MATH20101

Complex Analysis
Charles Walkden
2nd December, 2016

MATH20101 Complex Analysis

Contents

Contents

0 Preliminaries

2

1 Introduction

4

2 Limits and differentiation in the complex plane and the Cauchy-Riemann
equations
10
3 Power series and elementary analytic functions

21

4 Complex integration and Cauchy’s Theorem

36

5 Cauchy’s Integral Formula and Taylor’s Theorem

56

6 Laurent series and singularities

64

7 Cauchy’s Residue Theorem

72

8 Solutions to Part 1

95

9 Solutions to Part 2

99

10 Solutions to Part 3

107

11 Solutions to Part 4

116

12 Solutions to Part 5

122

13 Solutions to Part 6

125

14 Solutions to Part 7

130

1

MATH20101 Complex Analysis

0. Preliminaries

0. Preliminaries

§0.1

Contact details

The lecturer is Dr. Charles Walkden, Room 2.241, Tel: 0161 275 5805, Email:
charles.walkden@manchester.ac.uk.
My office hour is: Monday 2pm-3pm. If you want to see me at another time then please
email me first to arrange a mutually convenient time.
§0.2
§0.2.1

Course structure
Lectures

There will be approximately 21 lectures in total.
The lecture notes are available on the course webpage. The course webpage is available
via Blackboard or directly at www.maths.manchester.ac.uk/~cwalkden/complex-analysis.
Please let me know of any mistakes or typos that you find in the notes.
The lectures will be recorded via the University’s ‘Lecture Capture’ system. Remember
that Lecture Capture is a useful revision tool but it is not a substitute for attending lectures.
§0.2.2

Exercises

The lecture notes also contain the exercises (at the end of each section). The exercises are
an integral part of the course and you should make a serious attempt at them.
The lecture notes also contain the solutions to the exercises. I will trust you to have
serious attempts at solving the exercises without looking at the solutions.
§0.2.3

Tutorials and support classes

The tutorial classes start in Week 2. There are 5 classes for this course but you only need
go to one each week. You will be assigned to a class. Attendance at tutorial classes is
recorded and monitored by the Teaching and Learning Office. If you go to a class other
than the one you’ve been assigned to then you will normally be recorded as being absent.
I try to run the tutorial classes so that the majority of people get some benefit from
them. Each week I will prepare a worksheet. The worksheets will normally contain exercises
from the lecture notes or from past exam questions. I will often break the exercises down
into easier, more manageable, subquestions; the idea is that then everyone in the class can
make progress on them within the class. (If you find the material in the examples classes
too easy then great!—it means that you are progressing well with the course.) You still
need to work on the remaining exercises (and try past exams) in your own time!
I will not put the worksheets on the course webpage. There is nothing on the worksheets
that isn’t already contained in either the exercises, lecture notes or past exam papers that
are already on the course webpage.

2

2. Cambridge University Press. §0. 1979 although it is probably too advanced for this course.2. There are many other books on complex analysis available either in the library.O. You must answer 5 of these questions. There are ten questions and they will cover all the material covered in Weeks 1–5 of the course. There may be a small amount of material in the lecture notes that I do not cover in the lectures. In terms of what is examinable: anything that I cover (including proofs) in the lectures can be regarded as being examinable (unless I explicitly say otherwise in the lectures). with at least 2 from each part. If you answer more than 5 questions then the lowest scoring question(s) will be disregarded. 3 . These recap topics where. although I should warn you that some are not very good.V.2. The exam for MATH20101 consists of Part A (examining the Real Analysis part of the course) and Part B (examining the Complex Analysis part of the course).) The best book (in my opinion) on complex analysis is L.5 Coursework The coursework for this year will be a 1 hour closed-book multiple choice test taking place on Thursday 3rd November (week 6. 1983. from my experience of teaching the course before.. §0. many will be suitable for this course.3 Recommended texts The lecture notes cover everything that is in the course and you probably do not need to buy a book. reading week) between 2pm and 3pm in Simon Theatres E and B. on Amazon. subject to the requirement that at least 2 questions from each part must be answered. Complex Analysis. §0. I have highlighted in the lecture notes appropriate times to watch each video.MATH20101 Complex Analysis §0.6 The exam The exam will be in a similar format to previous years.4 0. or online. If you do want a text to refer to then the most suitable is I. There is no negative marking.N.. this will not be examinable. Ahlfors. Each part contains 4 question (so 8 questions in total). Preliminaries Short videos There are a series of short instructional videos on the course webpage. Stewart and D. Tall. McGraw-Hill. there is often some confusion and a second explanation (in addition to that given in the lecture notes/lectures) may be useful. (This is also an excellent source of additional exercises. Complex Analysis.

The precise definition of what it means for a function defined on the real line to be differentiable or integrable will be given in the Real Analysis course. Introduction §1.1. the theory turns out to be considerably easier than the real case! Thus the word ‘complex’ in the title refers to the presence of complex numbers. and not iy. To divide complex numbers we use the following trick (often referred to as ‘realising the denominator’) 1 a − ib a − ib a − ib a b 1 = = 2 = 2 = 2 −i 2 . etc) then you will quickly hit an impasse. We call y the imaginary part of z and write y = Im(z). This theorem gives a new method for calculating real integrals that would be difficult or impossible just using techniques that you know from real analysis. Introduction 1. Surprisingly.) 1 The answer is π (e−a b2 −a2 − e−b ). y) in the plane R2 (see Figure 1.1). y ∈ R. (Note: the imaginary part of x + iy is y. Suppose that z = x + iy where x. 2 2 2 2 a + ib a + ib a − ib a −i b a +b a +b a + b2 We shall often denote a complex number by the letters z or w. and not that the analysis is harder! One of the highlights towards the end of the course is Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. integration by parts. (1.1 Where we are going You are already familiar with how to differentiate and integrate real-valued functions defined on the real line.1. y ∈ R.2 Recap on complex numbers A is an expression of the form x + iy where x. let 0 < a < b and consider Z ∞ x sin x dx. For example. if f : R R→ R is defined by f (x) = 3x2 + 2x then you already know that f ′ (x) = 6x + 2 and that f (x) dx = x3 + x2 + c. using complex analysis one can evaluate (1. We call x the real part of z and write x = Re(z).1) in about five lines of work!1 §1. We can represent C as the Argand diagram or complex plane by drawing the point x + iy ∈ C as the point with co-ordinates (x.2.1) 2 2 2 2 −∞ (x + a )(x + b ) If you try calculating this using techniques that you know (integration by substitution.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 1. (Here i denotes √ complex number −1 so that i2 = −1. However. 4 . If a + ib. c + id ∈ C then we can add and multiply them as follows (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b + d) (a + ib)(c + id) = ac + iad + ibc + i2 bd = (ac − bd) + i(ad + bc). In this course. For example. we will look at what it means for functions defined on the complex plane to be differentiable or integrable and look at ways in which one can integrate complex-valued functions.) We denote the set of complex numbers by C.

If z = x + iy. Introduction z = x + iy y x Figure 1. Let z = x + iy. Then (i) |z| = 0 if and only if z = 0.2.1 Let z. Here are some basic properties of |z|: Proposition 1. Here z = x + iy. We say that z ∈ C is real if Im(z) = 0 and we say that z ∈ C is imaginary if Re(z) = 0.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 1. x. the set of real numbers corresponds to the x-axis (which we will often call the real axis) and the set of imaginary numbers corresponds to the y-axis (which we will often call the imaginary axis). (If z is real then this is just the usual absolute value. In the complex plane. (ii) |zw| = |z| |w|.) It is straightforward to check that |¯ z | = |z| and that z¯ z = (x + iy)(x − iy) = x2 + y 2 = |z|2 . w ∈ C.2. y ∈ R then we define z¯ = x − iy to be the complex conjugate of z. . y ∈ R.1: The Argand diagram or the complex plane. The modulus (or absolute value) of z is p |z| = x2 + y 2 ≥ 0. x.

.

1 if z 6= 0. (iii) .

z1 .

= |z| (iv) |z + w| ≤ |z| + |w|. (ii) and (iii) follow easily from the definition of |z|. We leave (v) as an exercise (see Exercise 1. The inequality |z + w| ≤ |z| + |w| is often called the triangle inequality.6). To see (iv). The inequality ||z| − |w|| ≤ |z − w| is often called the reverse triangle inequality. (v) ||z| − |w|| ≤ |z − w|. Remark. Proof. Parts (i). first note that if z = x + iy then Re(z) = x ≤ 5 .

Video.2 is z |z| θ Figure 1. n ∈ Z. The angle θ in Figure 1. this is called the principal value of arg z. See Figure 1. psee Figure 1. If we plot the point z in the complex plane then |z| denotes the length of the vector joining the origin 0 to the point z. There is a short video recapping complex numbers on the course webpage (Video 1). called the argument of z and we write θ = arg z.2. Let z ∈ C. Then |z + w|2 = (z + w)(z + w) = (z + w)(¯ z + w) ¯ = z¯ z + ww ¯ + zw ¯ + z¯w ¯ = |z|2 + |w|2 + z w ¯ + zw = |z|2 + |w|2 + 2 Re(z w) ¯ using Exercise 1. We call (r.2. θ) the polar co-ordinates of z and write z = r(cos θ + i sin θ). ✷ Let z 6= 0. We have that tan θ = y/x.3. 6 . However. Note that θ is not uniquely determined: if we replace θ by θ + 2nπ. then we get the same point. We write Arg(z) for the principal value of the argument of z. Then x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ where θ is the argument of z and r = x2 + y 2 = |z|.2: The modulus |z| and argument arg z of z. Introduction x2 + y 2 = |z|.5(iv) ≤ |z|2 + |w|2 + 2|z w| ¯ = |z|2 + |w|2 + 2|z||w| ¯ = |z|2 + |w|2 + 2|z||w| = (|z| + |w|)2 .2. there is a unique value of θ such that −π < θ ≤ π.MATH20101 Complex Analysis p 1.2. We can represent z in polar co-ordinates as follows.2. First write z = x + iy and draw z in the complex plane.

3: If z has polar coordinates (r. 7 . and conversely.2.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 1. θ) then the real part of z is r cos θ and the imaginary part of z is r sin θ. Introduction z r sin θ r θ r cos θ Figure 1.

w ∈ C. s > 0 and θ. Express 5e3πi/4 + 2e−πi/6 in the form x + iy. Hence. Exercise 1. Exercises for Part 1 Exercises for Part 1 The following exercises are provided for you to revise complex numbers.8 (i) Let z. (ii) 1 < Im(z) < 2. Show that (i) Re(z ± w) = Re(z) ± Re(w). z + z¯ = 2 Re(z). Show that (i) z ± w = z¯ ± w. x. Exercise 1. y ∈ R: (i) (3 + 4i)2 . Exercise 1. x.1 Write the following expressions in the form x + iy. Exercise 1. ¯ (iii) Let z. (ii) Im(z ± w) = Im(z) ± Im(w). using the triangle inequality. (iv) − i + 2. Exercise 1. w ∈ C. 3 − 4i 3i − 1 1+i i Exercise 1. Compute the product zw. using formulæ for cos(θ + φ) and sin(θ + φ). (v) . w ∈ C. Give examples to show that neither Re(zw) = Re(z) Re(w) nor Im(zw) = Im(z) Im(w) hold in general. (iii) .4 Let z. Exercise 1. 1 z  = 1 (¯ z) if z 6= 0. −π ≤ θ < π.5 ¯ (ii) zw = z¯w.7 Draw the set of all z ∈ C satisfying the following conditions (i) Re(z) > 2. w = s(cos φ+i sin φ) where r.6 Let z. (ii) z 2 + 4z + 12 − 6i = 0. Show. (iv) |z − 1| < |z + 1|. φ ∈ R. r > 0. (ii) 2 + 3i 1 − 5i 1−i 1 .2 Express (1 − i)23 √ ( 3 − i)13 in the form reiθ .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 1. (iii) |z| < 3. w ∈ C and write them in polar form as z = r(cos θ+i sin θ). y ∈ R. 8 . (v) z − z¯ = 2i Im(z).3 By writing z = x + iy find all solutions of the following equations: (i) z 2 = −5 + 12i. (iv) Exercise 1. show that arg zw = arg z + arg w (we write arg z1 = arg z2 if the principal argument of z1 differs from that of z2 by 2kπ with k ∈ Z). that the reverse triangle inequality holds: ||z| − |w|| ≤ |z − w|.

9 Let w0 be a complex number such that |w0 | = r and arg w0 = θ. etc).1). derive De Moivre’s Theorem: (cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ. Exercise 1. sin 4θ in terms of cos θ and sin θ. where n ≥ 1 is a positive integer.11 Try evaluating the integral in (1. partial fractions. i.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 1.1. Exercises for Part 1 (ii) By induction on n. Find the polar forms of all the solutions z to z n = w0 . Exercise 1. Exercise 1. Give an example to show that.f. (iii) Use De Moivre’s Theorem to derive formulæ for cos 3θ. cos 4θ.8(i)). Arg(z1 z2 ) 6= Arg(z1 ) + Arg(z2 ) (c. Z ∞ −∞ (x2 x sin x dx + a2 )(x2 + b2 ) using the methods that you already know (substitution. sin 3θ. integration by parts. in general.10 Let Arg(z) denote the principal value of the argument of z. Exercise 1.e. (There will be a prize for anyone who can do this integral by hand in under 2 pages using such methods!) 9 .

Let D ⊂ C. zr ] a polygonal arc joining z0 to zr . . In our setting. z1 ]. We call the union of the straight lines [z0 . Note that a set is closed precisely when the complement is open. Definition. possibly equal to) B. z2 ]. Limits and differentiation in the complex plane and the Cauchy-Riemann equations §2. zr ∈ C. Definition. . but for now you can assume that a subset is connected if it ‘looks’ connected: i. [zr−1 . We need to make precise what we mean by convergence. . (A more rigorous treatment of open sets is given in the MATH20122 Metric Spaces course. open sets (generalising open intervals).e. Remark. For example. Let D ⊂ C be a non-empty set. We will only be interested in ‘nice’ open sets called domains. . we use ⊂ (rather than ⊆) to denote ‘is a subset of’.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. . We say that D is an open set if for every z0 ∈ D there exists ε > 0 such that Bε (z0 ) ⊂ D. We call Bε (z0 ) the ε-neighbourhood of z0 . . A very common mistake is to think that ‘closed’ means ‘not open’: this is not the case.1 We will also need the notion of a polygonal arc in C.) For example. any open disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < r} is an open set. see Figure 2. Thus A ⊂ B means that A is a subset (indeed. Let z0 . We write Bε (z0 ) = {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < ε} to denote the open disc in C of complex numbers that are distance at most ε from z0 . Differentiation. in C. z1 . and it is easy to write down examples of sets that are neither open nor closed (can you think of any?). any two points in the subset can be joined by a line that does not leave the subset). [z1 . one can often decide whether a set is open or not by looking at it and thinking carefully. Then we say that D is a domain if 10 . z1 ∈ C.1 Open sets and domains A major difference between real and complex analysis is that the geometry of the complex plane is far richer than that of the real line. .1. z1 ]. We call a set D closed if its complement C \ D is open Remark. the only connected subsets of R are intervals. Let z0 ∈ C and let ε > 0. the Cauchy-Riemann equations 2. Now let z0 . Definition. whereas there are far more complicated connected subsets in C (‘connected’ has a rigorous meaning. Definition. Throughout. Open subsets of C may be very complicated. . We denote the straight line from z0 to z1 by [z0 . etc.

there are points (such as i. (ii) given any two point z1 . in the language of MATH10242 Sequences and Series.) Lemma 2. given any point z ∈ C. We say that zn → z as n → ∞ if: for all ε > 0 there exists N ∈ N such that if n ≥ N then |zn − z| < ε. is not a domain.1: The open disc Br (z0 ) with centre z0 and radius r > 0. yn ∈ R. (iv) A closed disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | ≤ r} or a closed half-plane {z ∈ C | Re(z) ≥ a} are not domains as they are not open sets.1 Let zn ∈ C and write zn = xn + iyn . xn . corresponding to the complex plane with the real axis deleted. (ii) An annulus {z ∈ C | r1 < |z − z0 | < r2 } is a domain. (Equivalently.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2.1. −i) that cannot be connected by a polygonal arc lying entirely in D. This is an open set as. Differentiation.2 Limits of complex sequences Let zn ∈ C be a sequence of complex numbers. See Figure 2. 11 . (i) The open disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < r} centred at z0 ∈ C and of radius r is a domain. Examples. (i) D is open. Then zn converges if and only if xn and yn converge. §2. z2 ∈ D.2. (v) The set D = {z ∈ C | Im(z) 6= 0}. we can find another open disc centred at z that is contained in Br (z0 ).2 for examples of domains. Although it is an open set. we say that zn → z if |zn − z| is a null sequence.1. there exists a polygonal arc contained in D that joins z0 to z1 . the Cauchy-Riemann equations r z0 z Figure 2. (iii) A half-plane such as {z ∈ C | Re(z) > a} is a domain.

Example. Why is it impractical to draw the graph of a complex function f : D → C? There is a short video recapping what is meant by a function and answering this question on the course webpage (see Video 2). Note that in this definition we do not need to know the value of f (z0 ).1. Let f (z) = z 2 . A similar argument show that yn → y. Let z0 ∈ D. A function f : D → C is a rule that assigns to each point z ∈ D an image f (z) ∈ C. y). D is a domain. Then saying that f is a function is equivalent to saying that there are two real-valued functions u(x. In (ii) D is not a domain as it is not connected. §2. f (z) tends to ℓ as z tends to z0 ) if. We say that limz→z0 f (z) = ℓ (or.2: In (i). y) = 2xy. Example. y) = x2 − y 2 . Here u(x. Conversely. Let D be a domain and let f : D → C. v(x. y such that f (z) = u(x. Let f (z) = z¯. Then p |xn − x| ≤ |xn − x|2 + |yn − y|2 = |zn − z| → 0 as n → ∞. D 6= ∅. Write z = x + iy. there exists δ > 0 such that if z ∈ D and 0 < |z − z0 | < δ then |f (z) − ℓ| < ε. y) + iv(x. y) = x. suppose that xn → x and yn → y. v(x. Differentiation. In real analysis one often sketches the graph of a real function f : [a. Here u(x. Suppose that zn → z and write z = x + iy. Then f (x + iy) = x − iy. y) and v(x. y) = −y. for all ε > 0.3 ✷ Complex functions and continuity Let D ⊂ C. f (z) → ℓ as z → z0 means that if z is very close (but not equal to) z0 then f (z) is very close to ℓ. Proof. Then p |zn − z| = |xn − x|2 + |yn − y|2 → 0 so that zn → z. equivalently. Video. That is. 12 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. Then f (x + iy) = (x + iy)2 = x2 − y 2 + 2ixy. the Cauchy-Riemann equations D D (i) D (ii) Figure 2. b] → R. Hence xn → x. y) of the two real variables x.

In particular. one could instead look at left-handed and right-handed derivatives. f (x0 )) and (x.4 Differentiable functions Let us first consider how one differentiates real valued functions defined on R. Let (a. this is an approximation to the slope at x0 . Then limz→0 f (z) = 1. A function f : (a.4. b). The definition of the derivative in (2. z→z0 We say that f is continuous on D if it is continuous at z0 for all z0 ∈ D. We say that f is continuous at z0 ∈ D if lim f (z) = f (z0 ). x→0+ x→0− x x−0 lim 13 . b) → R be a function. For example. You will cover this properly in the Real Analysis course. Then f (z) + g(z). b) → R is differentiable at x0 if f (x) − f (x0 ) (2.4. one takes a point x that is near x0 and looks at the gradient of the straight line drawn between the points (x0 . (As an aside. Continuity obeys the same rules as in MATH20101 Real Analysis. suppose that f. Definition. b). Heuristically.1) f ′ (x0 ) = lim x→x0 x − x0 exists. and some of you will have seen ‘differentiation from first principles’ at A-level or high school. b). b) ⊂ R be an open interval and letf : (a. Differentiation. We then say that f is differentiable at x0 if this limit exists. Let x0 ∈ (a. We say that f is differentiable if it is differentiable at all points x0 ∈ (a. g : D → C are complex functions which are continuous at z0 . We call f ′ (x0 ) the derivative of f at x0 . as is f (z)/g(z) provided that g(z0 ) 6= 0. Let f : C → C be defined by f (z) = 1 if z 6= 0 and f (0) = 0. b) ⊂ R be an interval and let x0 ∈ (a. f (x)) on the graph of f . Remark. f (z)g(z). Notice that there are two ways that x can approach x0 : x can either approach x0 from the left or from the right. Here limz→0 f (z) 6= f (0). Definition.1) requires the limit to exist from both the left and the right and for the value of these limits to be the same.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. cf (z) (c ∈ C) are all continuous at z0 . §2. Let D be a domain and let f : D → C be a function. Let (a. and define the derivative of f at x0 to be the value of this limit. consider f (x) = |x| defined on R. and becomes more accurate as x approaches x0 . the Cauchy-Riemann equations Example. The idea is that f ′ (x0 ) is the slope of the graph of f at the point x0 . We will be interested in functions which do behave nicely when taking limits. The left-handed derivative at 0 is lim x→0− −x f (x) − f (0) = lim = −1 x→0− x x−0 and the right-handed derivative at 0 is f (x) − f (0) x = lim = 1.

If f is differentiable at every point z0 ∈ D then we say that f is differentiable on D. . defined on C. All of the standard rules of differentiable functions continue to hold in the complex case: 14 . Example.4. and we denote them by f ′′ (z0 ). respectively). This corresponds to our intuition. If f is defined on a domain D and is holomorphic on that domain then we say that f is holomorphic. Suppose that f : D → C is differentiable on a domain D. As we shall see.) We call f ′ (z0 ) the derivative of f at z0 . Let z0 ∈ C be any point. The above remark illustrates why we are interested in functions defined on open sets: we want to approach the point x0 from either side. The generalisation to complex functions is as one would expect. b] then we could only consider right-handed derivatives at a (and left-handed derivatives at b). it is much stronger than the real case. Differentiation. If f was defined on the closed interval [a. differentiability is a very strong property for a complex function to possess. Then lim z→z0 z 2 − z02 (z + z0 )(z − z0 ) f (z) − f (z0 ) = lim = lim = lim z + z0 = 2z0 .2) we are allowing z to converge to z0 from any direction. For example (as we shall see) there are many functions that are differentiable when restricted to the real axis but that are not differentiable as a function defined on C.) Remark.) Thus the left-handed and right-handed derivatives are not equal. Definition. as the graph of the function f (x) = |x| has a corner at the origin and so there is no well-defined tangent.2) exists. Remark. . . Sometimes we use the notation df (z0 ) dz to denote the derivative of f at z0 . Let z0 ∈ D. Then we say that f is holomorphic on D. For this reason. the Cauchy-Riemann equations (Here x → 0− (x → 0+) means x tends to 0 from the left-hand side (right-hand side. Definition. We say that f is differentiable at z0 if f ′ (z0 ) = lim z→z0 f (z) − f (z0 ) z − z0 (2. z→z z→z z→z0 z − z0 z − z0 0 z − z0 0 Hence f ′ (z0 ) = 2z0 for all z0 ∈ C. f (n) (z0 ). Let D ⊂ C be an open set and let f : D → C be a function. we shall often use the following alternative terminology. (Note that in (2.4. Thus f is differentiable at every point in C and so is a holomorphic function on C. The higher derivatives are defined similarly. so f is not differentiable at the origin. Let f (z) = z 2 . f ′′′ (z0 ). .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2.

y. g2 (v) chain rule: (f ◦ g)′ = f ′ ◦ g · g′ . y) ∂g g(x. To show that f is continuous. we need to show that limz→z0 f (z) = f (z0 ). let D be a domain.) ✷ We will need the following fact. (iii) product rule: (f g)′ = f ′ g + f g′ . y) where u.2 Suppose that f is differentiable at z0 . g be holomorphic on D. If f is differentiable. Then f (z) = z 3 = (x + iy)3 = x3 − 3xy 2 + i(3x2 y − y 3 ) = u(x. §2. y) + iv(x. . y) (x. y) + iv(x. z − z0 ✷ The Cauchy-Riemann equations Throughout. y) = 3x2 y − y 3 . Proof. For brevity (and provided there is no confusion). Differentiation. y) is a real-valued function depending on two co-ordinates x. Let f : D → C be a complex valued function. We write f as the sum of its real part and imaginary part by setting f (z) = u(x. Definition. To state them. Example. y) where u(x. y) − g(x. Define ∂g g(x + h. limz→z0 f (z) − f (z0 ) = 0. Proposition 2. we leave out the (x. y) = lim . (Usually the only modification needed is to replace the absolute value | · | defined on R with the modulus | · | defined on C.1 Let f. i. (ii) scalar rule: (cf )′ = cf ′ . Note that lim f (z) − f (z0 ) = lim z→z0 z→z0 as required.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2.4. Then the following hold: (i) sum rule: (f + g)′ = f ′ + g′ .e.  ′ ′ g′ (iv) quotient rule: fg = f g−f .4. Let f (z) = z 3 . y) = x3 − 3xy 2 and v(x. then the Cauchy-Riemann equations give two relationships between u and v. y + k) − g(x.5 f (z) − f (z0 ) (z − z0 ) = f ′ (z0 ) × 0 = 0. ∂x ∂y 15 . y) = lim h→0 k→0 ∂x h ∂y k (if these limits exist). v : D → R are real-valued functions. (x. The proofs are all very simple modifications of the corresponding arguments in the real-valued case. we need to recall the notion of a partial derivative. Proof. Let z = x + iy ∈ D. Suppose that g(x. the Cauchy-Riemann equations Proposition 2. Let c ∈ C. y) and write ∂g ∂g . Then f is continuous at z0 .

5. Proof. .5.3) gives the result. y0 ) − iv(x0 . y0 ) = lim k→0 ik u(x0 . y0 ) and (ii) the following relations hold ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u (x0 . Then (i) the partial derivatives ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v .4. y0 + k) − u(x0 .2) that to calculate f ′ (z0 ) we look at points that are close to z0 and then let these points tend to z. y0 ) = lim h→0 h u(x0 + h.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. y0 ) + i (x0 . y0 ) − iv(x0 . y0 ) = − (x0 .1) are called the Cauchy-Riemann equations. ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y exist at (x0 . ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x (2. y0 ) + iv(x0 + h. Hence f (z0 + ik) − f (z0 ) ik u(x0 . The trick is to calculate f ′ (z0 ) in two different ways: by looking at points that converge to z0 horizontally. Then as k → 0 we have z0 + ik → z0 . y0 ). y0 ) = (x0 . y0 ) + ∂y ∂y f ′ (z0 ) = lim k→0 (2. Differentiation. = −i (x0 . The relationships in (2. y0 + k) − u(x0 .2) Now take k to be real and consider z0 + ik = x0 + i(y0 + k). Suppose that f is differentiable at z0 = x0 + iy0 . y0 ) v(x0 . Theorem 2.5. Comparing the real and imaginary parts of (2.3) recalling that 1/i = −i. y0 ). the Cauchy-Riemann equations Thus. . Hence f (z0 + h) − f (z0 ) h→0 h u(x0 + h.5. y) + iv(x. y0 ). y0 + k) + iv(x0 . y0 ) = lim +i k→0 ik ik ∂v ∂u (x0 . y). ✷ 16 . y0 ) − u(x0 .1 (The Cauchy-Riemann Theorem) Let f : D → C and write f (x + iy) = u(x.5. y0 ). (x0 . Then as h → 0 we have z0 + h → z0 . Let h be real and consider z0 + h = (x0 + h) + iy0 . y0 ) v(x0 + h. to calculate ∂g/∂x we treat y as a constant and differentiate with respect to x. y0 ) = lim +i h→0 h h ∂v ∂u (x0 . and by looking at points that converge to z0 vertically.2) and (2. and to calculate ∂g/∂y we treat x as a constant and differentiate with respect to y.5. y0 ) − u(x0 . y0 ) − v(x0 .1) Remark.5. = ∂x ∂x f ′ (z0 ) = lim (2. y0 + k) − v(x0 . Recall from (2.

it cannot be differentiable at the origin. y) lies on either the x or y axes. One could ask whether the converse is true: if the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied at the point z0 then is f differentiable at z0 ? The answer is no. Remark. v at z0 . Hence f (z) = z¯ is an example of an everywhere continuous but nowhere differentiable function. 0) 0−0 ∂u (0. 1). We can use the Cauchy-Riemann equations to examine whether the function f (z) = z¯ might be differentiable on C. Hence the partial derivatives exist at the origin and the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at the origin. Clearly. Note that if we write f (x + iy) = u(x. the correct hypotheses are to assume the continuity of the partial derivatives.2 (Converse to the Cauchy-Riemann Theorem) Let f : D → C be a continuous function and write f (x + iy) = u(x. Suppose that ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v . this is because h + ih → 0 as h → 0 but 1 = f (h + ih) 6→ f (0) as h → 0. and further suppose that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at z0 . ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Hence there are no points at which ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y so that f (z) = z¯ is not differentiable at any point in C. 17 . In calculating the partial derivatives we only know what happens at z tends to z0 either horizontally or vertically. = −1. y) then u(x. .5.4. ∂v/∂x. 0). Differentiation. . y) = −y. The problem with the above example is that in the definition of differentiability (2. Then at the origin u(h. Such functions also exist in real analysis. such functions are still of interest in w(x) = ∞ 2 n=0 current research). ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y exist and are continuous at z0 . f is not continuous at the origin. Notice however that f (z) = z¯ is continuous at every point in C. ∂v/∂y are all equal to zero at the origin. = 0. y) = x and v(x. y) = 0. However. y) + iv(x. 0) = lim = lim = lim 0 = 0 h→0 h→0 h→0 ∂x h h and similarly ∂u/∂y(0. = 0. Proposition 2. y) + iv(x. f (x + iy) = 1 otherwise. Hence we need some extra hypotheses on u. Let z0 = x0 + iy0 ∈ D.2) we need to let z tend to z0 in an arbitrary way. Then f is differentiable at z0 . As f is not continuous at the origin. y) + iv(x. Note that writing z = x + iy allows us to write f (z) = z¯ = x − iy. but they are much harder to write down and considerably harder to study (one of the simplest is known as Weierstrass’ function P −nα cos 2πbn x where α ∈ (0. Hence f (z) = u(x. y). y) with u(x. the Cauchy-Riemann equations Example. y) = f (x + iy) and v(x. 0) − u(0.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. so that the conclusions of the Cauchy-Riemann Theorem hold at the origin. as the following example shows. We have seen that if f is differentiable at z0 then the partial derivatives of u and v exist at z0 and the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. b ≥ 2. Now ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v = 1. Define  0 if(x.

y0 + k) − w(x0 . k) + k (x0 . η(h. Hence f (z) − f (z0 ) ∂v ρ ∂u +i + = z − z0 ∂x ∂x z − z0 and so it remains to show that ρ/(z − z0 ) → 0 as z → z0 . Applying the above lemma to both u and v we can write f (z) − f (z0 ) = u(x0 + h. Then there exist functions ε(h. y0 + k) − u(x0 . y0 + k) + iv(x0 + h. y0 ) = h (x0 . Lemma 2. η1 . k) such that     ∂w ∂w w(x0 + h. k) ∂x ∂y and ε(h.3 Suppose that ∂w/∂x. k) → 0 as h. y0 ) − iv(x0 . we omit the proof. k). Differentiation. Using the Cauchy-Riemann equations we can write the above expression as   ∂u ∂v f (z) − f (z0 ) = (h + ik) +i + hε1 + kη1 + ihε2 + ikη2 ∂x ∂x   ∂u ∂v = (z − z0 ) +i +ρ ∂x ∂x where ρ = hε1 + kη1 + ihε2 + ikη2 . To see this. ε2 . Now consider z = z0 + h + ik. the Cauchy-Riemann equations Proof. The proof is based on the following lemma. y0 )         ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + ε1 + k + η1 + ih + ε2 + ik + η2 = h ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y where ε1 . k → 0. y0 ) + η(h. y0 ) + ε(h. y0 ) and ∂w/∂x is continuous at (x0 . k → 0. η2 → 0 as h. ∂w/∂y exist at (x0 .5.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. y0 ). k) and η(h. note that .

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ρ .

|ρ| |h||ε1 | + |k||η1 | + |h||ε2 | + |k||η2 | .

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√ ≤ |ε1 | + |η1 | + |ε2 | + |η2 | .

z − z0 .

There is a video recapping the Cauchy Riemann Theorem and its converse on the course webpage (see Video 3). k → 0. = √h2 + k2 ≤ h2 + k2 which tends to zero as h. 18 . ✷ Video.

(a) f (z) = z 2 . v(x. Exercise 2. v(x. v given by (i) u(x. In both of the above cases.1 Which of the following sets are open? Justify your answer.2 Using the definition in (2. (iii) f (z) = z 3 − z 2 . (i) Show from the definition (2. y) = (x2 + y 2 )4 (x2 + y 2 )4 where x2 + y 2 6= 0. v are real-valued functions. y) = 4xy 3 − 4x3 y x4 − 6x2 y 2 + y 4 . |z| < 2}. (i) {z ∈ C | Im(z) > 0}. and for all z 6= 0 in (b). (iii) {z ∈ C | |z| ≤ 6}. (b) f (z) = 1 (z 6= 0). z (ii) Show that u and v satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations everywhere for (a). y)+iv(x.2) that f is not differentiable at the origin. verify that u and v are the real and imaginary parts of a holomorphic function f : C → C. 19 . (iii) Write the function f (z) = |z| in the form u(x. (ii) f (z) = 1/z (z 6= 0). decide whether there are any points in C at which f is differentiable.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2.4 Verify the Cauchy-Riemann equations for the functions u. y) = x3 − 3xy 2 . y)+iv(x. Using the Cauchy-Riemann equations. (ii) {z ∈ C | Re(z) > 0. Exercise 2. Exercise 2.3 (i) In each of the following cases. Exercise 2. y) = 3x2 y − y 3 . Exercises for Part 2 Exercises for Part 2 Exercise 2. differentiate the following complex functions from first principles: (i) f (z) = z 2 + z.4.2). write f (z) in the form u(x. (ii) u(x.5 p Let f (z) = |xy| where z = x + iy. y) where z = x+iy and u.4. y).

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 2. Hence for complex differentiable functions. y) is differentiable and that we know a formula for u. Exercise 2.12 Suppose that f (z) = u(x. y) + v(x. f : C → C. the real part of a function determines the imaginary part (up to constants).7 For f (z) = z 3 calculate u. y) + iv(x. Verify that both u and v satisfy Laplace’s equation. Suppose we know that u(x. (Functions which satisfy Laplace’s equation are called harmonic functions. y) + iv(x. Why does this not contradict Proposition 2. Exercises for Part 2 (ii) Show however that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied at the origin. y) = 5 for all z = x + iy ∈ C. + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 (you may assume that the second partial derivatives exist and are continuous). y) = x5 − 10x3 y 2 + 5xy 4 . y) (where z = x + iy). Exercise 2.2? Exercise 2. find all the possible forms of v(x.5.8 Suppose f (z) = u(x. (The Cauchy Riemann equations have the following remarkable implication: suppose f (z) = u(x. similarly. y). y) + iv(x.11 Show that the only holomorphic function f : C → C of the form f (x + iy) = u(x) + iv(y) is given by f (z) = λz + a for some λ ∈ R and a ∈ C. y) + iv(x.6 Suppose that f (z) = u(x. Find all values of k for which u is the real part of a holomorphic function f : C → C. 20 . then we can recover v (up to a constant). y) = x3 − kxy 2 + 12xy − 12x for some constant k ∈ C. Exercise 2.10 Show that if f : C → C is holomorphic and f has a constant real part then f is constant. By using the Cauchy-Riemann equations. y).) Exercise 2. y) + iv(x. Exercise 2. y) is holomorphic. Show that f is constant.) Exercise 2. and conversely. v so that f (z) = u(x. Use the Cauchy-Riemann equations to show that both u and v satisfy Laplace’s equation: ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. is a holomorphic function and that 2u(x. if we know v then we can recover u (up to a constant). y).9 Suppose that u(x.

We say that the series k=0 zk converges if the sequence of partial sums Pnk sn = k=0 zk converges. Hence by the comparison test. ∞ Let z ∈ C. analytic functions 3. and only if. Recall that if sn ∈ C then we say that sn converges to s ∈ C if for all ε > 0 there exists N ∈ N such that |sP − sn | < ε for all n ≥ N . |yn | ≤ |zn |. Let zn ∈ C. the real series n=0 yn n=0 xn and are absolutely convergent. n=0 n Lemma 3. Then n = xn + iynP n=0 zn is absolutely convergent. yn are real. One can show (see Exercise 3. We say that ∞ n=0 zn is absolutely convergent if the real series P∞ |z | is convergent. Power series and elementary analytic functions §3. P Definition.1) that n=0 zn is convergent if.1 Recap on convergence and absolute convergence of series Recall that we have already discussed what it means for an infinite sequence of complex numbers to converge. Then n=0 zn is convergent. We will need a stronger property than just convergence.1. P∞ Proof. P∞ Remark. we know that . As xn . Suppose that . Let zP ∞ ∞ |xn |. A series which does not converge is called divergent. Power series.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. The limit of this sequence of partial sums is called the sum of the series. both P∞ P∞ n=0 Re(zn ) and n=0 Im(zn ) are convergent.1P P∞ Suppose that ∞ n=0 zn is absolutely convergent.

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∞ .

∞ .

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x |x |. ≤ . ≤ y |yn |.

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It is easy to give an example of a series which is convergent but not absolutely convergent.) 21 . ∞ n=0 zn is convergent. The reason for working with absolutely convergent series is that they behave well when multiplied together. By the above remark. Indeed. n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 P P∞ P∞ so that n=0 xn and n=0 yn are convergent. ✷ Remark.2 is not true. First note that if we have two finite sums then we can multiply them together systematically as follows: (a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + · · · + an )(b0 + b1 + b2 + b3 + · · · + bn ) = (a0 b0 ) + (a0 b1 + a1 b0 ) + (a0 b2 + a1 b1 + a2 b0 ) + (a0 b3 + a1 b2 + a2 b1 + a3 b0 ) + · · · For absolutely convergent series the following proposition holds. two series which converge absolutely may be multiplied in a similar way to two finite sums. P∞ P∞ Recalln from MATH10242 P n Sequences and Series that n=0 (−1) /n is convergent but n=0 |(−1) /n| = ∞ n=0 1/n is divergent. if one of the infinite series converges but is not absolutely convergent. in general.1. we can give an example using real series. In fact. (We remark that Proposition 3.

1. or it may diverge.3 (The ratio test) Let zn ∈ C.2 P P∞ Let an . Suppose that |zn+1 | = ℓ.2) Remark. analytic functions Proposition 3.1) then we can say nothing: the series may converge absolutely. or it may diverge. n→∞ |zn | lim If ℓ < 1 then P∞ n=0 zn is absolutely convergent.4 (The root test) Let zn ∈ C. ∞ X = cn n=0 P∞ n=0 cn is absolutely convergent. Indeed. Remark. note that . The same tests continue to hold for complex series and we state them below as propositions.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3.1.1. Consider the series ∞ n X i . n→∞ P P∞ If ℓ < 1 then ∞ n=0 zn is absolutely convergent.1.1. Then ∞ X an n=0 ! ∞ X n=0 bn ! where cn = a0 bn + a1 bn−1 + a2 bn−2 + · · · + an b0 and Proof. bn ∈ C.1. it may converge but not absolutely converge. (3. Omitted. We can use the ratio test to show that this series converges absolutely. Power series.1) P∞ n=0 zn diverges. n 2 n=0 Here zn = in /2n . Suppose that lim |zn |1/n = ℓ. Proposition 3. Example. it may converge but not absolutely converge. If ℓ > 1 then n=0 zn diverges.1. Suppose that ∞ n=0 an and n=0 bn are absolutely convergent. ✷ In MATH10242 Sequences and Series you looked at some tests to see whether a real series converged. If ℓ = 1 in (3. Again.2) then we can say nothing: the series may converge absolutely. If ℓ > 1 then (3. Proposition 3. if ℓ = 1 in (3.

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in+1 2n

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note that . = 2 . We could also have used the root test to show that this series converges absolutely. Hence limn→∞ |zn+1 /zn | = 1/2 < 1 and so by the ratio test the series converges absolutely. To see this.

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1/n  1/n .

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= 2 2n Hence limn→∞ |zn |1/n = 1/2 < 1 and so by the root test the series converges absolutely. 22 . = 1/2.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. it follows that an z1n → 0 as n → ∞. Choose z1 ∈ C such that |z| < |z1 | ≤ R and such P∞ Let z n∈ C be such thatP|z| ∞ that n=0 an z1 converges.1 P n Let ∞ a n=0 n z be a power series and let R be defined as above. As |z| < |z1 |. Power series. As n=0 an z1n converges. We cannot say what happens in the case when |z| = R: the power series may converge. there exists K > 0 such that |an z1n | < K for all n. Hence |an z1n | → 0 as n → ∞. A series of the form ∞ n=0 an (z − z0 ) where an ∈ C. Remark. i. n=0 (We allow R = ∞ if no finite supremum exists. It follows that |an z1n | is a bounded sequence. analytic functions §3.) Theorem 3. Now . that is. Let q = |z|/|z1 |. By changing variables to z ′ = z − z0 we need only consider power series at 0. Then P∞ n (i) n=0 an z converges absolutely for |z| < R. < R. we have that q < 1.2 Power series and the radius of convergence P n Definition. or it may diverge. n=0 When does a power series converge? Let ( R = sup r ≥ 0 | there exists z ∈ C such that |z| = r and ∞ X ) an z n converges .e. z ∈ C is called a power series at z0 . it may converge but not absolutely converge. Proof. P∞ n (ii) n=0 an z diverges for |z| > R. power series of the form ∞ X an z n .2.

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2. If |z| > |z2 | and ∞ n=0 an z converges then ∞ n the above paragraph shows that n=0 an z2 must also converge. Proposition 3.1 is called the radius of convergence of Pnumber ∞ n the power series n=0 an z . z1 P∞ P n n Hence by the comparison test. n=0 |an z | converges (noting that ∞ n=0 Kq = K/(1−q)). ✷ Definition. a contradiction. The R given in Theorem 3. P∞ absolutely. < Kq n . We would like some ways of computing the radius of convergence of a power series.2. Let ∞ a z n=0 n (i) If limn→∞ |an+1 |/|an | exists then |an+1 | 1 = lim . R n→∞ |an | 23 . We call the set {z ∈ C | |z| < R} the disc of convergence.2 P n be a power series. P∞ n Hence n=0 an z converges and so converges. These two facts show that R must exist. P n n Now suppose that n=0 an z2 P diverges. Hence P ∞ n n=0 an z diverges.

4. In this case n . If the limit in (i) exists then the limit in (ii) exists and they give the same answer for the radius of convergence. Consider ∞ X zn n=0 Here an = 1/n. .MATH20101 Complex Analysis (ii) If limn→∞ |an |1/n exists then 3.1. Power series.3 and 3.2. Example. given that this introduces the extra notational difficulty of how to interpret 1/0 and 1/∞.1. analytic functions 1 = lim |an |1/n . respectively) for the convergence of infinite series. It is straightforward to find examples of sequences an for which the limit in (ii) exists but the limit in (i) does not. Remark. R n→∞ (Here we interpret 1/0 as ∞ and 1/∞ as 0.2 resemble the ratio test and the root test (Propositions 3.) Remark. You may wonder why we state the above formulæ in terms of 1/R rather than R. The reason is to make the formulæ in Proposition 3.

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2(i) we can calculate the radius of convergence as 1 1 |an+1 | 2n 1 = lim = lim n+1 = lim = n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ R |an | 2 2 2 so that R = 2.2. as n → ∞.e. Here an = 1/2n . Consider ∞ X zn n=0 2n . = n + 1 → 1 = R as n → ∞. i. Suppose that |an+1 /an | converges to a limit. Example. Hence the radius of convergence is equal to 1. We prove (i). Proof of Proposition 3. we could use Proposition 3.2(ii) and see that  1/n 1 1 1 1/n = = lim |an | = lim n→∞ 2n R n→∞ 2 so that again R = 2.2. .2.2. Alternatively. Using Proposition 3. say ℓ.

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n→∞ .

an .

By the root test. (ii). Then |an+1 z n+1 | lim → ℓ|z|. the power series P∞We prove n n 1/n = lim 1/n |z| = ℓ|z| < 1 and diverges if n→∞ |an | n=0 an z converges if limn→∞ |an z | n 1/n 1/n limn→∞ |an z | = limn→∞ |an | |z| = ℓ|z| > 1. n→∞ |an z n | P∞ n By the ratio test. the power series n=0 an z converges for ℓ|z| < 1 and diverges for ℓ|z| > 1. Suppose that |an |1/n → ℓ as n → ∞. ✷ 24 . Hence the radius of convergence R = 1/ℓ. Hence the radius of convergence R = 1/ℓ.

1) nan z n−1 .) With this definition.2 exist. (3. so there exists K > 0 such that |an r n | < K for all n ≥ 0. Then g(z) = n=1 nan z for |z| < R. Thus lim sup xn exists for any sequence xn . this sequence decreases.3. there is a formula for the radius of convergence R that works for any power series P∞ n n=0 an z . it is always the case that 1 = lim sup |an |1/n . Hence ( ) sup xk lim n→∞ k≥n exists (although it may be equal to ∞).2) n=0 can be differentiated term by term to give f ′ (z) = ∞ X n=1 However.2).3 Differentiation of power series We know that for a polynomial p(z) = a0 + a1 z + · · · + an z n the derivative is given by p′ (z) = a1 + 2a2 z + · · · + nan z n−1 . Let xn be a sequence of real numbers. However. Then ∞ n=1 an r converges absolutely. Let q = |z|/r and note that 0 < q < 1. There are two steps to this: (i) we have to show that if (3.3. (One can show that if limn→∞ xn = ℓ then lim supn→∞ xn = ℓ. Let |z| < R and choose r such that |z| < r < R. analytic functions Remark. Lemma 3.1) converges for |z| < R then (3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3.3. P n Proof. Recall that any decreasing sequence of reals converges.1 P P∞ n n−1 converges Let f (z) = ∞ n=0 an z have radius of convergence R. As n increases. It may happen that neither of the limits in (i) nor (ii) of Proposition 3. Hence the summands must be bounded.2. Power series. and (ii) that f (z) is differentiable for |z| < R and the derivative is given by (3.3. For each n.2) converges for |z| < R. We denote the limit by lim supn→∞ xn . R n→∞ §3. because we are dealing with infinite sums. Then .3. this needs to be proved. consider supk≥n xk . This suggests that a power series f (z) = ∞ X an z n (3.3.

z .

n−1 K .

.

r n−1 < n q n−1 . |nan z n−1 | = n|an | .

.

Hence n=0 nan z n−1 converges absolutely and so converges. r r P∞ P n−1 −2 n−1 | But n=1 nq converges to (1 − q) . ∞ n=0 |nan z P∞ converges. Hence by the comparison test. ✷ 25 .

e. Note that Σ1. the derivative is equal to g(z0 ). 0.3. of convergence {z ∈ C | |z| < R} and f ′ (z) = ∞ na z n n=1 P∞ n−1 .N (z)| < . as z → z0 . as in the proof of Lemma 3. z − z0 For any N ≥ 1 we have the following f (z) − f (z0 ) − g(z0 ) z − z0  ∞  X z n − z0n n−1 = an − nan z0 z − z0 n=1 = = = ∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1 N X n=1 + an (z n−1 + z0 z n−2 + · · · + z0n−2 z + z0n−1 ) − nan z0n−1  an (z n−1 + z0 z n−2 + · · · + z0n−2 z + z0n−1 − nz0n−1 ) an (z n−1 + z0 z n−2 + · · · + z0n−2 z + z0n−1 − nz0n−1 ) ∞ X n=N +1 an (z n−1 + z0 z n−2 + · · · + z0n−2 z + z0n−1 − nz0n−1 ) = Σ1. 2 26 . analytic functions Theorem 3. moreover. Power series. Then n−1 . Hence. Hence we can choose N = N (ε) such that n=1 nan r ∞ X n=N +1 ε |nan r n−1 | < .1 we know that this converges for Proof. we have to show that if |z0 | < R then f ′ (z0 ) := lim z→z0 f (z) − f (z0 ) = g(z0 ) z − z0 or equivalently lim z→z0   f (z) − f (z0 ) − g(z0 ) = 0.3. We have to show that if |z0 | < R then f (z) is differentiable at z0 and.N (z0 ) = 0. P∞Let ε >n−1 is absolutely convergent.2 P n Let f (z) = ∞ f (z) is holomorphic on the disc n=0 an z have radius of convergence P R.3. provided z is close enough to z0 we have that ε (3.N (z). 4 Since |z0 | < r. This is a polynomial in z and so is a continuous function. Then.N (z). Choose r such that |z0 | < r < R.N (z)| ≤ ∞ X n=N +1 ε 2n|an |r n−1 < . By Lemma 3. Hence.4) |Σ1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. i. 2 (3. say.N (z) → 0.3.3) Now consider Σ1. Let g(z) = n=1 nan z |z| < R. we have that Σ1.1.3. provided z is close enough to z0 so that |z| < r then we have that |Σ2.N (z) + Σ2.

4) hold then . analytic functions Finally. Power series.3) and (3. if z is close enough to z0 so that both (3.3.3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3.

.

.

f (z) − f (z0 ) .

.

− g(z0 ).

.

N (z) + Σ2. = |Σ1.N (z)| .

Then. . the power series g(z) converges for all z inside the disc with centre z0 and radius R.1 Special functions The exponential function P n You have probably already met the exponential function ex = ∞ n=0 x /n!. ✷ Instead of using a power series at the origin. (n − k)! Proof. Moreover. inside this disc of convergence all the higher derivatives of g exist and ∞ X n! (k) an (z − z0 )n−k .) a power series at the point P∞ z0 . Here we study the (complex) exponential function. we have that the power series g(z) = ∞ a (z − z0 )n has disc of convergence n=0 n {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R}. PropositionP3. f (k) . f ′′ . This is a simple induction on k. The exponential function is defined to be the power series exp z = ∞ X zn n=0 n! . replacing z by P z − z0 . f (k) (z) = ∞ X n=k n(n − 1) · · · (n − k + 1)an z n−k = ∞ X n=k n! an z n−k .2. .4. ✷ P n The above two results have a very important consequence. ≤ 2 2 As ε is arbitrary. z − z0 ≤ |Σ1. f ′′′ . 27 . Definition.2(i) we see that the radius of convergence R for exp z is given by n! 1 1 = lim = lim =0 R n→∞ (n + 1)! n→∞ n + 1 so that R = ∞.N (z)| + |Σ2. by replacing z by z − z0 we can consider will be useful later on when we look at Taylor series. it follows that f ′ (z0 ) = g(z). Hence this series has radius convergence ∞. g (z) = (n − k)! n=k §3. certainly in the case when x is real. .3 n Let f (z) = ∞ n=0 an z have radius of convergence R. .3. . . Then all of the higher derivatives f ′ . By Proposition 3. and so converges absolutely for all z ∈ C.N (z)| ε ε + = ε. of f exist for z within the disc of convergence. That is. (This n Suppose that f (z) = n=0 an z has disc of convergence |z| < R. .4 §3. Moreover. If f (z) = ∞ n=0 an z converges for |z| < R then we can differentiate it as many times as we like within the disc of convergence.

In the real case we know that if x. For a rational number m/n (n > 0) we have that (exp(m/n))n = exp(nm/n) = exp(m) = em so that exp(m/n) = em/n .4. p. z2 ∈ C. we want to connect the real number e to the complex exponential function. The proof in the complex case is somewhat more involved and we omit it. Then f ′ (z) = exp(z) exp(c − z) − exp(z) exp(c − z) = 0 by the product rule. y ∈ R then ex+y = ex ey . 28 .1 Suppose that f is holomorphic on a domain D and f ′ = 0 on D. iterating Proposition 3. This is also true in the complex-valued case.4.2 we may differentiate term-by-term to obtain ∞ ∞ ∞ X z n−1 X z n−1 X zn d n exp z = = = = exp z.2 Let z1 . Power series. Hence exp z 6= 0 for any z ∈ C. Putting c = z1 + z2 and z = z1 gives the result. Hence exp(z) exp(c − z) = exp(c). if we take z1 = z and z2 = −z in Proposition 3. in particular this constant must be f (0) = exp c. and the proof involves a neat trick. Hence by Lemma 3.) Finally. if we write z = x + iy then Proposition 3. (See Stewart and Tall. Thus the notation ez = exp z does not conflict with the usual definition of ex when z is real.1 we must have that f (z) is constant. we obtain en = exp(1)n = exp(1 + · · · + 1) = exp n.4. We already understand real exponentials ex .2 inductively. In particular.4. Then f is constant on D.) Proposition 3.2 then we have that 1 = exp 0 = exp(z − z) = exp(z) exp(−z). Then.4.2 tells us that ex+iy = ex eiy .71. Hence to understand complex exponentials we need to understand expressions of the form eiy . dz n! (n − 1)! n=0 n! n=1 n=1 which we already knew to be true in the real-valued case. We define e to be the real number e = exp 1. now we know that it has no complex solutions either.4. First we need the following fact: Lemma 3. Remark.3. analytic functions By Theorem 3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. In particular. This is well-known in the real case: a function with zero derivative must be constant. Then exp(z1 + z2 ) = exp(z1 ) exp(z2 ). Let c ∈ C and define the function f (z) = exp(z) exp(c − z). Proof. (We already knew that ex = 0 has no real solutions. ✷ Remark. Hence we shall normally write ez for exp z.

for complex z1 . Power series. we knew this already when z ∈ R).2 3.3 Hyperbolic functions Define 1 1 cosh z = (ez + e−z ). sin z = . §3. sin z = cos z. and other identities including (for example) cosh2 z − sinh2 z = 1 for all z ∈ C (again. 2 2 Differentiating these we see that d d cosh z = sinh z. i. 2 2i Squaring the above expressions and adding them gives cos2 z + sin2 z = 1. sin z = (eiz − e−iz ). now we know that they continue to hold when z is any complex number. Carrying on in the same way.3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis §3.4. These are all expressions that we already knew in the case when z is a real number. sin(−z) = − sin z.2. one can prove the addition formulæ cos(z1 + z2 ) = cos z1 cos z2 − sin z1 sin z2 . sin(0) = 0. Replacing z by −z we see that e−iz = cos z − i sin z. and all the other usual trigonometric identities. z2 . cos(0) = 1. dz dz One can also prove addition formulæ for the hyperbolic trigonometric functions.6. Substituting z = −z we see that cos is an even function and that sin is an odd function. 29 .4. these follow from Exercise 3. By Theorem 3. We also have the relations cos iz = cosh z. sin iz = i sinh z.2(i) it is straightforward to check that these converge absolutely for all z ∈ C.2 we can differentiate term-by-term to see that d d cos z = − sin z.e. Hence cos z = 1 1 iz (e + e−iz ). analytic functions Trigonometric functions Define cos z = ∞ X (−1)n n=0 ∞ X z 2n z 2n+1 (−1)n . etc. sinh z = (ez − e−z ). (2n)! (2n + 1)! n=0 By Proposition 3. sinh z = cosh z. cos(−z) = cos z. Moreover. dz dz Term-by-term addition of the power series for cos z and sin z shows that exp iz = cos z + i sin z.

if ex = y then x = ln y.11 we shall see that these are the only periods for exp. Then z = exp w = exp(x + iy) = ex (cos y + i sin y).4. We shall also see in the exercises that the only complex periods for sin and cos are 2nπ . unlike in the real case. Let f : C → C. Then a complex logarithm of z is log z = ln |z| + i arg z where arg z is any argument of z.) Here we consider the complex analogue of this.4.4. i. For the exponential function. One way is to only consider the logarithm function on a subset of C. (3. and we denote any of these values by log z.1) write w = x + iy. By taking the argument of both sides of (3.2) we see that ex = |z|.1) By §3.2) we see that y = arg z. Note that we say a complex logarithm (rather than the complex logarithm) to emphasise the fact that the complex logarithm is multi-valued. π]. Hence x = ln |z|. (Throughout we will write ln to denote the (real) natural logarithm. The principal value of log z is the value of log z when arg z has its principal value Arg z. §3. That is. Power series. Dealing with multivalued functions is tricky.5 The logarithmic function In real analysis.4. 30 . We say that a number p ∈ C is a period for f if f (z+p) = f (z) for all z ∈ C. (3. Let z ∈ C. analytic functions Periods of the exponential and trigonometric functions Definition. as is 2nπi for any integer n. the (natural) logarithm is the inverse function to the exponential function.MATH20101 Complex Analysis §3.1) then so is w1 + 2nπi.4. Definition.4 3. We denote the principal logarithm by Log z: Log z = ln |z| + i Arg z. We want to find a formula for log z.4. Note that both x and |z| are real numbers. Each of these values is a called a logarithm of z. In Exercise 3. z 6= 0. the complex logarithm is a multi-valued function. z 6= 0. if w1 is a solution to (3.4. Thus. and consider the equation exp w = z.2) By taking the modulus of both sides of (3. Clearly if p ∈ C is a period and n ∈ Z is any integer then np is also a period. Hence 2πi is a period for exp. Hence we can make the following definition.e. In (3. we have that e2πi = cos 2π + i sin 2π = 1 so that ez+2πi = ez e2πi = ez .4.4. the unique value of the argument in (−π.4. Let z ∈ C.

Definition. Then z = exp w. Let w = Log z.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. Proposition 3. Proposition 3. Then by Proposition 3. although the proof is easy) that the principal value of the argument Arg z is continuous on the cut-plane. This follows from the fact (which we shall not prove. z lim ✷ 31 . analytic functions Figure 3.4.1: The cut plane: this is the complex plane with the negative real axis removed.4.4. dz z Proof.4 The principal logarithm Log z is holomorphic on the cut plane and 1 d Log z = .3 Log is continuous on the cut plane so we have that k → 0 as h → 0. The complex plane with the negative real-axis (including 0) removed is called the cut plane.4. Power series. Then d Log z = dz = = = = Log(z + h) − Log(z) h→0 h (w + k) − w lim k→0 exp(w + k) − exp(w)   exp(w + k) − exp(w) −1 lim k→0 k −1  d exp(w) dw 1 .1. ✷ Having seen that the principal logarithm is continuous. we can go on to show that it is differentiable. See Figure 3. Let Log(z+h) = w+k.3 The principal logarithm Log z is continuous on the cut plane.4. Proof.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. There is a video on the course webpage recapping properties of the complex logarithm and complex powers (see Video 4). z ∈ C with b 6= 0 we define the principal value of bz to be bz = exp(z Log b) and the subsiduary values to be exp(z log b). For b. Video. 32 . analytic functions Having defined the complex logarithm we can go on to define complex powers. Power series.

2 Find the radii of convergence of the following power series: (i) ∞ X 2n z n n=1 n . (ii) n=0 ∞ X n=0 an z 3n .5 P Suppose that an z n has radius of convergence R. show using Proposition 3. Exercises for Part 3 Exercises for Part 3 Exercise 3. Show that z is convergent if.1. show using Proposition 3. 2 2i Show also that 33 .2 that for z.3 Consider the power series ∞ X an z n n=0 where an = 1/2n if n is even and an = 1/3n if n is odd. Exercise 3. Exercise 3. (1 − z)2 n=1 (ii) By multiplying two series together. n! n! n! n=0 n=0 n=0 Exercise 3. w ∈ C we have ∞ ∞ ∞ X X (z + w)n z n X wn = . Use the formula 1/R = limn→∞ |an |1/n to find the radii of convergence of the following power series in terms of R: (i) ∞ X n3 an z n . Show that neither of the formulæ for the radius of convergence for this power series given in Proposition 3. both n n n=0 n=0 Re(zn ) and P∞ n=0 Im(zn ) are convergent.6 Show that for z.2 that for |z| < 1.1 P∞ P∞ Let z ∈ C. (ii) ∞ X zn n=1 n! ∞ X .4 (i) By multiplying two series together. n=0 Exercise 3. Exercise 3. and only if. (ii) sin z = .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3.2 converge.2.1. (iv) ∞ X n=1 n=1 np z n (p ∈ N). we have ∞ X 1 nz n−1 = . Show by using the comparison test that this power series converges for |z| < 2. (iii) ∞ X a3n z n . w ∈ C we have (i) cos z = eiz − e−iz eiz + e−iz . (iii) n!z n .

Give an explicit example of two complex numbers z1 . Exercise 3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3.7 Derive formulæ for the real and imaginary parts of the following complex functions and check that they satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations: (i) sin z. n ∈ Z. Exercise 3. Exercise 3. z2 for which Log z1 z2 6= Log z1 + Log z2 . (ii) 1 + i − ez . Exercises for Part 3 (iii) sin(z + w) = sin z cos w + cos z sin w. Exercise 3.12 (So far. Also show that if cos z = 0. where n = n(z1 . Here is one instance of where they can differ. (iv) cos(z + w) = cos z cos w − sin z sin w. sinh find the set of points on which it assumes (i) real values. then z = nπ for some n ∈ Z. Show that there are no further complex zeros for sin. i.e. (Do you find it surprising that these turn out to be real?) Exercise 3. Exercise 3. if sin z = 0.8 For each of the complex functions exp. z2 ∈ C \ {0}. (iii) sinh z. (ii) cos z. Define the power series α(α − 1) 2 α(α − 1)(α − 2) 3 z + z + ··· 2! 3! ∞ X α(α − 1) · · · (α − n + 1) n z . there has been little difference between the real and the complex versions of elementary functions.9 We know that the only real numbers x ∈ R for which sin x = 0 are x = nπ. (ii) We know that p = 2nπi. = 1+ n! n=1 f (z) = 1 + αz + 34 .. z ∈ C. (iv) cosh z. sin. Show that there are no other periods. are periods of exp z. z ∈ C then z = (n + 1/2)π.14 (i) Let α ∈ C and suppose that α is not a non-negative integer. n ∈ Z. Exercise 3.10 Find the zeros of the following functions (i) 1 + ez .) Let z1 . Exercise 3. n ∈ Z.13 Calculate the principal value of ii and the subsiduary values. cos. cosh. z2 ) is an integer which need not be zero. Calculate the set of periods of sin z. and (ii) purely imaginary values. Show that Log z1 z2 = Log z1 + Log z2 + 2nπi.11 (i) Recall that a complex number p ∈ C is called a period of f : C → C if f (z + p) = f (z) for all z ∈ C.

Exercises for Part 3 (Note that. for |z| < 1. show that f (z) = (1 + z)α . 35 f (z) .) Show that the this power series has radius of convergence 1. as α is not a non-negative integer. 1+z (iii) By considering the derivative of the function g(z) = (1 + z)α for |z| < 1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 3. this is an infinite series. (ii) Show that. we have f ′ (z) = αf (z) .

as we shall see. We say that the path γ starts at γ(a) and ends at γ(b).3. but intuitively just think of it as a continuous curve starting at z0 and ending at z1 ). So. γ(t) is a point on the path. γ A priori this looks like it will depend on the path γ. z1 ∈ C. it is convenient to regard a path as a set of points in C. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 are both parametrisations of the straight line that starts at 0 and ends at 1 + i. However. 36 . Then. b] is a real interval. For example γ1 (t) = t + it. Note that the same path can have different parametrisations. If we think of the path γ in this way then we sometimes call the function γ(t) a parametrisation of the path γ. Remark.2 Paths and contours First we need to make precise what we mean by a path. b] → C where [a.e. move through the complex plane to z1 . a We often read this as ‘the integral of f from a to b’. Note that a path is a function. integrating f as we go. we should regard this set of points as having an orientation: a path starts at one end-point and ends at the other. for each a ≤ t ≤ b. integrating f as we go.1) that when we calculate an integral along a path then it is independent of the choice of parametrisation. But in the complex plane there are lots of ways of moving from z0 to z1 . §4. in complex analysis in many cases this quantity is independent of the path chosen. γ2 (t) = t2 + it2 . we identify the function γ with its image. Sometimes. using similar ideas to those from MATH10121 Calculus and Vectors. Now let z0 . Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem 4.1 Introduction Consider the real integral Z b f (x) dx. we think of starting at the point a and moving along the real axis to b. That is. Remark. Suppose γ is a path from z0 to z1 (we shall make precise what we mean by a path below. Definition. How might we define Z z1 f (z) dz? z0 We want to start at z0 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. we can define Z f (z) dz. i. However. We shall see later (Proposition 4. Complex integration and Cauchy’s Theorem §4. A path is a continuous function γ : [a.

z1 ]) = |z1 − z0 |. We sometimes denote this path by [z0 . If γ(a) = γ(b) (i. (4. starting and ending at the point 1. similarly at b.2. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem As an example of a path. b] → C be a smooth path.2. An important example of a closed path is given by γ(t) = eit = cos t + i sin t. See Figure 4. travelling around the circle in an anticlockwise direction. (4. z1 ]. let z0 . b] → C is differentiable and γ ′ is continuous. Let γ : [a. z1 ].2. Define γ(t) = (1 − t)z0 + tz1 . See Figure 4. A path γ is said to be smooth if γ : [a. z1 z0 Figure 4.1.2. Example.2. length(γ) = a Example.2) then length(γ) = 2π. γ(1) = z1 and the image of γ is the straight line joining z0 to z1 .) All of the examples of paths above are smooth. b] → C be a path. describes the straight line joining z0 to z − 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. We sometimes denote this path by [z0 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. Definition.1: The path γ(t) = (1 − t)z0 + tz1 .2. Let γ : [a.e.1) Then γ(0) = z0 . It is straightforward to check from (4.2.2. 37 . z1 ∈ C.2) This is the path that describes the circle in C with centre 0 and radius 1.1) that length([z0 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Then the length of γ is defined to be Z b |γ ′ (t)| dt. We can use integrals to define the lengths of paths: Definition. If γ(t) is the path given in (4. (By differentiable at a we mean that the one-sided derivative exists. if γ starts and ends at the same point) then we say that γ is a closed path or a closed loop. Definition.

γ2 : [0. 1 ≤ r ≤ n − 1. Thus a contour is a path that is smooth except at finitely many places. travelling backwards along γ. Then we can consider the reverse of this path. Let 0 < ε < R. . A contour γ is a collection of smooth paths γ1 . Note that it starts at 1 and travels anticlockwise around the unit circle. More formally. π] → C γ4 : [−π. 38 . γn where the end-point of γr coincides with the start point of γr+1 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4.2: The circular path γ(t) = eit . The length of a contour γ = γ1 + · · · + γn is defined to be length(γ) = length(γ1 ) + · · · + length(γn ). Often we will want to integrate over a number of paths joined together. Then γ = γ1 + γ2 + γ3 + γ4 is a closed contour (see Figure 4.3). Definition. If the end-point of γn coincides with the start point of γ1 then we call γ a closed contour. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. end at γ(a).2.2. γ3 : [−R. b] → C is a path that starts at γ(a) and ends at γ(b). −ε] → C γ3 (t) = t. 0] → C γ2 (t) = Reit . Definition. We write γ = γ1 + · · · + γn . . A contour looks like a smooth path but with finitely many corners. we make the following definition. γ4 (t) = εe−it . where we start at γ(b) and. . One could make the latter a path by constructing a suitable reparametrisation. Define γ1 : [ε. . Suppose that γ : [a. in particular the joins may not be smooth. but in practice this makes things complicated. R] → C γ1 (t) = t. It is simpler to give a name to several smooth paths joined together. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem 1 Figure 4. Example.

f (z) dz = γ We will often write R γ f for R γ (4. The integral of f along γ is defined to be Z b Z f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt. b] → Rb R Rb R and define γ f to be a u(t) dt + i a v(t) dt. Example. b] → C be a path. etc. Let γ : [a.1) a f (z) dz. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem −ε −R ε R Figure 4. b] → D be a smooth path in D. Remark. Define −γ : [a.3: The contour γ1 + γ2 + γ3 + γ4 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4.3 Contour integration Let f : D → C be a complex functions defined on a domain D. b] → C to be the path −γ(t) = γ(a + b − t). We call −γ the reversed path of γ. v : [a.) §4.2.3. Definition. Take f (z) = z 2 and γ(t) = t2 + it. There is a video on the course webpage recapping paths. Let γ : [a. parametrisations of paths. 3 3 = 39 . the reversed path. Definition. (See Video 5. Video. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Hence Z 1 Z 1 Z (t4 − t2 + 2it3 )(2t + i) dt f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt = f (z) dz = 0 0 γ Z 1 Z 1 5t4 − t2 dt 2t5 − 4t3 dt + i 0 0   1  1 6 1 3 1 4 5 = t −t +i t − t 3 3 0 0 −2 2 = +i . Then f (γ(t)) = (t2 + it)2 = t4 − t2 + 2it3 and γ ′ (t) = 2t + i. Strictly speaking we should write f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) = u(t)+iv(t) where u.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis

4. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem

The following proposition shows that the definition (4.3.1) is independent of the choice of
parametrisation of the path.
Proposition 4.3.1
Let γ : [a, b] → C be a smooth path. Let φ : [c, d] → [a, b] be an increasing smooth bijection.
Then γ ◦ φ : [c, d] → C is a path that has the same image as γ. Moreover,
Z
Z
f= f
γ

γ◦φ

for any continuous function f .
Proof. It is clear that both γ and γ ◦ φ have the same image. Thus γ and γ ◦ φ are
different parametrisations of the same path. Note that
Z d
Z
f (γ(φ(t)))(γφ)′ (t) dt
f =
c

γ◦φ

=
=

Z

Z

d

f (γ(φ(t)))γ ′ (φ(t))φ′ (t) dt by the chain rule

c
b

f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt by the change of variables formula.

a

Remark. If φ in Proposition 4.3.1 is a decreasing smooth bijection then γφ has the same
image as φ but the path traverses this in the opposite Rdirection, i.e.
R γφ is a parametrisation
of −γ. Following the above calculation we see that γφ f = − γ f , corresponding to the
R
R
fact stated below that −γ f = − γ f .
Now suppose that γ = γ1 + · · · + γn is a contour in D. We define
Z
Z
Z
f.
f + ··· +
f=
γn

γ1

γ

The following basic properties of contour integration follow easily from this definition.
Proposition 4.3.2
Let f, g : D → C be continuous and let c ∈ C. Suppose that γ, γ1 , γ2 are contours in D.
Suppose that the end point of γ1 is the start point of γ2 . Then
(i)
Z

f=

Z

f+

f;

γ2

γ1

γ1 +γ2

Z

(ii)
Z

(f + g) =

Z

f+

γ

γ

(iii)
Z

cf = c
γ

40

Z

f;
γ

Z

g;
γ

MATH20101 Complex Analysis

4. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem

(iv)
Z

−γ

f =−

Z

f.

γ

Recall from real calculus (or, indeed, from A-level or high school) that one way to
calculate the integral of f is to find an anti-derivative, i.e. find
R ba function F such that
F ′ = f . The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus then says that a f (x) dx = F (b) − F (a).
We have an analogue of this in for the complex integral. We first need the following
definition.
Definition. Let f : D → C be a continuous function. We say that a function F : D → C
is an anti-derivative of f on D if F ′ = f .
Theorem 4.3.3 (The Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration)
Suppose that f : D → C is continuous, F : D → C is an antiderivative of f on D, and γ is
a contour from z0 to z1 . Then
Z
f = F (z1 ) − F (z0 ).
(4.3.2)
γ

Proof. It is sufficient to prove the theorem for smooth paths. Let γ : [a, b] → D, γ(a) = z0 ,
γ(b) = z1 , be a smooth path.
Let w(t) = f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) and let W (t) = F (γ(t)). Then by the chain rule
W ′ (t) = F ′ (γ(t))γ ′ (t) = f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) = w(t).
Write w(t) = u(t) + iv(t) and W (t) = U (t) + iV (t) so that U ′ = u, V ′ = v. Hence
Z b
Z
f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt
f =
a

γ

=

Z

b

w(t) dt

a

=

Z

b

u(t) dt + i

a

=
=

U (t)|ba + i V

Z

b

a
(t)|ba

v(t) dt
by the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

W (t)|ba

= F (z1 ) − F (z0 ).

Remark. Notice that (4.3.2) does not depend on the choice of path γ from z0 to z1 ; all
we need to know is that there exists an anti-derivative for f on a domain that contains
z0 , z1 .
Example. Let f (z) = z 2 and let γ be any contour from z0 = 0 to z1 = 1 + i. Then
F (z) = z 3 /3 is an anti-derivative for f and
Z
1
(1 + i)3
2 2
1
= − + i.
z 2 dz = z13 − z03 =
3
3
3
3 3
γ
41

MATH20101 Complex Analysis

4. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem

Remark. If γ is a closed path (i.e. γ starts andR end at the same point) and f has an
anti-derivative on a domain that contains γ then γ f = 0. However, possessing an antiderivative is a very strong hypothesis on f (see the following remarks).
Remark. In real analysis, any sufficiently nice function f has an anti-derivative: we define
Z x
f (t) dt.
F (x) =
0

then F ′ = f . In complex analysis, however, the existence of an anti-derivative in on domain
D is a very strong hypothesis. Consider for example f (z) = 1/z defined on D = C \ {0}.
Does this function have an anti-derivative on D? The natural candidate would be Log z.
However, Log z is only continuous on the cut-plane; Log z is not continuous on D and so
cannot be differentiable. So Log z is not an anti-derivative of f (z) = 1/z.
Remark. Let γ(t) = eit , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π denote the unit circle in C described anticlockwise.
note that γ is a closed path. Let f (z) = 1/z. The above remark suggests that
f does not
R
have an anti-derivative on any domain that contains γ. Thus to evaluate γ f we need to
use the definition of the contour integral given in (4.3.1). We have
Z 2π
Z 2π
Z
1 it

f (γ(t))γ (t) dt =
f=
ie dt = 2πi.
it
e
0
0
γ
If f had an anti-derivative on a domain that contains
γ then, by the Fundamental Theorem
R
of Contour Integration, we would have that γ f = 0. Hence f (z) = 1/z does not have an
anti-derivative on any domain that contains γ.
In general, looking for an anti-derivative is not the best way of calculating complex
integrals. There are much more powerful techniques that allows us to calculate many
complex integrals without having to worry about anti-derivatives. One such technique that
applies in the case when γ is a closed contour is Cauchy’s Theorem. Before discussing
Cauchy’s Theorem, we need a technical result about integration known as the Estimation
Lemma.
§4.4

The Estimation Lemma

There are two results about real integration that are obvious from considering the integral
of f (x) over [a, b] as the area underneath the graph of f . Firstly

Z b .

Z b .

.

.

.

≤ f (x) dx |f (x)| dx (4.1) .4.

.

if |f (x)| ≤ M then . a a and secondly.

Z b .

.

.

.

f (x) dx.

.

. ≤ M (b − a).

1). 42 .4. (4.1 and 4.4. Both of these results have analogies in the context of complex analysis.4.4.2. the proofs are surprisingly intricate. Here is the complex analogue of (4.2) a See Figures 4. However.

v : [a. this area becomes positive.4. M f a b Figure 4. b] then the area underneath that part of the graph is negative. b] → R be continuous functions.4. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem |f | f a a b b Figure 4.1 Let u.1: If f [a.4. Lemma 4. Then .2: The graph of f is contained inside the rectangle of width b − a and height M . b] → R is negative on some subset of [a. Hence the area underneath the graph is at most M (b − a).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. When f is replaced by |f |.

Z b .

Z b .

.

.

u(t) + iv(t) dt.

.

. ≤ |u(t) + iv(t)| dt.

Xu(t) + Y v(t) dt + i = a a 43 (4. a Proof. Write Then a Z b u(t) + iv(t) dt = X + iY.3) .4. a X 2 + Y 2 = (X − iY )(X + iY ) Z b (X − iY )(u(t) + iv(t)) dt = a Z b Z b Xv(t) − Y u(t) dt.

Z b Xv(t) − Y u(t) dt = 0 a so that X2 + Y 2 = Z b Xu(t) + Y v(t) dt.4.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. we have that Xu(t) + Y v(t) ≤ |(X − iY )(u(t) + iv(t))| = |X − iY ||u(t) + iv(t)| p = X 2 + Y 2 |u(t) + iv(t)|.4.4) is the real part of (X − iY )(u(t) + iv(t)). Recalling that for any complex number z we have that Re(z) ≤ |z|. Hence 2 X +Y 2 Z b Xu(t) + Y v(t) dt Z b p 2 2 |u(t) + iv(t)| dt ≤ X +Y = a a √ and cancelling the term X 2 + Y 2 gives . hence the imaginary part of the above expression must be zero. i.e.4) a Notice that the integrand in (4. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem However. (4. X 2 + Y 2 is real.

Z b .

Z b p .

.

.

.

= |X + iY | = X 2 + Y 2 ≤ |u(t) + iv(t)| dt u(t) + iv(t) dt .

.

4.2 (The Estimation Lemma) Let f : D → C be continuous and let γ be a contour in D. Lemma 4. a a as claimed.4. ✷ We can now prove the following important result—the complex analogue of (4.2)— which we will use many times in the remainder of the course. Suppose that |f (z)| ≤ M for all z on γ. Then .

Z .

.

.

.

f .

≤ M length(γ). .

.

Proof.1 we have that . γ Remark. then γ f is small. Simply note that by Lemma 4. then γ f is small.4. (ii) if R f is any continuous function and γ is a contour with small length. We shall use the Estimation Lemma in two different ways: R(i) suppose f is a function which takes small (in modulus) values along a contour γ.

Z .

.

Z b .

.

.

.

.

′ .

f.

= .

f (γ(t))γ (t) dt.

.

.

.

.

γ Z a b |f (γ(t))||γ ′ (t)| dt a Z b ≤ M |γ ′ (t)| dt ≤ a = M length(γ). ✷ 44 .

First note that if z is a point on γ then |z| = 5. Hence |z 2 + z + 1| ≥ |z|2 − |z + 1| by the reverse triangle inequality ≥ |z|2 − |z| − 1 by the triangle inequality = 25 − 5 − 1 = 19. 0 ≤ R t ≤ 2π. Let f (z) = 1/(z 2 + z + 1) and let γ(t) = 5eit . Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem Example. Thus for z on γ we have that . We use the Estimation Lemma to bound γ f (z) dz.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. be the circle of radius 5 centred at 0.

.

.

.

1 .

.

≤ 1 . |f (z)| = .

2 z + z + 1 .

Thus. 19 Next we note that length(γ) = 2π × 5 = 10π. by the Estimation Lemma. .

Z .

.

.

.

f (z) dz .

. ≤ 10π .

.

e. Tie one end to (say) a pencil and place the tip of the pencil on the point z0 . This number (counted positively for anti-clockwise turns and negatively for clockwise turns) is the winding number of γ at z0 .5. 19 γ §4. i. When you get back to where you started.1) γ for all closed paths γ in D. We say that γ : [a.5. or were known to. Now trace around the closed path γ with the other end of the piece of string. Let us first consider the case when the closed path γ does not pass through the origin 0. However.5. In examples.3. Cauchy and are often referred to as ‘Cauchy’s Theorem’. we shall need an analytic expression for the winding number w(γ. In particular. most of which are either due to.1 for examples of winding numbers. 45 .5 Winding numbers and Cauchy’s Theorem Suppose that f : D → C. b] → D is closed if it begins and ends at the same point. Cauchy’s Theorem gives conditions under which (4. in order to use winding numbers to develop the theory of integration. which we state without proof. (Actually. We will give one version expressed in terms of winding numbers. We need the following result.) Let γ be a closed path and let z0 be a point that is not on γ. See Figure 4. if z0 = γ(a) = γ(b) = z1 . Imagine you have a piece of string. What happens if we do not know if f has an anti-derivative? In this case. it follows from Theorem 4. the string will be wrapped around the pencil some number of times. z) of a closed path γ around a point z.3 that if f has an anti-derivative F on D then Z f =0 (4. there are many different theorems of this kind. it is easy to calculate winding numbers by eye and this is how we shall always do it.3. The Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration (Theorem 4.3) tells us that if f has an anti-derivative F in D and γ is any path in D from z0 to z1 then Z γ f = F (z1 ) − F (z0 ).1) continues to hold.

for example γ(t) = eit . z0 ) = 2. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. However. is continuous. Any other choice of parametrisation with a continuous choice of argument differs from this argument by a constant integer multiple of 2π. 0) of γ around 0 as the multiple of 2π giving the total change in argument along γ. consider γ(t) =  eit . Now consider the closed path γ. Then γ describes the unit circle with centre 0 and radius 1. z1 ) = 0 as γ2 winds clockwise around z0 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π and note that arg γ(t) = t. z0 ) = −1 and w(γ2 . In (iii). 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 0) = 2. w(γ3 . Proposition 4. w(γ1 . Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem z1 z2 z1 γ1 z0 z0 z0 z1 γ2 γ3 (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 4. We can reinterpret the winding number w(γ. Intuitively. w(γ3 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. Proposition 4. and this is not continuous. this winds around the origin twice anticlockwise. z1 ) = 0. Example. Let γ(t) = e4πit .5.1 Let γ be a path in C \ {0}. Here  t. and so should have winding number w(γ. z2 ) = 0 as γ3 winds anticlockwise twice around z0 . 0 ≤ t ≤ π arg γ(t) = t + 2π. Then Z 1 1 dz. For example. 0 ≤ t ≤ π ei(t+2π) . We can check this using 46 . anticlockwise once around z1 and does not wind at all around z2 . π < t ≤ 2π.2 Let γ be a closed path that does not pass through the origin. π < t ≤ 2π. w(γ.1: In (i). w(γ2 . z1 ) = 1. z0 ) = 1 and w(γ1 .5. w(γ3 . In (ii).5. Then there exists a parametrisation γ : [a. 0) = 2πi γ z Example. b] → C \ {0} of γ for which t 7→ arg γ(t) is a continuous function. we can find a parametrisation of γ for which the argument is continuous.

0 Example. (A ray is an infinite straight line starting at 0. . Then (and we put quotes around the following to indicate that this is not a valid proof) “ Z γ 1 dz = z Z a b 1 ′ γ (t) γ(t) = [log(γ(t))]ba = (ln |γ(b)| + i arg γ(b)) − (ln |γ(a)| + i arg γ(a)) = i (arg γ(b) − arg γ(a)) = 2πiw(γ. Cαr . 0)”. 0) = −1. tn ] so that each γr lies in a single cut plane. In this case. . indeed. α − 2(m + 1)π < θ ≤ α − 2mπ where we have the freedom to choose any m ∈ Z. b] → C \ {0} be a closed path that does not pass through the origin. However. the negative real axis is a ray. we can check this using Proposition 4. γ winds around the origin once.e. Let γ(t) = e−it . (The case α = π. Again.5. .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. The reason that the above computation does not work is that 1/z does not have log(z) (or. 2π Proof of Proposition 4.) For each α ∈ [−π. More generally. but clockwise. On Cα we can define arg z to be argα z = θ where z = reiθ . t1 ].5. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem Proposition 4.2 as follows: 1 2πi Z γ 1 dz = z = 1 2πi Z 2π Z 0 2π 0 1 e−it (−i)e−it dt −1 dt = −1. the principal logarithm Log(z)) as an antiderivative on C \ {0}. . [tn−1 . . This is because Log(z) is not continuous on C \ {0} and so cannot be differentiable. π) define the cut plane at angle α to be Cα = C \ {reiα | r > 0}. γn defined on [t0 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. .2. one can define a logarithm continuously on a cut plane where one removes any ray from C.) Let γ be a closed path that does not pass through the origin. Note that γ(a) = γ(b). r > 0. Split γ up into pieces γ1 . Intuitively this is clear: let γ : [a. say. γ will not lie in one cut plane. for example. Thus w(γ.2 as follows: 1 2πi 1 dz = z Z γ 1 2πi Z 1 = Z 1 0 1 e4πit 4πie4πit dt 2 dt = 2. where we remove the negative real axis from C.5. Along each γr we will choose a value of the 47 . In general. m = 0 corresponds to the usual principal value of the argument. . the complex plane with the ray inclined at angle α from the positive x-axis removed. Log(z) is continuous and is an anti-derivative for 1/z on the cut plane. i. .

2πw(γ. Proposition 4.e. Let γ : [a. The imaginary parts sum to argαn (γ(tn )) − argα0 (γ(t0 )). 0 ≤ r ≤ n − 1. γ2 be closed paths that do not pass through z0 .3 Let γ be a closed path that does not pass through z0 . we have the following formula for the winding number around z0 for a closed path that does not pass through z0 .5. Then w(γ. ✷ More generally. this is γ translated by z0 .5. b] → C be a closed path that does not pass through z0 . Then w(γ1 + γ2 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. 0). Proposition 4. 48 . z0 ) = dz.4 (i) Let γ1 . z0 ) = w(γ1 . Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem argument argαr which is continuous on Cαr and such that argαr γr (tr ) = argαr+1 γr+1 (tr ). z0 ) = w(γ1 . = Z ✷ The following results are obvious in terms of the geometric meaning of winding number. z0 ). Now 1 2πi Z γ 1 dz = z − z0 1 2πi Z b a 1 γ ′ (t) dt γ(t) − z0 b 1 1 ′ γ (t) dt as γ ′ (t) = γ1′ (t) 2πi a γ1 (t) 1 Z 1 1 dz = 2πi γ1 z = w(γ1 . This is just a change-of-origin argument. 0). Hence Z 1 dz = log γ(tr ) − log(γ(tr−1 )) γr z  = log |γ(tr )| − log |γ(tr−1 )| + i argαr (γ(tr )) − argαr (γ(tr−1 )) . 0). The real parts cancel. i. 2πi γ z − z0 Proof. Now Z n Z X 1 1 dz = dz z γ z r=1 γr = n X r=1 (log |γ(tr )| − log |γ(tr−1 )|) + i n X r=1  argαr (γ(tr )) − argαr (γ(tr−1 )) . Then Z 1 1 w(γ. z0 ) + w(γ2 . Consider the path γ1 (t) = γ(t) − z0 . the total change in argument around γ.

3 and the remarks following it.3. z0 ) = dz 2πi −γ z − z0 Z 1 1 dz = − 2πi γ z − z0 = w(γ. (If f did have an antiderivative on D then γ f = 0 follows immediately from the Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration. To see this.2 for examples of the hypotheses of Cauchy’s Theorem.2(i) we have that Z 1 1 w(−γ. By Proposition 4. g.2) g(x. See Theorem 4.5. z0 ) = −w(γ. h are C 1 functions defined on an open set containing Γ. then  Z Z  Z ∂h ∂g − dx dy. The strength of Cauchy’s Theorem is that we do not need to R know if f has an anti-derivative on D.3. ✷ We can now state Cauchy’s Theorem.5. There are many proofs of Cauchy’s Theorem. Theorem 4. Then γ f = 0. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem (ii) Let γ be a closed path that does not pass through z0 .5 (Cauchy’s Theorem) Let f be holomorphic on a domain D and let γ be a closed contour inR D that does not wind around any point outside D (i. z) = 0 for all z 6∈ D). note that by Proposition 4. y).e.3. Remark. Proof. We prove (ii). See Figure 4.) Remark. possessing an antiderivative is an extremely strong assumption on f .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. Then Z Z (u + iv)(dx + i dy) f dz = γ γ 49 . however. Then w(−γ. here we give one based on Green’s Theorem (see MATH10121 Calculus and Vectors). We prove (i). z0 ). y) + iv(x. w(γ. z0 ) + w(γ2 . Note that dz = dx + i dy. z0 ) = 2πi γ1 +γ2 z − z0 Z Z 1 1 1 1 = dz + dz 2πi γ1 z − z0 2πi γ2 z − z0 = w(γ1 . y) dy = ∂y Γ ∂x γ Let f be as in the hypotheses and write f (z) = f (x + iy) = u(x. We assume (in addition to the hypotheses stated) that f has continuous partial derivatives. Proof. (4.5. y) dx + h(x. z0 ).2(i) we have that Z 1 1 dz w(γ1 + γ2 . z0 ). Green’s theorem states the following: suppose that γ is a piecewise smooth closed contour bounding a region Γ.

) More precisely: Definition.5. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem γ γ γ D D D (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 4. Our first variant deals with simply connected domains.2(i) the domain D is simply connected. In general.) Another reason for why the above proof is cheating is that Green’s theorem requires the partial derivatives in (4. by the Cauchy-Riemann equations. (For example. the statement of Cauchy’s Theorem only requires the partial derivatives to exist in D (i. we have w(γ. In (iii) γ has winding number 1 around points inside the ‘hole’ in D. but they are lengthy and difficult. Here we give just two simple modifications. (The idea is to build D up from smaller pieces. in Figure 4. A domain D is simply connected if for all closed contours γ in D and for all z 6∈ D. see Stewart and Tall. There are direct proofs of Cauchy’s theorem.2) to be continuous. if the derivative exists on a domain then the function is differentiable infinitely many times). as we shall see. p. Z Z u dx − v dy + i v dx + u dy γ   Z Z  Z Z  ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v − − dx dy + dx dy = − ∂x ∂y ∂y Γ ∂x Γ = 0 = γ as.5. In fact.2(ii) and (iii) are not simply connected as they have holes in them. ✷ Remark.5. 50 .143. z) = 0. this proof is cheating: Green’s Theorem is a deep theorem and not easy to prove. so the hypotheses of Cauchy’s Theorem (Theorem 4.5.e. hence the hypothesis of Cauchy’s Theorem do not hold. however the domains D in Figures 4. Heuristically. the existence of the derivative on a domain forces the derivative (and so the partial derivatives) to be continuous (indeed. we do not need to assume that they are continuous). ∂u/∂x = ∂v/∂y and ∂u/∂y = −∂v/∂x hold everywhere on Γ.2: In (i) and (ii). There are many variants of Cauchy’s Theorem. a domain is simply connected if it does not have any holes in it.5 hold. often starting with the case when D is a triangle. However the proof of this fact uses Cauchy’s Theorem. In many ways.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4.5. γ has winding number zero around every point outside D.

z) = 0.5.4. respectively. z) = 0 for all z 6∈ D. σn in D which join z0 to z1 . Let z 6∈ D. More generally. γn be closed contours in D. . Consider the example in Figure 4. Then Z γ1 f + ··· + Z f = 0. Then R for any closed contour γ we have that γ f = 0. . we can ask about integrating around several closed contours.3. . z) + w(γ2 . We see that γ = σ1 + γ1 − σ1 + · · · + σn + γn − σn is a closed contour that starts and ends at z0 . The hypotheses of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4. . z). z) = w(γ2 .5. for each j.7 (The Generalised Cauchy Theorem) Let D be a domain and let f be holomorphic on D. zn . (See Figure 4. . w(γ. Here.5. . γn Remark. γ1 γ2 D Figure 4. z) = −1 so that w(γ1 .4. σj + γj − σj is a closed contour that starts and ends at z0 and.7). Theorem 4. that for z 6∈ D we have w(σj + γj − σj . if z is ‘outside’ D then clearly w(γ1 . w(γ2 . z) = w(γj . If z is in the ‘hole’ in D then w(γ1 . . . .5.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. Suppose that γr starts and ends at zj ∈ D. . z) = w(σ1 + γ1 − σ1 + · · · + σn + γn − σn . Suppose that w(γ1 .5.5. Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem Theorem 4. z) + · · · + w(γn .5. moreover.) Note that. Hence the hypotheses of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem hold. z) = 1.7. Proof of Theorem 4. Then. . z) = 0. Let γ1 . . z) 51 . Choose any z0 ∈ D and contours σ1 . 1 ≤ j ≤ n.6 (Cauchy’s Theorem for simply connected domains) Suppose that D is a simply connected domain and f is a holomorphic function on D.5. using Proposition 4.7) give one way of extending Cauchy’s Theorem to non-simply connected domains.3: An example of closed contours that satisfy the hypotheses in the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4.5.

f −σj ! = n Z X j=1 f γj ✷ Video. ending at z0 . Hence Z n X j=1 as R −σj f =− R σj f+ σj Z f+ γj Z f.5. then back along σ1 . z) w(γj . then along σ2 . Cauchy’s Theorem and the Generalised Cauchy Theorem.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. There is a video on the course webpage that summarises the main facts about complex integration. then around γ1 . around γ2 . R Hence by Cauchy’s Theorem γ f = 0. back along σ2 . traversing σ1 . the Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration.) 52 .4: The path γ is formed by starting at z0 . along σ3 . around γ3 and back along σ3 . (See Video 6. = = n X j=1 n X w(σj + γj − σj . Integration and Cauchy’s Theorem γ2 σ2 γ3 z0 γ1 σ1 σ3 Figure 4. z) j=1 = 0.

1 Draw the following paths: (i) γ(t) = e−it . (z − i)3 ExerciseR4. f (z) = z 2 sin z. Exercise 4. (iv) γ(t) = cosh t + i sinh t. (ii) the imaginary axis from 0 to i.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. calculate (i) Z γ1 dz . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. (ii) f : C → C. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Exercises for Part 4 Exercises for Part 4 Exercise 4.2 Find the values of Z γ x − y + ix2 dz where z = x + iy and γ is: (i) the straight line joining 0 to 1 + i. (ii) γ(t) = 1 + i + 2eit . R Rb From the definition γ f = a f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt. Exercise 4. (iii) the line parallel to the real axis from i to 1 + i. Exercise 4. γ2 (t) = i + e−it . (ii) z−2 Z γ2 dz . γ2 . 0 ≤ t ≤ π. (iii) γ(t) = t + i cosh t. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1.3 Let γ1 (t) = 2 + 2eit . f (z) = zeiz .5 For each of the following functions find an anti-derivative and calculate the integral along any smooth path from 0 to i: (i) f : C → C. 53 . 0 ≤ t ≤ π/2. Draw the paths γ1 .4 Evaluate γ |z|2 dz where γ is the circle |z − 1| = 1 described anticlockwise.

7 Calculate (by eye) the winding number around any point which is not on the path. Let −γ denote the reversed path of γ. γ γ Exercise 4. Show that Z Z f = − f.6.8 Prove Proposition 4.1: See Exercise 4.9 Let f.6 Calculate γ |z|2 dz where (i) γ denotes the contour that goes vertically from 0 to i then horizontally from i to 1 + i. Prove the complex analogue of the integration by parts formula: Z Z ′ f g = f (z1 )g(z1 ) − f (z0 )g(z0 ) − f ′ g. What does this tell you about possibility of the existence of an anti-derivative for f (z) = |z|2 ? Exercise 4. (ii) γ denotes the contour that goes horizontally from 0 to 1 then vertically from 1 to 1 + i. γ −γ Exercise 4.3. Figure 4. Let γ be a smooth path in D starting at z0 and ending at z1 .2(iv): Let D be a domain. Exercises for Part 4 Exercise R4. g : D → C be holomorphic. Exercise 4.10 Let 1 γ1 (t) = −1 + eit .7. γ a contour in D. and let f : D → C be continuous. 2 54 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.

0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. f dz + f dz = γ γ2 γ1 Exercise 4.2.6. Let f (z) = 1/(z 2 − 1).11 Let γ1 denote R the unit circle centred at 0. Use the R Generalised Cauchy Theorem on an appropriate domain to calculate γ2 f . 2 γ(t) = 2eit . γ2 γ1 Figure 4. Show that γ1 f = 2πi. Exercises for Part 4 1 γ2 (t) = 1 + eit . Use the Generalised Cauchy Theorem to deduce that Z Z Z f dz. 55 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.6.2: Here γ1 denotes the unit circle described anticlockwise and γ2 is an arbitrary closed contour that winds once around 0. radius 1. Let γ2 be the closed contour as illustrated in Figure 4. Let f (z) = 1/z.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 4. described anti-clockwise.

Cauchy’s Integral Formula and Taylor’s Theorem §5. i. Then C 1 ⊃ C 2 ⊃ · · · and we think of a function that is C r for a large r as being ‘nice’.1) has the following remarkable corollary: if we know the value of the function f along the closed path Cr then we know the values of the function at all points inside the disc Cr . provided ε > 0 is sufficiently small. Sε (t) = w + εeit . 56 .1.1.1 Cauchy’s Integral Formula One of the most remarkable facts about complex analysis is that. differentiation takes nice functions and makes them slightly ‘less nice’. and a more general version of Cauchy’s Integral Formula holds provided that f is holomorphic on a simply connected domain D and we replace Cr by an appropriate simple closed loop. Cauchy’s Integral Formula 5. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Integration. Equation (5. Hence integration makes nice functions ‘even nicer’. This is not necessary. z−w Then g is differentiable in the domain D = {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R. Define the circle Sε to be the circle centred at w and of radius ε > 0.e.) Proof. we say that a function is C r if it can be differentiated r times and the rth derivative is continuous. Consider the function g(z) = f (z) − f (w) . Fix w such that |w − z0 | < r.1. Then for |w − z0 | < r we have that Z f (z) 1 dz. however. For 0 < r < R let Cr be the path Cr (t) = z0 + reit . works the other way: the indefinite integral of a C r function is C r+1 .1 is formulated in terms of the function being holomorphic on a disc and integrating around circles. (This partly explains why complex analysis is so much easier than real analysis.1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π (so that Cr is the circle with centre z0 and radius r). This does not have an analogue in real analysis. the winding number is either w(γ. in a sense. z) = 1. both Cr and Sε lie inside D.1) f (w) = 2πi Cr z − w Remark. If we differentiate a C r function then we obtain a C r−1 function. (5. z 6= w}. (A closed loop γ is called simple if.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5. Remark. z) = 0 or w(γ. Theorem 5. In real analysis. if a function is differentiable once then it is differentiable infinitely many times!) Theorem 5. Then. one can differentiate a function just by knowing how to integrate it. In terms of complex analysis. this distinction into C r functions does not have any meaning: as we shall see.1 (Cauchy’s Integral Formula for a circle) Suppose that f is holomorphic on the disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R}. for every point z not on γ.

z) = 0. Z Z g(z) dz. In the first case.e. the Estimation Lemma (Lemma 4. z) = w(Cr . Then either |z − z0 | > R or z = w. from the definition of g. z) = 0 for all R r . we have that limz→w g(z) = f ′ (w).2) implies that .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5. z) = −1. g(z) dz = (5. if z = w then w(Sε . z) + w(−Cr . i.4. Suppose that z is not in the domain D. In the second case.5.2) Sε Cr Now. Hence. there exist δ > 0 and M > 0 such that if 0 < |w − z| < δ then |g(z)| < M . Cauchy’s Integral Formula We apply the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4. z 6∈ D. As |f ′ (w)| is finite.5.7). by the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4. it follows that g(z) is bounded for z sufficiently close to w. z) = 1 and w(−C R Hence we have that w(Sε . Noting that −Cr g = − Cr g we have that.7) to the contours Sε and −Cr . if |z − z0 | > R then w(Sε .1. if ε < δ.

Z .

.

.

.

g(z) dz .

.

. ≤ M 2πε.

2) it follows that . Sε By (5.1.

Z .

.

.

Cr .

.

g(z) dz .

.

3) to obtain Z Z f (w) f (z) dz = dz z − w z −w Cr Cr Z 1 dz = f (w) Cr z − w = f (w)2πiw(Cr . it follows that Z g(z) dz = 0. 57 . Hence by Theorem 3.2.2 ✷ Taylor series The integral formula allows us to express a differentiable function as a power series (the Taylor series expansion). w) = f (w)2πi as Cr winds once anticlockwise around w. Hence Z 1 f (z) f (w) = dz. on any disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R} ⊂ D. Theorem 5.3) Cr Recalling that g(z) = (f (z)−f (w))/(z −w) and that f (w) is constant.1 (Taylor’s Theorem) Suppose that f is holomorphic in the domain D.1. Then all of the higher derivatives of f exist in D and.3. and since we can take ε > 0 to be arbitrarily small.2 it follows that if f is differentiable once then it is differentiable arbitrarily many times. 2πi Cr z − w §5.1. (5. ≤ M 2πε. we can substitute this expression for g into (5.

Then 1+ h hm + ··· + z − z0 (z − z0 )m m+1 h 1− z − z0 h 1− z − z0  m+1 ! h 1− z − z0  = = z − z0 − h × (z − z0 ). 2πi Cr (z − z0 )n+1 Remark. (It follows from Theorem 5. This version of Taylor’s Theorem is false in the case of real analysis in the following sense: there are functions that are differentiable an arbitrary number of times but that are not equal to their Taylor series. x = 0 then f is differentiable arbitrarily many times.2. Hence 1 1 h hm hm+1 1 = = . First recall that for any w ∈ C we have 1 + w + · · · + wm = 1 − wm+1 . for the moment.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5. x 6= 0 e f (x) = 0.1 that all complex differentiable functions are analytic. together with the above identity. For example.) Proof of Theorem 5. if  −1/x2 . so f has Taylor series 0 at 0. it follows that f is not equal to its Taylor series. that |h| < r < R. one can check (by differentiation from first principles) that f (n) (0) = 0 for all n. Cauchy’s Integral Formula f has a Taylor series expansion given by f (z) = ∞ X f (n) (z0 ) n! n=0 (z − z0 )n . for each z0 ∈ D. Furthermore. If. gives f (z0 + h) Z f (z) 1 dz = 2πi Cr z − (z0 + h) 58 . then Z n! f (z) f (n) (z0 ) = dz. a function f : D → C is equal to its Taylor series at z0 on some open disc then we say that f is analytic. However. if 0 < r < R and Cr (t) = z0 + reit . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Then Cauchy’s Integral formula.2. however the example in the remark above shows that not all infinitely real-differentiable functions are analytic. + +· · ·+ + z − (z0 + h) z − z0 − h z − z0 (z − z0 )2 (z − z0 )m+1 (z − z0 )m+1 (z − z0 − h) Fix h such that 0 < |h| < R and suppose.1. 1−w Put w = h/(z − z0 ). Definition. As f 6= 0 near 0.

Then we have that f (z) = ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n for |z − z0 | < R. n! ✷ §5. we put h = z − z0 . By the reverse triangle inequality. Hence. So there exists M > 0 such that |f (z)| ≤ M for all z on Cr .4.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5. Finally. However.2) M |h| 1 M |h|m+1 2πr = |Am | ≤ m+1 2π r (r − |h|) r − |h|  |h| r m . From Theorem 3. with an given as above.3. Hence this formula is valid for the whole of this range of r. it is bounded. Cauchy’s Integral Formula 1 h hm + + · · · + z − z0 (z − z0 )2 (z − z0 )m+1 Cr  hm+1 + dz (z − z0 )m+1 (z − z0 − h) m X an hn + Am . As f is differentiable on Cr . here we give just three. Since |h| < r.2 we know that a power series can be differentiated term-by-term as many times as we please and that an = f (n) (z0 ) . this tends to zero as m → ∞. the integral is unchanged if we vary r in the whole range 0 < r < R. (z − z0 )m+1 (z − z0 − h) We show that Am → 0 as m → ∞. 59 . using the facts that |h| < r = |z − z0 | for z on Cr . we have that |z − z0 − h| ≥ ||z − z0 | − |h|| = r − |h|. Hence f (z0 + h) = ∞ X an hn n=0 for |h| < R with 1 an = 2πi Z Cr f (z) dz (z − z0 )n+1 provided that r satisfies |h| < r < R.3 Applications of Cauchy’s Integral Formula Cauchy’s Integral Formula has many applications. = = 1 2πi Z f (z)  n=0 where 1 an = 2πi and Am 1 = 2πi Z Cr Z Cr f (z) dz (z − z0 )n+1 f (z)hm+1 dz. by the Estimation Lemma (Lemma 4.

3. If 0 < r < R and |f (z)| ≤ M for all z such that |z − z0 | = r then. (z − z0 )n+1 By the Estimation Lemma (Lemma 4.2.4. By Theorem 5.2).1 (Cauchy’s Estimate) Suppose that f is holomorphic on {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R}. Cauchy’s Integral Formula Cauchy’s Estimate As a consequence of the formula for the nth derivative of f in terms of an integral given in Taylor’s Theorem.MATH20101 Complex Analysis §5. rn Proof. |f (n) (z0 )| = ≤ = . we have the following estimate.1 5. |f (n) (z0 )| ≤ M n! .3. for all n ≥ 0.1 we know that f (n) (z0 ) = n! 2πi Z Cr f (z) dz. Lemma 5.

Z .

.

n! .

.

f (z) dz .

.

.

By bounded we mean that there exists M > 0 such that |f (z)| ≤ M for all z ∈ C. Choose M such that |f (z)| ≤ M for all z ∈ C. (For example f (x) = sin x. n+1 2π Cr (z − z0 ) n! M 2πr 2π r n+1 M n! . This theorem has no analogue in real analysis. we have for 0 < r < R |f ′ (z0 )| ≤ M . Hence f is a constant. Let z0 ∈ C. Since f is holomorphic on the whole of C. By Cauchy’s Estimate (Lemma 5. it is holomorphic in the disc {z ∈ C | |z − z0 | < R} of radius R centred at z0 for R as large as we please.3.3. r Since we can choose R as large as we please. Then f is a constant.1).3.) Proof. Remark. Hence we can let r → ∞. rn ✷ §5. ✷ 60 . so we can choose r as large as we please.2 (Liouville’s Theorem) Suppose that f is holomorphic and bounded on the whole of C. Remark. It is easy to think of functions f : R → R that are differentiable and bounded but not constant. Hence f ′ (z0 ) = 0 for every z0 ∈ C.2 Liouville’s Theorem Theorem 5.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis §5.3 5. then we need to introduce negative integers to be able to solve this equation. n ∈ N. If. j=1 Proof of Theorem 5. i. we consider x + n = 0. consider the equation px − q = 0 where p. Theorem 5. one can see that one needs to introduce surds (to solve x2 − 2 = 0) and complex numbers (to solve x2 + 1 = 0).3. Then there exists α ∈ C such that p(α) = 0. We shall show that 1/p(z) is bounded and then use Liouville’s theorem to show that p is constant. Continuing this theme. 1 ≤ j ≤ n such that p(z) = n Y (z − αj ).3. x = n). do we need to invent a larger class of numbers to be able to solve this equation or will complex numbers suffice? The answer is that complex numbers are sufficient. More generally. If p(z) 6= 0 for all z ∈ C then 1/p(z) is holomorphic for all z ∈ C.4 Let p(z) = z n + an−1 z n−1 + · · · + a1 z + a0 be a polynomial of degree n ≥ 1 with coefficients aj ∈ C. Let us ask the ultimate question along these lines: if we have a polynomial equation where the coefficients are complex numbers. Hence there exists K > 0 such that if |z| > K then . Suppose for a contradiction that there are no solutions to p(z) = 0. q ∈ Z. Corollary 5. then we need to introduce rational numbers Q to be able to solve this equation.3.3. suppose that p(z) 6= 0 for all z ∈ C.3.3 (The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra) Let p(z) = z n + an−1 z n−1 + · · · + a1 z + a0 be a polynomial of degree n ≥ 1 with coefficients aj ∈ C. Then we can factorise p(z): there exist αj ∈ C.e. This equation always has solutions x ∈ N (indeed. however. Cauchy’s Integral Formula The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra Consider the equation x − n = 0 where n ∈ N. For z 6= 0 p(z) a1 an−1 a0 + · · · + n−1 + n → 1 =1+ n z z z z as |z| → ∞.

.

.

p(z) .

1 .

.

.

zn .

Re-arranging this implies that for |z| > K we have that . ≥ 2 .

.

.

1 .

2 2 .

.

.

p(z) .

0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Hence. By Cauchy’s Estimate (Lemma 5. |z0 | ≤ K. We shall show that this bound continues to hold for |z| ≤ K. Hence 1/p(z) is bounded if |z| > K. if z is any point on Cr then |z| > K. we can assume that Cr is contained in {z ∈ C | |z| > K}. ≤ |z n | ≤ K n . Hence if z is any point on Cr then |1/p(z)| ≤ 2/K n . for such an r. By choosing r sufficiently large. Let Cr (t) = z0 + reit .1) it follows that . denote the circular path with centre z0 and radius r. Let z0 ∈ C.3.

.

.

1 .

2 .

.

.

p(z0 ) .

≤ K n . 61 .

The proof then follows by induction on n. a contradiction. ✷ 62 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5. By Theorem 5.3. Write p(z) = (z − α1 )q(z) where q(z) is a degree n − 1 polynomial with coefficients in C. this implies that p is constant. so that p is a bounded holomorphic function on C. Cauchy’s Integral Formula Hence |1/p(z)| ≤ 2/K n for all z ∈ C.2).3. Let p(z) be a degree n polynomial with coefficients in C.3.3 we can find α1 ∈ C such that p(α1 ) = 0. ✷ Proof of Corollary 5. By Liouville’s Theorem (Theorem 5.4.

0 ≤ t ≤ 2π be the path that describes the unit circle with centre 0 anticlockwise.) ¯ (iii) Use Cauchy’s Integral formula to show that Z |z + 1|2 dz = 2πi. Let γ(t) = eit . n ≥ k. (ii) (2z + 1)−1 . Exercises for Part 5 Exercises for Part 5 Exercise 5.) Let f (z) = |z + 1|2 . in the Taylor expansion of f around 0.) (ii) Find a function g that is holomorphic on some domain that contains R γ and R such that f (z) = g(z) at all points on the unit circle γ. for all a ∈ C there exists z ∈ C such that p(z) = a). γ 63 . (It follows that γ f = γ g.5 (Sometimes one can use Cauchy’s Integral formula even in the case when f is not holomorphic.) Exercise 5.) (Hint: recall that if w ∈ C then |w|2 = ww. (i) Show that f is not holomorphic on any domain that contains γ.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 5.1 Find the Taylor expansion of the following functions around 0 and find the radius of convergence: 2 (i) sin2 z. Exercise 5. (Hint: use the Cauchy-Riemann Theorem. What is the radius of convergence? Exercise 5.3 Show that every polynomial p of degree at least 1 is surjective (that is. Prove that f is a polynomial function of degree at most k. Exercise 5.2 Calculate the Taylor series expansion of Log(1 + z) around 0. (iii) f (z) = ez .4 Suppose that f is holomorphic on the whole of C and suppose that |f (z)| ≤ K|z|k for some real constant K > 0 and some positive integer k ≥ 0. (Hint: Calculate the coefficients of z n .

Now Σ+ converges for |z − z0 | < R2 for some R2 ≥ 0.2.2. In other words. See Figure 6.) Moreover. 64 .1) As (6.e. a−n (z − z0 )−n + n=1 n=0 The first question to address is when does (6.2 Laurent series Definition. §6. for some R > 0. if f is differentiable on a domain D and z0 ∈ D then we can write f (z) = ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n (6. and this expression is valid for z such that |z − z0 | < R. That is.1) to mean ∞ ∞ X X an (z − z0 )n = Σ− + Σ+ .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6.2. (6. Laurent series. where R2 is the radius of convergence of Σ+ . singularities 6. we can obtain an expression for the coefficients an in terms of the function f . This has a radius of convergence equal to.1) is a doubly infinite sum.1. Laurent series and singularities §6. The idea of Laurent series is to generalise (6.1. Combining these. Σ− converges when |z − z0 | > R1 .1 Introduction We have already seen that a holomorphic function f can be expressed as a Taylor series: i.2. The following theorem says that if we have a function f that is holomorphic on an annulus then it can be expressed as a Laurent series.1) for suitable coefficients an . (Compare this with Taylor’s Theorem: if f is holomorphic on a disc then it can be expressed as a Taylor series.2.1) converge? For this. we need both Σ− and Σ+ to converge.2. say. A Laurent series is a series of the form ∞ X n=−∞ an (z − z0 )n . We can recognise Σ− as a power series in (z − z0 )−1 . Σ− converges when |(z − z0 )−1 | < R1−1 . R1−1 ≥ 0. We define (6. we need to take care as to what it means.1. This turns out to be a remarkably useful tool.1) to allow negative powers of (z − z0 ).1) converges on the annulus {z ∈ C | R1 < |z − z0 | < R2 }. we see that if 0 ≤ R1 < R2 ≤ ∞ then (6.

Recall that ez = P∞ Let 1/z −n e = n=0 z /n! for all z 6= 0. The proof is similar to the proof of Taylor’s Theorem and can be found in Stewart and Tall’s book. Then Z 1 f (z) an = dz 2πi Cr (z − z0 )n+1 for n ∈ Z. let R1 < r < R2 and let Cr (t) = z0 + reit .2. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π be the circular path around z0 of radius r.1: An annulus in C with centre z0 and radii R1 < R2 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6.2) an (z − z0 )n + f (z) = n=1 n=0 Moreover. Note that in this case we cannot conclude that an = f (n) (z0 )/n! as we do not know that f is differentiable at z0 (indeed. We call the series (6.1 (Laurent’s theorem) Suppose that f is holomorphic on the annulus {z ∈ C | R1 < |z − z0 | < R2 }.2. Hence 1 1 1 z2 zn + · · · + + + 2 + z + + · · · + + ···. Thus the principal part of a Laurent series is the part that contains all the negative powers of (z − z0 ). Hence f (z) = ∞ X n=−∞ an z n = · · · + P∞ n=0 z n /n! for all z ∈ C. it may not even be defined at z0 ). f (z) = ez + e1/z . where 0 ≤ R1 < R2 ≤ ∞. We call −1 X an (z − z0 )n n=−∞ the principal part of the Laurent series. Remark. Remark.2. Example.2) the Laurent series of f (z) about z0 or the Laurent expansion of f (z). singularities z0 R1 R2 Figure 6.2. Laurent series. Theorem 6. n!z n 2!z 2 z 2 n! 65 . Then we can write f as a Laurent series: on {z ∈ C | R1 < |z−z0 | < R2 } we have ∞ ∞ X X a−n (z − z0 )−n (6.

checking convergence just means checking when this formula makes sense!). First note that we can write f (z) = ∞ X 1 −1 zn = =− z−1 1−z n=0 (6. Example.e. by summing a geometric progression.e. This converges for |z −1 | < 1. Now 1/z is already a Laurent series at 0 (the only non-zero coefficient is a−1 = 1). an = Example.2. Laurent series. singularities where 1 1 for n ≥ 1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. This expansion is valid when |z/2| < 1. |z| > 1. R2 = ∞. as there is only one term. Let 1 1 + z 1−z and let us calculate the Laurent series at z0 = 0. R1 = 0. when |z| < 2. Hence ∞ X 1 1 = z−1 zn (6. P n Now. Let 1 1 − z−1 z−2 We will expand f as three different Laurent series about z0 = 0.4) n=1 and this is valid for |z| > 1. We can also write ∞ ∞ 1 1 1 1 X −n X 1 = = z = 1 z−1 z 1− z z n=0 zn n=1 P −n = 1/(1 − z −1 ) is the sum to infinity of a geometric progresby again noting that ∞ n=0 z −1 sion with common ratio z . we can write 1 −1 1 = =− z−2 2−z 2  1 1− z 2  ∞ 1 X  z n =− 2 2 (6. valid in three different annuli.e. Similarly. n! n! This expansion if valid for all z 6= 0.3) (summing a geometric progression) and that this is valid for |z| < 1. 66 . a0 = 2.5) n=0 P∞ n by noting that n=0 (z/2) = 1/(1 − z/2) is the sum of a geometric progression with common ratio z/2. i. Hence f (z) has Laurent series f (z) = f (z) = ∞ X 1 zn + 1 + z + z2 + z3 + · · · = z n=−1 and this expression is valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z| < 1}. Note that this converges if z 6= 0 (in this case. we have that 1/(1 − z) = ∞ n=0 z and this power series converges for |z| < 1. i. i. a−n = for n ≥ 1.2.2.

67 .3 Singularities Definition.2.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. Laurent series.6) by recognising the middle term as the sum of a geometric progression with common ratio (z/2)−1 .5) we can expand f (z) = ∞ ∞ X 1 1 X  z n + z n 2 n=0 2 n=1 = ··· + 1 1 z zn 1 + · · · + + + + · · · + + ··· zn z 2 22 2n+1 and this is valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z| < 2}. 0 is an isolated singularity of f (z) = 1/z. when |z| > 2. Hence f has a singularity at z = 0.5) we see that we can expand f (z) = − ∞ X n=0  ∞  ∞ 1 1 X  z n X = −1 + n+1 z n z + 2 2 2 n n=0 n=0 and this is valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 ≤ |z| < 1}. singularities We can also write ∞ ∞ 1 1 X  z −n X 2n−1 1 1  = = = z−2 z 1 − z2 z 2 zn n=1 n=0 (6.4) and (6. A singularity of a function f (z) is a point z0 at which f (z) is not differentiable.e. Definition. In the above example. Example.2.4) and (6. Using (6. Remark.2.2. Example. If f (z) = 1/z then f is not defined at the origin (we are not allowed to divide by 0).3) and (6. Suppose that f has a singularity at z0 .2.2. Using (6.6) we can expand ∞ ∞ X X 1 2n−1 f (z) = − z n n=1 z n n=1 = ∞ X 1 − 2n−1 n=1 zn and this is valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | |z| > 2}.2. This converges when |(2/z)−1 | < 1. §6. Using (6. Here is a common way for a singularity to occur: if f is not defined at z0 then it cannot be differentiable at z0 . i. If there exists a punctured disc 0 < |z − z0 | < R such that f is differentiable on this punctured disc then we say that z0 is an isolated singularity of f .

We expand f as a Laurent series around z0 on this annulus to obtain f (z) = ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n + ∞ X n=1 bn (z − z0 )−n . §6. However.2 Poles Suppose that f has an isolated singularity at z0 and that the principal part of the Laurent series (6. and this is valid for 0 < |z − z0 | < R. In this case. A pole of order 1 is called a simple pole. The radius of convergence of this power series is at least R. for 0 < |z − z0 | < R we have that f (z) = a0 + a1 (z − z0 ) + · · · + an (z − z0 )n + · · · . (iii) an infinite number of terms.3. Laurent series.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. f (z) = §6. Suppose that f has an isolated singularity at z0 . z 6= 0. Hence f has a removable singularity at z = 0. In this case.3. z Then f has an isolated singularity at 0 as f (z) is not defined at z = 0. Let sin z . Example. (6.1) has no terms in it.3.1) has finitely many terms in it. singularities In this course we will only be interested in isolated singularities. Then f is holomorphic on an annulus of the form {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − z0 | < R}. 68 .1 Removable singularities Suppose that f has an isolated singularity at z0 and that the principal part of the Laurent series (6. In this case. Define f (0) = 1. for 0 < |z − z0 | < R we can write f (z) = ∞ X bm b1 an (z − z0 )n + ··· + + m (z − z0 ) z − z0 n=0 where bm 6= 0. and so f (z) extends to a function that is differentiable at z0 .1) There are three possibilities: the principal part of f may have (i) no terms.3. we say that f has a pole of order m at z0 .3. Consider the principal part of the Laurent series ∞ X n=1 bn (z − z0 )−n . (ii) a finite number of terms. Then f (z) is differentiable for all z ∈ C. we know that z2 z4 sin z =1− + − ··· z 3! 5! for z 6= 0.

= 3− 4 z z 3! z 5! 7! Hence f has a pole of order 3 at z = 0. = − sin 3 z z 3!z 5!z 5 Hence f has an isolated essential singularity at z = 0. Isolated essential singularities are difficult to deal with and we will not consider them in this course. Let D be a domain. 69 . Let f (z) = sin 1/z. Then f has a singularity at z = 0 and   1 1 1 1 + − ···. We will often consider functions f : D → C defined on a domain D that are differentiable except at finitely many points in D and f has either removable singularities or poles at these points.3.1) has infinitely many terms in it. We can write f (z) = sin z 1 1 1 11 + z − z3 + · · · . z 6= 0. and these points are either removable singularities or poles.3. A function f : D → C is said to be meromorphic if f is differentiable on D except at finitely many points. z4 Then f has an isolated singularity at z = 0. z 6= 0.3 Isolated essential singularities Suppose that f has an isolated singularity at z0 and that the principal part of the Laurent series (6. singularities Example. Laurent series. §6. Definition. In this case we say that f has an isolated essential singularity. Let sin z .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. Example.

(ii) {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}.2 Find Laurent expansions for the function f (z) = 2(z − 1) z 2 − 2z − 3 valid on the annuli (i) 0 ≤ |z| < 1. (ii) 4 . (iii) 4 .) Exercise 6. Exercise 6. (ii) 1 < |z| < 3. (iv) cos(1/z). Find Laurent series for f valid on the following annuli: (i) {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − 1|}. Exercise 6. (Hint: introduce a new variable w = z − 1. 2 +1 z + 16 z + 2z + 1 z +z−1 Exercise 6. valid for 0 < |z| < 1. valid for |z| > 0. Exercises for Part 6 Exercises for Part 6 Exercise 6. (iii) 70 cos z − 1 . Exercise 6. valid for |z| > 3.4 Let f (z) = (z − 1)−2 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. (ii) 1/(z(1 − z)).1 Find the Laurent expansions of the following around z = 0: (i) (z − 3)−1 . valid for |z| > 0. z2 . (iii) 3 < |z|. (iii) {z ∈ C | 1 < |z|}.3 Find a Laurent expansion for the function f (z) = (1 − z + z 2 )−1 in powers of (z − 1) valid for 0 < |z − 1| < 1. (iv) 2 .5 Find the poles and their orders of the functions (i) z2 1 1 1 1 . (iii) z 3 e1/z . (ii) z −3 sin2 z.6 Describe the type of singularity at 0 of each of the following functions: (i) sin(1/z).

Exercises for Part 6 Exercise 6.7 Let D be a domain and let z0 ∈ D. Show that f has a removable singularity at z0 . Suppose that f is holomorphic on D \ {z0 } and is bounded on D \ {z0 } (that is. there exists M > 0 such that |f (z)| ≤ M for all z ∈ D \ {z0 }).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 6. 71 .

would have been difficult or even impossible (assuming that you only had the tools of 1st year calculus or A-level mathematics to hand). (ii) Let f (z) = z(z + 2i)3 .2 Zeros and poles of holomorphic functions Recall that a function f has a singularity at z0 if f is not differentiable at z0 . A function f defined on a domain D has an isolated zero at z0 if f (z0 ) = 0 and there exists ε > 0 such that f (z) 6= 0 for all z such that 0 < |z − z0 | < ε.2. Definition. More formally. and Cauchy’s Theorem in particular. in only very few examples were you able to say what the limit actually is! Using complex analysis. noting that z 2 + 4 = (z − 2i)(z + 2i). As another application: you may remember P∞ from MATH10242 Sequences and Series that you studied whether an infinite series n=0 an converged or not. We will only be interested in isolated zeros. Let f : D → C be holomorphic and suppose that f has an isolated zero at z0 . we can expand f as a Taylor series in some neighbourhood around z0 . is that it gives a method for calculating real integrals that. we have the following definition. That is we can wrote f (z) = ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n (7. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem §7. we see that f has simple zeros at ±2i. We will only consider the case when f has poles as singularities.2. Then. (i) Let f (z) = z 2 . In the examples we have seen so far f (z) has a pole at z0 because we have been able to write f (z) = p(z)/q(z) and q(z0 ) = 0 (so that f is not even defined at z0 ).1) for all z in some disc that contains z0 . up until now.1). it becomes very easy to evaluate P∞ infinite series such as n=1 1/n4 = π 4 /90. Then f has a zero of order 2 at 0. a function f has an isolated zero at z0 if there are no other zeros nearby. However. Definition. Then f has a zero of order 1 at 0 and a zero of order 3 at −2i.1 Introduction One of the more remarkable applications of integration in the complex plane in general. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem 7. Intuitively. We say that f has a zero of order m at z0 if a0 = a1 = · · · = am−1 = 0 but am 6= 0. Thus it makes sense to first study zeros of functions. Definition. A function f defined on a domain D has a zero at z0 ∈ D if f (z0 ) = 0. 72 . §7. By Taylor’s Theorem (Theorem 5. Example.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. We say that z0 is a simple zero if it is a zero of order 1. (iii) Let f (z) = z 2 + 4.

Then f has a pole of order m at z0 . on some disc centred at z0 .1) we can write f (z) = am (z − z0 )m + am+1 (z − z0 )m+1 + · · · = (z − z0 )m P∞ where am 6= 0. Define g(z) = p(z)/r(z).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. Hence all the zeros are simple zeros. if f (z0 ) = 0 but f ′ (z0 ) 6= 0 then z0 is a simple zero. (ii) q is holomorphic and q has a zero of order m at z0 . Hence all the zeros have order 2. Lemma 7. Example. Thus f has a zero of order m at z0 if and only if f (k) (z0 ) = 0 for 0 ≤ k ≤ m − 1 but f (m) (z0 ) 6= 0. k ∈ Z. Lemma 7. k ∈ Z. m m−1 (z − z0 ) (z − z0 ) (z − z0 )m−2 73 .2. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Remark. (i) Let f (z) = sin z.2. ∞ X n=0 an+m (z − z0 )n Then g is holomorphic on an open disc ✷ We can now link poles of a function f (z) = p(z)/q(z) with zeros of the function q. Then f (z) has zeros at kπ. Proof. Now f ′ (z) = sin z and f ′ (2kπ) = 0. Then. Then g(z) is holomorphic at z0 . The coefficients an in the Taylor expansion are given by an = f (n) (z0 )/n!. we can write f (z) = (z − z0 )m g(z) where g is a holomorphic function on an open disc centred on z0 and g(z0 ) 6= 0. By (7. Proof. but f ′′ (2kπ) = cos 2kπ = 1 6= 0. we can write q(z) = (z − z0 )m r(z) where r is holomorphic and r(z0 ) 6= 0. In partiocular. Then f (z) = = = = = p(z) q(z) p(z) (z − z0 )m r(z) g(z) (z − z0 )m ∞ X 1 an (z − z0 )n (z − z0 )m n=0 a0 a1 a2 + + + ···. (ii) Let f (z) = 1 − cos z.2. By Lemma 7.1 Suppose that the holomorphic function f has a zero of order m at z0 . and so we can expand it as a Taylor series at z0 as ∞ X g(z) = an (z − z0 )n n=0 and this expression is valid in some disc |z − z0 | < R.1.2. for some R > 0. Note that f ′ (kπ) = cos kπ = (−1)k 6= 0. Then f (z) has zeros at 2kπ. )n . Take g(z) = n=0 an+m (z − z0 centred on z0 and g(z0 ) = am 6= 0.2 Suppose that f (z) = p(z)/q(z) where (i) p is holomorphic and p(z0 ) 6= 0.

Definition. z) = 1. Hence f has a pole of order m at z0 .3. z) = 1 then we say that z is inside γ. If w(γ. an (z − z0 ) + f (z) = n=1 n=0 The residue of f at z0 is defined to be Res(f. Definition. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem However. This shows that residues are related to integration. Thus a simple closed loop is a loop that goes round anticlockwise in a loop once. We make the following definition. This is because sin z 6= 0 when z = 3 and (z − 3)2 has a zero of order 2 at z = 3. We can now state the main result of this section. the winding number is either w(γ. we will look at simple closed loops that are made up of line segments and arcs of circles. see Figure 7.2. and without intersecting itself. a0 = g(z0 ) = p(z0 )/r(z0 ) 6= 0. for every point z not on γ. Let 0 < r < R. we have to be careful about the paths that we integrate over. as p(z0 ) 6= 0. sin z Then f has a simple pole at kπ for each k ∈ Z.1) we have the alternative expression Z 1 Res(f. ✷ Example. 74 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. Suppose that on {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − z0 | < R} ⊂ D. A closed contour γ is said to be a simple closed loop if. This is because sin z has a simple zero at z = kπ for each k ∈ Z but z + 3 6= 0 when z = kπ. Suppose that f is holomorphic on a domain D except for an isolated singularity at z0 ∈ D. f (z) = §7. By Laurent’s Theorem (Theorem 6.1. z0 ) = f (z) dz 2πi Cr where Cr (t) = z0 + reit .3 Residues and Cauchy’s Residue Theorem We begin with the following important definition. In practice. the residue of f at the isolated singularity z0 is the coefficient of (z − z0 )−1 in the Laurent expansion. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π is a circular anticlockwise path around z0 in the annulus of convergence. That is. (z − 3)2 Then f has a pole of order 2 at z = 3. z0 ) = b1 . In particular. (ii) Let z+3 . (i) Let f (z) = sin z . Cauchy’s Residue Theorem relies on using Cauchy’s Theorem in just the right way. z) = 0 or w(γ. f has Laurent expansion ∞ ∞ X X n bn (z − z0 )−n .

4 Calculating residues In order to use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem we need to be able to easily calculate residues.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. Lemma 7. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem γ2 γ3 γ1 Figure 7. First recall that if f (z) has Laurent series f (z) = ∞ X bm b1 an (z − z0 )n + ··· + + m (z − z0 ) (z − z0 ) n=0 with bm 6= 0 then we say that f has a pole of order m at z0 . §7.3. zn inside γ. . zj ).3. The closed loops γ2 and γ3 are not simple because there are points where the winding number is −1. z→z0 75 .1 (Cauchy’s Residue Theorem) Let D be a domain containing a simple closed loop γ and the points inside γ. Moreover f has a pole of order m at z0 if q has a zero of order m at z0 . It is easy to calculate the residue at a simple pole. ad hoc manipulations have to be used to calculate the Laurent series. but there are many cases where one can calculate them more systematically.4. Then Z f (z) dz = 2πi γ n X Res(f. j=1 Remark. In some cases. A word of warning: you will have noticed that many expressions in complex analysis have a factor of 2πi in them. We say that a pole of order 1 is a simple pole.1 (i) If f has a simple pole at z0 then Res(f. Remark. . Suppose that f is meromorphic on D with finitely many poles at z1 . . If we can write f (z) = p(z)/q(z) where p and q are differentiable and p(z) 6= 0 when q(z) = 0 then the poles of f occur at the zeros of q.1: Here γ1 is a simple closed loop. Theorem 7. A very common mistake is to either miss a 2πi out. . We shall defer the proof of Cauchy’s Residue Theorem until later. z2 . or put one in by mistake. z0 ) = lim (z − z0 )f (z).

0 z→z0 (m − 1)! dz m−1 Proof. = lim  z→z0 q(z)−q(z0 ) q(z) q (z0 ) z−z0 ✷ Example. q are differentiable. ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n+1 (ii) The hypotheses imply that f has a simple pole at z0 . If f has a pole of order m at z0 then it has a Laurent series f (z) = ∞ X b1 bm an (z − z0 )n + ··· + + m (z − z0 ) z − z0 n=0 valid for 0 < |z − z0 | < R.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. ∞ X (m + n)! dm−1 m (z − z ) f (z) = (m − 1)!b + an (z − z0 )n+1 . (1 − z 3 ) This has a simple pole at z = 1 and satisfies the hypothesis of Lemma 7. By part (i) and the fact that q(z0 ) = 0. (i) If f has a simple pole at z0 then it has a Laurent series f (z) = ∞ X b1 an (z − z0 )n + z − z0 n=0 valid on some punctured disc 0 < |z − z0 | < R. q(z0 ) = 0 but q ′ (z0 ) 6= 0. 0 1 dz m−1 (n + 1)! n=0 Dividing by (m − 1)! and letting z → z0 gives the result. Hence m m−1 (z − z0 ) f (z) = bm + (z − z0 )bm−1 + · · · + (z − z0 ) Differentiating this m − 1 times gives b1 + ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )m+n . Then   1 dm−1 m Res(f. z0 ) = lim ((z − z ) f (z)) .1. the residue is lim z→z0 (z − z0 )p(z) p(z) p(z ) = ′ 0 . Cauchy’s Residue Theorem (ii) If f (z) = p(z)/q(z) where p. q (z0 ) Proof. then p(z0 ) Res(f. Hence (z − z0 )f (z) = b1 + so that limz→z0 (z − z0 )f (z) = b1 .2 Suppose that f has a pole of order m at z0 . 1) = 1 cos π = . Lemma 7. z0 ) = ′ . Hence f (z) = Res(f.4. let cos πz .4. for some R > 0. 76 ✷ .4. For example. p(z0 ) 6= 0. 2 (−3) × 1 3 We can generalise Lemma 7.1 to poles of order m.

This has singularities whenever the denominator is zero. one can usually ignore terms that will not contribute to the coefficient of 1/z.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. This has a pole of order 3 at z = 1. 77 . In other cases. Hence the singularities are at z = 0. Then z = w + 1 and we can write  z+1 z−1 3 = = = = (w + 2)3 w3 w3 + 6w2 + 12w + 8 w3 8 12 6 + 2 + +1 3 w w w 8 12 6 + + + 1. Hence Res(f. Let f (z) = 1 z 2 sin z . To calculate the residue we note that (z − 1)3 f (z) = (z + 1)3 . kπ. Recalling the power series for sin z we can write f (z) = 1 z 2 sin z = z2 = = = 1 z3 1 z3 1 z3 1  z3 z− + ··· 6 −1  z2 + ··· 1− 6   z2 + ··· 1+ 6 1 + + ··· 6z  where we have omitted higher order terms. Hence  1 d2 6 6 (z − 1)3 f (z) = (z + 1) → × 2 = 6 2 2! dz 2! 2! as z → 1.) Hence Res(f. (Note that when doing computations such as these. 1) = 6 as the coefficient of 1/(z − 1). 1) = 6. 0) = 1/6. We will use Laurent series to calculate the residue at z = 0. one has to manipulate the formula for f to calculate the residue. Let f (z) =  z+1 z−1 3 . Example. First let us change variables by writing w = z − 1. Let us check this by calculating the Laurent series. (z − 1)3 (z − 1)2 (z − 1) Hence f has a pole of order 3 at z = 1 and we can read off Res(f. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Example.

1 Applications Easy examples We shall evaluate some simple integrals around the circular contours C2 (t) = 2eit .5 §7. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π and C4 (t) = 4eit . the pole at z = 1 lies inside C4 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 1) = 6πi. kπ) = p(kπ) (−1)k = q ′ (kπ) (kπ)2 as q ′ (z) = 2z sin z + z 2 cos z so that q ′ (kπ) = (kπ)2 cos kπ = (−1)k (kπ)2 . Thus f has simple poles z = 3 and z = −i.4.4. we could change variables to w = z − kπ and calculate the Laurent series. To find the poles we first factorise the denominator z 2 + (i − 3)z − 3i = (z − 3)(z + i) (to do this we could either use the quadratic formula or inspired guesswork). Using Lemma 7. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem For the poles at kπ. kπ is a simple zero of sin z (as sin′ kπ = cos kπ 6= 0) and so is a simple zero of q(z). There is a short video on the course webpage that summarises poles and residues. Hence both C2 and C4 are simple closed loops. hence Z f dz = 2πi Res(f. We can read off from the definition of f that Res(f. (See Video 7.5. −i) = 1 −1 .5. 3) = .1 we can calculate that Res(f.1.1(ii). Video. z 2 + (i − 3)z − 3i Then f has a pole when the denominator has a zero. C4 See Figure 7. First note that we can write f (z) = p(z) q(z) where p(z) = 1 and q(z) = z 2 sin z. 1) = 6πi.) §7. k 6= 0. As the pole at z = 1 lies inside C2 . Hence Res(f. we can use Lemma 7. Now. and C4 is the circle of radius 4 centred at 0 described anticlockwise. C2 Similarly. Alternatively. 3+i 3+i 78 . Now consider the function f (z) = 1 . by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem we have that Z f dz = 2πi Res(f. Res(f. for k 6= 0. 1) = 3. Consider the function 3 f (z) = z−1 Then f has a pole at z = 1 and no other poles. Thus C2 is the circle of radius 2 centred at 0 described anticlockwise.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.

integrals of the form Z ∞ f (x) dx (7.5.5. 10 5 R Now consider C4 f dz. Formally. 79 (7. −i) + Res(f. See Figure 7. −i) = 2πi 3+i 10 C2 −2π − 6πi −π = = (1 + 3i).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.5. R Now consider C2 f dz. Hence   Z 1 −1 + = 0. i. we say that −∞ f (x) dx exists if Z B lim A.B→∞ −A f (x) dx converges. 3)) = 2πi 3+i 3+i C4 §7.2 Infinite real integrals In this section we shall show how to use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to calculate some infinite real integrals. We then define equal to this limit.2. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem C4 C2 1 2 4 Figure 7.e. In this case. R∞ First we need to make precise what (7. both the poles at z = −i and z = 3 lie inside C4 .1: The function f (z) = 3/(z − 1) has a pole at z = 1 which lies inside both C2 and C4 . Hence   Z −2πi(3 − i) −1 = f dz = 2πi Res(f. where the limits can be taken in either order. f dz = 2πi (Res(f.1) −∞ where f is a real-valued function defined on the real line.5.5.2) R∞ −∞ f (x) dx to be .5.1) means. The pole z = −i is inside C2 but the pole z = 3 is outside.

Then Z .3) However.2: The function f (z) = 1/(z 2 + (i − 3)z − 3i) has simple poles at z = −i and z = 3.5. (7. If R∞ −∞ f (x) dx exists then it is equal to its principal value.5.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. there are many functions f for which (7. take f (x) = x.5.2) does not. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem C4 C2 2 4 3 −i Figure 7. defined by lim Z R R→∞ −R f (x) dx.3) exists but (7. For example.5.

1 2 .

.

R R2 R2 x dx = x .

f (x) dx = − =0 = 2 x=−R 2 2 −R −R R Z R and so converges to 0 as R → ∞.5. Hence (7. However Z .3) exists.

B 2 A2 1 2 .

.

B − = x dx = x .

which we denote by to its principal value (7.5.5. The following gives a criterion for (7.5.5. exists and is equal . Lemma 7. C > 0 and r > 1 such that for |x| ≥ K we have |f (x)| ≤ C .4) R∞ −∞ f (x) dx.2) to converge.3).2) converges and the limit. |x|r Then (7.1 Suppose that f : R → C is a continuous function and there exist constants K > 0. f (x) dx = 2 x=−A 2 2 −A −A B Z B does not converge if we first let B tend to ∞ and then let A tend to ∞. 80 (7.5.

2. Hence Z f= Z R ′ f (σ(t))σ (t) dt = −R [−R. but this is not essential to the method). −R Note that there exists a constant C > 0 such that .5. −R ≤ t ≤ R.5) 2 2 −∞ (x + 1)(x + 4) (the fact that 1 and 4 are squares will make the calculations notationally easier. R First note that the complex contour integral [−R. We will show how to use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate Z ∞ 1 dx (7.1) that [−R. R] denotes the straight line path from −R to R and that this has parametrisation σ(t) = t. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Instead of giving a general theorem.R] Z R f (t) dt. first recall from (4. To see this. let us consider an example that will illustrate the method.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.R] f is equal to the real integral RR −R f (x) dx.

.

.

.

1 C .

.

.

(x2 + 1)(x2 + 4) .

R] denote the path along the real axis that starts at −R and ends at R.1. Let [−R. ≤ x4 .5. by Lemma 7. travels along the real axis to R. to lim Z R R→∞ −R 1 dx.5) exists and is equal to its principal value.5) with the complex integral as follows: Z R −R 1 dx = 2 (x + 1)(x2 + 4) Z f (z) dz.3: The ‘D-shaped’ contour ΓR .5. (x2 + 1)(x2 + 4) Let f (z) = (z 2 1 + 1)(z 2 + 4) (note that we have introduced a complex variable).R] To use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. 0 ≤ t ≤ π and the ‘D-shaped’ contour ΓR = [−R.5.3).e. −R R Figure 7. Note that we can equate the real integral (7. the integral (7. [−R. 81 . R] + SR (see Figure 7. Introduce a semi-circular path SR (t) = Reit . This has parametrisation t.5.5. we need a closed contour. and then anticlockwise along the semicircle SR with centre 0 and radius R. It starts at −R. Hence. i. −R ≤ t ≤ R.

we need to know the poles and residues of f (z).R] π .1. −i. Note that |z| = R. Res(f.5. Now 1 1 f (z) = 2 = . we show that (7. If we take R > 2 then the poles at z = i. Let z be a point on SR . +2i. dz + = lim ΓR SR [−R. We shall use the Estimation Lemma. i) + Res(f. −2i lie outside ΓR ). To use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. −2i. i) = lim(z − i)f (z) z→i 1 z→i (z + i)(z − 2i)(z + 2i) 1 = 6i = lim and Res(f. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Now ΓR is a simple closed loop. 2i))   1 1 π = 2πi − = .6) f (z) dz = [−R. 6 To complete the calculation. 2i lie inside ΓR (note that the poles at z = −i.5.6) holds.4. = 12i Hence by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Z Z Z f (z) dz f (z) dz = f (z).R] = 2πi (Res(f. Hence |(z 2 + 1)(z 2 + 4)| ≥ (R2 − 1)(R2 − 4) so that . 6i 12i 6 If we can show that lim Z R→∞ SR then we will have that Z ∞ −∞ f (z) dz = 0 1 dx = lim 2 R→∞ (x + 1)(x2 + 4) Z (7. Now by Lemma 7. 2 (z + 1)(z + 4) (z − i)(z + i)(z − 2i)(z + 2i) Hence f (z) has simple poles at z = +i. 2i) = lim (z − 2i)f (z) z→2i 1 z→2i (z − i)(z + i)(z + 2i) −1 .

.

.

.

1 1 .

.

.

(z 2 + 1)(z 2 + 4) .

by the Estimation Lemma. ≤ (R2 − 1)(R2 − 4) . Hence. .

.

Z .

.

1 .

f (z) dz .

.

≤ length(SR ) .

82 . which is what we wanted to check. 2 (R − 1)(R2 − 4) SR πR (R2 − 1)(R2 − 4) → 0 = as R → ∞.

. For example. dt = iz Hence   Z Z 2π z + z −1 z − z −1 dz . R (iv) Use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to write down ΓR f (z) dz.7) 0 where Q is some function. etc. (v) Split this integral into an integral over [−R. §7. in this example the integrand on the left-hand side is a positive function.5. (iii) Find the poles and residues of f (z) that lie inside ΓR when R is large. fall into this category.7) into a complex integral. You should always check that your answer makes sense. hence if the right-hand side is negative then there must be a mistake somewhere in the calculation. Use the Estimation Lemma to conclude that the integral over SR converges to 0 as R → ∞. Set z = eit . Similarly. (Integrands such as cos4 t sin3 t − 7 sin t. It is very easy to lose minus signs or factors of 2πi when doing these computations. As a general method.5. R] and an integral over SR . sin t = . Q Q(cos t. Finally. Then cos t = z − z −1 z + z −1 . sin t) dt = 2 2i iz C1 0 83 .5. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 2π] transforms into the unit circle C1 (t) = eit .3 Trigonometric integrals We can use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to calculate integrals of the form Z 2π Q(cos t. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Remark. (ii) Construct a ‘D-shaped’ contour ΓR as in Figure 7. but the general method is normally as above. Remark. if I had missed out a factor of i in the above then I would have obtained an expression of the form Z ∞ 1 i dx = . or cos t + sin2 t. 2 2i Also [0. to evaluate Z R f (x) dx −R one uses the following steps: (i) Check that f (x) satisfies the hypotheses of Lemma 7.1. note that dz = ieit dt so that dz .5. sin t) dt (7.3. one may need to make small modifications to the above process.) The first step is to turn (7.5. whereas the (incorrect) righthand side is imaginary.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. 2 2 6 −∞ (x + 1)(x + 4) This is obviously wrong: the left-hand side is a real number. and so the integral must be positive. For a particular example.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. 2 2i iz inside C1 . 0 Again. = 4 z C1 The integrand has a pole of order 3 at z = 0 with residue 0. 2i 2π cos t sin t dt. we shall compute some examples to illustrate the method. Example. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Then in principle we can evaluate this integral by finding the poles of   z + z −1 z − z −1 1 Q . Then Z 2π (cos3 t + sin2 t) dt 0 = Z = Z = Z  C1 C1 C1 3 z + z −1 2 +  z − z −1 2i 2 ! dz iz  z 3 3z 3z −1 z −3 z 2 1 z −2 dz + + + − + − 8 8 8 8 4 2 4 iz  2  −2 −4 −1 −3 1 z 3 3z z z z z + + + − + − dz i 8 8 8 8 4 2 4  The integrand has a pole of order 4 at z = 0 with residue 1/2i. We shall how to compute Z 2π (cos3 t + sin2 t) dt. and then use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. 0 Let z = eit so that dt = dz/iz. Hence Z 2π cos t sin t dt = 0. together with their associated residues. We shall compute Z 1 = π. Hence Z 2π (cos3 t + sin2 t) dt = 2πi 0 Example. substituting z = eit we have that Z 2π cos t sin t dt 0 Z 1 dz (z + z −1 )(z − z −1 ) = 4i iz ZC1 1 2 dz = (z − z −2 ) iz C 4i  Z 1   1 −1 z − 3 dz. There are no other poles. 0 84 . Instead of stating a general theorem. and no other poles.

First of all. π cos πn π P This suggests a method for summing infinite series of the form ∞ n=1 an . Hence . i. whenever z = n. if f (n) 6= 0. i.4 Summation of series Recall that cot πz = cos πz/ sin πz. (In the above example. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Remark. Let CN denote the square in C with vertices at         1 1 1 1 −i N + . Let z = x + iy be a point on one of the horizontal sides of CN . Secondly. By Lemma 7. Then |y| ≥ 1/2. we will P∞ 2 show how to use this method to calculate n=1 1/n . there exists M > 0 such that for all N and all z ∈ CN . we have an Res(f (z) cot πz. f (z) may have poles of its Pown and2 these will need to be taken into account. For example. respectively.) Instead of choosing a D-shaped contour. N+ 2 2 2 2         1 1 1 1 − N+ +i N + . on cot πz where z ∈ CN . N+ +i N + . Let f (z) be a meromorphic function defined on C such that f (n) = an . The above illustrates a more general method.e. This is a square with each side having length 2N + 1.1(ii) we have cos πn 1 Res(cot πz. Then.4. we have | cot πz| ≤ M . parallel to the real and imaginary axes. Then cot πz has a pole whenever sin πz = 0.e. Consider the function f (z) cot πz. n) = = . §7.) Lemma 7. n) = π P∞ and we can use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to calculate n=1 an . here we use a square contour. Consider the square CN . so we will need some bounds on |f (z) cot(πz)|. we need to choose a good contour to integrate around. to calculate ∞ n=1 1/n we will take f (z) = 1/z 2 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. We will want to use the Estimation Lemma along this contour. This has two horizontal sides and two vertical sides. For example. Consider first the horizontal sides. sin t) dt 0 e2it . n ∈ Z. Hence cot πz has a simple pole at z = n.2 There is a bound. as t varies from 0 to π then z describes the unit circle in C with centre 0 and radius 1 described anti-clockwise.4). − N+ −i N + 2 2 2 2 (see Figure 7.5. independent of N .5. which has a pole at z = 0.5. one can also evaluate integrals of the form Z π Q(cos t. Proof. First note that sin πz has a simple zero at z = n (as sin′ πz = π cos πz 6= 0 when z = n). by using the substitution z = In this case. There are two technicalities to overcome. (The factors of 1/2 are there so that the sides of this square do not pass through the integer points on the real axis.

.

iπz .

e + e−iπz .

.

| cot πz| = .

.

iπz e − e−iπz .

85 .

Cauchy’s Residue Theorem −(N + 1) −N −1 0 1 N N +1 Figure 7.5.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. ≤ ≤ = ≤ .4: The square contour CN .

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eiπz .

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+ .

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e−iπz .

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iπz .

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|e | − |e−iπz | .

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−πy .

e + eπy .

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e−πy − eπy .

Consider now the vertical sides. If z is on a vertical side of CN then   1 + iy. z=± N+ 2 Hence | cot πz| = = = = = ≤ . coth |πy| π  coth 2 as |y| ≥ 1/2.

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iπz .

e + e−iπz .

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eiπz − e−iπz .

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2πiz .

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e + 1 .

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e2πiz − 1 .

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iπ−2πy .

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e + 1 .

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eiπ−2πy − 1 .

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−2πiy .

−e + 1 .

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−e−2πiy − 1 .

1 − e−2πy 1 + e2πy 1. 86 .

i. Let us calculate the residue when n 6= 0. Hence the length of CN is 4(2N + 1). as a third method of calculating the residue at 0. n ∈ Z. one could use Lemma 7.n = 2 2 z πn cos πn + 2n sin πn 1 . Firstly. and for completeness we’ll discuss them all. 0) = −π/3. Now let CN be the square contour illustrated above. Let f (z) = 1/z and consider the function f (z) cot πz = cot πz cos πz = 2 . z 3 45 945 Hence 1 π π 3 z 2π 5 z 3 cot πz = − − − − ··· z2 πz 3 3z 45 945 from which it is clear that z = 0 is a pole of order 3 with residue −π/3. hence we need to be very careful when manipulating these infinite sums to ensure that we account for all the possible terms which may contribute towards 1/z. (We used the expansion (1−x)−1 = 1+x+x2 +· · ·.4. we can write 1 cos πz z 2 sin πz  −1  (πz)4 (πz)3 (πz)5 (πz)2 1 + − ··· (πz) − + − ··· 1− = z2 2! 4! 3! 5!  −1  1 1 (πz)2 (πz)4 (πz)2 (πz)4 = + − ··· 1− + − ··· 1− z 2 πz 2! 4! 3! 5!    1 1 (πz)2 (πz)4 (πz)2 (πz)4 = + − ··· 1+ − + ··· 1− z 2 πz 2! 4! 3! 5!   (πz)2 1 + ··· 1 − = πz 3 3 so that Res(cot πz/z 2 . There are (at least) three ways to work out the residue here. Note that when n 6= 0 we have a simple pole and when n = 0 we have a pole of order 3. Then   cot πz cos πn Res . Note that each side of the square has length 2N + 1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.) Note that to calculate the residue we need only calculate the coefficient of the term involving 1/z. we will work through an example to illustrate the method. coth π/2} for all z ∈ CN . 87 . 2 2 We will evaluate ∞ n=0 1/n . we can use the following power series expansion for cot z: cot z = z3 2z 5 1 z − − − − ···.1(ii). Very similar techniques and slightP modifications to the argument work for many other examples. Alternatively. = πn2 Now consider the pole at z = 0. when z = n.4. We use Lemma 7. 2 z z sin πz This has a pole whenever the denominator has a zero. as another method for calculating the residue at 0. These occur when z 2 sin πz = 0. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Hence | cot πz| ≤ max{1. Finally. ✷ Instead of stating a general theorem on how to use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate infinite sums.2.e.

Also note that |1/z 2 | ≤ 1/N 2 for z on CN . By Cauchy’s Residue Theorem we have that 2πi N X Res n=−N  cot πz . z2 Recall from Lemma 7. where M is independent of N .5. ±N . By the Estimation Lemma we have . · · · . Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Note that the poles that lie inside CN occur at z = 0. ±1.2 that | cot πz| ≤ M on CN .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.n z2  = Z CN cot πz dz.

Z .

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cot πz M M .

dz .

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≤ 2 length CN = 2 4(2N + 1) .

= n2 6 n=1 Proof of Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Let us first recall the statement of Cauchy’s Residue Theorem: Theorem 7. Suppose that f is holomorphic on D except for finitely many poles at z1 . 2 πn 3 n=1 ∞ X π2 1 . zn inside γ. n z2 z2 z2 n=1 π 1 − 2 πn 3 and combining this with (7.1 (Cauchy’s Residue Theorem) Let D be a domain containing a simple closed loop γ and the points inside γ.n z2  = 0.5. .8) we see that 2 This rearranges to give §7. z2 . Then Z f (z) dz = 2πi γ n X j=1 88 Res(f.6. n + Res .8) Now N X Res n=−N =  −1 X cot πz . Hence lim N →∞ N X Res n=−N  cot πz . .n z2 Res n=−N = 2 N X n=1       X  N cot πz cot πz cot πz Res . .5.6 ∞ X 1 π − = 0. . (7. 0 + . 2 z N N CN which tends to 0 as N → ∞. . zj ).

. i. The proof is a simple application of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4. we can find circles Sj (t) = zj + εj eit . . the poles zj . such that Sj and the points inside Sj lie in D and such that Sj contains no singularity other than zj (see Figure 7.1). 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π centred at zj and of radii εj . S2 . S1 . . Hence the hypotheses of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem hold for points z not in D. z3 . z2 . It remains to consider points in D that are not in D ′ . Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Proof. first note that w(−γ. each described once anticlockwise. zj ) = −w(γ. Sn satisfy the hypotheses of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem (Theorem 4.6. . Since D is open.5. The circles S1 . . . . .7). D S1 γ z1 S2 S3 z2 z3 Figure 7. their winding numbers sum to zero for every point not in D′ . we have that w(−γ. for each j = 1.e.6. S3 (centred on z1 . z) = 0 for z 6∈ D. . z2 . n. respectively) have been chosen so that they lie inside γ and do not intersect each other.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. .1: Here we have 3 poles at z1 . z) = w(Sj . We claim that the collection of paths −γ. To see this. . w(Sk . zn }.e. . zj ) =  89 0 if k = 6 j 1 if k = j.7) with respect to D ′ : i.5. zj ) = −1. z3 inside γ. Moreover. Let D ′ = D \ {z1 . Since each pole zj lies inside γ. .

by the Generalised Cauchy Theorem.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. zj ) + · · · + w(Sn . concluding the proof.2. ✷ 90 . Hence. zj ) + w(S1 . Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Hence w(−γ. z1 ) + · · · + Res(f. Z Z Z f + ··· + f+ f = 0. 2πi Sj Hence Z f γ = Z S1 f + ··· + Z f Sn = 2πi (Res(f. zj ) = 0. zn )) . Sn S1 −γ By Laurent’s Theorem (Theorem 6.1) we have that Z 1 Res(f. zj ) = f (z) dz.

3. (i) 2 2 2 C5/2 z − 5z + 6 C2 1 + z C4 z − 5z + 6 Exercise 7.9. 7. (iii) dz (a ∈ R). 7.2. denotes the circular path around z0 of radius r where r is chosen such that R1 < r < R2 . The coefficients are given by 1 an = 2πi Z Cr f (z) dz (z − z0 )n+1 and Cr (t) = z + reit .4. with centre 0 and radius r.8.5.7 can be done after §7.1. 7. Exercise 7.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.5.2 Let Cr be the circle Cr (t) = reit .2. Exercises 7. Exercise 7. 7. The particularly important exercises are: 7.1 Examine the nature of the singularities of the following functions and determine the residue at each singularity: 1 sin z z (i) .5. 7. (iv) . (ii) dz. By using Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate an . 7. 7.5. determine the Laurent series for the function 1 f (z) = z(z − 1) valid on the annuli (i) 0 < |z| < 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 7. 7.6.4. Here’s a quick guide as to when you’ll be able to do the exercises for §7.8.5. Exercise 7. (iii) 2 . Exercise 7.2. 91 .1) says the following: Suppose that f is holomorphic on the annulus {z ∈ C | R1 < |z − z0 | < R2 }. 7. Exercises 7. 7. (ii) tan z.3 Recall that Laurent’s Theorem (Theorem 6. Use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate the integrals Z Z Z 1 eaz 1 dz.11 (which is hard) relies on ideas in §7. (v) 2 z(1 − z ) z 1 + z4  z+1 z2 + 1 2 .3 can be done after §7.7. Exercises 7.10 can be done after §7.11 can be done after §7.5. Exercises 7. Exercises for Part 7 Exercises for Part 7 Remark.1.1 can be done after §7. 7.4.2. Then f can be written as a Laurent series on this annulus in the form f (z) = ∞ X n=−∞ an (z − z0 )n .2.10. 7.5.3.6.

(How would you have done this without using complex analysis?) (b) (i) Now evaluate. +1 (i) Explain why this integral is equal to its principal value. Exercises for Part 7 (ii) 1 < |z| < ∞. x2 + 1 (ii) By taking real and imaginary parts. (i) 2 2 2 4 −∞ 28 + 11x + x −∞ (x + 1)(x + 3) 92 . the integral Z ∞ −∞ e2ix dx. (ii) dx. that one of these integrals is zero?) (iii) Why does the ‘D-shaped’ contour used in the lectures for calculating such integrals fail when we try to integrate Z ∞ −2ix e dx? 2 −∞ x + 1 By choosing a different contour.4 (a) Consider the following real integral: Z ∞ −∞ x2 1 dx. (iv) 1 < |z − 1| < ∞. R (This is an exercise in using Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate Cr f (z)/(z − z0 )n+1 dz around a suitable closed contour Cr of radius r and centred at an appropriate z0 (z0 = 0 in (i). 2 2 −∞ x + 1 −∞ x + 1 (Why is it obvious. without having to use complex integration. Exercise 7.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. explain how one could evaluate this integral using Cauchy’s Residue Theorem.2. (iii) 0 < |z − 1| < 1.(iv)) by locating the poles of f (z)/(z − z0 ) that lie inside Cr and calculating their residues.5 Use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate the following real integrals: Z ∞ Z ∞ 1 1 dx. Exercise 7. (ii) Use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate this integral. using Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. dx. calculate Z ∞ Z ∞ cos 2x sin 2x dx.(ii) and z0 = 1 in (iii). check your answer by directly calculate the Laurent series using the methods described in §6.) In each case.

Why doesn’t the method work for evaluating n=1 1/n ? Exercise 7. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. 2 2 n +a 2a 2a n=1 Exercise 7.7 Let 0 < a < b. prove that Z Z 2π cos t e cos(sin t) dt = 2π. denote the unit circle in C centred at 0 and with radius 1. Exercises for Part 7 Exercise 7. C1 z (ii) By using the substitution z = eit . (ii) (i) 2t 1 + cos 0 0 Exercise 7. Exercise 7.5..1: Z ∞ x sin x dx 2 2 2 2 −∞ (x + a )(x + b ) by integrating a suitable function around a suitable contour.11 (The method used in §7. 0 93 2π 0 ecos t sin(sin t) dt = 0. that Z ez dz = 2πi. Hence show that ∞ X π 1 1 = coth πa − 2 . 2 cos t + 3 cos t dt.10 Suppose a 6= 0.6 By considering the function eiz z 2 + 4z + 5 integrated around a suitable contour. . Hence use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to evaluate them. Z 2π Z 2π 1 3 2 dt.3 can be used evaluate other integrals. using Cauchy Residue Theorem.9 P∞ 4 4 Use the method of summation of series to show that P∞ n=1 31/n = π /90. Evaluate the integral discussed in §1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7.8 Convert the following real integrals into complex integrals around the unit circle in the complex plane. Consider the function cot πz z 2 + a2 Show that this function has poles at z = n. n ∈ Z and z = ±ia.. show that Z ∞ sin x −π sin 2 dx = . (i) Prove. Calculate the residues at these poles.) Let C1 (t) = eit . 2 e −∞ x + 4x + 5 f (z) = Exercise 7.

(i) Show that this integral exists and is equal to its principal value.) Let 0 < a < 1.R + γ4.12 (Sometimes. (ii) Let f (z) = eaz /(1 + ez ).R and γ3.R + γ2.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 7. draw the contour ΓR = γ1. (iv) Show. γ2. Draw a diagram to illustrate where the poles are. that Z Z f = lim lim R→∞ γ4. k ∈ Z. using the Estimation Lemma. 94 f = 0. one has to be rather creative in picking the right contour. (v) Show. Show that f is holomorphic except for simple poles at z = (2k + 1)πi.R + γ3. that γ3 f = −e γ1 f . Calculate the residue Res(f. Show that Z ∞ eaz π = z sin aπ −∞ 1 + e using the following steps. γ3...R is the vertical straight line from R to R + 2πi. RWhich poles does ΓR wind around? Use Cauchy’s Residue Theorem to calculate ΓR f . Exercises for Part 7 Exercise 7.R R→∞ γ2.R (vi) Deduce the claimed result. γ4.R where: γ1. .R is the horizontal straight line from R + 2πi to −R + 2πi.R is the horizontal straight line from −R to R. (iii) On the diagram from (ii).R and direct R 2πia computation.R is the vertical straight line from −R + 2πi to −R. by choosing Rsuitable parametrisations of the paths γ1. πi).

i Solution 1. The second equation gives y = 6/x and substituting this into the first gives x4 + 5x2 − 36 = 0. −1 + 3i 5 5 (iv) 1−i − i + 2 = −i − i + 2 = 2 − 2i. | 3 − i| = 2 √ and arg( 3 − i) = −π/6. 2 e ( 3 − i)13 Note that 5e3iπ/4 + 2e−iπ/6 = 5 cos(3π/4) + 5i sin(3π/4) + 2 cos(−π/6) + 2i sin(−π/6) √ √ √ 1 2 2 3 + 5i +2 − 2i = −5 2 √2 √2 √2 5 2−2 −5 2 + 2 3 +i . when x = −2 we have y = −3. Solving this quadratic equation gives x2 = 4. 2xy = 12.1 (i) (3 + 4i)2 = 9 + 24i − 16 = −7 + 24i.2 √ √ First note that |1 − i| = 2 and arg(1 − i) = −π/4 (draw a picture!). Solutions to Part 1 8. a quadratic in x2 . Similarly. 95 . Solutions to Part 1 Solution 1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 8. hence x = ±2. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 3 + 4i 25 25 25 (iii) 1 − 5i −8 1 = +i . −2− 3i are the solutions. Hence √ √ 3 − i = 2e−iπ/6 . = 2 2 Solution 1. When x = 2 we have y = 3. 1+i (v) 1 = −i. Hence z = 2+ 3i. Comparing real and imaginary parts gives the simultaneous equations x2 − y 2 = −5. 1 − i = 2e−iπ/4 .3 (i) Write z = x + iy. Then x2 + 2ixy − y 2 = −5 + 12i. (ii) 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 3 + 4i (2 + 3i)(3 + 4i) −6 17 = = = +i . Hence 223/2 e−23iπ/4 (1 − i)23 √ = 13 −13iπ/6 = 223/2−13 e−23iπ/4+13iπ/6 = 2−3/2 e−43iπ/12 = 2−3/2 e5iπ/12 .

(v) z − z¯ = (x + iy) − (x − iy) = 2iy = 2i Im(z). Solving this as in (i) gives x = 1. Solution 1. y) | 1 < y < 2}. a half-plane. i. Hence ||z| − |w|| ≤ |z − w|. w = c + id. choose z = i.4 (i) Let z = a+ib. |w| − |z| ≤ |z − w|. (ii) Here we have the open strip {(x. Hence z = −1 + 3i or z = −3 − 3i. Hence |z| − |w| ≤ |z − w|. so the result follows.6 Let z. but is very lengthy. Write z 2 + 4z + 12 − 6i = (z + 2)2 + 8 − 6i. (i) z + w = (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b + d) = (a+c)−i(b+d) = (a−ib)+(c−id) = z¯ + w.5 Throughout write z = a + ib.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 8. Similarly Im(z − w) = Im(z) − Im(w). We also have z ¯ = a−ib = a2 +b2 . The trick is to instead first complete the square. Re(zw) = 1 6= Re(z) Re(w) = 0 × 0 = 0. Then zw = 1. (ii) Note that Im(z+w) = Im(a+ib+c+id) = Im((a+c)+i(b+d)) = b+d = Im(z)+Im(w). Write z + 2 = x+ iy. w ∈ C. (iv) z + z¯ = (x + iy) + (x − iy) = 2x = 2 Re(z). y = −3. Then |z| = |z − w + w| ≤ |z − w| + |w| by the reverse triangle inequality.e. Similarly. Then Re(z+w) = Re(a+ib+c+id) = Re((a+c)+i(b+d)) = a + c = Re(z) + Re(w). (ii) zw = (a + ib)(c + id) = (ac − bd) + i(ad + bc) = (ac − bd) − i(ad + bc) = (a − ib)(c − id) = zw. w = −i. Almost any two complex numbers picked at random will give an example for which Re(zw) 6= Re(z) Re(w). 96 . Similarly. Solution 1. Im(zw) = 0 6= Re(z) Re(w) = 1 × (−1) = −1. Solution 1. Solution 1. y) | x > 2}. ¯ Similarly for z − w. Solutions to Part 1 (ii) A bare-hands computation as in (i) will work. For example.7 (i) Writing z = x + iy we obtain Re(z) = {(x. Similarly Re(z − w) = Re(z) − Re(w).   1   a−ib  1 a+ib 1 = a2 +b2 = aa+ib (iii) First note that 1z = a+ib 2 +b2 . Then (x+ iy)2 = −8+ 6i. y = 3 or x = −1. However. w = c+id.

Thus we have that ρ = r 1/n and we get distinct values of the argument φ of z when k = 0. amongst many other talents). Multiplying this out (and noting that the ys cancel) gives x > 0. . i. . sin 3θ = 3 cos2 θ sin θ − sin3 θ = 3 sin θ − 4 sin3 θ. there is one technique that may work (I haven’t tried it). Note that |z|2 = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1.10 Take z1 = z2 = −1 + i.) Solution 1. cos 4θ = sin4 θ − 6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + cos4 θ.e. π] will work. Solutions to Part 1 (iii) The condition |z| < 3 is equivalent to x2 + y 2 < 9. sin 4θ = −4 cos θ sin3 θ + 4 cos3 θ sin θ. . n − 1. an open halfplane. z1 z2 = −2i and Arg(z1 z2 ) = −π/2. Hence. hence the set is the open disc of radius 3 centred at the origin.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 8. We have |x + iy − 1| < |x + iy + 1|. safe-cracker. Hence arg zw = θ + φ = arg z + arg w. Hence z n = cos nθ + i sin nθ. (x − 1)2 + y 2 < (x + 1)2 + y 2 . any two points z1 . Put z = cos θ + i sin θ so that arg z = θ. Solution 1. and it’s one that was a favourite of Richard Feynman (Nobel laureate in physics. (iv) Write z = x + iy. we obtain cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3 cos θ. However. . Hence |z n | = 1. Feynman 97 . (iii) Applying De Moivre’s theorem in the case n = 3 gives (cos θ + i sin θ)3 = cos3 θ + 3i cos2 θ sin θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ − i sin3 θ = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ. (ii) From (i) we have that arg z 2 = 2 arg z. z2 for which Arg(z1 ) + Arg(z2 ) 6∈ (−π. comparing real and imaginary parts and using the fact that cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1. .e. However. i. Arg(z1 z2 ) 6= Arg(z1 ) + Arg(z2 ). 1. Write z = ρeiφ . Hence z = r 1/n ei( θ+2kπ n ) . By induction arg z n = n(arg z). Solution 1. Similarly. 1. . Solution 1.8 (i) We have zw = rs ((cos θ cos φ − sin θ sin φ) + i(cos θ sin φ + sin θ cos φ)) = rs (cos(θ + φ) + i sin(θ + φ)) . (Draw a picture!) In this case. Hence ρn = r and nφ = θ + 2kπ. (More generally. n − 1. k = 0. . Then z n = ρn einφ . etc.9 Let w0 = reiθ and suppose that z n = w0 .11 As far as I know it isn’t possible to evaluate this integral using some combination of integration by substitution. Then Arg(z1 ) = Arg(z2 ) = 3π/4. . integration by parts. and bongo-player. k ∈ Z.

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 8. Solutions to Part 1 claimed to have never learned complex analysis but could perform many real integrals using a trick called ‘differentiation under the integral sign’.edu/courses/ mathematics/18-304-undergraduate-seminar-in-discretemathematics-spring-2006/projects/integratnfeynman. 98 . if you’re interested.mit.pdf for an account of this. See http://ocw.

Hence |z| < 2. (ii) This set is open. Then arguing as in (i) we see that p x0 |x − x0 | ≤ |x − x0 |2 + |y − y0 |2 = |z − z0 | ≤ 2 so that x0 x0 − < x − x0 < 2 2 from which it follows that x > x0 /2 > 0. 2 Hence y0 y0 − < y − y0 < 2 2 so that y > y0 /2 i. i.e. That one can do this is clear from Figure 9. Im(z) > 0. This set is not open. |z| < 2}. Re(z) > 0. We also have that |z0 | 2 − |z0 | + |z0 | = 1 + <2 2 2 as |z0 | < 2. See Figure 9. Solution 2. It follows that z ∈ D.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. Let D = {z ∈ C | Im(z) > 0}. See Figure 9. Let z0 ∈ D. Let D = {z ∈ C | Re(z) > 0. then no matter how small ε > 0 is. Then p y0 |y − y0 | ≤ |x − x0 |2 + |y − y0 |2 = |z − z0 | ≤ .1(i). ε = min >0 2 2 (note that |z0 | < 2 as z0 ∈ D). Hence z ∈ D. We have to find ε > 0 such that Bε (z0 ) ⊂ D. Let z0 ∈ D.1(iii). Solutions to Part 2 9.1 (i) This set is open. If we take the point z0 = 6 on the real axis. Let z = x + iy ∈ Bε (z0 ) so that |z − z0 | < x0 /2 and |z − z0 | ≤ (2 − |z0 |)/2.2 (i) For any z0 ∈ C we have z 2 + z − (z02 + z0 ) z→z0 z − z0 (z − z0 )(z + z0 + 1) = lim z→z0 z − z0 = lim z + z0 + 1 f ′ (z0 ) = lim z→z0 = 2z0 + 1 so that f ′ (z) = 2z + 1. |z| = |z − z0 + z0 | ≤ |z − z0 | + |z0 | ≤ (iii) Let D = {z ∈ C | |z| ≤ 6}.1(ii). there are always points in Bε (z0 ) that are not in D. In order to produce ε we argue as follows. write z0 = x0 + iy0 and let ε = y0 /2 > 0. Let   x0 2 − |z0 | . Solutions to Part 2 Solution 2. We have to find ε > 0 such that Bε (z0 ) ⊂ D.e. Suppose that z = x + iy ∈ Bε (z0 ). To do this. 99 .

(ii) For z0 6= 0 we have 1/z − 1/z0 z→z0 z − z0 z0 − z = lim z→z0 z0 z(z − z0 ) −1 = lim z→z0 z0 z −1 = z02 f ′ (z0 ) = lim so that f ′ (z) = −1/z 2 . Solutions to Part 2 z0 ε z0 ε z0 ε (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 9. (iii) For each z0 ∈ C we have (z 3 − z 2 ) − (z03 − z02 ) z→z0 z − z0 (z − z0 )(z 2 + z0 z + z02 − z − z0 ) = lim z→z0 z − z0 2 2 = lim z + z0 z + z0 − z − z0 f ′ (z0 ) = = lim z→z0 3z02 − 2z0 so that f ′ (z) = 3z 2 − 2z. y) = −y/(x2 + y 2 ). Notice that the complex derivatives are identical to and can be computed in the same way as their real analogues (‘bring down the power and knock one off the power’. v(x.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. (b) Note that for z 6= 0 f (x + iy) = 1 x − iy x −y = 2 = 2 +i 2 2 2 x + iy x +y x +y x + y2 so that u(x. y) = x2 − y 2 . etc).1: See Solution 2. 100 .1. y) = 2xy. y) = x/(x2 + y 2 ). v(x.3 (i) Throughout write z = x + iy. Hence u(x. (a) Note that f (z) = (x + iy)2 = x2 + 2ixy − y 2 . Solution 2.

note that if h → 0. 0).4 (i) Here ∂v ∂u = 3x2 − 3y 2 . v(x. + y 2 )5 4 (−x5 + 10x3 y 2 − 5xy 4 ). = 2 . then |h|/h = −h/h → −1. h < 0. . y) 6= (0. y/(x2 + y 2 )1/2 = 0. = 0. At (x. however. Solutions to Part 2 (ii) (a) Here ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v = 2x = . 0) we have ∂u ∂v x y ∂v ∂u . which is impossible as we are assuming that (x. Solution 2. . ∂x ∂y and ∂u ∂v = −6xy. = 6xy ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold. which imply that x = y = 0. + y 2 )5 4 (5x4 − 10x2 y 3 + y 5 ) 2 (x + y 2 )5 (x2 101 . 2 (x + y 2 )5 (x2 and ∂u ∂y ∂v ∂x = = 4 (−5x4 + 10x2 y 3 − y 5 ). 2 2 ∂x (x + y ) ∂y (x + y 2 )2 2xy −x2 + y 2 ∂v ∂v = 2 = . 2 1/2 2 1/2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (x + y ) (x + y ) If the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold then x/(x2 + y 2 )1/2 = 0. = −2y = − ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. 0) we have |h| ∂u = lim ∂x h→0 h which does not exist. ∂x (x + y 2 )2 ∂y (x2 + y 2 )2 Hence ∂u/∂x = ∂v/∂y and ∂u/∂y = −∂v/∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold. y) 6= (0. (ii) Here ∂u ∂x ∂v ∂y = = 4 (−x5 + 10x3 y 2 − 5xy 4 ). y) = 0.) Hence f is not differentiable anywhere. h > 0. (b) Here ∂u −x2 + y 2 ∂u −2xy = 2 . y) = (0. if h → 0. = 3x2 − 3y 2 . then |h|/h → 1. Then for (x. (To see this. y) = x2 + y 2 . p p (iii) When f (z) = |z| we have f (x + iy) = x2 + y 2 so that u(x. = 2 = 2 = 0.

z→0 z As f (z) = 0 for the function in the question we need to investigate the limit f ′ (0) = lim lim z→0 f (z) . Then clearly ∂v ∂v (0. 0) = lim = lim = 0 h→0 h→0 h ∂x h u(0.2. 102 ∂u (x. Solution 2. x > 0 then lim z→0 f (z) x 1 = lim = . ∂x ∂y Now and ∂u u(h. Thus u and v satisfy the hypotheses of Proposition 2. In both cases. 0) 0 (0. y) ∂x . Hence f = u + iv is differentiable at z0 . we see that f is holomorphic on C. the partial derivatives of u and v exist at z0 . 0).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. k) − u(0. 0) = (0. x→0 z x − ix 1−i Hence there is no limit of (f (z) − f (0))/z as z → 0. 0). y) = 0. Let z0 ∈ C.5. p p (ii) For f (x + iy) = |xy| we have u(x. 0) 0 ∂u (0. y) = √ ∂x 2 x so that lim (x. As z0 ∈ C is arbitrary. This does not contradict Proposition 2. The partial derivatives of u and v are continuous at z0 .2 because the partial derivative ∂u/∂x is not continuous at (0. √ y ∂u (x. Then f (x) = x and lim z→0 x 1 f (z) = lim = . To see this. 0) − u(0. k→0 k→0 k ∂y k Hence the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. y) = |xy| and v(x. y > 0. z Put z = x + ix with x > 0. if z = x − ix. Solutions to Part 2 so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold. x→0 x + ix z 1+i However.0) does not exist. note that for x > 0.y)→(0.5. The Cauchy-Riemann equations holds at z0 . 0) = lim = lim = 0.5 (i) Recall that f (z) − f (0) .

∂v ∂u = −20x3 y + 20xy 3 = − ∂y ∂x 103 . = −6x ∂x2 ∂y 2 and so that ∂2v ∂2v = 6y. y) = x3 − 3xy 2 and v(x.8 Suppose we know that u(x.0. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 Hence both u and v are harmonic. Then ∂v ∂u = 5x4 − 30x2 y 2 + 5y 4 = . (Recall that we are looking for an anti-partial derivative and ∂α(x)/∂y = 0. y) = 5x4 y − 10x2 y 3 + y 5 + α(x) (9. Solution 2. Hence u(x. ∂x2 ∂y Similarly ∂2v ∂x2 ∂ ∂v ∂ ∂u ∂2u ∂2u =− =− =− ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y ∂y∂x 2 ∂ ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂ v = − =− =− 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y = so that ∂2v ∂2v + 2 = 0. y) = x5 − 10x3 y 2 + 5xy 4 . 2 ∂x ∂y Solution 2. Solutions to Part 2 Solution 2. = −6y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. y) = 3x2 y − y 3 . ∂x ∂y Integrating with respect to y gives v(x.7 Let f (z) = z 3 and write z = x + iy so that f (x + iy) = (x + iy)3 = x3 − 3xy 2 + i(3x2 y − y 3 ).6 By the Cauchy-Riemann equations we have that ∂ ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂2v ∂2v ∂ ∂v ∂ ∂u ∂2u ∂2u = = = = = = − = − ∂x2 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 so that ∂2u ∂2u + 2 = 0. + = 0.1) for some function α(x) that depends only on x and not on y.) Similarly.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. Now ∂2u ∂2u = 6x.

6. u is the real part of a holomorphic function. We argue as in Exercise 2. it follows from the converse of the Cauchy-Riemann Theorem that f (x + iy) = u(x. y) + iv(x. the above two expressions must be equal to a constant c ∈ R. The right-hand side depends only on y and the left-hand side depends only on x. y) = x3 − 3xy 2 + 12xy − 12x then ∂u ∂v = 3x2 − 3y 2 + 12y − 12 = .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. Note that the partial derivatives for both u and v exist and are continuous at every point in C and the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at every point in C.4) for some arbitrary function β(y) depending only on y. Hence v(x. y) = 3x2 y − 6x2 + β(y) (9.1) and (9. Comparing (9.0.8. Note that ∂2u = 6x. ∂x ∂y Hence v(x.0. Similarly ∂v ∂u = −6xy + 12x = − ∂y ∂y so that v(x. i. y) = 5x4 y − 10x2 y 3 + β(y) (9. ∂x2 ∂y Hence k = 3. Solution 2. 104 . as the left-hand side depends only on x and the right-hand side depends only on y.3) for some arbitrary function α(x) depending only on x.0.3) and (9. y) is a holomorphic function on C. y) = 3x2 y − 6x2 − y 3 + 6y 2 − 12y + c. α(x) = β(y) − y 5 .e. u satisfies Laplace’s equation. we know that if u is the real part of a holomorphic function then u is harmonic.9 From Exercise 2. It remains to show that in the case k = 3. Hence v(x.e.2) we see that y 5 + α(x) = β(y). First note that if u(x. y) = 5x4 y − 10x2 y 3 + y 5 + c for some constant c ∈ R.2) for some arbitrary function β(y).0.4) we see that α(x) + 6x2 = β(y) + y 3 − 6y 2 + 12y.0. This is only possible if both α(x) and β(y) − y 5 is a constant. Solutions to Part 2 and integrating with respect to x gives v(x. ∂x2 so that 0= ∂2u = −2kx ∂y 2 ∂2u ∂2u + 2 = (6 − 2k)x. Comparing (9. i. y) = 3x2 y − y 3 + 6y 2 − 12y + α(x) (9.0.0.

Similarly. Solution 2. y) = α(x) for some function α(x) that depends only on x. As the left-hand side of this equation depends only on x and the right-hand side depends only on y. y) and u(x. y) and 2u(x. Solutions to Part 2 Solution 2.10 Suppose that f (x + iy) = u(x. this is only possible if both α(x) and β(y) are constant. Integrating with respect to x gives that v(x. y) + v(x. Hence by the Cauchy-Riemann equations −∂v/∂x = 0. ∂x ∂y By the Cauchy-Riemann equations. Solution 2.12 Suppose that f (z) = u(x. y) = 5. Solving these equations gives ∂u ∂u = 0. From ∂u/∂y = 0 it follows that u(x. Hence v(x. y) + v(x. Hence v(x. = 0. y) = c. Then f (z) = λz + a. Partially differentiating the latter expression with respect to x gives 2 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂x and using the Cauchy-Riemann equations gives 2 ∂u ∂u − = 0. Let a = c1 + ic2 . y) = α(y). y) = α(x) = β(y). y) + iv(x. an arbitrary function of y. y) = 5 with respect to y and using the Cauchy-Riemann equations gives ∂u ∂u +2 = 0. u′ (x) = v ′ (y). = v ′ (y).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9. ∂x ∂y From ∂u/∂x = 0 it follows that u(x. As α(x) depends only on x and β(y) depends only on y. for some constant c1 ∈ R. ∂x ∂y Similarly. y) = β(y) for some function β(y) that depends only on y.11 Suppose that f (x + iy) = u(x) + iv(y) where the real part depends only on x and the imaginary part depends only on y. ∂x ∂y This gives us two simultaneous equations in ∂u/∂x and ∂u/∂y. 105 . an arbitrary function of x. a constant. Integrating with respect to y gives that v(x. Hence by the Cauchy-Riemann equations ∂v/∂y = 0. y) + iv(x. From v ′ (y) = λ we have that v(y) = λy + c2 for some constant c2 ∈ R. y) is constant and it follows that f is constant. we must have that u′ (x) = v ′ (y) = λ for some real constant λ. Then ∂v ∂u = u′ (x). y) = β(x). This is only possible if u is constant. ∂u/∂y = 0. Then ∂u/∂x = 0. From u′ (x) = λ we have that u(x) = λx + c1 . partially differentiating 2u(x.

106 . Hence v must also be constant. Solutions to Part 2 If u is constant then 0= ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y (so that v depends only on x) and 0= ∂u ∂v =− ∂y ∂x (so that v depends only on y).MATH20101 Complex Analysis 9.

y = Im(z ). it follows that ∞ Re(z ) and k=0 P k k=0 Im(z P∞k ) exist. Then if n ≥ max{N1 . Choose N2 such that if n ≥ N2 then |y − yn| < ε/2. Re(zn ). yn = k=0 n X Im(zk ) k=0 P∞ denote the partialPsums of zn . N2 } we have that |z − zn | ≤ |x − xn | + |y − yn | < ε. Hence the radius of convergence is R = 1/2. Let s = k=0 zn . Then there exists N such that if n ≥ N we have |s − sn | < ε. Solution 3. provided n ≥ N . (ii) Here an = 1/n! so that n! 1 1 |an+1 | = = →0= |an | (n + 1)! n+1 R as n → ∞. xn = n X Re(zk ).2 P Recall that a formula for the radius of convergence R of an z n is given by 1/R = limn→∞ |an+1 |/|an | (if this limit exists). (i) Here an = 2n /n so that 2n+1 n 2n 1 |an+1 | = = →2= n |an | n+12 n+1 R as n → ∞. respectively. Hence P∞ k=0 zk converges. x = P ∞ ∞ Re(z ). and |y − yn | ≤ |s − sn | < ε (using the facts that | Re(w)| ≤ |w| and | Im(w)| P P∞ ≤ |w| for any complex number w). k k k=0 P k=0 Suppose that ∞ n=0 zn is convergent. Im(zn ). Solutions to Part 3 Solution 3. 107 . Choose N1 such that if n ≥ N1 then |x − xn | < ε/2. As |x − xn | ≤ |s − sn | < ε. Conversely. Let sn = n X k=0 zk . Let ε > 0. Hence the radius of convergence is R = ∞ and the series converges for all z ∈ C. suppose that ∞ Re(z ) and k k=0 k=0 Im(zk ) exist.1 Let zn ∈ C. if these exist.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. Let ε > 0. Solutions to Part 3 10.

Hence the radius of convergence is R = 0 and the series converges for z = 0 only. (iv) Here an = np so that (n + 1)p |an+1 | = = |an | np  n+1 n p → 1p = 1 = 1 R as n → ∞.2. Hence the radius of convergence is R = 1. Solution 3.2(i) does not converge.3 To see that the expression in Proposition 3. Solutions to Part 3 (iii) Here an = n! so that |an+1 | (n + 1)! 1 = =n→∞= |an | n! R as n → ∞. note that  2n .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10.

 .

.

an+1 .

.  n+1 if n is even.

3 .

.

an .

=  3n  if n is odd. note that  1/2 if n is even. that an ≤ 1/2n for all n. Note.2. Hence limn→∞ |an+1 /an | does not exist. Hence . Hence limn→∞ |an+1 /an | does not exist. To see that the expression in Proposition 3. 1/n |an | = 1/3 if n is odd.2(ii) does not converge. however. 2n+1 Hence limn→∞ |an+1 /an | = 0 if we let n → ∞ through the subsequence of even values of n but limn→∞ |an+1 /an | = ∞ if we let n → ∞ through the subsequence of odd values of n.

∞ .

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∞ .

∞ .

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X .

.

X z n .

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z .

n .

.

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n an z .

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≤ .

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2n .

i.e. Solution 3.1. Hence. z = z = 1−z 1−z 1−z n=0 n=0 Using Proposition 3.4 (i) We know that for |z| < 1 ∞ X zn = n=0 1 1−z (this is the sum of a geometric progression). 2 n=0 n=0 n=0 which converges provided that |z/2| < 1. = 1−z n=1 108 . P ∞ n n=0 an z converges for |z| < 2. if |z| < 2. Hence  2 X ∞ 1 nz n−1 .2 we can easily see that the coefficient of z n−1 in the above product is equal to n. by the comparison test. Hence ! ! ∞  2    ∞ X X 1 1 1 n n .

convergence for |z| < R1/3 and divergence for |z| > R1/3 . Solution 3. Then the series becomes ∞ n=0 an w .2 we see that ∞ ∞ X z n X wn n! n=0 where cn = n=0 n X n! = ∞ X cn n=0 1 z r wn−r . Hence the radius of convergence is R1/3 . 109 . r!(n − r)! r=0 The claimed result follows by noting that n 1 X cn = n! r=0  n r  z r wn−r = 1 (z + w)n n! by the Binomial Theorem.  lim |an |1/n n→∞ 3 = 1 . (iii) In this case lim |a3n |1/n = lim |an |3/n = n→∞ n→∞ Hence the radius of convergence is R3 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. P n (ii) Make a change of variables and let w = z 3 .e.6 (i) We have that eiz = cos z + i sin z and e−iz = cos z − i sin z. Changing back to z this says that we get convergence for |z|3 < R and divergence for |z|3 > R. Hence the radius of convergence of this series is also R. i. Adding these expressions gives 2 cos z = eiz + eiz so that cos z = (eiz + e−iz )/2. This converges if |w| < R and diverges if |w| > R.5 (i) We have that (n3 an )1/n = n3/n a1/n n → 1× 1 R as limn→∞ n(3/n) = (limn→∞ n1/n )3 = 13 = 1. Solutions to Part 3 (ii) Using Proposition 3. (iii) It is easier to start with the right-hand side: sin z cos w + cos z sin w 1 1 iz (e − e−iz )(eiw + e−iw ) + (eiz + e−iz )(eiw − e−iw ) = 4i 4i  1  i(z+w) −i(z+w) e −e = 2i = sin(z + w). R3 Solution 3.1. (ii) Subtracting the above expressions for eiz and e−iz gives 2i sin z = eiz − e−iz so that sin z = (eiz − e−iz )/2i.

cos z cos w − sin z sin w 1 iz 1 = (e + e−iz )(eiw + e−iw ) − 2 (eiz − e−iz )(eiw − e−iw ) 4 4i  1  i(z+w) −i(z+w) = e +e 2 = cos(z + w). = − sin x sinh y. ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. Hence the real and imaginary parts of cos z are u(x. y) = cos x cosh y and v(x. Solution 3. y) = cos x sinh y. respectively. = cos x cosh y. = − sin x cosh y. respectively. Solutions to Part 3 (iv) Similarly. Now ∂v ∂u = cos x cosh y. (ii) Here we have that cos z = cos(x + iy)  1  i(x+iy) e + e−i(x+iy) = 2 1 ix −y = (e e + e−ix ey ) 2 1 −y = ((e cos x + ey cos x) + i(e−y sin x − ey sin x)) 2 = cos x cosh y − i sin x sinh y. Now ∂v ∂u = − sin x cosh y. ∂x ∂y and ∂u ∂v = sin x sinh y. y) = − sin x sinh y. ∂x ∂y 110 . y) = sin x cosh y and v(x. Hence the real and imaginary parts of sin z are u(x.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10.7 (i) We have sin z = sin(x + iy)  1  i(x+iy) e − e−i(x+iy) = 2i 1 ix −y = (e e − e−ix ey ) 2i 1 = ((e−y cos x − ey cos x) + i(e−y sin x + ey sin x)) 2i  −y   y  e sin x + ey sin x e cos x − e−y cos x = +i 2 2 = sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y.

one could note that  π cos z = sin z + 2   π π = sin x + cosh y + i cos x + sinh y 2 2 = cos x cosh y − i sin x sinh y. Now ∂u ∂v = cosh x cos y.) (iv) Here we have that cosh z = cosh(x + iy)  1  x+iy e + e−(x+iy) = 2 1 x iy = (e e + e−x e−iy ) 2 1 x ((e cos y + e−x cos y) + i(ex sin y − e−x sin y)) = 2 = cosh x cos y + i sinh x sin y. Solutions to Part 3 and ∂u ∂v = cos x sinh y. Alternatively. assuming the results of (i). (iii) Here we have that sinh z = sinh(x + iy)  1  x+iy = e − e−(x+iy) 2 1 x iy (e e − e−x e−iy ) = 2 1 x = ((e cos y − e−x cos y) + i(ex sin y + e−x sin y)) 2 = sinh x cos y + i cosh x sin y. ∂x ∂y 111 . Hence the real and imaginary parts of cosh z are u(x. = sinh x sin y. by using the fact that sinh z = −i sin iz. = cosh x cos y. respectively. Hence the real and imaginary parts of sinh z are u(x.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. y) = cosh x sin y. (One can also argue. y) = sinh x cos y and v(x. respectively. = − cos x sinh y. y) = cosh x cos y and v(x. ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. Now ∂u ∂v = sinh x cos y. y) = sinh x sin y. ∂x ∂y and ∂u ∂v = − sinh x sin y. ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. = sinh x cos y.

e. sin z is real if and only if cos x sinh y = 0.e. The real part of cosh z is cosh x cos y and this equals zero if and only if y = k ∈ Z. the imaginary part of cos z is − sin x sinh y and this equals zero if and only if x = kπ. Then sin z = 0 if and only if both the real parts and imaginary parts of sin z are equal to 0. (Alternatively. or y = 0. Using the results of the previous exercise. (ii) A complex-valued function takes purely imaginary values if and only if its real part is zero. k ∈ Z (as cosh x > 0 for all x ∈ R). The real part of cos z is cos x cosh y and this equals zero if and only if cos x = 0. k ∈ Z. k ∈ Z. As ex > 0 for all x ∈ R.9 Let z = x + iy. Now ez = ex cos y + iex sin y has zero real part if and only if ex cos y = 0.e. i.e. As sin(k + 1/2)π = (−1)k . y = kπ. either x = π2 + kπ. k ∈ Z. For exp z: note that if z = x + iy then ez = ex cos y + iex sin y and this is real if and only ex sin y = 0. ∂y ∂x so that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satisfied. = cosh x sin y. k ∈ Z. k ∈ Z. This happens if and only if sin x cosh y = 0 and cos x sinh y = 0.) Solution 3. Now cos kπ = (−1)k so the second equation gives sinh y = 0. We know cosh y > 0 for all y ∈ R so the first equation gives x = kπ. if cos y = 0.8 (i) A complex-valued function takes real values if and only its imaginary part equals 0. k ∈ Z. For cos z. Solutions to Part 3 and ∂u ∂v = − cosh x sin y.e. y = 0. one can use the fact that cosh z = cos iz to derive this. k ∈ Z. y = 0.e. The imaginary part of sinh z is cosh x sin y and this equals zero if and only if y = kπ. it follows that the second equation gives sinh y = 0. π 2 + kπ. Solution 3. k ∈ Z.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. i. The real part of sinh z is sinh x cos y and this equals zero if and only if either x = 0 or y = π2 + kπ. k ∈ Z. we note that the real part of cos z is cos x cosh y and the imaginary part is − sin x sinh y. Hence ez takes purely imaginary values when y = π2 + kπ. The imaginary part of cosh z is sinh x sin y and this equals zero if and only if x = 0 or y = kπ. k ∈ Z or y = 0. i. 112 . this is zero if and only if sin y = 0. Hence the solutions to cos z = 0 are z = (k + 1/2)π.e. k ∈ Z. x = π2 + kπ. i. The real part of sin z is sin x cosh y and this equals zero if and only if sin x = 0. Similarly. i. x = kπ. Now cos x cosh y = 0 implies cos x = 0 so that x = (k + 1/2)π. i. i. k ∈ Z. Thus the solutions to sin z = 0 are z = kπ. using the results of (ii).

n ∈ Z. As ex > 0 for all x ∈ R.e. We choose θ1 . The first equation then gives (−1)n ex = 1.e. Hence Log z1 = ln r1 + iθ1 . Hence the periods of sin are p = 2πn. Then ez = ex cos y + iex sin y = −1.e.e. Then z1 z2 = r1 eiθ1 r2 eiθ2 = r1 r2 ei(θ1 +θ2 ) 113 . Putting z = 0 gives exp p = exp 0 = 1. Then exp p = ex cos y + iex sin y = 1 and comparing real and imaginary parts gives ex cos y = 1. Solution 3. for some p ∈ C.√cos(π/4 + 2kπ) = sin(π/4 + 2kπ) = 1/ 2 x and so we have e = 2. k ∈ √ Z. When n is odd this has no real solutions. k ∈ Z. x = 0. z2 = r2 eiθ2 ∈ C \ {0}. Putting z = 0 we get sin p = sin 0 = 0. (ii) Let z = x + iy and suppose that 1 + i − ez = 0. the second equation gives sin y = 0. i. k ∈ Z. y = kπ. k ∈ Z. Continuing inductively. In the first case. Log z2 = ln r2 + iθ2 . Suppose that sin(z + p) = sin z for all z ∈ C. √ hence x = log 2.11 (i) Write z = x + iy. π] to be the principal value of the arguments of z1 . it follows that cos y = sin y. i. When k is even this gives ex = −1 which has no real solutions. When n is even this gives ex = 1. i. Comparing real and imaginary parts we have that ex cos y = −1 and ex sin y = 0. so that p = kπ. k ∈ Z. cos(5π/4 + 2kπ) = sin(5π/4√+ 2kπ) = −1/ 2 so that ex = − 2.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. z2 . Put p = x + iy. Hence z = log 2 + i(π/4 + 2kπ). n ∈ Z. When k is odd this gives ex = 1. y = nπ. Solution 3. ex sin y = 0.√In the second case. ex sin y = 1. As ex > 0 for x ∈ R. θ2 ∈ (−π. i. Solutions to Part 3 Solution 3. (ii) Suppose that exp(z + p) = exp z for all z ∈ C.12 Let z1 = r1 eiθ1 . Now sin(z + nπ) = sin(z + (n − 1)π + π) = sin(z + (n − 1)π) cos π + cos(z + (n − 1)π) sin π = − sin(z + (n − 1)π). As ex > 0 for all x ∈ R the second equation gives that sin y = 0. Hence sin(z + nπ) = sin z if and only if n is even. either y = π/4 + 2kπ √or y = 5π/4 + 2kπ. Then ez = ex cos y + iex sin y = 1 + i and comparing real and imaginary parts gives ex cos y = 1. Substituting this into the first equation gives (−1)k ex = −1. i.10 (i) Let z = x + iy and suppose that 1 + ez = 0. Hence the periods of exp are 2nπi.e. which has no real solutions. x = 0. Hence the solutions are z = (2k + 1)πi. we see that sin(z + nπ) = (−1)n sin z. n ∈ Z.

However. Then |i| = 1. 2 Hence Log z1 z2 = Log z1 + Log z2 − 2πi.2. (Any two complex numbers z1 . Thus Log z1 z2 = ln r1 r2 + i(θ1 + θ2 + 2πn) = Log z1 + Log z2 + 2πn for some integer n ∈ {−1. by adding or subtracting 2π to θ1 + θ2 we can obtain the principal value of the argument of z1 z2 .2(i). arg i = π/2 + 2nπ and the principal value of the argument is π/2. 2 2 Log(i) = ln(1) + i Hence i i = exp(i Log i) = exp  −π 2  and the subsiduary values are exp(i log i) = exp   −π + 2nπ .) Solution 3. Moreover z1 z2 = −2i and the principal value of the argument of z1 z2 is −π/2. z2 where the principal values of the arguments of z1 . Solutions to Part 3 so that z1 z2 has argument θ1 + θ2 . Hence π π =i 2 2   π  π log(i) = ln(1) + i + 2nπ = i + 2nπ . Hence Log z1 = Log z2 = ln √ 2+ πi 3πi . However.14 (i) Using Proposition 3. Then |z1 | = |z2 | = 2 and Arg z1 = Arg z2 = 3π/4. √ For example. 1}.13 Take b = z = i. take z1 = z2 = −1 + i. 2π] and is not necessarily a principle value of the argument for z1 z2 . 0.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. z2 add to either more than π or less than −π will also work. the radius of convergence of this power series is given by . Log z1 z2 = ln 2 − 4 2 so that Log z1 + Log z2 = ln 2 + 3πi . θ1 + θ2 ∈ (−2π. 2 Solution 3.

.

.

.

α(α − 1) · · · (α − n + 1)(α − n) n! 1 .

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= lim .

R n→∞ (n + 1)! α(α − 1) · · · (α − n + 1) .

Note that . if this limit exists.

.

.

.

.

α(α − 1) · · · (α − n + 1)(α − n) .

.

α − n.

n! .

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lim = lim .

n→∞ .

n→∞ n + 1 .

(n + 1)! α(α − 1) · · · (α − n + 1) .

114 . = 1 Hence the power series has radius of convergence R = 1.

Hence for |z| < 1 we have f ′ (z) = α + α(α − 1)z + α(α − 1)(α − 2) 2 α(α − 1)(α − 2) · · · (α − n) n z +· · ·+ z +· · · . Using Proposition 3. n n! which is α times the coefficient of z n in the power series f (z). Hence g′ (z) = 0 on {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}. 115 . Hence f ′ (z) = (1 + z)α for |z| < 1.2 that a power series is holomorphic on its disc of convergence and can be differentiated term by term.3. By Lemma 3. (1 + z)2α using (ii). (iii) Let g(z) = f (z)/(1 + z)α .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 10. Clearly the constant term of (1 + z)f ′ (z) is α. 2! n! Multiply this by 1 + z.4.2 we see that the coefficient of z n for n ≥ 1 in (1 + z)f ′ (z) is given by α(α − 1)(α − 2) · · · (α − (n − 1))(α − n) α(α − 1)(α − 2) · · · (α − (n − 1)) + n! (n − 1)! which can be rearranged to α(α − 1)(α − 2) · · · (α − (n − 1)) (n − 1)!   α2 (α − 1)(α − 2) · · · (α − (n − 1)) α−n +1 = . Then for |z| < 1 we have that g′ (z) = (1 + z)α f ′ (z) − α(1 + z)α−1 f (z) = 0.1 we have that g(z) is equal to a constant on {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}. Hence (1 + z)f ′ (z) = αf (z) for |z| < 1. Solutions to Part 3 (ii) Recall from Theorem 3.1. Noting that g(0) = 1 we have that g(z) = 1 for all z with |z| < 1.

116 2 .1(i).1 (i) We have γ(t) = e−it = cos t − i sin t.1(ii). Solutions to Part 4 Solution 4. (iii) Here γ(t) = x(t) + iy(t) where x(t) = t. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1.e. i. y(t) = 1 + 2 sin t.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11. (iv) Here γ(t) = x(t) + iy(t) where x(t) = cosh t. γ is the circle centred at 1 + i with radius 2. so the path is the semicircle of radius 1 centre 0 that starts at 1 and travels clockwise to −1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.e. See Figure 11. y(t) = cosh t. y = cosh x. See Figure 11. See Figure 11. −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. x(t) = 1 + 2 cos t. 0 ≤ t ≤ π. 1+i (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Figure 11. sinh(−1)) to (cosh(1). Hence (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 = 22 . See Figure 11.1: See Solution 4.e.2 Let f (z) = x − y + ix2 where z = x + iy. i. Hence x(t)2 − y(t)2 = cosh2 t − sinh2 t = 1. (ii) Here γ(t) = x(t) + iy(t). where we start at 2 + i and travel anticlockwise. Solution 4. Solutions to Part 4 11. Hence γ describes the piece of the graph of cosh from −1 to 1.1(iv).1. y(t) = sinh t. i.1(iii). γ describes a hyperbola from (cosh(−1). sinh(1)).

Hence Z 2 γ x − y + ix = = = Z 1 0 (t − 1 + it2 ) dt t2 it3 −t+ 2 3 −1 i + . described anticlockwise. Note that f (γ1 (t)) = 1 2eit and γ1′ (t) = 2ieit . centre i. The path γ2 is the arc of the circle of radius 1. Here γ ′ (t) = 1 and f (γ(t)) = t − 1 + it2 . Here γ ′ (t) = i and f (γ(t)) = −t.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11. = 3 3 = (ii) The imaginary axis from 0 to i has parametrisation γ(t) = it. (i) Let f (z) = 1/(z − 2). 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. 2  = = 1 0 (iii) The line parallel to the real axis from i to 1 + i has parametrisation γ(t) = t + i. centre 2. from i + 1 to 0. Hence Z γ1 dz = z−2 Z 2π 0 117 1 2ieit dt = 2πi. Here γ ′ (t) = 1 + i and f (γ(t)) = t − t + it2 = it2 . Hence Z 2 γ x − y + ix Z = 0 1 −it dt −it2 2 −i . described clockwise. 2 3  1 0 Solution 4. 2eit . 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Solutions to Part 4 (i) The straight line from 0 to 1 + i has parametrisation γ(t) = t + it. Hence Z γ x − y + ix2 = 1 Z it2 (1 + i) dt 0 1 Z −t2 + it2 dt 0   −1 3 i 3 1 = t + t 3 3 0 i −1 + .3 The path γ1 is the circle of radius 2. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

Let F (z) = −z 2 cos z + 2z sin z + 2 cos z.4 The circle |z − 1| = 1 described anticlockwise has parametrisation γ(t) = 1 + eit = 1 + cos t + i sin t. 2i Solution 4. Solutions to Part 4 (ii) Let f (z) = 1/(z − i)3 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. if γ is any smooth path from 0 to i then Z f = F (i) − F (0) = −i2 cos i + 2i sin i + 2 cos i − 2 cos 0 γ = 3 cosh 1 − 2 sinh 1 − 2. = 0 Solution 4. Hence Z 2 γ |z| dz = = Z 2π 2(1 + cos t)(− sin t + i cos t) dt 0 Z 2π 0 Z (−2 sin t − 2 sin t cos t) + i(2 cos t + 2 cos2 t) dt 2π (−2 sin t − sin 2t) + i(2 cos t + 1 + cos 2t) dt 2π  1 1 = 2 cos t + cos 2t + i(2 sin t + t + sin 2t) 2 2 0     1 1 = 2 + + 2πi − 2 + 2 2 = 2πi. We know that differentiation for complex functions obeys the same rules (chain rule. so we first find an anti-derivative for the real function f (x) = x2 sin x. etc) as for real functions. Then clearly F is defined on C and one can check that F ′ (z) = z 2 sin z. Here γ ′ (t) = ieit = − sin t + i cos t. Note that |γ(t)|2 = (1 + cos t)2 + sin2 t = 1 + 2 cos t + cos2 t + sin2 t = 2(1 + cos t).5 (i) We want to find a function F such that F ′ (z) = f (z).3). by the Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration (Theorem 4. 118 . Note that by integration by parts we have Z Z x2 sin x dx = −x2 cos x + 2x cos x dx Z = −x2 cos x + 2x sin x − 2 sin x dx = −x2 cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11. γ2 dz = (z − i)3 Z π/2 0 1 (−ie−it ) dt = −i e−3it Z π/2 e2it dt = 0 −i  2it π/2 e 0 = 1. product rule. Note that f (γ2 (t)) = 1 e−3it and Hence Z γ2′ (t) = −ie−it . Hence.3.

Hence F (z) = −izeiz + eiz is an anti-derivative for f . γ3′ (t) = 1. γ ′ (t) = 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Hence Z Z Z 2 2 |z|2 dz |z| dz + |z| dz = γ = = = Z γ1 1 Z it2 dt + γ2 1 t2 + 1 dt 0 0 it3 3 1 t3 + +t 3 0 4 i + . |γ2 (t)|2 = t2 + 1.6 (i) The contour γ that goes vertically from 0 to i and then horizontally from i to 1 + i is the sum of the two paths γ1 (t) = it.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11. γ ′ (t) = i. γ4′ (t) = i. γ Solution 4. Integrating by parts gives Z Z ix ix xe dx = −ixe + ieix dx = −ixeix + eix (noting that 1/i = −i). Here |γ3 (t)|2 = t2 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Hence if γ is any smooth path from 0 to i then Z f = F (i) − F (0) = (−i2 e−1 + e−1 ) − (0 + 1) = 2e−1 − 1. 119 . 3 3  1 3 t 3 1 As the integral from 0 to 1 + i depends on the choice of path. this tells us (by the Fundamental Theorem of Contour Integration) that |z|2 does not have an anti-derivative. Solutions to Part 4 (ii) Again. Note that |γ1 (t)|2 = t2 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 γ4 (t) = 1 + it. Hence Z Z Z 2 2 |z|2 dz |z| dz + |z| dz = γ = = = Z γ3 1 t2 dt + Z γ4 1 (1 + t2 )i dt 0 0  1 it3 + it + 3 0 0 1 4i + . γ2 (t) = t + i. |γ4 (t)|2 = 1 + t2 . the contour γ that goes horizontally from 0 to 1 and then vertically from 1 to 1 + i is the sum of the paths γ3 (t) = t. 3 3   1 0 (ii) Similarly. let us first find an anti-derivative for f (x) = xeix .

Using the formula for integration by parts from real analysis. using the chain rule for differentiation.7. Solution 4.7 See Figure 11.2: See Solution 4.8 Let γ : [a. Then −γ has −γ(t) = γ(a + b − t) : [a. b] → D be a parametrisation of the contour γ.2. γ Solution 4. Solution 4. Note that (−γ)′ (t) = γ ′ (a + b − t) = −(γ ′ (a + b − t)). b] → C be a parametrisation of γ. we can write Z b Z ′ f (γ(t))g′ (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt fg = a γ = Z b f (γ(t)) a d (g(γ(t))) dt dt 120 . b] → D as a parametrisation. Hence Z b Z f (−γ(t))(−γ ′ (t)) dt f = a −γ b Z f (γ(a + b − t))γ ′ (a + b − t) dt = − Z aa f (γ(u))γ ′ (u) du using the substitution u = a + b − t = b Z b f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt = − Za = − f.9 Let γ : [a. Solutions to Part 4 0 −2 0 −1 −1 0 0 1 2 0 0 Figure 11.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11.

eit Let D = C \ {0}.e. z) = 1 − 1 = 0 for all z 6∈ D. γ3 is γ but described in the opposite direction. γ1 and γ2 . γ2 and γ but not ±1. Let γ3 (t) = 2e−it . z) = 0. The 3 may be replaced by anything larger than 2. z) = 0. z) = −1. w(γ2 . 0) = −1) and w(γ2 . Note that w(γ1 . |z + 1| > 1/3}. To use the Generalised Cauchy Theorem. If |z| ≥ 3 then w(γ1 . Alternatively. z) = w(γ2 .) Obviously in this case D contains γ. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. z) = −1. If |z − 1| ≤ 1/3 then z is inside the contours γ2 and γ3 so that w(γ1 . the 1/3 by anything less than 1/2—the point is that D should contain γ1 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 11. one could take D = C \ {±1}. z) + w(γ2 . Solution 4. We apply the Generalised Cauchy Theorem to the contours γ2 . z) = 0. Furthermore. |z − 1| > 1/3. z) + w(γ3 . (There are lots of choices of D that will work. Hence for each z 6∈ D we have w(γ1 . Hence w(γ2 . w(γ2 . 0) = 1 (so that w(−γ1 . 0) = 1. γ1 . Applying the Generalised Cauchy Theorem we have that Z Z Z f =0 f+ f+ and the claim follows by noting that γ3 γ2 γ1 R γ3 f =− R γ f. i. z) = 0. By the Generalised Cauchy Theorem we have that Z Z f = 0. Solutions to Part 4 b d (f (γ(t)))g(γ(t)) dt dt a Z b f ′ (γ(t))g(γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt = f (z1 )g(z1 ) − f (z0 )g(z0 ) − Za = f (z1 )g(z1 ) − f (z0 )g(z0 ) − f ′ g.11 Let γ1 (t) = eit . w(γ3 . −γ1 . z) = +1. = f (γ(t))g(γ(t))|bt=a − Z γ Solution 4. Suppose z 6∈ D. z) = +1. since ±1 6∈ D. Let D be the domain D = {z ∈ C | |z| < 3. Similarly if |z + 1| ≤ 1/3 then w(γ1 . f+ −γ1 γ2 Hence Z γ2 f =− Z f= −γ1 121 Z f = 2πi. The only point not in D is z = 0. the function f is holomorphic on D. z) + w(−γ1 . z) = w(γ3 . w(γ3 . Then Z Z 2π Z f (γ(t))γ ′ (t) dt = f= γ1 0 0 2π 1 it ie dt = 2πi. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.10 Note that the function f (z) = 1/(z 2 − 1) is not differentiable at z = ±1 (because it is not defined at z = ±1). we need a domain that excludes these points.

Solutions to Part 5 12.2(ii). one could check this using the fact that 2(2n)! 4n+1 4 |an+1 | = lim = lim =0 n→∞ 2(2(n + 1))! 4n n→∞ 2n(2n + 1) n→∞ |an | 1/R = lim where an denote the coefficients in (12. Re(z) < −1}. Solutions to Part 5 Solution 5.0. we can expand f as a Taylor series at 0 valid on some disc centred at 0 as ∞ X an z n f (z) = n=0 122 . 2 2(2n)! n=1 (12.2).0.1) (12.0. This is defined and holomorphic on the domain C \ {z ∈ C | Im(z) = 0.0. (Alternatively.2) As the radius of convergence for (12.2 Let f (z) = Log(1 + z). (iii) We have 2 ez = ∞ X z 2n n=0 and the radius of convergence is R = ∞. By Taylor’s Theorem. n! Solution 5. it follows that the radius of convergence for (12. The radius of convergence is given.1) is R = ∞. using Proposition 3.2) is also R = ∞.0.) (ii) Here ∞ X 1 (−2z)n = 1 − 2z + 4z 2 − 8z 3 + · · · = 1 + 2z n=0 (by recognising this as a sum of a geometric progression).1 (i) Since sin2 z = (1 − cos 2z)/2 and cos z = ∞ X (−1)n n=0 we have that sin2 z = z 2n (2n)! ∞ X (−1)n+1 4n 1 − cos 2z = z 2n .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 12. by 1/R = lim (2n )1/n = 2 n→∞ so R = 1/2.2.

123 . By the ratio test. hence by Proposition 2. by letting r → ∞ we see that f (k+m) (0) = 0. Then q is a polynomial of degree at least 1.) Hence f is not holomorphic on any domain that contains the unit circle γ. Solutions to Part 5 Here f ′ (z) = 1 −1 . Applying the bound on |f (z)| we have that Mr ≤ Kr k .MATH20101 Complex Analysis where an = 1 (n) (0). We want to find z0 ∈ C such that p(z0 ) = a. Writing f (z) = u(x. y = 0. for any r > 0 and any m ≥ 1 we have that |f (k+m) (0)| ≤ Mr (k + m)! r k+m where Mr = sup{|f (z)| | |z| = r}. y) = (x + 1)2 + y 2 and v(x. By the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. (1 + z)n Hence an = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)!/n! = (−1)n+1 /n for n 6= 0 and a0 = 0. Hence ∂v ∂u = 2(x + 1).3 Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree at least 1.5.. Substituting this into the Taylor expansion of f shows that f is a polynomial of degree at most k.. n! f 12. y) we have that u(x. ∂u/∂y 6= −∂v/∂x holds.. there exists z0 ∈ C such that q(z0 ) = 0. ∂y ∂v = 0. Solution 5. (Note that the Cauchy-Riemann equations do hold at the point z = −1 and that the partial derivatives are continuous at x = −1. r k+m rm Since this holds for r arbitrarily large. Then f (z) = |(x + 1) + iy|2 = (x + 1)2 + y 2 . f ′′ (z) = .4 Since f is differentiable everywhere. Hence p(z0 ) = a. y) + iv(x. Let q(z) = p(z) − a. Solution 5.2 f is differentiable at z = −1. Solution 5. Hence K(k + m)!r k K(k + m)! |f (k+m) (0)| ≤ = . 1+z (1 + z)2 and in general f (n) (z) = (−1)n+1 (n − 1)! . Let a ∈ C. =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂u = 2y. ∂x Suppose that z is a point on the unit circle γ and that z 6= 1. y) = 0. then at least one of ∂u/∂x 6= ∂v/∂y. this power series has radius of convergence 1.5 (i) Let f (z) = |z + 1|2 and let z = x + iy.

124 . Solutions to Part 5 (ii) Let z be a point on the unit circle γ. Let g(z) = (z + 1)2 /z. Hence   (z + 1)2 1 2 |z + 1| = (z + 1)(z + 1) = (z + 1) +1 = z z (note that this only holds on the unit circle γ). Then g is holomorphic on C \ {0}.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 12. Then z¯ = 1/z. (iii) Let h(z) = (z + 1)2 . Then Z Z (z + 1)2 |z + 1|2 dz = dz z γ γ Z h(z) dz = γ z−0 = 2πih(0) by Cauchy’s Integral Formula = 2πi.

n (n + 3)!z 4!z 3! 2! (iv) Recall that cos z = 1 − z2 z4 (−1)n z 2n + − ··· + + ···. z z z z (ii) Here 1 = 1 + z + z2 + · · · 1−z and this is valid for |z| < 1. we should look at powers of 1/z: 1 z−3 = = = 1/z 1 − (3/z)   1 3 32 1 + + 2 + ··· z z z 3 32 3n 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n+1 + · · · . Solutions to Part 6 Solution 6. (iii) For z 6= 0 we have e1/z = ∞ X m=0 Hence z 3 e1/z = · · · + 1 1 1 1 = ··· + + ··· + + + 1. 2! 4! (2n)! For z 6= 0 we have cos 1/z = · · · + 1 1 (−1)n + ··· + − + 1.2 Using partial fractions one can write 1 1 2(z − 1) = + . − 2z − 3 z+1 z−3 z2 125 . m n 2 m!z n!z 2!z z 1 1 1 z + ··· + + + + z2 + z3.1 P m denote the Laurent series of f around z = 0. Solutions to Part 6 13. Let f (z) = ∞ m=−∞ am z (i) Since we are looking for an expansion valid for |z| > 3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 13. Hence 1 1 = + 1 + z + z2 + · · · z(1 − z) z is valid for 0 < |z| < 1. 2n 4 (2n)!z 4!z 2!z 2 Solution 6.

Hence when |z| < 1 we have the Laurent expansion f (z) = ∞  X n=0 n (−1) − 1 3n+1  zn. i. This expression converges for | − 1/z| < 1. 1 − w3 126 (13.0.0. Similarly. = = (13. Then 0 < |w| < 1 and 1 1−w 1 = = .0. For 1 < |z| < 3 we have the Laurent expansion f (z) = · · · + (−1)n+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + ··· − 2 + − − 2z − ··· − n zn − · · · . for |z| > 1. 2 2 1−z+z 1+w+w 1 − w3 Now for |w| < 1 we can expand 1 = 1 + w3 + w6 + w9 + · · · .3) n=0 and this is valid when |z| < 3.3 Put w = z − 1. This expression converges for | − z| < 1. zn z z 3 3 3 +1 For |z| > 3 we have the Laurent expansion f (z) = ∞ X (−1)n+1 + 3n−1 n=1  1 . Solutions to Part 6 Now ∞ ∞ X X 1 1 (−1)n z n . we have that 1 −1 = z−3 3  1 1− z 3  ∞ −1 X  z n = 3 3 (13.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 13. i.e. (−z)n = = = z+1 1 − (−z) n=0 n=0 (13.1) summing a geometric progression with common ratio −z. We also have that 1 1 1 = z−3 z1− 3 z ∞ 1X z n=0 =  n X ∞ 3n−1 3 . zn Solution 6. We also have that  ∞ ∞  1 1 1 1 1 X −1 n X  (−1)n+1 n . = n z z n=1 valid for |z| > 3.2) = −1 z+1 z1− z z z z n=1 n=0 summing a geometric progression with common ratio −1/z. for |z| < 1.e.0.4) .

127 .) As a Taylor series is a particular case of a Laurent series. we see that 1 1−  1 2 z =1+ 2 3 n+1 + + ··· + n + ··· z z2 z provided |1/z| < 1. recall that if f n (n) (0)/n!.4. use the method given in Exercise 3. (ii) Note that f (z) = 1/(z − 1)2 is holomorphic on the disc {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}. Solution 6. it may not even be defined at z0 ). Therefore we can apply Taylor’s theorem and expand f as a power series f (z) = 1 + 2z + 3z 2 + · · · + (n + 1)z n + · · · valid on the disc P {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}. Multiplying by 1/z 2 we see that f (z) = 1 2 3 n−1 + 3 + 4 + ··· + n + ··· 2 z z z z valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | |z| > 1}. Solutions to Part 6 Hence 1 1 − z + z2 1−w 1 − w3 = (1 − w)(1 + w3 + w6 + w9 + · · ·) = = 1 − w + w3 − w4 + w6 − w7 + · · · = 1 − (z − 1) + (z − 1)3 − (z − 1)4 + (z − 1)6 − (z − 1)7 + · · · provided |z − 1| < 1. we see that f has Laurent series f (z) = 1 + 2z + 3z 2 + · · · + (n + 1)z n + · · · valid on the disc {z ∈ C | |z| < 1}. provided |z| > 1. i. (To calculate the coefficients. Here we can easily compute that has Taylor series ∞ n=0 an z then an = f f (n) (z) = (−1)n (n + 1)!(z − 1)−n−2 so that f (n) (0) = (n + 1)!.5 Recall that a function f (z) has a pole at z0 if f is not differentiable at z0 (indeed. (iii) Note that 1 1 1 = 2  .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 13. Solution 6. Alternatively.4 Let f (z) = 1/(z − 1)2 . (i) Note that 1/(z − 1)2 is already a Laurent series centred at 1. 2 (z − 1) z 1− 1 2 z Replacing z by 1/z in the first part of the computation in (ii) above. Hence an = n + 1. Hence f has Laurent series 1 f (z) = (z − 1)2 valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − 1|}.e.

2.e. (iii) Since cos z = 1 − we have z2 z4 + − ··· 2! 4! −1 z 2 cos z − 1 = + − ··· 2 z 2 4! so that there are no terms in the principal part of the Laurent series. Hence r = 2. Hence 0 is a removable singularity. The roots of this polynomial are at z = ±i. Hence the poles occur at z = ±i and each pole is a pole of order 2.6 (i) Since sin ∞ X 1 1 (−1)2m+1 = z m=0 (2m + 1)!z 2m+1 our function has infinitely many non-zero term in the principal part of its Laurent series. (ii) The poles occur at the roots of the polynomial z 4 + 16 = 0. Hence the poles of 1/(z 2 + 1) occur at z = ±i and both poles are simple. Hence the poles are at iπ ikπ 2e 4 + 2 . each with multiplicity 2. (ii) By Exercise 5. Then we have z 4 = r 4 e4iθ = −16 = 16eiπ . k = 0. k ∈ Z. 128 . 3.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 13. √ 2(−1 − i). 3. at z = (−1 ± 5)/2. 1. Solutions to Part 6 (i) The poles of 1/(z 2 +1) occur when the denominator vanishes. 1. We get distinct values of z for k = 0.1. Now z 2 +1 = (z−i)(z+i) so the denominator has zeros at z = ±i and both zeros are simple. Solution 6. 2. √ 2(1 − i). √ 2(−1 + i). Hence we have an isolated essential singularity at z = 0. 24 26 3 1 − z+ z − ··· z 2 · 4! 2 · 6! so that z −3 sin2 z has a simple pole at z = 0. 4θ = π + 2kπ. Let z = reiθ . the function sin2 z has Taylor series ∞ X (−1)n+1 22n z 2n n=1 Hence z −3 sin2 z = 2 (2n)! . and both poles are simple. √ (iv) The poles occur at the roots of z 2 + z − 1. All the poles are simple. or in algebraic form √ 2(1 + i). i. (iii) The poles occur at the roots of z 4 + 2z 2 + 1 = (z 2 + 1)2 = (z + i)2 (z − i)2 .

MATH20101 Complex Analysis 13. By the Estimation Lemma we have that |bn | ≤ 1 × 2πr × M r n−1 = M r n 2π as |f (z)| ≤ M at all points on Cr . and described anticlockwise. Notice from Laurent’s Theorem (Theorem 6.2. centred at z0 of radius r > 0. Hence there are no terms in the principal part of the Laurent series expansion of f at z0 . 129 . valid in some annulus centred at z0 .1) that Z 1 bn = f (z)(z − z0 )n−1 dz 2πi Cr where Cr is a circular path that lies on the domain D. As r is arbitrary and M is independent of r. and so f has a removable singularity at z0 .7 Expand f as a Laurent series at z0 and write f (z) = ∞ X n=1 bn (z − z0 )−n + ∞ X n=0 an (z − z0 )n . Solutions to Part 6 Solution 6. we can let r → 0 and conclude that bn = 0 for all n.

±1 and these are all simple zeros. = 4i 4 4e−3iπ/2 130 . (iv) Let f (z) = z/(1 + z 4 ). − sin(n + 1/2)π (iii) Let f (z) = (sin z)/z 2 . ±1. e−iπ/4 . e−iπ/4 ) = = −iπ/2 −4i 4 4e 1 −i 1 −3iπ/4 Res(f. 0) = lim z 2 z→0 1 − z 2 z→0 z(1 − z ) 1 −1 −1 Res(f. Both sin z and cos z are differentiable on C. (n + 1/2)π) = sin(n + 1/2)π = −1.1(ii) we see that Res(f. so f (z) is differentiable except when the denominator is 0. Hence by Lemma 7.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. Hence there are simple poles at z = 0. 0) = 1. 1) = lim (z − 1) = lim = . Hence f has poles at z where cos z = 0. Res(f.e. Let z = reiθ .4. Hence r = 1 and 4θ = π + 2kπ. −1) = lim (z + 1) 2 z→−1 z(1 − z ) z→−1 z(1 − z) 2 (ii) Let f (z) = tan z = sin z/ cos z. z0 ) = z0 /4z03 = 1/4z02 so that −i 1 1 = = Res(f. Hence the four quartic roots of −1 are: eiπ/4 .4. Then z 4 = −1 implies that r 4 e4iθ = eiπ . These are all simple zeros of z 4 = −1.1(ii) we have that Res(f. eiπ/4 ) = 4i 4 4eiπ/2 i 1 1 = Res(f.e. Res(f. 2 z→1 z(1 − z ) z→1 z(1 + z) 2 1 −1 1 = lim = . This has poles when the denominator vanishes. there are poles at (n + 1/2)π. By considering the Taylor expansion of sin z around 0 we have that   1 z3 z5 sin z = + − ··· z− z2 z2 3! 5! 1 z z2 = − + − ···. the poles occur when z 2 = 0.1 (i) The function f (z) = 1/z(1 − z 2 ) is differentiable except when the denominator vanishes. e−3iπ/4 . z 3! 5! Hence z = 0 is a simple pole and Res(f.4. i. when z 4 = −1. Solutions to Part 7 Solution 7. e ) = = . n ∈ Z. To solve this equation. By Lemma 7. As sin z and z 2 are differentiable on C. e3iπ/4 ) = = 3π/2 −4i 4 4e i 1 1 = Res(f.1(i) we have 1 1 = lim = 1. i. Then by Lemma 7. e3iπ/4 . The denominator vanishes whenz = 0. we work in polar coordinates. These poles are simple (as (n + 1/2)π is a simple zero of cos z). Solutions to Part 7 14.

= 2 Res(f. z = 3. 3) = lim z→3 z − 2 z→3 (z − 2)(z − 3) Res(f. Then the poles occur when the denominator is zero.e.2 (with m = 2) we have that d (z − i)2 f (z) dz d (z + 1)2 lim z→i dz (z + i)2 2(z + i)2 (z + 1) − 2(z + 1)2 (z − i) lim z→i (z + i)4 2(2i)2 (i + 1) − 2(i + 1)2 (2i) (2i)4 −i . 2 Res(f. By Lemma 7.1(i) (z − 2) 1 = lim = −1 z→2 (z − 2)(z − 3) z→2 z − 3 1 (z − 3) = lim = 1. Hence Z 1 dz = 2πi Res(f. i) = lim z→i = = = = and d (z + i)2 f (z) z→−i dz d (z + 1)2 = lim z→−i dz (z − i)2 2(z − i)2 (z + 1) − 2(z + 1)2 (z − i) = lim z→−i (z − i)4 i . 3). 2) + 2πi Res(f. −i) = lim Solution 7. 2 − 5z + 6 z C4 Now by Lemma 7. Note that 1 1 = z 2 − 5z + 6 (z − 2)(z − 3) so that f has simple poles at z = 2. (z + i)2 (z − i)2 Hence the poles at z = ±i are poles of order 2. Note that we can write f (z) = (z + 1)2 . Res(f. Both of these poles are inside C4 . when z = ±i.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14.4. − 5z + 6 131 . Solutions to Part 7 (v) Let f (z) = (z + 1)2 /(z 2 + 1)2 .4.2 (i) Let f denote the integrand. 2) = Hence Z C4 z2 lim 1 dz = 2πi − 2πi = 0. i.

z→−i (z − i)(z + i) z→−i z − i 2i Res(f. Here z0 = 0. For all n ∈ Z the integrand has a simple pole at 1. −3. We have that Z Z 1 f (z) 1 1 dz = dz an = n+1 n+2 2πi Cr z 2πi Cr z (z − 1) where Cr is the circular path with centre 0 and radius r ∈ (0. . 2 C5/2 z − 5z + 6 (iii) Let f denote the integrand.. Hence Z 1 dz = 2πi Res(f. For n = −2. . 1). .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. (i) We calculate that Laurent series of f (z) = 1/z(z − 1) valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z| < 1}. i) = lim Hence Z C2 eaz dz = 2πi (Res(f. Hence. . an = 0 for n = −2. by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. It is straightforward to locate the singularities of the integrand. described once anticlockwise. −3. By Theorem 6. Solutions to Part 7 (ii) Here we have the same integrand as in (i) but integrated over the smaller circle C5/2 .3 P n Suppose f has Laurent series ∞ n=−∞ an (z − z0 ) valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | R1 < |z − z0 | < R2 }. 1 + z2 (z + i)(z − i) Hence f has simple poles at z = ±i. the integrand has no poles inside Cr when r < 1. −i) = lim = lim =− . where r is chosen such that R1 < r < R2 .1 the coefficients an are given by Z 1 f (z) an = dz 2πi Cr (z − z0 )n+1 where Cr is a circular path described anticlockwise centred at z0 and with radius r. i) + Res(f. For n ≥ −1. Now eia eaz (z − i)eaz = lim = z→i z + i z→i (z − i)(z + i) 2i az az (z + i)e e e−ia Res(f. the integrand also has a pole of order n + 2 at 0. This time only the pole z = 2 lies inside C5/2 . Choose r ∈ (0. 1). 2) = −2πi.2. the pole at 0 lies 132 . Solution 7. −i)) 1 + z2   ia e−ia e − = 2πi 2i 2i = 2πi sin a. . When n ≥ −1. Note that eaz eaz = . .

0 = lim z z→0 (n + 1)! dz n+1 z n+2 (z − 1) z n+2 (z − 1)   dn+1 1 1 = lim z→0 (n + 1)! dz n+1 z−1 1 1 = lim (−1)n (n + 1)! = −1. Hence f has Laurent series 1 f (z) = − − 1 − z − z 2 − z 3 − · · · z valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z| < 1}. by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. −3.      1 1   . . 1 = 1. Lemma 7.  Res n+2 z (z − 1) 133 . 0 + Res . . for n ≥ −1. Both of these poles lie inside Cr . Solutions to Part 7 inside Cr . for n = −2. a simple pole at z = 1 and. 0. by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. . a pole of order n + 2 at 0. the residue of the pole at 0. Here     1 1 dn+1 1 n+2 Res . 1.. We have already calculated. . Here z0 = 0 and an is given by Z 1 1 dz n+2 2πi Cr z (z − 1) where Cr is the circular path with centre 0 and radius r where r is now chosen such that r ∈ (1.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. an = −1 for n = −1. z→0 (n + 1)! (z − 1)n+1 Hence. 2. The residue of the pole at 1 is given by   1 1 . 1 = lim (z − 1) n+2 = 1. (ii) We calculate the Laurent series of f valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z| < ∞}.  Res n+2 (z − 1) z n+2 (z − 1)  z an = 1   .4. for n ≥ −1. for all n ∈ Z. . 1 = 0. 0 = −1 z n+2 (z − 1) for n ≥ −1. for example. Indeed.   1 Res . for n ≥ −1.2. . ∞). Res n+2 z→1 z (z − 1) z (z − 1) Hence. . We can calculate the residue of the integrand at 0 by using. We can check this directly by noting that 1 z(z − 1) = = = −1 z(1 − z) −1 (1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + · · ·) z −1 − 1 − z − z2 − z3 − · · · z valid for 0 < |z| < 1 (where we have used the sum to infinity of the geometric progression 1 + z + z 2 + · · · = 1/(1 − z)). The integrand has.

1 an = Res z(z − 1)n+2 for n ≥ −1. z−1 To check this directly. a simple pole at 0 and. = lim z→1 (n + 1)! z Hence f has Laurent series f (z) = 1 − 1 + (z − 1) − (z − 1)2 + (z − 1)3 − · · · . for n ≥ −1. Hence. Here z0 = 1 and an is given by Z Z 1 1 f (z) 1 an = dz = dz n+1 2πi Cr (z − 1) 2πi Cr z(z − 1)n+2 where Cr is the circular path with centre 1 and radius r. −3. a pole of order n + 2 at 1. where r is chosen such that r ∈ (0. . Solutions to Part 7 Hence f has Laurent series f (z) = 1 1 1 + 3 + 4 + ··· 2 z z z valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z| < ∞}. and   1 . for all n ∈ Z.2 we have that     1 dn+1 1 1 n+2 Res . −4. Using Lemma 7. described once anticlockwise. by summing the geometric progression.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. (iii) We calculate the Laurent series of f valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − 1| < 1}.1 = lim (z − 1) z→1 (n + 1)! dz n+1 z(z − 1)n+2 z(z − 1)n+2   dn+1 1 1 = lim z→1 (n + 1)! dz n+1 z 1 1 (n + 1)! n+2 (−1)n+1 = (−1)n+1 . The integrand has. To check this directly. . As < 1. it is convenient to change variables and let w = z − 1. 1). Hence   1 1 1 1 1  = 2 1 + + 2 + ··· = z(z − 1) z z z z 2 1 − z1 1 1 1 + + + ··· = z2 z3 z4 valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z| < ∞}. an = 0 for n = −2. only the pole at 1 lies inside Cr . by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. . first observe that  1− 1 z −1 =1+ 1 1 + + ··· z z2 provided that |z| > 1. Then  1 1 1 = = 1 − w + w2 − w3 + · · · z(z − 1) w(w + 1) w 134 .4.

. . Hence 1 z(z − 1) = = = = 1 w(w + 1) 1  2 w 1 + w1   1 1 1 1 1 − + 2 − 3 + ··· w2 w w w 1 1 1 − + − ··· w2 w3 w4 135 . Res z(z − 1)n+2 The residue of the pole at 0 is given by   1 1 Res . 1 = (−1)n . a simple pole at 0 and. ∞). Solutions to Part 7 where we have used the fact that 1 1 = = 1 − w + w2 − w3 + · · · . Hence f (z) = 1 − 1 + (z − 1) − (z − 1)2 + (z − 1)3 − · · · . (iv) We calculate the Laurent series of f valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z − 1| < ∞}. z(z − 1)n+2 Hence f has Laurent series f (z) = 1 1 1 − + − ··· 2 3 (z − 1) (z − 1) (z − 1)4 valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z − 1| < ∞}. Hence z0 = 1 and an is given by Z Z 1 1 f (z) 1 an = dz = dz 2πi Cr (z − 1)n+1 2πi Cr z(z − 1)n+2 where Cr is the circular path with centre 1 and radius r.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. z−1 valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 0 < |z − 1| < 1}. n+2 z→0 z(z − 1)n+2 z(z − 1) We can now calculate the coefficients an by using Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. We have already calculated that. for n ≥ −1. To see this directly we again change variables and let w = z − 1. Both of these poles lie inside Cr . . where r is chosen such that r ∈ (1. for all n ∈ Z. described once anticlockwise. for n ≥ 1. 0 = lim z = (−1)n+2 = (−1)n . When n ≥ −1 we have that     1 1 an = Res . 1 = (−1)n + (−1)n+1 = 0. a pole of order n + 2 at 1. 0 + Res . The integrand has.   1 . 1+w 1 − (−w) summing the geometric progression. 1 = (−1)n+1 . we have that  an = Res  1 . z(z − 1)n+2 z(z − 1)n+2 When n = −2. −3.

R] f = 2πi Res(f. Hence f (z) = 1 1 1 − + − ··· 2 3 (z − 1) (z − 1) (z − 1)4 valid on the annulus {z ∈ C | 1 < |z − 1| < ∞}. Let SR denote the semi-circular path Reit . On SR we have that |z 2 + 1| ≥ |z 2 | − 1 = R2 − 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ π and let ΓR = [−R. Only the pole at z = i lies inside ΓR (assuming that R > 1). i) = lim By Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. (ii) Let R > 1. By Lemma 7. Solution 7. Let f (z) = 1/(z 2 + 1). it follows that the integral is equal to its principal value. Hence by the Estimation Lemma.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. Hence 1/(x2 + 1) ≤ 1/x2 . Z Z Z f= f+ SR [−R. R] + SR denote the ‘D-shaped’ contour that travels along the real axis from −R to R and then travels around the semi-circle of centre 0 and radius R lying in the top half of the complex plane from R to −R. Solutions to Part 7 for |w| > 1.1.4 (a) (i) Note that x2 + 1 ≥ x2 .5. i) = 2πi ΓR 1 = π. . Then 1 1 = z2 + 1 (z + i)(z − i) so f has simple poles at z = ±i. 2i Now we show that the integral over SR tends to zero as R → ∞. Note that (z − i) 1 1 = lim = . by summing the geometric progression. z→i (z + i)(z − i) z→i z + i 2i Res(f.

Z .

.

.

πR 1 .

.

≤ f .

R2 − 1 length(SR ) = R2 − 1 → 0 .

) (b) (i) Let f (z) = e2iz /(z 2 + 1). SR as R → ∞. Note that when x is real .R] (Without using complex analysis. [−R. Hence Z ∞ −∞ 1 dx = lim 2 R→∞ x +1 Z f = π. you could have done this by noting that. in R. (x2 + 1)−1 has anti-derivative arctan x.

2ix .

.

e .

1 1 .

≤ |f (x)| = .

.

. 2 ≤ 2.

5.1. 136 . 2 x +1 |x + 1| x By Lemma 7. the integral is equal to its principal value.

On SR we have that |z 2 + 1| ≥ |z 2 | − 1 = |z|2 − 1 = R2 − 1. Z Z Z f= f+ SR [−R. let z = x + iy be a point on SR . 2i Now we show that the integral over SR tends to zero as R → ∞. Solutions to Part 7 Note that e2iz e2iz = +1 (z − i)(z + i) f (z) = z2 so that f has simple poles at z = ±i.1. i) = lim z→i z + i z→i (z − i)(z + i) 2i i −R R −i Figure 14. Then 0 ≤ y ≤ R. Res(f.1: The contour ΓR and the poles at ±i.R] f = 2πi Res(f. i) = 2πi ΓR e−2 = πe−2 .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. so −R ≤ −y ≤ 0 |e2iz | = |e2i(x+iy) | = |e−2y+2ix | = e−2y ≤ 1. Hence by the Estimation Lemma. Note that e−2 e2iz (z − i)e2iz = lim = . Let ΓR be the path as described in (a)(ii) above. Hence |f (z)| ≤ 1/(R2 − 1). By Cauchy’s Residue Theorem. Only the pole at z = i lies inside this contour. . See Figure 14. Also.

Z .

.

.

πR 1 .

f .

.

≤ 2 length(SR ) = 2 →0 .

1) .0. Hence Z ∞ −∞ e2ix dx = lim R→∞ x2 + 1 Z f = πe−2 .R] (ii) Taking real and imaginary parts in the above we see that Z ∞ Z ∞ sin 2x cos 2x −2 dx = πe . [−R. 2 2 −∞ x + 1 −∞ x + 1 137 (14. R −1 R −1 SR as R → ∞. dx = 0.

with SR as the semi-circle defined above.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. note that Z ∞ Z 0 Z ∞ sin 2x sin 2x sin 2x dx = dx + dx 2 2 x2 + 1 −∞ x + 1 −∞ x + 1 0 Z ∞ Z ∞ sin 2x sin 2x dx + dx = − 2+1 2+1 x x 0 0 = 0 where we have used the substitution x 7→ −x in the first integral. Suppose we tried to use the ‘D-shaped’ R∞ contour used in (ii) to calculate −∞ f (x) dx. Solutions to Part 7 That the latter integral is equal to zero is obvious and we do not need to use complex integration to see this. However. . if z = x + iy is a point on SR then. we would have to bound |f (z)| on SR in order to use the Estimation Lemma. Indeed. (iii) Now consider f (z) = e−2iz /(z 2 + 1). We still have the bound 1/|z 2 + 1| ≤ 1/(R2 − 1). Then. So. using the Estimation Lemma. |e−2i(x+iy) | = |e2y−2ix | = |e2y | ≤ e2R . noting that y ≤ R.

.

Z 2R .

.

e2R πR .

≤ e .

length(S ) = f R .

R2 − 1 .

R2 − 1 SR which does not tend to 0 as R → ∞ (indeed. We need to be careful about winding numbers and ensure that we travel around a contour in the correct direction to ensure that the contour is simple. −i) = lim Hence Z −Γ′R f = 2πi Res(f. z) = 0. moreover. −Γ′R is a simple closed loop and. so that Γ′R is not a simple closed loop. z) = −1. z→−i z − i z→−i (z + i)(z − i) 2i Res(f. The poles of f occur at z = ±i and both of these are simple poles. it tends to ∞). and then ′ lying in the bottom half of the plane. ′ described Instead. we use a ‘D-shaped’ contour with the ‘negative’ semi-circle SR by Re−it . however. Note that if z = x + iy is a point on SR then |z 2 + 1| ≥ |z|2 − 1 = R2 − 1 138 . If z is follows the negative semi-circle SR ′ ′ outside ΓR then w(ΓR . if z is inside Γ′R then w(Γ′R . Consider the contour Γ′R which starts at −R travels along the real axis to R. −i) = −πe−2 . Z Z Γ′R f =− f. The only pole inside Γ′R occurs at z = −i. Here e−2 e−2iz (z + i)e−2iz = lim =− .2. 0 ≤ t ≤ π. −Γ′R See Figure 14. However.

as −R ≤ y ≤ 0 |e−2iz | = |e2y−2ix | = |e2y | ≤ 1.2: The contours (i) Γ′R and (ii) −Γ′R and the poles at ±i. By the Estimation Lemma . Solutions to Part 7 i -R R -i (i) i -R R -i (ii) Figure 14. Hence |f (z)| ≤ 1/(R2 − 1) for z on Γ′R .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. Note that Γ′R is not a simple closed loop but that −Γ′R is. and.

.

Z .

.

1 πR .

.

′ f length(SR )= 2 →0 .

≤ .

.

S ′ .

R] + SR .5 We will use the same notation as above: SR denotes the positive semicircle with centre 0 radius R. Hence − Z R −R f (x) dx − and letting R → ∞ gives that Z ∞ −∞ Z f= ′ SR Z −Γ′R f = −πe−2 e−2ix dx = πe−2 . x2 + 1 Solution 7. 139 . R2 − 1 R −1 R as R → ∞. ΓR denotes the contour [−R.

Note that (x2 + 1)(x2 + 4) ≥ x4 so that |f (x)| ≤ 1/x4 . i 3)   1 1 = 2πi − √ 4i 4i 3   π 1 = . Then the poles at z = i. i 3) = = = = Hence Z f+ [−R. 1− √ 2 3 = ΓR Now we show that the integral over SR tends to 0 as R → ∞.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. √ Now f √ (z) has simple poles at z = ±i. Suppose R > 3. i) + Res(f. For z on SR we have that |(z 2 + 1)(z 2 + 3)| ≥ (|z|2 − 1)(|z|2 − 3) = (R2 − 1)(R2 − 3). Solutions to Part 7 (i) Let f (z) = 1/(z 2 + 1)(z 2 + 3). i) = lim z→i = = = √ Res(f. Now z−i (z 2 + 1)(z 2 + 3) 1 lim z→i (z + i)(z 2 + 3) 1 2i(−1 + 3) 1 4i √ z−i 3 lim√ 2 2 z→i 3 (z + 1)(z + 3) 1 √ lim√ 2 z→i 3 (z + 1)(z + i 3) 1 √ (−3 + 1)2i 3 −1 √ . ±i 3. Hence by Lemma 7. Hence by the Estimation Lemma .R] Z f SR Z f  √  = 2πi Res(f. i 3 are contained in the ‘D-shaped’ contour ΓR . 4i 3 Res(f.1 the integral converges and equals its principal value.5.

.

Z .

.

1 πR .

≤ .

f .

(R2 − 1)(R2 − 3) length(SR ) = (R2 − 1)(R2 − 3) → 0 .

SR as R → ∞.R] Z  (ii) Note that 28 + 11x2 + x4 = (x2 + 4)(x2 + 7). . Hence Z ∞ −∞ 1 = lim 2 (x + 1)(x2 + 3) R→∞ π f= 2 [−R. 140 1 1− √ 3  .

1 the integral converges and equals its principal value.R] Z f SR Z f  √  = 2πi Res(f. 2i) + Res(f. i 7)   1 1 = 2πi − √ 12i 6i 7   1 π 1 −√ . Note that (x2 + 4)(x2 + 7) ≥ x4 so that |f (x)| ≤ 1/x4 . Hence by the Estimation Lemma . i 7) = = = = z − 2i + 4)(z 2 + 7) 1 lim z→2i (z + 2i)(z 2 + 7) 1 4i(−4 + 7) 1 12i √ z−i 7 lim√ 2 2 z→i 7 (z + 4)(z + 7) 1 √ lim√ 2 z→i 7 (z + 4)(z + i 7) 1 √ (−7 + 4)2i 7 −1 √ . Now Res(f. = 3 2 7 = ΓR Now we show that the integral over SR tends to 0 as R → ∞. Solutions to Part 7 Let f (z) = 1/(z 2 + 4)(z 2 + 7). For z on SR we have that |(z 2 + 4)(z 2 + 7)| ≥ (|z|2 − 4)(|z|2 − 7) = (R2 − 4)(R2 − 7). i 7 are contained in the ‘D-shaped’ contour ΓR .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. 6i 7 lim z→2i (z 2 Hence Z f+ [−R. Suppose R > 7. ±i 7.5. Hence by Lemma 7. Then the poles at √ z = 2i. 2i) = = = = √ Res(f. √ √ Now f (z) has simple poles at z = ±2i.

Z .

.

.

1 πR .

f .

.

≤ length(SR ) = →0 .

.6 Let f (z) = eiz . z 2 + 4z + 5 141  1 1 −√ 2 7  .R] Z Solution 7. 2 2 2 (R − 4)(R − 7) (R − 4)(R2 − 7) SR as R → ∞. Hence Z ∞ −∞ 1 = lim 2 (x + 4)(x2 + 7) R→∞ π f= 3 [−R.

Now (z − (−2 + i))eiz z→−2+i (z − (−2 + i))(z − (−2 − i)) eiz = lim z→−2+i z − (−2 − i) Res(f.1 the integral −∞ f (x) dx exists and is equal to its principal value. . Hence by Lemma 7. |eiz | = |ei(x+iy) | = |e−y | ≤ 1. i. 2i f = 2πi ΓR  e−1−2i 2i  = πe−1 cos 2 − iπe−1 sin 2.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. only the pole at −2 + i lies inside ΓR . |z 2 + 4z + 5| ≥ |z|2 − 4|z| − 5 = R2 − 4R − 5. Solutions to Part 7 R∞ Then |f (x)| ≤ xC2 for some constant C > 0. −2 + i) = = = Hence Z f+ [−R. Let ΓR denote the ‘D-shaped’ contour [−R. − 4R + 5 By the Estimation Lemma. so e−y ≤ 1. at z = −2 ± i.5.e. Let z = x + iy be a point on SR . Both of these poles are simple. R] + SR . Then 0 ≤ y ≤ R. Now f (z) has poles when z 2 + 4z + 5 = 0. Provided R is sufficiently large. Also. Hence on SR |f (z)| ≤ R2 1 .R] Z f= SR Z lim ei(−2+i) −2 + i − (−2 − i) e−1−2i .

Z .

.

.

1 πR .

.

≤ f .

.

142 .R] f = πe−1 cos 2 − iπe−1 sin 2. ΓR denotes the contour [−R.5. Hence by Lemma 7. Taking the imaginary part we see that Z ∞ sin x π sin 2 dx = − . Hence lim Z R→∞ [−R. (z 2 + a2 )(z 2 + b2 ) that |f (x)| ≤ C/|x|3 for some constant C > 0. 2 e −∞ x + 4x + 5 Solution 7. R] + SR . We will actually integrate f (z) = zeiz . R2 − 4R + 5 length(SR ) = R2 − 4R + 5 → 0 SR as R → ∞.7 We use the same notation as above: SR denotes the positive semi-circle with centre 0 and radius R.1 the integral RNote ∞ −∞ f (x) dx exists and is equal to its principal value.

we have that |eiz | = |ei(x+iy) | = |e−y+ix | = |e−y | ≤ 1. Also. writing z = x + iy so that 0 ≤ y ≤ R. ib)) 2πi = (e−a − e−b ) 2 2(b − a2 ) provided that R > b. Now if z is a point on SR then |z| > R.R] (b2 πi (e−a − e−b ). (z − ib)zeiz z→ib (z − ib)(z + ib)(z 2 + a2 ) zeiz = lim z→ib (z + ib)(z 2 + a2 ) ibe−b = 2ib(−b2 + a2 ) −e−b .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. ia) + Res(f. ±ib. − a2 ) 143 . Solutions to Part 7 This has poles where the denominator vanishes.R] Z Z f dz = f dz ΓR SR = 2πi (Res(f. If R is taken to be larger than b then the poles inside ΓR occur at z = ia. = 2(b2 − a2 ) Res(f. i. and all of these poles are simple.e. Hence R |f (z)| ≤ . ib. We can calculate (z − ia)zeiz z→ia (z − ia)(z + ia)(z 2 + b2 ) zeiz = lim z→ia (z + ia)(z 2 + b2 ) iae−a = 2ia(b2 − a2 ) e−a = . at z = ±ia. ib) = lim Hence Z f dz + [−R. 2(b2 − a2 ) Res(f. ia) = lim Similarly. 2 2 (R − a )(R2 − b2 ) By the Estimation Lemma. Hence |(z 2 + a2 )(z 2 + b2 )| ≥ (|z|2 − a2 )(|z|2 − b2 ) = (R2 − a2 )(R2 − b2 ). Z R πR2 f (z) dz ≤ length(S ) = R (R2 − a2 )(R2 − b2 ) (R2 − a2 )(R2 − b2 ) SR which tends to zero as R → ∞. Hence Z f dz = [−R.

Hence by the Residue Theorem Z 2π 2 cos3 t + 3 cos2 t dt = 2πi 0 3 = 3π. 4 4 iz C 0 Now (z + z −1 )3 4 (z + z −1 )2 4 z 3 + 3z + 3z −1 + z −3 . + 6z 2 + 1 . (i) Substitute z = eit . Then dz = ieit dt = iz dt so that dt = dz/iz and [0. substitute z = eit . 2π] transforms to C.8 Denote by C the unit circle C(t) = eit . which is inside C. Also. Hence Z ∞ x cos x dx = 0. We can immediately read off the residue at z = 0 as the coefficient of 1/z. cos t = (z + z −1 )/2. 2π] transforms to C. 2 2 2 2 −∞ (x + a )(x + b ) This is obvious as the integrand is an even function. Solutions to Part 7 By taking the imaginary part. 4 = = Hence Z 2π 2 cos3 t + 3 cos2 t dt 0   Z 1 1 3 3 3 3 2z z 2 = + + 2+ + + + dz. 2 2 2 2 (b − a2 ) −R (x + a )(x + b ) (As a check to see if we have made a mistake. and no other poles. 2i (ii) As before. Then dt = dz/iz.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. 4z 4 4z 3 4z 2z 4 4 4 C i Now the integrand has a pole of order 4 at z = 0. note that the real part is zero. namely 3/2i. cos t = (z + z −1 )/2 and [0. we see that Z R x sin x π dx = 2 (e−a − e−b ). Hence  Z  Z 2π (z + z −1 )3 3(z + z −1 )2 dz 3 2 2 cos t + 3 cos t dt = + . 4 3z 2 + 6 + 3z −1 . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. and so must integrate (from −∞ to ∞) to zero. Hence Z Z Z 2π 1 dz 4z 1 1 dt = = dz 2 −1 2 4 1 + cos t i C z + 6z 2 + 1 C 1 + (z + z ) /4 iz 0 Let f (z) = z4 144 4z .) Solution 7.

Hence there are poles at z = ±i 3 − 2 2 that lie inside C. Hence the poles at z = ±i 3 + 2p 2 lie outside C. i 3 − 2 2 p √ (z − i 3 − 2 2)4z p p lim √ √ √ √ √ z→i 3−2 2 (z − i 3 − 2 2)(z + i 3 − 2 2)(z 2 − (−3 − 2 2)) 4z p lim √ √ √ √ z→i 3−2 2 (z + i 3 − 2 2)(z 2 − (−3 − 2 2)) p √ 4i 3 − 2 2 p √ √ √ 2i 3 − 2 2(−3 + 2 2 + 3 + 2 2) 1 √ 2 2 = = = = and  q √ Res f.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. −i 3 − 2 2 i   1 1 √ + √ 2π 2 2 2 2 √ 2π. −i 3 − 2 2  = = = = p √ (z + i 3 − 2 2)4z p p lim √ √ √ √ √ z→−i 3−2 2 (z + i 3 − 2 2)(z − i 3 − 2 2)(z 2 − (−3 − 2 2)) 4z p lim √ √ √ √ z→−i 3−2 2 (z − i 3 − 2 2)(z 2 − (−3 − 2 2)) p √ −4i 3 − 2 2 p √ √ √ −2i 3 − 2 2(−3 + 2 2 + 3 + 2 2) 1 √ . The denominator is a quadratic in z 2 and we can find the zeros by the quadratic formula. Solutions to Part 7 This has poles where the denominator vanishes. Both of these poles are simple. i 3 − 2 2 + Res f. Hence f (z) has poles where √ √ −6 ± 36 − 4 2 z = = −3 ± 2 2. Note that √ √ −1 < −3 + 2 2 < 0. 145 . We have that   q √ Res f. 2 2 Hence Z 2π 0 = = = = 1 dt 1 + cos2 t Z 4z 1 dz 4 i C z + 6z 2 + 1   q    q √ √ 1 2πi Res f. 2 p √ √ Now −3 − 2 2 < −1.

z 3 45 945 Hence 2π 5 z 1 π π3 cot πz − − ··· = 5− 3− 4 z πz 3z 45z 945 so that z = 0 is a pole of order 5 and we can read off the residue as the coefficient of 1/z. is simple and by Lemma 7. . .9 Let 1 cos πz cot πz = 4 z4 z sin πz Then f has poles when the denominator vanishes.5. The poles at z = −N. . 0) = −π 3 /45. Solutions to Part 7 Solution 7.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. poles at z = n. length(CN ) = 4(2N + 1). Consider the square contour CN described in §7. Hence. n ∈ Z. we use the expansion for cot z: cot z = 1 z z3 2z 5 − − − − ···. Hence Res(f. π n4 45 −1 X ! n=1 By Lemma 7.5.2.1(ii) we have that f (z) = 1 cos πn = . The pole at z = n.4. n) f = 2πi CN n=−N N π3 X 1 1 + − = 2πi πn4 45 n=1 πn4 n=−N ! N 2X 1 π3 = 2πi − . . N lie inside CN . . by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem Z N X Res(f. 4 + n π cos πn πn4 Res(f. 4 |z| N Also.4. . 0. . .e. . i. we have for z on CN |f (z)| ≤ M M ≤ 4. n 6= 0. n) = 4n3 sin πn When z = 0. By the Estimation Lemma.

.

Z .

4M (2N + 1) .

.

≤ .

→0 f .

.

If we write f (z) = z −3 cot πz then Res(f. n) = 1/πn3 for n 6= 0 and Res(f. N4 CN as N → ∞. = n4 90 n=1 P∞ (This method doesn’t work for n=1 1/n3 . Summing over the residues we get N X n=−N −1 N X X 1 1 1 = + +0 3 3 πn πn πn3 n=−N 146 n=1 . Hence N 2X 1 π3 =0 − 4 N →∞ π n 45 n=1 lim and rearranging this gives ∞ X π4 1 . 0) = 0.

sin iz = i sinh z.1(ii) to see that Res(f. a 6= 0. We can calculate Res(f.e.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. there is no P 3 . Suppose we took a square contour that just enclosed the poles at the positive integers. as (−n)3 = n3 . N + + iN.) 147 . In fact. n) = cos πn 1 = . Res(f.) known closed formula for ∞ 1/n n=1 Solution 7. This is because f (z) does not have a pole at z = 0 and so we have a simple pole at z = 0 for f (z) cot πz. i. we use Lemma 7. See http://en. n ∈ Z. So the residues on the negative integers cancel with the residues at the positive integers. z 2 + a2 As f (z) = (z 2 cos πz + a2 ) sin πz this has poles where the denominator vanishes. − iN.wikipedia. Solutions to Part 7 and the first two terms cancel. N + − iN 2 2 2 2 (draw a picture!) then we cannot bound f (z) on the Redge from 21 + iN. say a square contour with corners at 1 1 1 1 + iN. These poles are all simple.10 Let f (z) = cot πz .4. 2 2 2 2n sin πn + (n + a )π cos πn π(n + a2 ) (Note that unlike in the previous question this is valid for z = 0 as well.org/wiki/Apery’s constant. 21 − iN in such a way that the Estimation Lemma will then ensure that | f | tends to zero. Similarly. poles at z = ±ia and at z = n. ia) = = = = = (z − ia) cos πz (z − ia)(z + ia) sin πz cos πz lim z→ia (z + ia) sin πz cos iπa 2ia sin iπa cosh πa −2a sinh πa − coth πa 2a lim z→ia using the facts that cos iz = cosh z. 2a lim For z = n. −ia) = = = = = (z + ia) cos πz z→−ia (z + ia)(z − ia) sin πz cos πz lim z→−ia (z − ia) sin πz cos(−iπa) −2ia sin(−iπa) cosh πa −2a sinh πa − coth πa .

3. . ia (if N > |a|). . . Hence by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem ! Z N X Res(f. . ia) + Res(f. If N > |a| then CN encloses the poles at z = −N. . Solutions to Part 7 ia −(N + 1) −N −1 0 1 N N +1 −ia Figure 14. 0. n) + Res(f.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. . −1. N and at −ia. .4. 1. .2. see Figure 14. N and z = ±ia. . Let CN denote the square contour as described in §7.5. . 0. . .3: The contour CN encloses the poles at −N. . . Hence. and the Estimation Lemma we have that . by the bound on cot πz from Lemma 7. .5. . −ia) f = 2πi CN n=−N = 2πi N X n=−N coth πa coth πa 1 − − 2 2 π(n + a ) 2a 2a ! −1 X ! N X 1 1 1 1 = 2πi + + − coth πa π(n2 + a2 ) πa2 π(n2 + a2 ) a n=1 n=−N ! N X 1 1 1 + 2 − coth πa = 2πi 2 2 + a2 ) π(n πa a n=1 Note that if z is on CN then |z 2 + a2 | ≥ |z|2 − a2 ≥ N 2 − a2 .

Z .

.

.

4M (2N + 1) .

f .

.

≤ .

which tends to zero as N → ∞. Hence ! N X 1 1 1 lim 2πi 2 + − coth πa = 0 N →∞ π(n2 + a2 ) πa2 a n=1 148 . N 2 − a2 CN (as length(CN ) = 4(2N + 1)).

1(i).12 (i) Note that ex < 1 + ex so that 1/(1 + ex ) < 1/ex .5. 1 + ex As a ∈ (0. Hence e(a−1)x R ∞ ≤ C/x . By Lemma 7. we have that a − 1 < 0. 0) = lim z z→0 ez = lim ez = 1. 149 . provided x > 1. As z moves along C1 . we have that t varies between 0 and 2π.1 hold so that −∞ f (x) dx exists and is equal to the principal value RR limR→∞ −R f (x) dx. Hence f (z) has a simple pole at z = 0. Solution 7.11 (i) Let f (z) = ez /z. 0) = 2πi.4. we can choose C > 0 such 2 that x2 ≤ Ce(1−a)x .MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. Z ez dz 2πi = C1 z Z 2π cos t+i sin t e = ieit dt it e 0 Z 2π = i ecos t+i sin t dt 0 Z 2π = i ecos t ei sin t dt 0 Z 2π ecos t (cos(sin t) + i sin(sin t)) dt = i 0 Z 2π Z 2π cos t ecos t cos(sin t) dt e sin(sin t) dt + i = − 0 0 Comparing real and imaginary parts gives the claimed integrals. Hence the hypotheses of Lemma 7. Solutions to Part 7 and rearranging this gives ∞ X n=1 n2 1 1 π coth πa − 2 . noting that z = eit = cos t + i sin t. Note that ez is holomorphic and non-zero on C and that 1/z is holomorphic on C except at z = 0 where it has a simple pole. z→0 z Noting that 0 lies inside C1 . Note that. Cauchy’s Residue Theorem tells us that Z ez dz = 2πi Res(f. 1). Hence eax ≤ e(a−1)x . we have Res(f. = 2 +a 2a 2a Solution 7. C1 z (ii) Let z = eit . Then dz = ieit dt = iz dt. Hence. if x > 1.

we have q ′ ((2k + 1)πi) = −1 6= 0. So (2k + 1)πi is a simple zero of q. −R ≤ t ≤ R and γ2.4. for each k ∈ Z. The contour ΓR winds once around the 3πi γ3 πi γ4 γ2 γ1 −R R Figure 14. q(z) = 1 + ez . Then Z f= γ1. Solutions to Part 7 (ii) Let f (z) = eaz /(1+ez ). it follows that (2k + 1)πi is a simple pole.R (t) starts at R + 2πi and ends at −R + 2πi). Taking the modulus we have that ex = 1. Hence.4. The solutions of eiy = −1 are precisely y = (2k + 1)π. k ∈ Z. −R ≤ t ≤ R (note that γ2. Hence f has singularities at z = (2k + 1)πi.R (t) = t. ΓR (iv) Choose the parametrisations γ1. Let z = x + iy.R Z 150 R −R eat dt 1 + et . so x = 0. As p((2k + 1)πi) 6= 0. the residue at πi is p(πi)/q ′ (πi) = −eaπi . From Lemma 7.4: The poles of f (z) = eaz /(1 + ez ) and the contour ΓR . Write f (z) = p(z)/q(z) with p(z) = eaz . Z f = 2πi Res(f. Then f is holomorphic except when the denominator vanishes. k ∈ Z. by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. pole at πi but not around any other pole. The denominator vanishes precisely when ex+iy = −1.4. As q ′ (z) = ez .1(ii). (iii) The contour ΓR is illustrated in Figure 14. The locations of the poles are illustrated in Figure 14. πi) = −2πie−aπi .R (t) = −t + 2πi.

2 we have |ea(R+it) | eaR ≤ R+it | eR − 1 t∈[0.R Z R −R ea(−t+2πi) (−1) dt 1 + e−t+2πi R ea(s+2πi) ds (substituting s = −t) s+2πi −R 1 + e Z R eas 2πia = −e ds s −R 1 + e Z f. Then.R ) = 2π.2 then z = R + it for some 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. Hence.2π] |1 + e |f (z)| ≤ sup (where we have used the reverse triangle inequality to bound the denominator). by the Estimation Lemma. .R (v) First note that length(γ2. Solutions to Part 7 and Z f = γ2. If z is a point on γR.MATH20101 Complex Analysis 14. for z on γR. = −e2πia = − Z γ1.

.

Z .

.

2πeaR .

.

f.

≤ R →0 .

.

γ2.R .

for z on γR. by the Estimation Lemma. e − 1 as R → ∞.4 is similar. as 0 < a < 1. −R+it | 1 − e−R t∈[0.R ) = 2π.4 then z = −R + it for some 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.2π] |1 + e |f (z)| ≤ sup Hence. length(γ4.4 we have e−aR |ea(−R+it) | ≤ . Again. . The case of γR. If z is a point on γR. Then.

.

Z .

.

2πe−aR .

.

f.

≤ →0 .

.

R . γ4.

R eax dx + 1 + ex Z Z f γ4.R 2πia = (1 − e ) f+ γ2.R f+ γ2.R Letting R → 0 and using part (v) we see that Z R eax 2πieaπi π lim . dx = − = x 2πia R→∞ −R 1 + e 1−e sin πa 151 Z γ4.R f. .R Z R −R Z f+ γ3. (vi) By parts (iii) and (iv) we know that Z f −2πieaπi = ΓR Z Z f+ = γ1. as 0 < a < 1. 1 − e−R as R → ∞.