1.

There are ______________ Internet service
providers.
A) regional B) local
C) national and international D) all of the
above
2. ______ refers to the physical or logical
arrangement of a network.
A) Topology B) Mode of operation
C) Data flow
D) None of the above
3. A ______ is a data communication system
spanning states, countries, or the whole world.
A) MAN B) WAN
C) LAN D) none of the above
4. A _______ connection provides a dedicated
link between two devices.
A) primary
B) multipoint
C) point-to-point
D) secondary
5. Which topology requires a multipoint
connection?
A) Bus B) Star C) Mesh
D) Ring
6. A ________ is a set of rules that governs data
communication.
A) Protocol B) forum
C) standard
D) none of the above
7. In a ______ connection, two and only two
devices are connected by a dedicated link.
A) multipoint
B) point-to-point
C) (a) and (b) D) none of the above
8. The information to be communicated in a
data communications system is the _______.
A) Medium
B) Protocol
C) Message
D) Transmission
9. ________ defines how a particular pattern to
be interpreted, and what action is to be taken
based on that interpretation.
A) Syntax
B) Semantics
C) Timing
D) None of the above
10. Frequency of failure and network recovery
time after a failure are measures of the
_______of a network.
A) Performance B) Security
C) Reliability
D) Feasibility
11. A television broadcast is an example of
_______ transmission.
A) half-duplex B) simplex
C) full-duplex D) automatic
12. Data flow between two devices can occur in
a _______ way.
A) simplex
B) half-duplex
C) full-duplex D) all of the above

13. _______ are special-interest groups that
quickly test, evaluate, and standardize new
technologies.
A) Standards organizations B) Regulatory
agencies
C) Forums
D) All of the above
14. Which agency developed standards for
physical connection interfaces and electronic
signaling specifications?
A) ISO B) ITU-T C) ANSI D) EIA
15. A _______ is a data communication system
within a building, plant, or campus, or between
nearby buildings.
A) LAN B) MAN C) WAN D) none of the above
16. _______ refers to two characteristics: when
data should be sent and how fast it can be
sent.
A) Semantics B) Timing
C) Syntax
D) none of the above
17. This was the first network.
A) CSNET
B) NSFNET
C) ARPANET
D) ANSNET
18. Devices may be arranged in a _____
topology.
A) mesh B) ring C) bus D) all of the above
19. _______ is the protocol suite for the current
Internet.
A) UNIX B) NCP C) TCP/IP D) ACM
20. ________ is a collection of many separate
networks.
A) A WAN B) An internet
C) A LAN D) None of the above
21. In a ________ connection, three or more
devices share a link.
A) point-to-point
B) multipoint
C) (a) and (b) D) none of the above
22. Which organization has authority over
interstate and international commerce in the
communications field?
A) FCC B) IEEE C) ITU-T D) ISOC
23. In the original ARPANET, _______ were
directly connected together.
A) routers
B) host computers
C) networks
D) IMPs
24. Communication between a computer and a
keyboard involves ______________ transmission.
A) simplex
B) half-duplex
C) full-duplex D) automatic

25. Which topology requires a central controller
or hub?
A) Mesh
B) Bus C) Star D) Ring
26. The _______ is the physical path over which
a message travels.
A) Protocol B) Signal C) Medium
D) All
the above
27. In a _______ connection, more than two
devices can share a single link.
A) multipoint
B) point-to-point
C) primary
D) secondary
28. _______ refers to the structure or format of
the data, meaning the order in which they are
presented.
A) Semantics B) Syntax
C) Timing
D) All of the above
29. An unauthorized user is a network _______
issue.
A) Security
B) Reliability
C) Performance D) All the above
30. ________ is an idea or concept that is a
precursor to an Internet standard.
A) RCF B) ID
C) RFC D) none of the above
31. In _______ transmission, the channel
capacity is shared by both communicating
devices at all times.
A) simplex
B) half-duplex
C) full-duplex D) half-simplex
1. The ______ layer adds a header to the packet
coming from the upper layer that includes the
logical addresses of the sender and receiver.
A) data link
B) network
C) physical
D) none of the above
2. Which of the following is an application layer
service?
A) File transfer and access
B) Mail service
C) Remote log-in
D) All the
above
3. When data are transmitted from device A to
device B, the header from A's layer 4 is read by
B's _______ layer.
A) Transport B) Application
C) Physical
D) None of the above
4. __________ provides full transport layer
services to applications.
A) UDP
B) TCP
C) ARP
D) none of the above
5. The process-to-process delivery of the entire
message is the responsibility of the _______
layer.
A) Transport B) Application

C) Physical

D) Network

6. The ______ layer is responsible for moving
frames from one hop (node) to the next.
A) transport B) data link
C) physical
D) none of the above
7. The _______ layer is responsible for delivering
data units from one station to the next without
errors.
A) physical
B) data link
C) transport D) network
8. The session, presentation, and application
layers are the ____ support layers.
A) user
B) network
C) both (a) and (b)
D) neither (a)
nor (b)
9. The physical, data link, and network layers
are the ______ support layers.
A) network
B) user
C) both (a) and (b)
D) neither (a)
nor (b)
10. The ________ layer is responsible for the
process-to-process delivery of the entire
message.
A) transport B) physical
C) network
D) data link
11. The _______ layer lies between the network
layer and the application layer.
A) Data link
B) Transport
C) Physical
D) None of the above
12. The Internetworking Protocol (IP) is a
________ protocol.
A) connection-oriented
B) reliable
C) both a and b
D) none of the
above
13. The _______ layer links the network support
layers and the user support layers.
A) session
B) transport
C) data link
D) network
14. ICMPv6 includes _______.
A) IGMP
B) ARP
D) a and b

C) RARP

15. The ____ address uniquely defines a host on
the Internet.
A) IP B) port
C) specific
D)
physical
16. The _______ layer coordinates the functions
required to transmit a bit stream over a
physical medium.
A) data link
B) transport
C) network
D) physical

17. The ______ layer is responsible for the
source-to-destination delivery of a packet
across multiple network links.
A) network
B) physical
C) data link
D) transport
18. Mail services are available to network users
through the _______ layer.
A) Transport B) Physical
C) Data link D) Application
19. The ____ created a model called the Open
Systems Interconnection, which allows diverse
systems to communicate.
A) IEEE
B) ISO C) OSI D) none of the
above
20. The _______ layer changes bits into
electromagnetic signals.
A) Physical
B) Transport
C) Data link D) None of the above
21. IPv6 has _______ -bit addresses.
A) 128B) 32 C) 64 D) variable
22. The_____ address identifies a process on a
host.
A) specific
B) port
C) IP D)
physical
23. The_________ layer is responsible for the
delivery of a message from one process to
another.
A) transport B) network
C) physical
D) none of the above
24. The _________ layer enables the users to
access the network.
A) application B) physical C) data link
D) transport
25. The TCP/IP _______ layer is equivalent to the
combined session, presentation, and
application layers of the OSI model.
A) data link B) network C) physical D)
application
26. When a host on network A sends a
message to a host on network B, which address
does the router look at?
A) logical B) physical C) port D) none
of the above
27. As the data packet moves from the upper
to the lower layers, headers are _______.
A) Rearranged B) Removed C) Added
D) Modified
28. The physical layer is concerned with the
movement of _______ over the physical
medium.

A) dialogs B) protocols C) bits D)
programs
29. To deliver a message to the correct
application program running on a host, the
_______ address must be consulted.
A) physical B) port C) IP D) none of the
above
30. Ethernet uses a ______ physical address
that is imprinted on the network interface card
(NIC).
A) 32-bit B) 6-byte C) 64-bit D) none of
the above
31. The _______ layer is the layer closest to the
transmission medium.
A) Network B) Transport C) Physical D)
Data link
32. The OSI model consists of _______ layers.
A) eight B) seven C) five D) three
33. The ________ address, also known as the
link address, is the address of a node as
defined by its LAN or WAN.
A) IP B)port C) specific D) physical
34. Layer 2 lies between the physical layer and
the _______ layer.
A) Data link
B) Transport
C) Network
D) None of the above
35. Why was the OSI model developed?
A) The rate of data transfer was increasing
exponentially
B) Standards were needed to allow any two
systems to communicate
C) Manufacturers disliked the TCP/IP protocol
suite.
D) None of the above
36. In the OSI model, as a data packet moves
from the lower to the upper layers, headers are
_______.
A) removed B) added C) rearranged D)
modified
37. In the OSI model, when data is transmitted
from device A to device B, the header from A's
layer 5 is read by B's _______ layer.
A) Session B) physical C) transport D)
presentation
38. The seven-layer _____ model provides
guidelines for the development of universally
compatible networking protocols.
A) ISO B) OSI C) IEEE
D) none of the
above

we divide our message into blocks. A) range B) power C) degree D) none of the above 43. Which error detection method consists of just one redundant bit per data unit? A) CRC B) Checksum C) Simple parity check D) Two-dimensional parity check 10. In cyclic redundancy checking. A) ANSI B) CCITT C) ISO D) OSI 48. The ________ between two words is the number of differences between corresponding bits. and synchronizes the interactions between communicating devices. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) none of the above 13. A)logical B)port C)physical D)none of the above 47. In modulo-11 arithmetic. datawords C) linear. datawords D) none of the above 11. A) five-layer. A) one's complement arithmetic B) two's complement arithmetic C) either (a) or (b) D) none of the above 7. In _____ coding. In cyclic redundancy checking. we use only the integers in the range ______. A) one bit less than B) one bit more than C) The same size as D) none of the above 41. A) burst B) double-bit C) single-bit D) none of the above 12. A) block. The ______ layer establishes.39. The _______ of a polynomial is the highest power in the polynomial. _______ is a process-to-process protocol that adds only port addresses. A) application B) presentation C) session D) transport 45. In modulo-2 arithmetic. The ________ address. The _______ layer ensures interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually agreed upon format. also known as the link address. and length information to the data from the upper layer. maintains. __________ give the same results. A) IP B) TCP C) UDP D) none of the above 5. Checksums use _________ arithmetic. The _______ model shows how the network functions of a computer ought to be organized. inclusive. is the address of a node as defined by its LAN or WAN. A port address in TCP/IP is ______ bits long. Adding 1 and 1 in modulo-2 arithmetic results in _________. A) 1 to 10 B) 0 to 10 C) 1 to 11 D) none of the above 4. encryption and decryption are functions of the ________ layer. The checksum of 1111 and 1111 is _________. each of k bits. after 46. A) addition and subtraction B) addition and multiplication C) addition and division D) none of the above 8. A) 0000 B) 1111 C) 1110 D) 0111 3. before C) seven-layer. In the OSI model. what is the main function of the transport layer? A) process-to-process message delivery B) node-to-node delivery C) synchronization D) updating and maintenance of routing tables 2. A _____ error means that two or more bits in the data unit have changed. In the OSI model. A) 16 B) 32 C) 48 D) none of the above 44. The Internet model consists of _______ layers. the receiver corrects errors without requesting retransmission. A) onward B) forward . A) network B) presentation C) transport D) data link 1. checksum error control. TCP/IP is a ______ hierarchical protocol suite developed ____ the OSI model. A) session B) physical C) transport D) network 6. A) Eight B) Seven C) Five D) Three 40. called ___. A) Hamming rule B) Hamming code C) Hamming distance D) none of the above 42. the divisor is _______ the CRC. In ________ error correction. blockwords B) block. what is the CRC? A) The quotient B) The dividend C) The divisor D) The remainder 9. before B) six-layer. before D) five-layer.

In one's complement arithmetic. then the maximum size of the receive window must be _____. if frames 4. A) x B) 1 C) x + 1 D) none of the above 33. In Go-Back-N ARQ. and 6 are received successfully. we use the ______ operation for both addition and subtraction. A) 5 B) 4 C) 3 D) none of the above 15. A) linear. the result is another codeword. A) 4 B) 8 C) 2 D) none of the above 24. 5. detection C) creation. A) noiseless B) noisy C) either (a) or (b) D) neither (a) nor (b) . correction B) correction. A) 11 B) 5 C) 6 D) none of the above 32. In Go-Back-N ARQ. We can divide coding schemes into two broad categories: ________ and ______coding. convolution C) block. A) 0000 B) 1111 C) 0111 D) 1110 25. linear D) none of the above 20. If a codeword is rotated. A simple parity-check code can detect __________ errors. In modulo-2 arithmetic. The Hamming distance between 100 and 001 is ________. The Stop-And-Wait ARQ. A) 1 B) 15 C) 16 D) 31 2. we have _______ invalid codewords. we use only ______. A) OR B) XOR C) AND D) none of the above 30. A) codewords B) datawords C) blockwords D) none of the above 31. To guarantee the detection of up to 5 errors in all cases. We add r redundant bits to each block to make the length n = k + r. the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be ________. A) 1 and 2 B) 0 and 1 C) 0 and 2 D) none of the above 21. In ________ error correction. A) 6 B) 7 C) 5 D) any of the above 3. In modulo-2 arithmetic. A) an odd-number of B) an even-number of C) two D) no errors 16. In block coding. if n = 5. the receiver asks the sender to send the data again. then negative 7 is ________. In a linear block code. A) Convolution B) Cyclic C) Non-linear D) none of the above 34. If the Hamming distance between a dataword and the corresponding codeword is three. _______codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. A) 11 B) 6 C) 5 D) none of the above 22. The checksum of 0000 and 0000 is __________. The resulting n-bit blocks are called _________. To guarantee correction of up to 5 errors in all cases. the maximum Hamming distance between two codewords is ________. The divisor in a cyclic code is normally called the _________. the _______ of any two valid codewords creates another valid codeword. A) detection. nonlinear B) block. Which error detection method uses one's complement arithmetic? A) Checksum B) CRC C)Simple parity check D)2-dimensional parity check 28. A)redundancy B) degree C) generator D)none of the above 29. In block coding. A) 5 B) 3 C) 2 D) none of the above 27. A) 1101 B) 1000 C) 1111 D) none of the above 26. and the Selective Repeat ARQ are for ______ channels. there are _____ bits in error. A) 0 B) 1 C) n D) none of the above 17. the receiver may send an ACK _______ to the sender. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) none of the above 1. A)ANDing B) XORing C) ORing D)none of the above 18. if positive 7 is 0111. The _____of errors is more difficult than the ______. The Hamming distance between equal codewords is _________. A) forward B) backward C) retransmission D) none of the above 19. correction D) creation.C) backward D) none of the above 14. A generator that contains a factor of ____ can detect all odd-numbered errors. if 5 is the number of bits for the sequence number. Go-Back-N ARQ. the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be _______. detection 23. if k = 2 and n = 3.

Stop-and-Wait D) none of the above 5. then the maximum size of the send window must be _____. In _______ framing. A) trailer B)flag C)header D)none of the above 18. for 10 data packets sent. HDLC is an acronym for _______. For Stop-and-Wait ARQ. if 5 is the number of bits for the sequence number. In Selective Repeat ARQ. In a ________ protocol. A) modulo-256 B) modulo. In the Go-Back-N Protocol. A) bit-oriented B) character-oriented C) either (a) or (b) D) none of the above 24. The _______Protocol has both flow control and error control. In PPP. The ______ Protocol has neither flow nor error control.4. In Go-Back-N ARQ. A) modulo-m B) modulo-2 C) modulo-4 D) none of the above 10. The link is point-to-point. A) 1 B) 15 C) 16 D) 31 11. A) sliding window B) sliding frame C) sliding packet D) none of the above 16. A)Flow B)Error C)Transmission D)none of the above 14. A)Flow B)Error C)Transmission D)none of the above 12. maintaining. In Stop-and-Wait ARQ. A) 1 B) 15 C) 16 D) 31 8. A) Half-duplex digital link combination B) Host double-level circuit C) High-duplex line communication D) High-level data link control 7. if the window size is 63. configuring. the ________ is responsible for establishing. A) ARM B) ABM C) NBM D) NRM 17. Go-Back-N ARQ B) Go-Back-N ARQ. A) Selective Repeat ARQ. which is a _________protocol. then the maximum size of the receive window must be _____. The _________Protocol. what is the range of sequence numbers? A) 1 to 63 C) 0 to 63 B) 1 to 64 D) 0 to 64 15. . if 5 is the number of bits for the sequence number. _________framing uses two categories of protocols: character-oriented and bit-oriented. _______ control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. the acknowledgment number always announces in ______ arithmetic the sequence number of the next frame expected. _______ acknowledgments are needed. A) 1 B) 15 C) 16 D) 31 9. and terminating links. then the maximum size of the send window must be _____. The most common protocol for point-topoint access is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). A) PAP B) CHAP C) LCPD) NCP 6. A) Selective-Repeat ARQ B) Go-Back-N ARQ C) Stop-and-Wait D) Simplest 19. In Selective Repeat ARQ. if 5 is the number of bits for the sequence number. In _________.8 C) modulo-2 D) none of the above 13. and each station can function as a primary and a secondary. ______ control refers to methods of error detection and correction. the configuration is balanced. A) byte-oriented B) bit-oriented C) character-oriented D) none of the above 20. _______ control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. A)Flow B)Error C)Transmission D)none of the above 23. the data section of a frame is a sequence of characters. A) standard B) fixed-size C) variable-size D) none of the above 25. adds a simple error control mechanism to the _______Protocol. the sequence numbers are in ________ arithmetic. there is no need for defining the boundaries of frames. A) Standard B) Fixed-size C) Variable-size D) None of the above 22. if the size of the sequence number field is 8. Byte stuffing means adding a special byte to the data section of the frame when there is a character with the same pattern as the ______. A) less than 10 B) more than 10 C) exactly 10 D) none of the above 21. Stop-and-Wait C) Stop-and-Wait ARQ. Both Go-Back-N and Selective-Repeat Protocols use a _________. In a Go-Back-N ARQ.

A) Simplest B) Selective-Repeat ARQ C) Stop-and-Wait D) Go-Back-N ARQ 36. _________control in the data link layer is based on automatic repeat request. A) noiseless B) noisy C) either (a) or (b) D) neither (a) nor (b) 33. A) ARM B) NBM C) NRM D) ABM 27. A) B) C) D) ARQ stands for _______. We have one primary station and multiple secondary stations. Acknowledge repeat request Automatic retransmission request Automatic repeat quantization Automatic repeat request 44. A) Go-Back-N ARQ B) SelectiveRepeat ARQ C) Stop-and-Wait ARQ D) none of the above 32. In _________ protocols. A) PAP B) LCP C) NCP D) CHAP 38. the station configuration is unbalanced. In the _________Protocol. A) modulo-m B) modulo-2 C) modulo-4 D) none of the above 35. A) Flow B) Error C) Transmission D) none of the above 37. we use ________. bit stuffing bit-oriented. In the _________ protocol we avoid unnecessary transmission by sending only frames that are corrupted. Bit stuffing means adding an extra 0 to the data section of the frame when there is a sequence of bits with the same pattern as the ________. we use sequence numbers to number the frames. the sender sends its frames one after another with no regard to the receiver. byte-oriented. Stop-and-Wait ARQ is a special case of GoBack-N ARQ in which the size of the send window is ___. the sender sends one frame. In Stop-and-Wait ARQ. A) 1 B) 2 C) 8 D) none of the above 43. we need a delimiter (flag) to define the boundary of two frames. it is never sent online. stops until it receives confirmation from the receiver. In PPP. or from other messages going from other sources to other destinations. A) byte-oriented B) bit-oriented C) character-oriented D) none of the above 30. Data link control deals with the design and procedures for ______ communication. A) Simplest B) Stop-and-Wait C) Selective-Repeat ARQ D) Go-Back-N ARQ 42. the data section of a frame is a sequence of bits. A) bit-oriented B) byte-oriented C) either (a) or (b) D) none of the above 28. In the _____ Protocol.A) Stop-and-Wait ARQ C) Go-Back-N ARQ B) Selective-Repeat D) both (b) and (c) 26. A) Controlling B) Framing C) Digitizing D) none of the above 45. In _________. _______ is a three-way hand-shaking authentication protocol in which the password is kept secret. _______ in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination. The sequence numbers are based on __________arithmetic. bit stuffing none of the above 41. In PPP. if no acknowledgment for a frame has arrived. A) B) C) D) In ________ protocols. which is the retransmission of data. A) node-to-node B) process-to-process C) host-to-host D) none of the above 46. ________ is a simple authentication procedure with a two-step process: A) CHAP B) PAP C) LCP D) NCP 39. we resend all outstanding frames. The Simplest Protocol and the Stop-andWait Protocol are for ______ channels. A) Selective-Repeat ARQ B) Stop-andWait ARQ C) Go-Back-N ARQ D) none of the above 40. A) trailer B) flag C) header D) none of the above 31. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a _______ protocol for communication over pointto-point and multipoint links. In a _________ protocol. A) standard B) fixed-size C) variable-size D) none of the above 29. . The _______Protocol has flow control. In ________ framing. A) Selective-Repeat ARQ B) Stop-andWait C) Simplest D) Go-Back-N ARQ 34. bit stuffing character-oriented. we use ________. but not error control. and then sends the next frame. In the _____ Protocol.

bit stuffing character-oriented. In a banyan switch. Packet-switched networks can also be divided into ______subcategories: virtual-circuit networks and datagram networks. In _________. The network layer in the Internet is designed as a __________ network. A) circuit switching B) datagram switching C) frame switching D) none of the above 3. there is no resource allocation for a packet. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 8 17. for 8 inputs and 8 outputs. A) circuit-switched B) datagram C) virtual-circuit D) none of the above 20. A) 40.000 B) less than 40. In _________. A) datagram B) virtual-circuit C) circuit-switched D) none of the above 7. the number of crosspoints is ______. A _________ network is a cross between a circuit-switched network and a datagram network. A) four B) three C) two D) none of the above 15. resources are allocated on demand. A) 19 B) 21 C) 31 D) 41 4. if N = 200. A) 20.A) B) C) D) bit-oriented. if N = 200. A) circuit switching B) datagram switching C) frame switching D) none of the above 11. In a ________ network. the number of crosspoints is ______. A) six B) five C) four D) three 19.000 C) 30. each packet is treated independently of all others. A ________ network is made of a set of switches connected by physical links. in which each link is divided into n channels. Based on the Clos criteria. we have _____ stages. two types of addressing are involved: global and local. character stuffing character-oriented. A) destination B) source C) local D) none of the above 18. We can say that a packet switch has _______ types of components. In _______ switching. A) packet-switched B) frame-switched C) virtual-circuit D) none of the above 12. A) circuit-switched B) line-switched C) frame-switched D) none of the above 9. A) virtual-circuit B) datagram C) circuit-switched D) none of the above 14.000 8.000 D) greater than 100. In a three-stage space division switch. A) TSI B) STI C) ITS D) none of the above 13. A) SSSB) TST C) TTT D) none of the above 21. The most popular technology in timedivision switching is called the _________. A) frame switching B) datagram switching C) circuit switching D) none of the above . Traditionally. In __________. if N = 200.000 C) greater than 40. It has some characteristics of both. A) time-division B) two-dimensional C) space-division D) three-dimensional 6.000 D) 10. _____ methods of switching have been important. the resources remain dedicated for the entire duration of data transfer phase until the teardown phase. A switched WAN is normally implemented as a _______ network. A) circuit switching B) datagram switching C) frame switching D) none of the above 5. In a one-stage space division switch. A switch in a datagram network uses a routing table that is based on the ______ address. A ________ switch combines space-division and time-division technologies to take advantage of the best of both. we have _____ microswitches at each stage. for 8 inputs and 8 outputs.000 16. then k must be equal to or greater than ______.000 B) 40. byte stuffing none of the above SWITCHING 1. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 8 10. In a banyan switch. In _______. the resources need to be reserved during the setup phase. A) five B) three C) two D) four 2. the paths in the circuit are separated from one another spatially.

A) MUX B) VOFR C) FRAD D) none of the above 2. an address can be ________ bytes. A) 32 B) 16 C) 12 D) 8 . A ________ switch combines crossbar switches in several (normally three) stages. A) multiple path B) multiple crossbar C) multistage D) none of the above 25. the _____ layer defines the transmission medium. In Frame Relay.200 30. A) DLCI B) VPI C) VCI D) a combination of (b) and (c) 7. We can divide today's networks into ____ broad categories. A _______ ATM LAN combines features of a pure ATM LAN and a legacy ATM LAN. a virtual connection is defined by _________. A) SVC B) PVC C) either (a) or (b) D) neither (a) nor (b) 9. A) physical B) data line C) network D) transport 24. A(n) ______ is the interface between a user and an ATM switch. A) five B) four C) three D) two 27. the _______layer accepts transmissions from upper-layer services and maps them into ATM cells. Circuit switching takes place at the ________ layer. A) destination B) source C) local D) none of the above 29. The _______ address in the header of a packet in a datagram network normally remains the same during the entire journey of the packet. bit transmission.000 B) 20. To handle frames arriving from other protocols. when a _____ is selected. The VPI of a UNI is _______ bits in length. A) AAL5 B) AAL3/4 C) AAL2 D) AAL1 8. A) crossbar ATM 1. Based on the Clos criteria. The simplest type of switching fabric is the ______ switch. In ATM. Frame Relay uses a device called a _________. A) AAL B) physical C) ATM D) none of the above 10. the corresponding table entry is recorded for all switches by the administrator. In ATM. In ATM. then n must be equal to or greater than ____. In Frame Relay. then the minimum number of crosspoints is greater than or equal to _______. A) 2 to 3 B)2 to 4 C)only f2 D) none of the above 3. if N = 200. A) NNN B) UNI C) NNI D) None of the above 6. In _______ there are no setup or teardown phases. _______is for short packets. A) 40 B) 30 C) 20 D) 10 B) crosspoint C) TSI D) STS 23. A) circuit switching B) datagram switching C) frame switching D) none of the above 26. A ________ switch is a multistage switch with microswitches at each stage that route the packets based on the output port represented as a binary string. In ATM. and electrical-to-optical transformation. encoding. A) AAL B)physical C)\ATM layer D) none of the above 4. if N = 200. Based on the Clos criteria.000 D) 15.22. A)legacy B)pure C)mixed architecture D)none of the above 5. A) 42. A) TSI B) banyan C) crossbar D) none of the above 28.000 C) 18.

In Frame Relay. Frame Relay networks offer an option called ______________ that sends voice through the network. ________ is the cell relay protocol designed by the corresponding Forum and adopted by the ITU-T. the EA field defines the number of bytes. and multiplexing services. In a _______ ATM LAN. A) ATM B)AAL C)physical D)none of the above 19.0 B) 12. the ______ layer provides routing.25 D)none of the above 34. an ATM switch connects stations.2. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 22. A) NNI B) NNN C) UNI D) none of the above 16. ______ is for packets requiring no sequencing and no error control mechanism. A) a PVC B) an SVC C) either (a) or (b) D) neither (a) nor (b) 27. the___________ address is generally used by a normal host as a unicast address. A) FRAD B) VOFR C) MUX D) none of the above 17.2. A) provider-based unicast B) link local C) site local D) none of the above . A) five B) four C) three D) two 12. ______ eliminates the varying delay times associated with different-size packets.0 C) 12. In ATM. and network layers B) the physical and data link layers C) only the data link D) only the physical layer 30. In Frame Relay. A) SVCs B) PVCs C) either (a) or (b) D) neither (a) nor (b) 21. data link. Frame Relay has _______. A) AAL5 B) AAL3/4 C) AAL2 D) AAL1 33. In ATM.25 C)Frame Relay D)none of the above 13. connection between two endpoints is accomplished through _______. In a _____ ATM LAN.2.2. traffic management. A)packet B)cell C)frame D)none of the above 18. The VPI of an NNI is _______ bits in length. Frame Relay uses a protocol that supports _____control. A) legacy B) pure C) mixed architecture D) none of the above 28. A) AAL5 B) AAL3/4 C) AAL2 D) AAL1 20. when ______ is selected.25 D) all of the above 32. At the data link layer. In ATM.0. A) VCs B) TPs C) VPs D) all of the above 29. The ATM standard defines ______ layers.76/10? A) 12. A) 24 B) 16 C) 12 D) 8 24. A) SVC B) DLCIs C) PVC D) none of the above 14. VCIs in Frame Relay are called ______. A) 53 B) 52 C) 43 D) 42 2. switching. What is the first address of a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12. A) ATM B) X. A error B)flow C)either (a) or (b) D)neither (a)nor(b) 25. In ATM. A) the physical. it is _____ in the last byte of the address.0.11. the backbone that connects traditional LANs uses ATM technology. A) four B) three C) two D) none of the above 15. A) ATM B) Frame Relay C) X. ________ technology can be adapted for use in a LAN (ATM LAN). it requires establishing and terminating phases. A) legacy B) pure C) mixed architecture D) none of the above 23. _____ is for conventional packet switching (virtual-circuit approach or datagram approach).2. ______ is for constant-bit-rate data. fixed-size block of information. ________ is a virtual-circuit wide-area network that was designed in response to demands for a new type of WAN in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In ATM. Frame Relay provides ________.0. A) Frame Relay B) ATM C) X. The ATM data packet is a cell composed of ______ bytes. The AAL is divided into _______ sublayers.25 D) none of the above 26. _________ is the interface between two ATM switches.2 D) none of the above 3. A) Frame Relay B) ATM C) X. A _______ is defined as a small. In IPv6. A) AAL5 B) AAL3/4 C) AAL2 D) AAL1 31.

6.34.127/28? A) 12. A) netid B) hostid C) mask D) none of the above 8. A) 8 B) 7 C) 4 D) none of the above 11. Identify the class of the following IPv4 address: 229.1.0 B) 12. A) 32 B) 64 C) 256 D) none of the above 5. Which address could be the beginning address of a block of 16 classless addresses? A) 2.2. How many addresses are granted? A) 8 B) 16 C) 32 D) none of the above 24. What is the default mask for class A in CIDR notation? A) /9 B) /8 C) /16 D) none of the above 14. In IPv6. A) a unicast B) a multicast C) an anycast D) none of the above 10. What is the subnet prefix length? A) /20 B) /24 C) /25 D) none of the above 25. a ______address is used if a site with several networks uses the Internet protocols but is not connected to the Internet for security reasons.76.15 C) 2. An organization is granted a block of classless addresses with the starting address 199.2. An organization is granted a block of classless addresses with the starting address 199. ____ address defines a group of computers with addresses that have the same prefix. An organization is granted a block. Find the number of addresses in a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12.2.1.2. How many addresses are granted? A) 8 B) 16 C) 32 D) none of the above 23.4. Find the number of addresses in a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12. The organization needs 10 subnets.112 D) none of the above 15.34.6.2. A) can be any number B) must be a multiple of 256 C) must be a power of 2 D) none of the above 20.5 B) 2.2.2. A) A B) B C) D D) none of the above 13. The number of addresses assigned to an organization in classless addressing _______. The number of addresses in a class C block is _______.4. _________ address defines a group of computers. Identify the class of the following IPv4 address: 191.2.3.2.7/24. In IPv6.2. What is the default mask for class B in CIDR notation? A) /9 B) /8 C) /16 D) none of the above 16. A) 2 B) 4 C) 8 D) none of the above 21.128/29.62 D) none of the above 12. In IPv6.96 C) 12. A) link local B) site local C) mapped D) none of the above 18.64/20.2.4. A) 65. the prefix length defines the _____________. A) a unicast B) a multicast C) an anycast D) none of the above 22. one address is 2.534 B) 16.2.7/30.2. _______ address defines a single computer. An IPv6 address can have up to __________ colons. What is the first address of a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12.216 C) 256 D) none of the above 6. A) A B) B C) C D) none of the above 17.6. What is the default mask for class C in CIDR notation? A) /24 B) /8 C) /16 D) none of the above .2.3.76. A) a unicast B) a multicast C) an anycast D) none of the above 19. In classless addressing.2.64/28.2.777.4. In IPv6.

An IPv6 address is _________ bits long. In a block.32. What is the last address of a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12.0 C) 255. A) 4 B) 8 C) 32 D) 64 39.34.6.255. Which address could be the beginning address of a block of 32 classless addresses? A) 2.255. A) 16 B) 32 C) 8 D) none of the above 33. In IPv4. A) link local B) site local C) mapped D) none of the above 45. a _______ address is used if a LAN uses the Internet protocols but is not connected to the Internet for security reasons.4. the prefix length is /15.2.6. class _______ has the greatest number of addresses in each block.5 B) 2.534 B) 16.255. How many addresses are granted? A) 8 B) 16 C) 32 D) none of the above 29. What is the first address of a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12. A) 65. A) 8: 2 B) 8: 3 C) 8: 4 D) none of the above 27. The number of addresses in a class A block is _______.6.0.0 C) 255.2.0/27.2.2. An IPv6 address can have up to __________ hexadecimal digits.192.2. a 128-bit address is divided into _______ sections. A) suffix B) prefix C) hosted D) none of the above 35.4.26. A) link local B) site local C) mapped D) none of the above 34.64 D) none of the above 44.254 B) 255. A) suffix B) prefix C) netid D) none of the above 40. IPv6 specifies ____________notation. In classless addressing. In hexadecimal colon notation. A) 32 B) 64 C) 128 D) none of the above 41. the mask is 255.4.2.0 B) 12. Which one is not a contiguous mask? A) 255.255.2.6. what is the prefix length? A) /20 B) /28 C) /18 D) none of the above 28. the ______ is another name for the common part of the address range. To make addresses more readable.0 D) all are 30. What is the result of ANDing 0 and 15? A) 255 B) 15 C) 0 D) none of the above 37.2. An organization is granted a block of classless addresses with the starting address 199. what is the mask? A) 255.76/27? A) 12.4.255. An IPv4 address consists of _______ bits.2 B) 12.148.2.255.0 B) 255.16 C) 2.0 B) D) 2. In classless addressing. What is the result of ANDing 192 and 65? A) 192 B) 65 C) 64 D) none of the above 46.254.2.5 2.2.2.777.0. Which address could be the beginning address of a block of 256 classless addresses? A) C) above 2. each _____ hexadecimal digits in length.2.4.15 none of the 36.2. In a block. a ___________ address is an address of 96 bits of zero followed by 32 bits of IPv4 address.0.255.7 D) none of the above 43.64 D) none of the above 38.2.4.32 C) 12. In IPv6.128 D) none of the above 32. the _______ is the varying part (similar to the hostid).255.224.216 C) 256 D) none of the above 42.6.6 C) 12. In IPv6.6. A) dotted decimal B) hexadecimal colon C) both a and b D) none of the above 31.6/30? A) 12. .2.

16 B) 12.64/25. What is the last address of a block of classless addresses if one of the addresses is 12.255.216 C) 256 D) none of the above 50. followed by 16 bits of one.0 B) 255.2. The first address assigned to an organization in classless addressing _______.536 B) 16.2. A) must be a power of 4 B) must be evenly divisible by the number of addresses C) must belong to one of the A. The number of addresses in a class B block is _______. A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) none of the above 54.127/28? A) 12. the ________ prefix defines the purpose of the address. or C classes D) none of the above 48. An organization is granted a block.777.2.255. one address is 2. B. A) 65.2.2.2.255.A) C) A C B) D) B D 47. A) type B) purpose C) both a and b D) none of the above 52. If the subnet prefix length is /28.2. An IPv6 address consists of ________ bytes (octets).0 C) 255. followed by the 32-bit IPv4 address. what is the maximum number of subnets? A) 2 B) 4 C) 8 D) none of the above . what is the mask? A) 255.127 D) none of the above 51. In IPv6.2. the prefix length is /24.112 C) 12. A) link local B) site local C) mapped D) none of the above 49. a _________address comprises 80 bits of zero.242.255.2.0. In a block. In IPv6.0 D) none of the above 53.2.

The OSI layer that ensures and controls the end-to-end integrity of data message. Session layer 149. ARQ is used to: correct bit errors * 138. The process of adding or removing protocol data unit called ____. The OSI layer that is responsible for the transmission of bits. FSK * 172. Refers to the structure of the data within the message. it describes how the computers. The OSI layer that manages traffic on the link. transparent transfer of data. Network layer 152. VRC is another name for: Parity* 139. Determine the noise margin for an RS 232 interface with driver signal voltages of +/. Continuous code 163. The specs of the old Bell type 103 modem were: 300 bps. which stores data long only one axis. Code 39 is an example of what type of bar code.6V 3V and 19V 171. Topology of the Classical Ethernet system. Network topology 155. Mesh Topology * 158. Code 39 or Code 3 of 9 or 3 of 9 Code 165. When messages are intended for all the subscribers on the network it is called ____. cables and other components within the data communications network are interconnected bot physically and logically. The bits send to allow equalization are called: a training sequence * 175. Run-length encoding is used to: compress data * 140. Typical PBX configuration is Star Topology * 157. Semantics 144. Classification of bar codes that has gaps or space between characters and each character within the bar code is independent of every other character. The OSI layer that has inter-host communication. Classification of errors where two or more consecutive bits within a given data string are in error.24 * . Lost message 169. Topology which is relatively immune to bottlenecks. Data link layer 148. A message that is not recognized at the destination that contains one or more transmission errors. Classifications of errors where two or more non-consecutive bits within a given data string are in error. Token passing 159. Broadcasting 141. Refers to the meaning of each section of data. It describes the layout or appearance of a network. The message that never arrives at the destination or one that arrives but is damaged to the extent that it is unrecognizable. A system that allows personal computer to access files. Transport layer 153. A classification of bar code that does not include spaces between characters. Bar codes 161. It describes the function of a family of interchange circuits. High-speed modems equalize the line to compensate for: uneven phase and frequency response * 174. Bus * 160. by providing reliable. Local operating system 154. Application layer 151. Damaged message 170. and have and use one or more disk and CD drives. The OSI layer that is task with the end-toend accountability through a network. Presentation 150. When messages are intended for a specific group of subscribers in the network it is called _____.137. Physical layer 147. One of the most popular code which consists of 36 unique codes representing 10 digits and 26 uppercase letters. The V. which includes the sequence in which the data is sent Syntax 143. Encapsulation / decapsulation 146. 2D code 164. The ITU is under the auspices of: the U. V. Discrete code 166. Multicasting 142. Discrete code 162. A classification of bar code that stores data in two dimensions in contrast with a conventional linear bar code. full-duplex. ____ are omnipresent lack-and-white stripped stickers that seem to appear on virtually ever consumer item. print to a local printer. The OSIL layer that serves as an interface for the user to the network. It is an object or procedure considered by an authority of by general consent as a basis for comparison Standard 145. * 173. The OSI layer that accepts and structures the message for the application. Multi-bit errors 167. The typical SNA topology is Hierarchical Topology * 156.N. Burst error 168.90 standard is issued by: the ITU * 176. It is a network access method used primarily with LANs configured in a ring topology using either baseband or broadband transmission formats.

FEC * 180. Overhead * 210. Error-detection protocol that uses the checksum method. Communication system where transmit and receive clock free-run at approximately the same speed. MNP5 and V. On a DB-9 RS-232 connector. FSK * 204. Asynchronous * 208. Classification of protocol that interprets a frame of data as a group of successive bit combined into predetermined pattern of fixed length. The minimum lines required for RS-232 are: TD.75 * 178. RD. signal ground is pin: 7 189.X. In RS-232. 300 bps 198. a personal computer would be: a DTE * 187. MNP2. Function of data link control that specifies the means of detecting and correcting transmission errors error control 215. The circuit switch is a _____ switch. Mode of transmission in PDN. Xmodem * 216. A start bit is normally logic 0 * 211. Message switching . Protocol use to connect packet switching networks.26. The Bell system 103 compatible modems is capable of duplex operation over two-wire telephone lines at a bit rate of ____. MNP3. The first file transfer protocol designed to facilitate transferring data between two personal computers over the public switched telephone network.42 bits are both: data-compression schemes * 182.000 bps 207. Synchronous modes use what modulation technique? PSK and QAM 203. Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modems because ______. In data communications circuits. usually 8 bits each. and signal ground * 192. Character-oriented protocols or Byteoriented protocols 218. wherein the data are transferred from source to the network then to the destination in an asynchronous data format? Start/stop * 201. synchronous data format is used to achieve what type of synchronization? Bit * 212. Which voltage represents a binary zero on an RS-232 data pin:+15 volts or +12 volts or +9 volts 194. Transmission rates of synchronous modems 2400 bps to 56. Hardware flow control uses: RTS and CTS * 193. Synchronous data transported by asynchronous modems is called ____. Asynchronous modes use what modulation techniques? ASK or FSK 199. Characters transmitted other than data. RS-232 signal rate when used as an interface between DTE and DCE? 20 kbps * 191. On a DB-25 RS-232 connector.177. Selection 217. The total information processed of a system. Asynchronous data modulation. Character synchronization * 213. What do you call a text code that makes use of 16-bit long code words? Unicode * 214. A “splitter” at the subscriber end is not required for: ADSL lite * 195. signal ground is pin: 5 * 188. RS-232C has how many pins? 25 pins * 190. In RS-232. The official name for RS-232C is: EIA-232D * 184. What is the signal rate of RS-232 normally used as an interface between DTE and DCE? 20 kbps * 185. MNP4 and MNP10 are all: error-correction protocols * 181. It is how the primary designates the secondary as a designation of recipient of data. A form of switching which is store and forward. Throughput * 206. The output rate of CCITT V. They must contain clock recovery circuits * 197. The bell system 202 modem is an asynchronous 1200-baud transceiver utilizing FSK with a transmission bit rate of : 1200 bps 202. Xmodem protocol 219. Digital modulation scheme modems commonly used PSK * 205. What protocol can achieve code transparency with flags? Bit-oriental protocol * 209. flow control is done using: RTS/CTS handshake & XON/OFF characters 183. Isochronous 196. Type of synchronization where in the beginning and end of a character code is identified. a modem would be: a DCE * 186. Transparent 220. In RS-232. 1200 bauds * 179. Speed of asynchronous modems less than 2400 bps 200. Technique that allows corrections of data of the receiver.

Virtual channel identifier * 227. 23B + D channels. A hub: sends incoming packets out to all other terminals connected to it * 257. a switch can be used to reduce the number of: Collisions * 240. One type of network that never has a collision is: token-passing * 239. Uses connecting medium as a multichannel device. Dumb terminals are still used: in networks requiring central monitoring * 235. In a circuit-switched network: each channel carries only one data stream * 236. A form of switching which is hold and forward. SNA stands for: Systems Network Architectures * . long messages are divided into “chunks” called: packets * 237. Canada. The standard that describes Ethernet-type networks is:IEEE 802. The software that runs a client-server network must be: Multitasking b * 261. the ______ indicates the mode source and packet destination. The effect of too many collisions is: the network slows down * 241.544 Mbps (US.221. In data communication. 512 bits 232. A “thin” client is: basically a PC with no disk drives * 262. A switch: sends incoming packets out to specific ports * 258. MAU stands for: Multistation Access Unit * 242. 192 kbps 230. ISTP * 247. Synchronous data transfer scheme * 251. Japan and Korea) 30B + D channel. The type of cable used * 246. It is logically equivalent to making telephone call through the DDD network except no direct end-to-end connection is made Virtual call 223. Datagram 224. The cable mostly used by the 10 and 100 Mbps Ethernet installation. A 100BaseT cable uses: twisted-pair copper wires * 254. On networks. The ISDN channel B designates _____. In asynchronous transfer mode cell format. The Internet is: a network of networks * 234. What is the minimum frame length for a 10-base 5 with a maximum segment length of 500 meters with a maximum of five segments. Using one node in the network to hold all the application software is done in: client-server networks * 260. Packing switching 222. Bearer of Bearer of data 228. Ethernet was invented by:Xerox 244. Broadband transmission * 226. The work “Base” in 10BaseT means: the cable carriers baseband signals * 255.048 Mbps (Europe) 231. it is called: Contention 238. Ethernet is a baseband transmission system designed by _____ : Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs 245. An advantage of using a switch instead of a hub is: it reduces the number of collisions in large networks * 259. In an Ethernet-based network.3 243. The Basic Rate Interface (BRI) of ISDN has a total bit rate or ____. Data transfer uses handshaking principle. 10 Mbps * 253. A service provided by B-ISDN provider that offers a bi-directional end-to-end data transmission in real time. 2. 1. When two or more PCs try to access a baseband network cable at the same time. Rate of Ethernet CSMH/CD. The ISDN channel D designates _____ which contains control information. 10BaseT cable typically uses: an RJ45 connector * 256. CSMA stands for: Carrier Sense Multiple Access * 233. Ethernet Standard that is sometimes called “frozen yellow garden hose” 10Base-5 248. the T in 10BaseT represents _____. Packets which is self-contained and travels through the network independent of other packets of the same message by whatever means available. Packet switching is based on: store-and-forward * 263. The primary rate interface consists of _____. CSMA/CD * 252. Ethernet access method is ______. Data transfer scheme that used handshaking. Synchronous Data Transfer * 250. conversational service * 225. Data 229. An Ethernet running at 10Mbits /second uses: Manchester encoding * 249.

The “lifetime” of a packet in an IP network: depends on number of “hops” between nodes * 267. FTP us used to:transfer files between a server on the network and user * 273. HTML allows: web page layout * 272.264 The guardband between supergroup 18 and supergroup D25 is 56 kHz . SMTP stands for:Simple Mail Transport Protocol * 274. HTML stands for:Hypertext Markup Language * 271. HTTP allows the use of:Browsers * 270. A DNS:translates word to numbers * 275. An internet connected to the Internet is often protected by:a “firewall” * Redundancy means the symbol are to be repeated Optical fiber transmission media is not suitable to CSMA operation Transducer is a device used to convert a time varying electrical quantity to an appropriate form The bandwidth of U600 mastergroup is 2520 kHz Hybrid data – refers to the combined digitally encoded signals transmitted with FDM signals as one composite baseband signal L carrier systems – transmit frequency-division-multiplexed voice band signals over a coaxial cable for distances up to 4000 miles Level 5 of Japanese PCM multiplex hierarchy has a channel capacity of 5760 VB channels The line data rate (in Mbps) for level 4 of CEPT 30 + 2 PCM multiplex hierarchy is 139.264. HTTP stand for:Hypertext Transport Protocol * 269. Together. UPD stands for:User Datagram Protocol * 268. Bad frames are usually detected by the: link layer * 265. TCP/IP consists of: 5 layers * 266.

text and data are multiplexed into a single network for processing and are transmitted prior to use T-1 carrier service has 1.Supergroup 17 has a carrier frequency (in kHz) of 2108 A radio channel is composed of 1800 VB channels The guardband between supergroup 1 and supergroup 2 is 12 kHz CCITT’s supermastergroup has 900 voice band channels The transparency mechanism used with SDLC is called zero-bit insertion 2B + D – defines the composition of an ISDN basic access line Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) – a digital network where voice.544 Mbps digital bit rate Non-ISDN equivalent can be connected to ISDN line by the use of terminal adapters The baseband frequency of standard FDM basic supergroup is 312 to 552 kHz The transmission signal coding for T1 carrier is Bipolar The primary purpose of the data modem is to interface digital terminal equipment to analog communications channel Data terminal equipment (DTE) – the line control unit (LCU) operates on the data in digital form 32 H – SYN character of EBCDIC code Bit or clock synchronization ensures that the transmitter and receiver agree on prescribed time slot for the occurrence of a bit 2^n >= m + n + 1 – used to determine the number of Hamming bits in the Hamming code Data means digital information Network layer determines which network configuration is most appropriate Ethernet is a baseband system using CSMA/CD operating at 10 Mbps Channel accessing – mechanism used by a station to gain access to local area network TDM multiplexing scheme is used by baseband transmission Use of coaxial cables in interconnecting networks is limited to an overall length of 1500 m . video.

The signal rate 20 kbps TMS – digital switching concepts that can handle more channels The most significant advantage of modular switch than time-and-space switch is flexible size The biggest disadvantage of PCM systems is the larger bandwidth required . computers and terminals start communicating with each other over long distance PRNET – store-and-forward multiple-access network Huffman code – a source code whose average world length approaches the fundamental limit set by the entropy of a discrete memoryless source DCA promulgate communications-related military standards (MIL-STD) P2 is the class of probability in error detection techniques that is known as residual error rate RS 232 is normally an interface between DTE and DCE. a reproduction of the original digital source output PSK digital modulation technique used in modems Emile Baudot developed the fixed-length binary code for telegraphy Alex Reeves – inventor of pulse-code modulation for the digital encoding of the speech signals In 1950’s.Topology or architecture identifies how the stations are interconnected in a network Local Area Network is a data communications network designed to provide two-way communications between a large variety of data communications terminal equipment within a relatively small geographic area Start/stop mode is the mode of transmission in public data network in which data are transferred from source to the network then to the destination in an asynchronous data format A seven-bit character can represent one of 128 possibilities Channel capacity is defined to be the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through a channel Source coding – circuit that performs the inverse mapping and delivers to the user destination.

The reason why companding is employed in PCM systems is to protect small signals in PCM from quantizing distortion Folding frequency – the highest frequency that can be processed at a sampling rate (fs) without aliasing The overlapping of the original spectrum and the first translated component is known as aliasing Full duplex – transmission sent in both directions simultaneously Multiplexing in a time division multiplexer occurs based upon the position of data within a frame Multiplexing – a technique that enables more than one data source to share the use of a common line One of the reasons whey FDM is being replaced by TDM is because noise is amplified with voice when an FDM system is used In pulse modulation the carrier is a periodic train of pulses The process that uses the orthogonality of sines and cosines that makes possible to transmit and receive to different signals simultaneously on the same carrier frequency is Quadrature multiplexing Pulse code modulation technique is a digital transmission system Bandwidth utilization is not an advantage of digital transmission Dynamic range is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the DAC Companding – a process where the higher amplitude analog signals are compressed prior to transmission then expanded at the receiver Delta Modulation (DM) uses a single bit PCM code to achieve a digital transmission of analog signal The line speed of Bell System T1 carrier system is 1.544 Mbps T2 lines carry 96 channels A super group has 60 channels The output frequency at the channel combiner of channel 7 is 80 – 84 kHz .

26 modem has a modulation rate of 1200 bauds A smart modem accepts commands from the terminal via RS232 interface An advantage of PTM over PAM is much better noise immunity ISO adapted the seven-layer OSI model in 1983 Amplitude shift keying is also known as ON/OFF keying FSK modulation system is used in telephony FSK – modulation used by asynchronous data PCM systems require large bandwidth Shanon-Hartley theorem sets the limit on the maximum capacity of a channel with a given noise level Quantizing noise is present in PCM system Quantizing noise is the difference between the original and reconstructed signal The reason why companding is employed in PCM system is to protect small signals in PCM from quantizing distortion FDM – band of frequencies in a transmission medium allotted to each communication channel on a continuous time basis ARQ – error control used in high frequency radio data transmission Sampling. quantizing and coding are the steps to follow to produce a PCM signal Network topology identifies how the difference stations in a multipoint system are interconnected Baseband – a transmission where data are inputted directly on the cable Broadband – a transmission where data are inputted inside the carrier wave Polling – a transmission system for a multidrop network .The carrier frequency of the supergroup D25 is 2652 kHz Data in video is not a hybrid data Baudot Code was the first fixed-length 5-bit character code CCITT V.

CSMA/CD – before attempting to transmit data. each station has to listen to the channel Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modems because they must contain clock recovery circuits When one station is designated as master and the rest of the stations are considered slaves. massage handling is polling Master – the computer that initiates information transfer Message switching – a store and forward switching LAN is used to connect computers in the same building or in same area WAN – two or more LAN linked together over a wide geographical area OSI system allows different types of network to be linked together OSI consist of 7 layers of interconnection Session layer determines if the user can send or receive based on whether they can send and receive simultaneously or alternately A bridge that interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical and data link layers A router interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical data link and network layers A gateway interconnects LAN that have totally different protocols and format Parallel data – all bits in a character can be sent/received simultaneously Serial data – the bits in a character which are sent/received one at a time DTE – a system that performs parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel conversion of a data link EIA stands for Electronic Industry Association An acoustic modem converts a computer digital signal into audio tones Echoplex mode of transmission achieves less than full-duplex but more than half-duplex Line protocol – rules governing the transmission of digital information Codes must be agreed upon in advance between sender and receiver .

The standard ASCII has 132 characters including 32 control characters The Baudot code requires shift characters to provide sufficient combinations The corrections and accuracy of the transmitted message content is determined by the sender and the receiver Framing is concerned with the boundaries between characters Asynchronous transmission is less efficient but simpler Digital transmission provides a higher level of signal quality than analog transmission because repeaters regenerate digital pulses and remove distortion Digital to analog converter in synchronous modems send signals to the equalizer Binary codes are transformed in modem into Gray code Synchronous modems cost more than asynchronous modem because they must contain clock recovery circuits The best type of data communications test equipment is a protocol analyzer The data rate of the ISDN Basic access B channel is 64 kbps The data rate of the ISDN Basic access D channel is 16 kbps Baudot code uses 5 bits per symbol 3 bits are there to present 8 combinations Intelligent terminal can be programmed to perform new functions EBCDIC character code is used without parity bit Modem is used when the host computer and the terminal are in separate locations Front end processor is a data communications hardware that assists the host computer in handling input and output tasks ASCII means terminals using asynchronous transmission in ASCII Bit – a unit of information used in data communications Transmission of binary signals requires more bandwidth than analog The modulation rate of the CCITT V.26 modem is 1200 bauds .

32 bits Information theory was developed by Shannon A quadratic signaling has 4 possible states Bit is the smallest unit of information in binary transmission system Physical layer is the lowest layer in the ISO protocol hierarchy 64 kbps is the basic speed rate of digital system Protocol – a formal set of conventions governing the formatting and relative timing of message exchange between two communications system Null modem – a device that connects 2 data terminal equipment (DTE) directly by emulating the physical connections of a data communications equipment (DCE) Impact printer strikes a ribbon against the paper to produce character image Modem is referred to as data communications equipment Common channel signaling – a signaling method relating to a multiplicity of circuits is conveyed over a single channel by labeled messages Ring – a data highway in LAN.The digital-to-analog converter in a synchronous modem sends signal to the equalizer Unknown – the number of bits that are zeros in each symbol when one is transmitting odd parity coded symbols FSK – a digital modulation technique that results in two different frequencies representing binary 1 and 0 The input to the Digital-to-Analog Converter of a PCM decoder circuit is a series of bits The output of the DAC at a PCM decoder circuit is a parallel output of binary-coded digits Serial printer prints one character at a time Delta modulation is a 1-bit differential PCM system Delta modulation – alternative way of digitizing analog signals One dit is equal to 3. this type of topology allows workstations to be connected to a common line where all messages pass stations on the way to their destination .

A packet format has an error detecting code at the end of packet framing X. dot.A 5-bit character code EBCDIC – an 8-bit character code Modem – an equipment that interfaces the data terminal equipment to the analog transmission line Protocol – set of rules governing the orderly exchange of data information . 2 transmission speed of 0 to 300 bps Channel capacity is directly proportional to bandwidth Quantizing level does not affect noise in a channel Bisync is a character oriented protocol STX character signifies the start of the test for Bisync In synchronous data the clock pulse is used to time the sending and receiving of the characters All bits in a character are sent and received in one at a time in serial port Bridge can only interconnect LANs having identical protocols at the physical and data link layers OSI stands for Open System Interconnection ISO stands for International Standardization Organization Message switching is store and forward network Packet switching is hold and forward network Polling is an invitation by the primary to a secondary equipment to transmit a message Bit rate is the rate of change at the input of the modulator Morse code – a code that uses three unequal length symbols. dash and space to encode a character BAUDOT .75 – it is a protocol used to connect the other packet switching network Novel Netware is a network operating system within several buildings in compound FSK – used by Bell 103/113 series for full duplex.

each character is framed between a start and a stop bit .Public data network (PDN) – a communication network designed for transferring data from one point to another Half-duplex – radio communications between points using a single share frequency RS232C interface had 25 numbers of pins A modem is sometimes referred to as Data Communication Equipment Adaptive equalizers – provide post equalization to the received analog signal The receive equalizer in a synchronous modem is called an adaptive equalizer Compromise equalizer settings typically affect amplitude delay Training sequence (a bit pattern used to synchronize the receive modem) accomplishes activate RLSD When asynchronous data are used with synchronous modems this is called isochronous transmission H factor is defined as a figure of merit used to express the degree of modulation achieved in an FSK modulator Low-band channel in the 103 modem occupies a passband from 300 to 1650 Hz Low speed modems generally have bit rates of 2400 bps Medium speed modems have bit rates of 2400 – 4800 bps High speed modems have bit rates of 9600 bps Line conditioning – a means of improving the quality of a private-line circuit by adding amplifiers and equalizers to it A voice-grade circuit using the PTN has an ideal passband from 0 to 4 kHz The digital-to-analog converter in a synchronous modem is called an adaptive equalizer The minimum-quality circuit available using the PTN is called basic voice channel (VC) Direct distance dialing (DDD) network is commonly called dial-up network The line control unit (LCU) operates on the data when it is in digital form and is therefore called data terminal equipment (DTE) With asynchronous data.

rather than frame each character independently with start and stop bits. a unique synchronizing character called a SYN character is transmitted at the beginning of each message A logic 0 is used for the start bit All stop bits are logic 1 Bit or clock synchronization ensures that the transmitter and receiver agree on a prescribed time slot for the occurrence of a bit Characters that must be transmitted other than data are called overhead In the United States. the most common CRC code is CRC – 16 Parallel transmission is also called parallel-by-bit and serial-by-character Data means digital information Go-ahead sequence 01111111 Flag field are used to achieve character synchronization in SDLC DISC – a command that places a secondary station in the normal disconnect mode Asynchronous – character oriented protocol Network layer determines which network configuration is most appropriate ISO 7809 – a standard that combines previous standards 6159 (E) (unbalanced) and 6256 (E) (balanced) and outlines the class of operation necessary to establish the link-level protocol Ethernet is a baseband system using CSMA/CD operating at 10 Mbps Manchester – a type of digital encoding technique used to detect collision in CSMA/CD With CSMA/CD.With synchronous data. a station monitors the line to determine if the line is busy Channel accessing describes the mechanism used by a station to gain access to local area network Broadband uses FDM TDM – a typical multiplexing scheme used by baseband transmission Baseband transmission uses the connecting medium as a single-channel device .

4 standard is Token passing for bus topology IEEE 802.5 standard is Token passing for ring topology The data rate of the ISDN Basic access B channel is 64 kbps The data rate of the ISDN basic access D channel is 16 kbps 2B + D equation defines the composition of an ISDN Basic access line The number of channels on which different operations can occur simultaneously on one ISDN Basic access line is 3 Digital telephones and integrated voice-data workstations are examples of TE type of ISDN equipment X.25 standard have 3 OSI layers covered Physical layer – an Open System Interconnection (OSI) layer which has the responsibility for the physical transportation of the bits of data from one end of a point-to-point link to the other Handshaking – a technique involving signaling by both ends of a link to ensure correct data transfer XON/XOFF is a method of flow control .3 standard is CSMA/CD IEEE 802.Broadband transmission uses the connecting medium as a multi-channel device The use of coaxial cables in interconnecting networks is limited to an overall length of approximately 1500 m Topology or architecture identifies how the stations are interconnected in a network Local Area Network – a data communications network that is designed to provide two-way communications between a large variety of data communications terminal equipment within a relatively small geographic area 2B1Q encoding – the type of encoding used in the transmission of data on an ISDN line between a customer’s premises and a carrier’s central office Start/stop mode – a mode of transmission in public data network in which data are transferred from source to the network to the destination in an asynchronous data format IEEE 802.

24 are examples of standards for interfaces between terminals and modems Request To Send (RTS) / Clear To Send (CTS) is the way the DTE indicates that is ready to transmit data. without error control The scrambler in a synchronous modem is found in the modular section V.24 – A CCITT recommendation which gives the definition for the interchange circuits between DTE’s and DCE’s Binary codes are sometimes transformed in modems into Gray code A Western Electric 2911 modem operates with a carrier frequency of 1800 Hz Flag – a special bit pattern used to denote the start and end of a data link layer frame A bipolar violation occurs when two successive pulses have the same polarity and are separated by a zero level Flow control – the process of starting and stopping the terminal output to avoid loss of characters by the receiving device Buffering refers to temporarily storing data to allow for small variations in device speeds The reason why many cables have RS-232 connectors with some wires crossed is because asynchronous modems reverse the direction of transmitted and received data from the standard RS-232.14 – a recommendation which allows a synchronous modem to be used to transmit asynchronous characters. or the way the DCE indicates that it is ready to accept data Extended command sets supported by modern modems use different commands to control many advance modem features A smart modem accepts commands from the terminal via the RS-232 interface Communications protocols always have a set of symbols The Baudot code uses 5 bits per symbol ZMODEM protocol adjusts its block size based on the line error rate DEREP-RB is not a common DNA repeater Unknown is the number of bits that are zeros when transmitting odd-parity coded symbols . RS-449. RS-530.V.21 and V. V.

X.200 – standard for the 7-layer model for Open System Interconnection Application-independent interfaces option is a characteristic of a LAN Twin lead is not a common LAN medium Cable TV system is not a local area network (LAN) V-series – CCITT standard concentrating on data communications over the telephone network Fiber optic transmission cannot be provided in a broadband LAN PBX – a small telephone switching system that can be used as a LAN Digital PBX – a LAN architecture that can be expanded to the greatest total system bandwidth Bus is considered as the fastest LAN topology Data communications refers to the transmission of computer data Protocol is a procedure or rule that defines how data is to be transmitted XMODEM is a popular PC protocol ASCII is the most widely used data communications code The ASCII code has 7 bits Both analog and digital method are used in data communications Telephone is not a primarily a type of data communications Mark and space refer respectively to binary 1 and binary 0 A modem converts both analog signals to digital and digital signals to analog I.120 – an I-series recommendation which describe what an ISDN is Slow speed modems use FSK digital modulation method When the data signal is transmitted directly over the medium. this is called baseband transmission Broadband is the technique of using modulation and FDM to transmit multiple data channels of a common medium .

PSK. half-duplex modem operating at 1200 baud V.26bis – defines a 2400-bps.100 – describe the interconnection techniques between PDNs and PSTNs .Noise cause bit errors in data transmission The other name for parity is VRC QAM is the combination of ASK and QPSK I-series – a CCITT standard that refers to various aspects of Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) XNOR is not a part of a QAM modulator Redundancy is not a commonly used method of error detection Block check character (BCC) is produced by a longitudinal redundancy check (LRC) Balanced modulators is the basic modulator / demodulator circuit in PSK The main reason why serial transmission is preferred over parallel transmission is because it requires only a single channel 30 stations per segment – limitation of 10base-2 network Optical fiber transmission media is not readily suitable to CSMA operation Entropy refers to the measurement of an uncertainty Logical is not an important characteristic of the physical layer The bit rate of B-channel is 64 kbps V.