Power Transmission, Distribution and

Utilization
Lecture# 18: AC Distribution

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher
Assistant Professor, EED
KFUEIT, Pakistan

EEDKFUEIT

Slide credits
• This presentation is based on the textbook “
Principles of power system” by V K Mehta
• All figures are taken from the above
mentioned book.

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Contents





Introduction
Case 1
Case 2
Unbalanced three phase load
Four wire star connected unbalanced load
Ground detectors

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Introdution
• AC distribution system is widely used.
• Here Z is important
– L and C also contributes in addition to R

• Power factor is also a key element
– Either w.r.t. receiving end voltage (Case 1)
– Or w.r.t. to sending end voltage (Case 2)

• Vector or phasors are required to solve the
network.
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Case 1
• Concentrated loads are considered with
lagging power factor.

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Case 1

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Case 2
• Suppose the pf of loads are referred to their
respective load voltage then

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Case 2

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Three phase unbalanced load
• Each load has a different impedance or power
factor or both.
• Unbalanced loads examples are
– Four wire star connected unbalanced load
– Unbalanced Delta connected load
– Unbalanced WYE connected load

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Four wire star connected
unbalanced load
• Two possibilities are shown.
• Both are common in distribution system
• Rarely possible to have a balanced load
condition
• IN=IR+IY+IB

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Four wire star connected unbalanced
load
• Because load neutral and supply neutral are at
same potential therefore, all loads have same
voltage.
• Current differs because of impedance.
• Neutral current is less than the line current in
most cases.

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Ground Detectors
• Used in underground fault system.
• In case of fault the light dim.

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