3D Printing Technology

16/02/2015

Pranshu Purwar
Healthcare / 3D Printing
pranshu.purwar@tcs.com

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...........................................6 Nanofactory 3D Printing .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 4...............1 Bioprinting tissues and Organs ................................................................................................................... 7........................ History of 3D Printing ...............................................................................................................................................Table of Content 1...........1 Safety and Security Issues .........................................14 7.......................................................................................................................................................3 Selective Laser Sintering .......................................................................................................................................2 Minimal Cost ..........1 Stereo Lithography ........................... 16 9............................................................................3 Patent and Copyright concerns ....................................18 3 ...........................................................10 Benefits of 3D Printing in Medical Applications ........................................ 11 5..........................................................................................................13 6.......................................................11 5................................. ..12 6.......................................................................................................................................... Applications ...........................................................................................................................................................................1 What is 3D Printing and How it works ? ........................................................ Conclusion .......................................................5 Multi jet Modelling ....................................................... 9 4........................................................................... 7 3................................................................................................................................2 Unrealistic Expectation and Hype .........................................12 6................................................................14 7....... 9 4...................................................... 4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Methods and Technologies used in 3D Printing ................................................................................................................................17 11.................................................................................................... 9 4............................................................ 9 4....... References ..................................................... Types of Materials Used .............................................................................................. Future Trends ............................................... 9 5.............................................15 8.....................................................................2 Challenges faced.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Customised Implants and Prosthetics .......................................13 Barriers and Controversies ...... 16 10.................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Enhanced Productivity.......... 6.................10 4.........2 Fuse Deposition Modelling ................1 Customisation and Personalisation ..................................................................................................................................................4 Thermal Inkjet Printing ............5 1.................................................................................................................11 Medical Application for 3D Printing .....5 2.............................................................................................................11 5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Introduction to 3D Printing ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 7....................................................................................................

Healthcare 3D Printing Technology 4 .

1 What is 3D Printing and how it works? The process includes making a virtual design of the object which we want to create. This prepared file is then uploaded in the 3D printer to create the desired object layer by layer.1. This virtual design of the object is generally made in a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file using a 3D modelling program for the creation of a totally new object or with the use of a 3D scanner to copy an existing object. This process is also known as rapid prototyping technique where 3D objects are efficiently made on a proper size of machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object which we want to create. 3D Printers are the machines which will generally produce physical 3D models from digital data having layer by layer printing of the object. aerospace. Physical models of the objects can be made either by designing with a CAD program or through scanning with a 3D Scanner. The digital file is prepared through the software which slices the final model into thousands of horizontal layers. 1. industrial design. education and dental and medical industries. 5 . finally resulting in one three dimensional object. A single specific layer can be seen as a thin sliced horizontal cross-section of the actual object. Introduction 3D printing is a kind of additive manufacturing technology of making a solid object of virtually any shape from the digital model by depositing few or more successive layers of material one over the another layer until the entire object is created. Acetone. construction and engineering. automotive. Sanding. Polishing is used for finishing the print. footwear. 3D scanner makes a 3D digital copy of an object and same will be converted into a 3D modelling program. The 3D printer reads every 2D slice and proceeds to create the object by combining each layer together without any cracks or visible layering. This technique can be used in a variety of industries including architecture.

STL file Step-2 – Virtual Slicing in the horizontal manner Step-3 – Printing the object layer by layer 6 .Additive Manufacturing – Creates object through a sequential layering process Step-1 – From CAD Model to .

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another technology named as 3D Printing techniques. In 2006. 7 . which is similar to the inkjet technology used in 2D printers. In 2005. which was the first high definition color 3D Printer in the market.2. Actua 2100 from 3D Systems and Z402 from Z Corporation. In 1996. which is a self-replicating 3D printer. The technology was first developed by Charles Hull in 1984 for printing the physical 3D objects from digital data. subtractive methods to create the object have introduced first. Similar technologies like Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were also introduced in 1990’s. were introduced. three major products. In 1993. the object is created in exact shapes and sizes with extremely high precision and accuracy from filing and turning through milling and grinding. History of 3D Printing In the history of manufacturing. In subtractive technique. Z Corporation launched Spectrum Z510. Genesys from Stratasys. Reprap was developed. He named the technique as Stereo lithography and obtained a patent for the technique in 1986.

available in 9 colours.9 ABS M30 Production grade plastic engineered for moderate requirement parts. Toxicity) certified high performance plastic.6 PPSF/PPSU It has highest heat resistance property of any FDM thermoplastic that can also create strong chemical resistant and sterilisable parts. 8 . 3. available in 6 colours. fixtures and carriers.3 PC Made with engineering plastic generally built for manufacturing tools.1 ABS Plus Made with standard thermoplastics. available in 1 colour only.8 FDM Nylon-12 Toughest material in 3D printing industry with superior strength and high fatigue resistance. Smoke. 3. 3. 3. available in 1 colour only.3.7 ABS ESD7 This is made from static dissipative plastic. 3. Types of Material Used Materials can be selected based on the requirements needed to design the object having many different properties such as toughness.5 PC-ISO It is a bio-compatible thermoplastic used in medical. available in 2 colours. 3. most commonly used for aerospace and automotive 3D printing. 3. 3. usually available in 1 colour only.2 PC-ABS It possess the strength and heat resistance of PC with the flexibility of ABS. There were many other standard materials used for prototyping and design verification to high performance material were used in areas where demands are more rigorous. translucence. pharmaceutical and food packaging industries. 3. bio-compatibility etc. automotive and medical requirements. such as aerospace engineering.4 ULTEM 9085 FST (Flame.

a hot thermoplastic is made out from a temperature-controlled print head to design objects with a high degree of accuracy. Here droplet deposition is usually done by using heat or mechanical compression to eject the ink drops. Within the process. An SLS printer uses powdered material as the substrate for printing new objects.4 Thermal Inkjet Printing Inkjet printing is a noncontact technique that uses thermal. another slice is traced out and hardened by the laser and slice is then created and process continues further until a complete object will be printed.1 Stereo Lithography Stereo lithographic 3D printers are also known as SLAs uses photo reactive resins at the surface of liquid photo curable polymer. durability. It has a very streamlined development process. FDM printers can use a variety of plastics which have similar stability. ceramic. An FDM printer uses a print head similar to an inkjet printer but beads of heated plastic are released from the print head rather than using ink and the object is built into thin layers. electromagnetic. After that a new layer of powder is laid down and the process is repeated to create each layer one after another to form the object. plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to an extrusion nozzle. It is done by using a resin known as liquid photopolymer that hardens when comes in contact with the air. metal and nylon.2 Fuse Deposition Modelling (FDM) The process is generally known as material extrusion.4. This process is repeated over and over. and mechanical strength. In this process. A UV laser beam is made incident which used to trace the first slice of an object on the surface of this liquid resulting in a very thin layer of photopolymer to harden. This process is used to make functional parts having a high strength basically at industrial level. The nozzle is then heated to melt the material and can be moved horizontally and vertically. Methods and Technologies of 3D Printing 4. or piezoelectric technology to deposit tiny droplets actual ink or other materials onto a substrate. 4. 4. Initially '3D Printer' term was not used and the machine was known as the Stereo lithography apparatus.3 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) In this technology powder as a base material is used and an object is created by using a laser and object is made by fusing together successive layers of a cocktail of powdered wax. This simple concept is also used in bio-printing to create organs. similar resistive properties. Thermal Inkjet printers are specifically used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine having the advantage of precision. 4. A laser draws the shape of the object in the powder and fuses the object together. and ceramic objects. control. FDM printers are relatively cheap than the SLS printers. plastic. In a similar way. to shape each layer and transforming a new object. Laser sintering can be used to create metal. 9 .

object is built from successive layers of powder. 10 .5 Multi-Jet Modelling In this process.6 Nanofactory 3D printing The Nanofactory 3D printing technologies are also introduced now a days that are related to Nanotechnologies. and a print head that glues only the required granules together to form the required object.4. 4.

Generally objects can be prepared within a day with enough quality and accuracy.3 Enhanced Productivity 3D printed objects can be created fast saving a lot of time in design and implementation. 11 . 3D Printers also enable surgeons to rapidly produce inexpensive 3D models to obtain better case information about the Patient’s problems by effective organ studies to reduce operating time.2 Minimal Cost 3D printing technology is very much appreciated to produce objects cheaply. 5. In addition. the use of 3D printing to customize prosthetics and implants can provide benefits for patients and physicians as well. Benefits of 3D Printing in Medical Applications 5. For example.1 Customisation and Personalisation 3D printers provide many advantages in medical applications like producing self-made medical products and equipment.5. implants. and surgical tools can have a positive impact in terms of the success of the surgery or implant related to cost and time. Some drugs may also be printed in dosage forms that are easier and more cost-effective to deliver to patients. 3D printing can also reduce manufacturing costs by decreasing the use of unnecessary resources. This makes 3D printing technology much faster than traditional methods of making items such as prosthetics and implants a long delivery time. used for spinal. dental disorders. This is especially advantageous for companies that have low production or that produce products that are highly complex or require frequent modifications in their manufacturing and design. This fits very much true for smallsized standard implants or prosthetics. 5. enhance patient and physician communication and improve patient related issues.

12 . creating prosthetics. inkjet-based bio-printing is most common. Organ printing takes advantage of 3D printing technology to produce cells. Researchers have used 3D printers to create a knee meniscus. Another issue is that organ transplantation involves the often difficult task of finding a donor who has a tissue match. Some applications are discussed below : 6. Complex 3D organs designed from bio-printing will require precise multicellular structures with vascular network integration. eyeglasses. implants and pharmaceutical research concerning drug discovery. and an artificial ear. ears. skeletons. Recently 3D printing is applied to produce bones. heart valve. muscle. tissues and organs. diseases. as well as drug delivery devices. This problem could likely be eliminated by using cells taken from the organ transplant patient’s own body to build a replacement organ. Current treatment related to organ failure relies mostly on organ transplants from living or deceased donors. windpipes. delivery. or extrusion-based. and dosage forms. stem cells. in which laser energy is used to excite the cells in a particular pattern. always there is a shortage of human organs available for transplant. blood vessels. accidents. biomaterials etc. cells). and birth defects is a critical medical problem. layer by layer. As we all know. when the technology was first used to make dental implants and custom prosthetics. other types of cartilage and bone. 6. 3D bio-printing systems can be laser-based. directly creates 3D tissue-like structures. spinal disk. blood vessel.6. Multiple print heads can be used to deposit different cell types (organ-specific. Various materials are available to build the organs or structures based on the desired strength required and type of tissue involved. Soft tissues are generally prepared with hydrogels. This method deposits bio-ink droplets of living cells or biomaterials onto a substrate to reproduce human tissues or organs. cell cultures. This ensures to minimize the risk of tissue rejection. inkjet-based. Laser printers have also been introduced in the cell printing process. a jaw bone. which has not yet been done.1 Bio-printing Tissues and Organs Tissue or organ failure due to aging. The current medical uses of 3D printing can be organized into several broad categories: tissue and organ fabrication. Medical Applications for 3D Printing 3D printing has been applied in medicine since the early 2000s.2 Challenges faced At present bio-printing have been performed successfully only for simple organs.

This approach has been used to fabricate dental. liver. and hip implants. 3D printing has been used successfully in the healthcare sector to make both standard and complex customized prosthetic limbs and surgical implants.3 Customised Implants and Prosthetics Implants and prosthetics can be made possible through the translation of x-ray. surgeons had to perform bone surgeries or sometimes there arises need for drill to modify implants by shaving pieces of metal and plastic to a desired shape and size. which is normally provided by blood vessels. spinal. and more recently implants have even been printed with live cells. and heart. Previously. such as the kidney. where standard implants are often not sufficient for some patients. or CT scans into digital .Most organs needed for transplantation are thick and complex. The ability to quickly produce custom implants and prostheses solves a clear and persistent problem in orthopaedics. 13 . Cells in these large organ structures cannot maintain their metabolic functions without vascularization. 6. There is a growing trend toward making 3D-printed implants out of a variety of metals and polymers. In this way. MRI.stl 3D print files. particularly in complex cases.

a functioning plastic handgun had been 3D printed and this may resist the growth and positive benefits of 3D printing in future years. 3D printers have already been employed for criminal purposes. or commercial sale.2 Unrealistic Expectations and Hype There are many unrealistic projections and expectations aroused by the media. and trademark law for decades. 7. However. and even researchers. Barriers and Controversies 7.7. especially regarding how soon some of the more exciting possibilities—such as organ printing—will become a reality. non-profit distribution. governments. and time for the technology to evolve into the anticipated applications. there is limited experience regarding how these laws should apply to the use of 3D printing by individuals to manufacture items for personal use. In 2012. such as printing illegal items like guns and gun magazines. money. 7. 3D printing will require vision. master keys. copyright.3 Patent and Copyright Concerns Manufacturing applications of 3D printing have been subject to patent.1 Safety and Security Issues 3D printing has given rise to safety and security issues that merit serious concern. 14 . These occurrences have highlighted the lack of regulation of 3D printing technology. Although work is in progress and they are not expected to happen soon. industrial design. and ATM skimmers.

Few leading applications are pre-surgical planning. Other applications would include replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology. metal casting. surface finish. such as liver and kidney tissues. resolution. and drugs. Due to challenges in printing vascular networks. Other challenges with 3D printing includes unreliability of machines. mechanical properties. As the technology advances. 3D printing technology was being studied by biotechnology firms and academies for possible use in tissue engineering applications where organs and body part designing will become possible using inkjet techniques. 9. 3D surface scanning. powerful patient presentation tool. as well as printed tissue and organ models for use in drug discovery. reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology and reconstructing heavily damaged body parts. through its use in customizing nutritional products. healthcare and entertainment/retail. geospatial. architecture. education. environmental concerns. it is expected that complex heterogeneous tissues. prototyping/CAD. 3D printing is expected to be especially common in pharmacy settings. the reality of printed organs is still pending for near future. bio-printing. This will open the door to making viable live implants.8. The most advanced 3D printing application is the bio-printing of complex organs. Several terms have been used to refer this field of research like: organ printing. speed. Future Trends 3D printing is expected to play an important role in the trend toward personalized medicine. organs. post processing. Applications Applications include design visualization. will be fabricated successfully. custom implant manufacture. and computer-aided tissue engineering. still we are only restricted to making shapes. 15 .

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the demand of 3D printed organs. including medicine and healthcare related applications. and available materials have increased.10. 17 . resolution. Conclusion 3D printing has become a useful and potentially transformative tool in a number of different fields. As printer performance. The medical advances that have been made using 3D printing are already significant and exciting but applications such as organ printing will need time to evolve in future. tissues and their purposeful applications is also increasing day by day. Researchers continue to improve existing medical applications that use 3D printing technology and to explore new ones.

net 18 .osteo3d.edu http://www.com/3dprinting.org http://3dprinting.11.wikipedia. References http://www.slideshare.explainingthefuture.academia.html http://en.com https://www.com http://www.

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