special Characteristics. Destructor: Special Characteristics. Declaration and Definition of a constructor. Declaration and definition of destructor. delete. Base Class.example in C++). Inheritance (Extending Class): Concept of Inheritance. Copy Constructor. accessing members from object (s). Inheritance. Derived Class. 2. Writing data into file. Searching for required data from file. default visibility mode (private). Privately derived. Deletion of data from file. Array of type class. Objects as function arguments-pass by value and pass by reference. Reading and Manipulation of text from an already existing text File (accessing sequentially). Modification of data in a file. Implementation of Object Oriented Programming concepts in C++: definition of a class. Overloaded Constructors. Default Constructor. Reference variables and use of alias. Member function definition: inside class definition and outside class definition using scope resolution operator (::). Types of data files-Text file and Binary file. Pointer to an array (1 dimensional array). Constructor with definition of destructor. Basic file operations on text file: Creating/ Writing text into file.

MOD() ). BCNF normal form. Use of Logical Operators (AND/OR/NOT Operators). RDBMS Tools: Oracle ORACLE: Introduction. Defining and using Column Alias. LPAD () ]. Alternate key. Displaying Table Structure (DESC command). Operator Precedence. Sorting in Ascending/Descending Order. SQL SELECT Statement: SQL SELECT statement. REVOKE). ORDER BY Clause. Number Functions (ROUND (). TRUNCATE). is null comparison. TCL (COMMIT. LENGTH (). Using Arithmetic Operators. ROUND(). Concept of String. Selecting Specific Column. Types of SQL Function (Single Row/ Multiple Row). NEXT_DAY(). UPPER ()] Character Manipulation Function [CONCAT (). Implicit and Explicit Conversion. DROP. NULL values in Arithmetic Expressions. DDL (CREATE. Tuple/ Rows. fields.RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Database Management System Introduction to database concepts: Relation/ Table. Foreign Keys. MySQL. BETWEEN Operator. Delphi. Case Conversion Functions [lower (). TRUNC (). Classification of SQL Statements: DML (SELECT. Character Functions (Case Conversion/ Character Manipulation). RENAME. Data type and Data Integrity (Domain and Referential Integrity). Version. Selecting All the Columns. Candidate key. Two Tier and Three Tier support. Sybase. MONTHS_BETWEEN(). Data. TO_CHAR Function . Role of SQL and SQL*Plus in interacting with RDBMS. Working with Character Strings and Dates. Working with Dates [LAST_DAY(). SELECT Statement Continued: Limiting Rows during selection (using WHERE clause). Examples of Front End Software’s: Oracle Developer. DCL (GRANT. Column Heading Default. Examples of Commercially available Database Management System’s (Back-End) – Oracle. ROLLBACK). ALTER. Visual Basic. INGRES. Using Comparison operators. InitCap (). Single Row SQL Functions. INSTR (). DELETE). INSERT. second. MS-SQL Server. Logical Operator Precedence. Visual C++. IN Operator. Concatenation Operator (ll). attribute. Logical Operators. Power Builder. Data type Conversion Functions. UPDATE. Number and Date values. Sorting By Column Alias Name. Primary Key. third. ADD_MONTHS(). TRUNC() ] Arithmetic Operation on Dates. Significance of NULL value. Sorting On multiple Columns. Data Normalization-first. DB2. Entering Name and Password. Interface with oracle. SUBSTR (). TRIM (). Functions: SQL Functions. Login Screen. Duplicate rows and their Elimination (DISTINCT keyword). Date Functions and their Usage. LIKE Operator.

NVL Function and its Usage. Retrieving Data From a View. Creation of a Table/ Relation: CREATE TABLE Statement. Guidelines for Using Sub Queries. Index. Grouping Records: Group By Clause. Update Statement to Change Existing Data of a Table. Inserting New Rows. Equi-join. Sequence. Delete statement/ Removing Row/ Rows from a Table. Sub Queries: Concept of Sub-Query. Types of group functions [MAX (). Using the COUNT Function. Inserting Date Values. Simple Views and Complex Views. Short Naming Convention for Tables (Table Aliases). . Result of Join. Enabling Constraints. Associated with Constraints. CHECK. Cartesian Product and Generating Cartesian Production example using Mathematical Set). Viewing The Columns. Using MIN and MAX Functions. DISTINCT clause with Count. with Null Values. Table. Using NVL Function with Group Functions. Illegal Queries with Group By Clause. Sub Query to solve a Problem. Defining Constraints. using COUNT(*). Excluding Group Results: Having Clause. MIN (). Non-Equi join and its Implementation. Nested Grouping of records. Grouping By More than One Column. NON-EQUI. Data types. Displaying Data From Multiple Tables: Concept of Join. the DEFAULT option. UNIQUE KEY. DECODE Function and its Usage. NOT NULL. Creating Tables. Referencing Another User’s Tables. Deleting. SUM (). FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords. Grouping Records: Concept of Grouping Records and Nested Grouping. DDL (Data Definition Language). Querying the Database Dictionary to view all tables in the Oracle Database. Creating Views. Naming Convention. TO_CHAR Function For Numbers. Creating Synonyms. Updating Rows Based on Another Table. Types of Joins (EQUL. Modifying a view. Group Functions and Null Values. Rows Based on condition from another Table. Making Data Manipulation Permanent (COMMIT). Querying a View. Constraint Guidelines. OUTER (LEFT and RIGHT)). Adding a constraint. Copying Rows From Another Table. AVG (). Undo Data Manipulation Changes (ROLLBACK) Database Objects: View. Self-Join (Joining a table to Itself). FOREIGN KEY. TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE Functions. Types of Sub-Queries (Single Row and Multiple Row) and (Single Column and Multiple Column). Creating a Table by Using a SubQuery. Manipulating Data of A Table /Relation: Concept of DML (Data Manipulation Language). Inserting New Rows. INSERT Statement. and Synonyms. Nesting Group Functions. using AVG and SUM Functions.with Dates. Dropping a Constraint. Disabling Constraints. Single Row Sub-Query and its Execution. Concept of using Constraints. Viewing Constraints. SELF. Group Functions. Outer-Join and Its Usage. Updating Rows In A Table. Use OF substitution Variable to Insert Values. Additional Search Conditions using AND operator. Including Constraints: Constraints. PRIMARY KEY. COUNT ()].

BUSINESS COMPUTING General concept. BIG. Attributes (Single. TITLE. Management System. Background Image. Data Models (Entity Relationship Model). Invoicing Management System. Relationship (One-to-One. Structure of HTML/ DHTML Document. BASEFONT. Data Mining. Relational Database Concept. Comment in HTML (). Underlying Database (back End). Objectives. More application areas of Databases: Inventory control. Truncating a Table. Introduction to Universal Resource Identifier (URI) – Fragment Identifiers and Relative URI’s. Switching between opened Windows and browser (Container tag. Heading tag (H1 to H6) AND ATTRIBUTES (ALIGN). Dropping Views. Adding a New Column in a Table. Pay-Accounting System. User interfaces (front End). Dropping a Column. WEB DEVELOPMENT HTML/ DHTML Introduction. giving permission to other users to work on Created Tables and Revoking it (GRANT and REVOKE statement). Background Sound). Composite and Multi-Valued). Client Server Computing: Concept of Client Server Computing. HEAD. Integration of User Interface and Database. Object Modeling: Introduction to object oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (Concepts only). BR. Relational Database Management System. One-to-Many and Many-to-Many). Financial Accounting. Advance Program Development Methodology: System Development Life Cycle. Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions. SGML. Attribute). Data Dictionary. Renaming an Object. Relational Database. SQL Statements. Basic Tags of HTML: HTML. P.Managing Existing Tables and other Database Objects: The ALTER TABLE Statement. SMALL. Result Analysis System. About programming language in SQL. Communicating with an RDBMS using SQL. FONT tag and Attributes (Size: 1 to 7 Levels. Personal Management System/ hard system. History of HTML. Admission Management System. Formatting Text . COLOR). Meta Data. Fees Management System. Empty tag. Data Warehousing. Dropping Synonyms. Dropping Tables. BODY (Setting the Fore color and Background color. Entity and Entity Set. Modifying Existing Column. Adding Comments to a Table. Income Tax Management System.

DT. TH.Src. Web Page Authoring Using HTML Tables: Creating Tables. RESET. Links to places in other HTML documents.Disc. Circle. EM. COLSPAN. . Creating two or more rows Frames . three ways of introducing the style sheets to your document. Cascading Style Sheets Introduction to Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). Ordered ListOL (L1. IM-AGE. E-mailed to someone in particular. Dynamic HTML document and Document Object Model. A. submitted to a database such as MS-Access or Oracle. Basic Syntax. . I. DD). INPUT. Document Object Model Concept and Importance of Document Object Model. CHECKBOX. Creating two or more Columns Frames . CENTER. Creating and saving cascading style sheets. Relative dimensions. VALUE). Forms involve twoway communication. DL. Border. I. Frame. Frameborder. ALIGN. U. height and width. CELLPADDING. Forms: Definition. SUBMIT. SUB. a. CELLSPACING. ETHOD. Frames: Percentage dimensions. WIDTH. Creating Links: Link to other HTML documents or data objects. SUP. PREFORMATTED.(B. Square. ADDRESS Tag.TR. START. BLOCKQUOTE. Use. Type-1.Written to a file. TD. CAPTION. Unordered List-UL (Bullet Type. HIDDEN. STRIKE). RADIO. Links to other places in the HTML documents.