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Utilization

Lecture# 18: AC Distribution

**Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher
**

Assistant Professor, EED

KFUEIT, Pakistan

EEDKFUEIT

Slide credits

• This presentation is based on the textbook “

Principles of power system” by V K Mehta

• All figures are taken from the above

mentioned book.

Dr.Sher

2

Contents

•

•

•

•

•

•

Introduction

Case 1

Case 2

Unbalanced three phase load

Four wire star connected unbalanced load

Ground detectors

Dr.Sher

3

Introdution

• AC distribution system is widely used.

• Here Z is important

– L and C also contributes in addition to R

**• Power factor is also a key element
**

– Either w.r.t. receiving end voltage (Case 1)

– Or w.r.t. to sending end voltage (Case 2)

**• Vector or phasors are required to solve the
**

network.

Dr.Sher

4

Case 1

• Concentrated loads are considered with

lagging power factor.

Dr.Sher

5

Case 1

Dr.Sher

6

Case 2

• Suppose the pf of loads are referred to their

respective load voltage then

Dr.Sher

7

Case 2

Dr.Sher

8

**Three phase unbalanced load
**

• Each load has a different impedance or power

factor or both.

• Unbalanced loads examples are

– Four wire star connected unbalanced load

– Unbalanced Delta connected load

– Unbalanced WYE connected load

Dr.Sher

9

**Four wire star connected
**

unbalanced load

• Two possibilities are shown.

• Both are common in distribution system

• Rarely possible to have a balanced load

condition

• IN=IR+IY+IB

Dr.Sher

10

**Four wire star connected unbalanced
**

load

• Because load neutral and supply neutral are at

same potential therefore, all loads have same

voltage.

• Current differs because of impedance.

• Neutral current is less than the line current in

most cases.

Dr.Sher

11

Ground Detectors

• Used in underground fault system.

• In case of fault the light dim.

Dr.Sher

12

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